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GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

Course Objectives:
Understand GSM system handover types and causes Grasp common handover algorithms and parameters Understand basic concepts of GSM system power control

Grasp common settings of power control parameters

Contents
1 GSM Handover Principles...........................................................................................................................1 1.1 Overview..............................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Handover Types...................................................................................................................................1 1.3 Implementation Methods.....................................................................................................................4 1.3.1 Cell Layer Configuration..........................................................................................................4 1.3.2 Measurement Report Preprocessing.........................................................................................4 1.3.3 Destination Cell Selection........................................................................................................5 1.3.4 Destination Cell Sorting...........................................................................................................6 1.3.5 Handover Penalty Strategies.....................................................................................................7 1.4 Basic Handover Algorithms and Parameters.......................................................................................8 1.4.1 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Interference......................................................................8 1.4.2 Relevant Parameters.................................................................................................................8 1.4.3 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Quality...........................................................................10 1.4.4 Relevant Parameters...............................................................................................................11 1.4.5 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Level..............................................................................12 1.4.6 Relevant Parameters...............................................................................................................13 1.4.7 Better Cell (PBGT).................................................................................................................15 2 Power Control.............................................................................................................................................16 2.1 Overview............................................................................................................................................16 2.2 Power Control Process.......................................................................................................................17 2.3 Rapid Power Control.........................................................................................................................18 2.4 Power Control Parameters.................................................................................................................19
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2.4.1 PcUlInclLevThs, PcUlInclLevP, PcUlInclLevN....................................................................19 2.4.2 PcDlInclLevThs, PcDlInclLevP, PcDlInclLevN....................................................................20 2.4.3 PcUlRedLevThs, PcUlRedLevP, PcUlRedLevN...................................................................21 2.4.4 PcDlRedLevThs, PcDlRedLevP, PcDlRedLevN...................................................................22 2.4.5 PcUlInclQualThs, PcUlInclQualP, PcUlInclQualN...............................................................22 2.4.6 PcDlInclQualThs, PcDlInclQualP, PcDlInclQualN...............................................................23 2.4.7 PcUlRedQualThs, PcUlRedQualP, PcUlRedQualN..............................................................24 2.4.8 PcDlRedQualThs, PcDlRedQualP, PcDlRedQualN..............................................................25

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1 GSM Handover Principles


1.1 Overview
Handover is a very important function of the cellular mobile system. In GSM cellular system, the multiplexing technology for radio frequency resource is fully adopted to realize the coverage by several cells. Thus the concept of cross-cell handover is introduced. Handover enables a user to keep continuous conversation during the process of passing through different cells. Handover also adjusts the traffic of cells. Moreover, handover is implemented without being noticed by users, and does not require users involvement. The following are some of the handover causes:

Signal strength is too weak Signal quality is too poor Signal interference is too large Mobile user is far away from the base station Uplink level degrades suddenly Macro-micro handover There is a more appropriate cell

1.2 Handover Types


ZXG10 series products are designed with advanced ideas, realizing various types of effective handover, increasing handover speed, and reducing handover failure ratio. They also combine with many new technologies to increase the network capacity and service quality. 1. Handover types

(1) According to the two cells involved before and after handover, ZXG10BSC (V2) supports four handover types:
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GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

Intra-cell handover

The handover is completed by the BSC to which the cell belongs.


Intra-BSC inter-cell handover

The two cells before and after handover are different cells under the same BSC. The handover does not require MSC and is completed by BSC.
Intra-MSC inter-BSC handover

The two cells before and after handover are under different BSCs, and the two BSCs are controlled by one MSC. The handover is completed by MSC and the two BSCs.
Inter-MSC handover

The two cells before and after handover are under different MSCs. The handover is completed by the two MSCs and two BSCs to which the two cells belong. (2) According to how MS establishes connection with the destination cell, ZXG10BSC (V2) supports three handover types:
Synchronous handover

MS uses the same Time Advance (TA) in the destination cell and the source cell. The synchronous handover is fast, and usually occurs inside a cell or between two sectors of the same site.
Asynchronous handover

MS does not know the TA used in the destination cell. The asynchronous handover is slow, and is adopted if none of the two cells synchronizes with BSC.
Pseudo-synchronous handover

MS can calculate the TA used in the destination cell. The pseudo-asynchronous handover is fast, and is adopted if both the cells synchronize with BSC. 2. Special handover functions of ZXG10-BSC (V2) With the development of various new technologies, some special handover functions are added to ZXG10-BSC (V2):

