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Using Pronumerals

Generalised arithmetic
Finding pronumerals, coefficients and constants Converting worded questions into an algebraic expression to identify any unknown quantities Example 1: Georgia studies 4 more subjects than Henry. How many subjects does Georgia study if: a) Henry studies 6 subjects b) Henry studies x subjects c) Henry studies y subjects Example 2: Convert the following sentences into algebraic expressions a) If it takes 8 minutes to iron a single shirt, how long would it take to iron all of Alans shirts? b) Brenda has $5 more than Camillo. How much money does Brenda have? c) In a game of Rugby League, David kicked five more goals than he scored tries. How many points did David score? (1 try = 4 points; 1 goal = 2 points)

Like Terms
Identifying like terms: Look at the terms and compare their pronumerals Example 1: For each of the following terms, select those terms listed in grouping symbols that are like terms a) b) c) d) 4y 5xy -6abc -7q2b3e4 (y, -y, 4xy, -4y) (-5xy, 5x, 5yx, 5xz, -xy) (-6bca, -6abd, -6a2bc, -2acb, -2ac2b) (-7q2b2e2, -6b3e4q2, 6q2e4b3, 7q4b3e4, -7q2b2e2)

Collecting like terms: Look for terms with the same pronumerals and pair them up so they can be added or subtracted Example 1: Simplify the following expressions by collecting like terms a) b) c) d) 6b + 5b 6x + 5y 4x + 2y 7ax + 7x 5a 6ax 9a2b 3ab2 + 2ab

Example 2: Simplify the following expressions a) 6a2 + 9b + 7b2 5b b) 12 4a2b + 2 -2ba2 c) 8ab + 2a2b + 5a2b ab

Using Grouping Symbols


Expanding: Consider the following example with numbers, 3(4 + 5). How do we find this value? Using our order of operations, we find that 3(4+5) = 3(9) = 27. There is another way of finding this value, temporarily ignoring order of operations, 3(4 + 5) = 3(4) + 3(5) = 12 + 15 = 27. We use this method to expand pronumerals. We multiply everything inside the grouping symbols (brackets) by whatever is outside the grouping symbols. Example 1: Expand the following expressions a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 5(4 + 3) 5(x + 3) 5(x y) a(x y) 5x(6y 7z) 4y(2x + 3w) X(2x + 3y)

Example 2: Expand and simplify by collecting like terms a) b) c) d) 4(x 4) + 5 X(y 2) + 5x X(y z) + 5x 7x + 6(y 2x)

Common Factors
Factorising: The reverse process of expanding. Factors: The factors of an integer are two or more integers which, when multiplied together, produce that integer Finding the highest common factor: The highest common factor of two or more numbers is the largest factor that divides into all of the given numbers without a remainder. Example 1: Find the highest common factor of each of the following a) 6 and 9 b) 12, 16 and 56 c) 4abc and 6bcd Example 2: Factorise each of the following expressions by first finding the highest common factor a) b) c) d) 5x + 15y 14xy 7y 15ab 21bc + 18bf 6x2y + 9xy2