Sei sulla pagina 1di 1

Stainless Steel

Stainless steels are iron based alloys cointaining at least 10% chromium.although iron may corrode in ordinary rural environment ,the chromium gives stainless steel its ability to form a protective or passive film that resists corrosion. It is ability to resist the formation or rust that led to the name “stanless steel” . Generally ,it is throught that the passive film consists of hydrated chromium oxide.Altought stainless steel is naturally passivated by expose to air and other oxidizers, additional surface treatment often are needed to prevent corrosion.Determining which treatment should be used for specific applications is confusing to many specifier.A good start is with ASTM A380 Standard Practice for Cleaning, Descaling, and Passivation of Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment, and Systems.

This practice covers the standard recommendations and precautions for cleaning, descaling, and passivating of new stainless steel parts, assemblies, equipment, and installed systems. Consideration shall be given in the design of parts, equipment, and systems that will require cleaning to minimize the presence of areas in which dirt, or cleaning solutions might become trapped, and to provide for effective circulation and removal of cleaning solutions. Materials shall be precleaned. Scales shall be removed through chemical descaling, acid pickling, and mechanical descaling.

Passivating is changing the chemically active surface of stainless steel to a much less reactive state. This is accomplished by soaking the parts in a bath of oxidizing acid (nitric) which removes free iron from the surface and promotes the formation of an invisible and impervious layer of oxide on the surface of the part. Passivating will remove free iron from the surface of the parts and allow the formation of a passive invisible oxide surface that gives stainless steel its ability to be corrosion resistant. Passivation should be the last operation done to stainless steel parts.The process of passivation is Parts are put into large baskets and immersed in a bath of nitric acid and water for a period of time sufficient to remove surface iron. The parts are then removed from the bath and thoroughly rinsed and dried.

Recommended cleaning practices shall be followed for welds and weld-joint areas, specially critical applications, installed systems and post-erections. The following shall be used as the basis for cleanness acceptability: Visual inspection; wipe tests; residual pattern; water-break test; free iron test such as water-wetting or drying; high-humidity test; and copper sulfate test. Precision inspection shall be performed by solvent-ring test, black light inspection, atomizer test, and ferroxyl test. Precaution shall always be practiced to minimize iron contamination, in reuse of cleaning and pickling solution, in water rinsing, in circulation of cleaning solutions and rinse water, in protection of cleaned surfaces, for safety, and disposal of used solutions and water.