Concentric circle handover


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Network capacity can be increased by using special network planning methods, of which the concentric circle technology is most commonly used. The concentric circle means that a common cell is divided into two regions: exterior layer and interior layer. The exterior layer covers traditional micro cells, usually adopting the 43 multiplexing mode. The interior layer covers the area near the site and adopts more aggressive multiplexing mode such as 23 or 13. The exterior layer and the interior layer share the site address and the same antenna system. They also use the same BCCH, and the BCCH must belong to the exterior layer. There are several types of concentric circle technologies. ZXG10-BSC (V2) adopts a highly effective C/I-based concentric circle technology, with which specific handover strategies are designed, and the network capacity is increased by more than 30%.

Micro-cell handover Another method to increase network capacity is the micro-cell technology. It is also an effective way to solve network coverage. The micro-cell and the macro-cell constitute the multi-layer network. In other words, the large continuous coverage is realized by the macro-cell, forming the top layer of the multi-layer network; while the micro cell is used to realize continuous small-area coverage which is overlapped on the micro-cell, forming the bottom layer of the multi-layer network. The micro-cell mainly serves low-speed mobile users. For high-speed mobile users, services are provided by the macro-cell, avoiding call drops that are caused by too frequent handover or handover failure due to insufficient time. ZXG10-BSC (V2) tests MSs moving speed relative to the site through software and then performs the speed-based micro-cell handover.

Dual-frequency handover Network capacity can also be increased by forming the dual-frequency network through adding 1800 MHz (or 1900 MHz) layer. It can solve the problem of insufficient 900 MHz frequency points. Considering that the capacity of 1800 MHz (or 1900 MHz) layer is not fully used, make 1800 MHz (or 1900 MHz) cells absorb traffic as much as possible during
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handover. ZXG10-BSC (V2) can manage 900 MHz cells and 1800 MHz (1900 MHz) cells simultaneously. In addition to enhancing 1800 MHz (or 1900 MHz) cells traffic absorbability by modifying common cell parameters, it can also set special priorities for handover from 900 MHz cell to 1800 MHz (or 1900 MHz) cell.

1.3 Implementation Methods


1.3.1 Cell Layer Configuration
The concept of relative layer is adopted in cell hierarchy. For each service cell, the adjacent cell can be configured as undefined layer, upper-layer, co-layer, and lowerlayer. During the handover process, the cell priority should be considered when sorting candidate cells. Three factors determine the sequence of candidate cells: priority, traffic, and radio condition. Priority and traffic have more influences on the sorting, and radio condition is considered only in cases that the first two factors influences are the same.

1.3.2 Measurement Report Preprocessing


The measurement report provides original data for handover decision. ZXG10-BSC (V2) adopts the rolling average method, which can have different weights to realize smooth handover. The rolling average method has the following features:

The number of measurement reports must reach the average window size before calculating the average value.

If DTX is enabled, the accuracy of the level and quality value in measurement report will decrease. Thus when performing the weighted average calculation, the weight of the measurement report with DTX must be different from that of the measurement report without using DTX. The fixed weight of the measurement report when DTX is enabled is 1. The weight of the measurement report when DTX is disabled can be configured as 1, 2, or 3; if the weight is configured as 1, the measurement report is no different from that when DTX is enabled.

The number of measurement reports that are allowed to be lost is ZeroAllowed


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at most. If the number of lost measurement reports is too large, the queue resets, and those lost measurement reports are taken as of measurement value 0 (i.e. -110 dBm), which are not used in the average calculation. For example, suppose the No. (K-1) measurement report is lost and the average window size is 8, then the average value = 1/7 (RXLEV_NCELL(K) + 0 + RXLEV_NCELL (K-2) + ... + RXLEV_NCELL (K-7)).

After power control is performed, implement power compensation for relevant handover decision.

1.3.3 Destination Cell Selection


After a comparison succeeds, that is, after BSC decides to perform handover, the destination cell is selected according to different handover causes. ZXG10-BSC (V2) can find the most appropriate destination cell according to specific handover causes. For intra-cell handover, ZXG10-BSC (V2) specifies the type of the TRX where the new channel is located according to the handover cause. The TRX types include macro-cell common TRX, macro-cell special TRX, and other TRX in micro-cell. For the cause of HO_NEARTOFAR in the extended cell, the type of the TRX where the new channel is located is the extended carrier. For the cause of HO_FARTONEAR in the extended cell, the type of the TRX where the new channel is located is the common carrier. For inter-cell handover, the destination cell is selected according to the following formulas:

Selection rule 1: AvRxLevNCell(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + MAX(0,(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)- P(n)))

Selection rule 2: PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n)

Selection rule 3: AvRxLevNCell(n) > avRxLevDL + HO_MARGIN_QUAL(n)

Selection rule 4: AvRxLevNCell(n) > avRxLevDL + HO_MARGIN_LEVEL(n)


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Parameter RXLEV_MIN(N) PBGT(N) H0_MARGIN(N) HO_MARGIN_QUAL(N) HO_MARGIN_LEVEL(N) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) P(n) avRxLevDL AvRxLevNcell (N)

Meaning The minimum level required to handover-in the adjacent cell Power budget of the adjacent cell Power budget threshold for handover-in the adjacent cell Level threshold for handover-in the adjacent cell BER threshold for handover-in the adjacent cell The maximum MS power allowed in the adjacent cell MS power in the adjacent cell The average value of MSs downlink strength The average value of the adjacent cells downlink strength

Selection rule 1 must be satisfied, that is, the average level of the handover-in adjacent cell must be larger than the minimum handover-in level. Selection rule 2 is used if the handover cause is better cell. Selection rule 3 is used if the handover cause is uplink/downlink quality. Selection rule 4 is used if the handover cause is uplink/downlink strength. Except for the case of rapid fading, the destination cell can be decided if the selection rule and the hierarchical relationship between the destination cell and the service cell are decided. After being processed by the sorting module, the sorted cell list is generated. If destination cells contain cells of different layers, concatenate the several cell lists according to the generating sequence to get the final result.

1.3.4 Destination Cell Sorting


If more than one adjacent cell is found, these adjacent cells should be sorted. After the sorting is completed, attempt handover according to the sorted list. The sorting strategy of ZXG10-BSC (V2) is based on priorities and penalties, improving the handover success ratio and controlling the handover flow. The sorting rule of adjacent cell list is as follows: Sort cells according to their dynamic priorities first. If the dynamic priorities of two cells are the same, then sort the two cells according to their power budgets. In destination cells, the extended cells priority is lower. The dynamic priority depends on the cells static priority and the cells resource ratio. The cells static priority has eight levels: 0 ~ 7, and the larger the level, the higher the priority. The cells static priority, which can be set according to the traffic statistics, mainly depends on the cells geographical position. For example, the micro cell in a building and its adjacent cells which are on the same floor are assigned with higher
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priorities, while its other adjacent cells on different floors are assigned with lower priorities. In this way, it guarantees that handover is performed on the same floor, which decreases interference and improves call quality. The cells resource ratio refers to the percentage of idle TCHs in total TCHs, with a range of 0 ~ 100. During the handover process, MS only concerns the handover-in cells TCHs. The higher the percentage of available TCHs is, the lighter the cells load is, which indicates a higher handover success ratio. The sorting flow has the following features:

For the speed-based handover, it is cross-layer handover, thus cells of the same layer must be removed first.

For the interference-based handover, distinguish different carrier groups in the cell and handle them respectively.

Adjust the handover candidate cells according to the load: (within the same BSC) adjust candidate cells priorities according to their load, which influences the destination cell selection and dynamically balancing traffic.

1.3.5 Handover Penalty Strategies


Adopting penalty strategies after handover failure occurs can effectively avoid repeated failures and increase the handover success ratio.

Inter-cell handover (including BSC-controlled and MSC-controlled) If handover fails, then during the next handover attempt, manually decrease the destination cells downlink level by an offset of PenaltyLevOffset. After doing that, if the penalty cell still ranks first (for example, the cell is the only destination cell, or the cells level is much higher than that of other cells), then perform handover to the cell again. When performing offset penalty for the destination cell, the counter PenaltyCount is enabled and set as 1. The counter increments when handover fails, the offset level increases by PenaltyLevOffset at the same time. When the number of handover failures reaches 3 (the maximum attempt times) and the cell is still in the penalty period, the cell is filtered. The previous penalty scheme is applied and handover is not attempted towards the cell. In this way, repeated handover attempts can be avoided and the handover success ratio will not
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be influenced.

Intra-cell handover If a user performs intra-cell handover repeatedly, it indicates that the user is located where interference is serious and can not find appropriate channel. In this case, the user should be prohibited to perform handover within a certain period of time. The judgment method is as follows: If handover occurs again during the timer TMaxIHos interval, it indicates that the previous handover does not have effect on interference, the counter IHoCount increments, and TMaxIHo restarts. If handover occurs after TMaxIHos interval expires, it indicates that the previous handover is effective, IHoCounts value is cleared. If IHoCounts value reaches MaxIHo, it indicates that it is unnecessary to continue the handover attempt within a certain period of time, and intra-cell handover penalty strategy due to interference can be adopted, that is, the intra-cell handover attempt due to interference should not be implemented any more.

1.4 Basic Handover Algorithms and Parameters


1.4.1 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Interference
The handover is caused by:

Poor uplink/downlink receiving quality High level MS entering predefined interference area

In the interference area, the higher the level is, the easier it is to find a channel with less interference. Therefore, the intra-cell handover standard is not unified for all calls in the cell. In other words, if the level is high, the intra-cell handover can be performed even if RQ is low; if the level is low, the intra-cell handover is performed only if RQ is high. In this way, call quality is guaranteed, call drop rate decreases, and ineffective handovers are avoided.

1.4.2 Relevant Parameters


1.4.2.1 IntraHoUlLevThs, IntraHoUlLevP, IntraHoUlLevN

Description
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According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink co-frequency interference is one of the handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If the uplink quality handover conditions are satisfied, and P of the latest N average values of uplink signal strength are larger than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too strong uplink co-frequency interference.
IntraHoUlLevThs: defines relevant threshold values IntraHoUlLevN: defines relevant N values IntraHoUlLevP: defines relevant P values

Usually, an intra-cell handover is performed if the handover condition is satisfied.

Values 1 IntraHoUlLevP IntraHoUlLevN 32


IntraHoUlLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings Usually, the value of IntraHoUlLevThs must be larger than the threshold value (PcUlRedLevThs in table R_POC) that causes uplink power control (decrease), to avoid unnecessary intra-cell handover. The default value can be 30 (i.e. -81 dBm ~ -80 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2

1.4.2.2

IntraHoDlLevThs, IntraHoDlLevP, IntraHoDlLevN Description According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink co-frequency interference is one of the
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handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If the downlink quality handover conditions are satisfied, and P of the latest N average values of downlink signal strength are larger than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too strong downlink (co-frequency) interference.
IntraHoDlLevThs: defines relevant threshold values IntraHoDlLevN: defines relevant N values IntraHoDlLevP: defines relevant P values

Usually, an intra-cell handover is performed if the handover condition is satisfied.

Values 1 IntraHoDlLevP IntraHoDlLevN 32


IntraHoDlLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings Usually, the value of IntraHoDlLevThs must be less than (or equal to) the threshold value (PcDlRedLevThs in table R_POC) that causes downlink power control (decrease), to avoid unnecessary intra-cell handover. The default value can be 30 (i.e. -81 dBm ~ -80 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2 NED2.7

1.4.3 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Quality


The handover is caused by poor uplink/downlink receiving quality. If the receiving quality is so poor that exceeds the predefined value, the handover is triggered to improve the call quality.

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1.4.4 Relevant Parameters


1.4.4.1 HoUlQualThs, HoUlQualP, HoUlQualN Description According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving quality is one of the handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal quality are larger than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too poor uplink signal quality.
HoUlQualThs: defines relevant threshold values HoUlQualN: defines relevant N values HoUlQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 HoUlQualP HoUlQualN 32


HoUlQualThs 0 1 2 6 7 0 1 2 6 7 Corresponding Quality Grade Meaning BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings Usually, the value of HoUlQualThs must be larger than the threshold value (PcUlInclQualThs in table R_POC) that causes uplink power control (increase). In other words, perform power control first, and then perform handover if the power control has no effect. The default value can be 5. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2 NED2.7

1.4.4.2

HoDlQualThs, HoDlQualP, HoDlQualN Description According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of
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average values are obtained. Downlink receiving quality is one of the handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of downlink signal quality are larger than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too poor downlink signal quality.
HoDlQualThs: defines relevant threshold values HoDlQualN: defines relevant N values HoDlQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 HoDlQualP HoDlQualN 32


HoDlQualThs 0 1 2 6 7 Corresponding Quality Grade 0 1 2 6 7 Meaning BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings Usually, the value of HoDlQualThs must be larger than the threshold value (PcDlInclQualThs in table R_POC) that causes downlink power control (increase). In other words, perform power control first, and then perform handover if the power control has no effect. The default value can be 5. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2 NED2.7

1.4.5 Uplink/Downlink Handover due to Level


The handover is caused by poor uplink/downlink level. When the level is lower than the predefined value, call drop might occur, and handover is triggered at the moment to keep the call.

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1.4.6 Relevant Parameters


1.4.6.1 HoUlLevThs, HoUlLevP, HoUlLevN Description According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving strength is one of the handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal strength are less than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too weak uplink signal strength.
HoUlLevThs: defines relevant threshold values HoUlLevN: defines relevant N values HoUlLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 HoUlLevP HoUlLevN 32


HoUlLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings Usually, the value of HoUlLevThs must be less than the threshold value (PcUlInclLevThs in table R_POC) that causes uplink power control (increase). In other words, perform power control first, and then perform handover if the power control has no effect. The default value can be 15 (i.e. -96 dBm ~ -95 dBm), and the parameters value must be 3 dB larger than the cells RxLevAccessMin. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2 NED2.7

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1.4.6.2

HoDlLevThs, HoDlLevP, HoDlLevN Description According to GSM specifications, handover decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink receiving strength is one of the handover causes. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of downlink signal strength are less than relevant thresholds, then handover is performed. The handover is due to too weak downlink signal strength.
HoDlLevThs: defines relevant threshold values HoDlLevN: defines relevant N values HoDlLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 HoDlLevP HoDlLevN 32


HoDlLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings Usually, the value of HoDlLevThs must be less than the threshold value (PcDlInclLevThs in table R_POC) that causes downlink power control (increase). In other words, perform power control first, and then perform handover if the power control has no effect. The default value can be 15 (i.e. -96 dBm ~ -95 dBm), and the parameters value must be 3 dB larger than the cells RxLevAccessMin. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.2 NED2.7

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1.4.7 Better Cell (PBGT)


Power Budget (PBGT) handover, also called as edge handover, is the handover that occurs most frequently in urban area. The purpose of PBGT handover is not to just keep the call process but to have better call quality. PBGT is calculated each time the measurement report is received. During the handover decision process, no threshold is set actually, it only requires that PBGT is larger than 0. PBGT approximately equals the result of the adjacent cells level subtracting the cells level. Check each adjacent cell, if P consecutive average level values of an adjacent cell are larger than or equal to 0, the PBGT handover condition is satisfied. It should be emphasized that the PBGT handover has destination frequency bands, and the parameter is controlled by layers suitable for standard PBGT handover. The table below explains meanings of the parameter (in binary code):
Bit bit1 bit2 Value & Description 0: can not perform PBGT handover to co-layer hetero-frequency adjacent cell 1: can perform PBGT handover to co-layer hetero-frequency adjacent cell 0: can not perform PBGT handover to adjacent cell that has no hierarchical relationship 1: can perform PBGT handover to adjacent cell that has hierarchical relationship bit3 bit4 bit5~bit8 0: can not perform PBGT handover to upper-layer adjacent cell 1: can perform PBGT handover to upper-layer adjacent cell 0: can not perform PBGT handover to lower-layer adjacent cell 1: can perform PBGT handover to lower-layer adjacent cell Reserved, being 0 constantly

It effectively controls the direction of PBGT handover and the network traffic distribution. The PBGT handover threshold can be set as a negative value. It can be flexibly applied in the dual-frequency network to control the handover direction.

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2.1 Overview
Power control means controlling the actual transmission power of MS or base station in radio propagation to reduce the transmission power as much as possible. It helps reduce the power consumption of MS and base station as well as reduce the GSM network interference. The premise of performing power control is that the call quality is good during the call process. Figure 2.1-1 shows the power control process.

B
Figure 2.1-1 Power Control

As shown in Figure 2.1-1, the MS at position A is far from the base stations antenna. Because the radio wave propagation loss is in direct proportion of the Nth power of the distance, a large transmission power is required for MS at position A to guarantee the call quality. However, the MS at position B is close to the base stations antenna, the propagation loss is less, thus similar call quality can be obtained with a less transmission power. During the call process, if MS moves from position B to position A, MSs transmission power can increase gradually by performing power control. There are two types of power control: uplink power control and downlink power control. The two can be implemented independently. The uplink power control is used to control the transmission power of MS while the downlink power control is used to control the transmission power of base station. They can reduce uplink/downlink interference by reducing the transmission power, and also reduce the power consumption of MS or base station. With the power control technology, the average call quality of GSM network increases greatly and the usable time of MSs battery is
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prolonged.

2.2 Power Control Process


The measurement data of MS and base station are raw data used for making decision in power control process. These raw data are processed and analyzed before making relevant control decision. Figure 2.1-2 illustrates the power control process.

Save measurement data

Average measurement data

Make power control decision

Send power control command

Modify measurement data


Figure 2.1-2 Power Control Process Flow Chart

1.

Save measurement data Measurement data related to the power control include: uplink signal level, uplink signal quality, downlink signal level, and downlink signal quality.

2.

Average measurement data In order to reduce the influence of complex radio transmission on the measurement data, the forward average method is often used to realize smooth processing of measurement data. In other words, multiple average values of measurement data are used in making power control decision. During the average process, parameter settings may differ for different measurement data types, that is, the number of measurement data used may be different.

3.

Make power control decision


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Three parameters are required for power control decision: a threshold, an N value, and a P value. If P of the latest N average values are larger than the threshold value, it indicates that the signal level is too high or the signal quality is too good. If P of the latest N average values are less than the threshold value, it indicates that the signal level is too low or the signal quality is too poor. According to the signal level or signal quality, MS or base station can decide how to control the transmission power. The positive or negative change in transmission power depends on the predefined value. 4. Send power control command According to the power control decision, the corresponding control command is sent to base station, which then executes the command or forwards the command to MS. 5. Modify measurement data After power control is performed, the raw measurement data and average values are useless. To avoid making incorrect power control decision, these data should either be abandoned or modified before being used. The most frequent power control can be performed every 480 ms, which is actually the fastest speed that the measurement data is reported. In other words, a complete power control process can be executed every 480 ms at the fastest speed.

2.3 Rapid Power Control


Power control ranges recommended in ETSI specifications are fixed, usually 2 dB or 4 dB. However, in many actual applications, a fixed power control range can not gain an optimum result. For example, suppose MS initiates a call in a place very close to the base stations antenna, the MSs initial transmission power is the maximum transmission power MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, which is in the system message broadcasted on BCCH. Because MS is very close to the antenna, the transmission power should be reduced by power control as early as possible. However, it can not be realized by the power control process recommended in ETSI specifications, because such a power control process can only make MS transmission power reduce by 2 dB or 4 dB each time. There is a certain interval between two power control processes (to collect enough new
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measurement data), thus there will be a long period of time before MS transmission power is reduced to an appropriate value. Things are the same in downlink direction. Therefore, such strategies can not relieve interference of the entire GSM network. To solve the above problem, the power control range should be increased, which is the main idea of rapid power control. During the rapid power control process, the control range is not fixed but depends on the actual signal strength and signal quality. It solves the power control problem during the process of MSs initial access. In addition to that, rapid power control also solves many other power control problems in cases that require large power control ranges, such as a rapidly moving MS, a call process during which interference or obstacles suddenly occur.

2.4 Power Control Parameters


2.4.1 PcUlInclLevThs, PcUlInclLevP, PcUlInclLevN
Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving strength is one of the reasons that cause MS (uplink) power to increase. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal strength are less than relevant thresholds, then increase MS (uplink) transmission power because the uplink signal strength is too weak.
PcUlInclLevThs: defines relevant threshold values PcUlInclLevN: defines relevant N values PcUlInclLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcUlInclLevP PcUlInclLevN 32


PcUlInclLevThs 0 1 2 19 < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 Corresponding Level Value (dBm)

GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

PcUlInclLevThs 61 62 63

Corresponding Level Value (dBm) -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings The default threshold value can be 18 (i.e. -93 dBm ~ -92 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.2 PcDlInclLevThs, PcDlInclLevP, PcDlInclLevN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink receiving strength is one of the reasons that cause BTS (downlink) power to increase. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of downlink signal strength are less than relevant thresholds, then increase BTS (downlink) transmission power because the downlink signal strength is too weak.
PcDlInclLevThs: defines relevant threshold values PcDlInclLevN: defines relevant N values PcDlInclLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcDlInclLevP PcDlInclLevN 32


PcDlInclLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

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2 Power Control

Settings The default threshold value can be 18 (i.e. -93 dBm ~ -92 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.3 PcUlRedLevThs, PcUlRedLevP, PcUlRedLevN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving strength is one of the reasons that cause MS (uplink) power to decrease. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal strength are larger than relevant thresholds, then decrease MS (uplink) transmission power because the uplink signal strength is too strong.
PcUlRedLevThs: defines relevant threshold values PcUlRedLevN: defines relevant N values PcUlRedLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcUlRedLevP PcUlRedLevN 32


PcUlRedLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings The default threshold value can be 22 (i.e. -89 dBm ~ -88 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9


21

GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

2.4.4 PcDlRedLevThs, PcDlRedLevP, PcDlRedLevN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink receiving strength is one of the reasons that cause BTS (downlink) power to decrease. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal strength are larger than relevant thresholds, then decrease BTS (downlink) transmission power because the downlink signal strength is too strong.
PcDlRedLevThs: defines relevant threshold values PcDlRedLevN: defines relevant N values PcDlRedLevP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcDlRedLevP PcDlRedLevN 32


PcDlRedLevThs 0 1 2 61 62 63 Corresponding Level Value (dBm) < -110 -110 ~ -109 -109 ~ -108 -50 ~ -49 -49 ~ -48 > -48

Settings The default threshold value can be 22 (i.e. -89 dBm ~ -88 dBm). The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.5 PcUlInclQualThs, PcUlInclQualP, PcUlInclQualN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving quality is one of the reasons that cause MS (uplink) power to increase. The judgment process is as
22

2 Power Control

follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal quality are larger than relevant thresholds, then increase MS (uplink) transmission power because the uplink signal quality is too poor.
PcUlInclQualThs: defines relevant threshold values PcUlInclQualN: defines relevant N values PcUlInclQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcUlInclQualP PcUlInclQualN 32


PcUlInclQualThs 0 1 2 6 7 0 1 2 6 7 Corresponding Quality Grade Meaning BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings The default threshold value can be 3. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.6 PcDlInclQualThs, PcDlInclQualP, PcDlInclQualN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink receiving quality is one of the reasons that cause BTS (downlink) power to increase. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of downlink signal quality are larger than relevant thresholds, then increase BTS (downlink) transmission power because the downlink signal quality is too poor.
PcDlInclQualThs: defines relevant threshold values
23

GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

PcDlInclQualN: defines relevant N values PcDlInclQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcDlInclQualP PcDlInclQualN 32


PcDlInclQualThs 0 1 2 6 7 0 1 2 6 7 Corresponding Quality Grade Meaning BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings The default threshold value can be 3. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.7 PcUlRedQualThs, PcUlRedQualP, PcUlRedQualN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Uplink receiving quality is one of the reasons that cause MS (uplink) power to decrease. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of uplink signal quality are less than relevant thresholds, then decrease MS (uplink) transmission power because the uplink signal quality is too good.
PcUlRedQualThs: defines relevant threshold values PcUlRedQualN: defines relevant N values PcUlRedQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcUlRedQualP PcUlRedQualN 32


PcUlRedQualThs Corresponding Quality Grade 24 Meaning

2 Power Control

0 1 2 6 7

0 1 2 6 7

BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings The default threshold value can be 3. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

2.4.8 PcDlRedQualThs, PcDlRedQualP, PcDlRedQualN


Description According to GSM specifications, power control decision is performed after a series of average values are obtained. Downlink receiving quality is one of the reasons that cause BTS (downlink) power to decrease. The judgment process is as follows: If P of the latest N average values of downlink signal quality are less than relevant thresholds, then decrease BTS (downlink) transmission power because the downlink signal quality is too good.
PcDlRedQualThs: defines relevant threshold values PcDlRedQualN: defines relevant N values PcDlRedQualP: defines relevant P values

Values 1 PcDlRedQualP PcDlRedQualN 32


PcDlRedQualThs 0 1 2 6 7 0 1 2 6 7 Corresponding Quality Grade Meaning BER<0.2% 0.2%<BER<0.4% 0.4%<BER<0.8% 6.4%<BER<12.8% 12.8%<BER

Settings
25

GB_BT41_E1_0 GSM Handover and Power Control

The default threshold value can be 3. The default value of P can be 3 and the default value of N can be 4.

Reference GSM05.08 A.3.2.1 NED 2.7 10.9

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