\

+ 
.

\

+ 
.

\

=
c
l
b
n
a
m V
f
r r
C
mnl
, (1)
where m, n, and l are the indices of the mode, a, b, and c are
the physical dimensions of the cavity along corresponding
axes,
r
and
r
are the permeability and permittivity of the
filled material inside the cavity, and V
C
is the velocity of
light in freespace. Considering the dimension of thickness
is much smaller than the others, the index n is assigned to be
zero in this work. It follows that the field intensity varies
twodimensionally, which does simplify the analysis of
mode operations and coupling mechanism.
A. Key Factors of the DualMode Operation
A key factor of the dualmode operation is to generate
two orthogonal modes that resonate at the same frequency.
Such two modes are typically regarded as a pair of
degenerate modes. Suppose the index sets of these two
degenerate modes are (m, 0, l) and (p, 0, q). The only
additional constraint for the dualmode operation is that m
p and l q [5]. An obvious example is a square cavity (the
case of a = c) since its TE
201
and TE
102
mode substantially
resonate at the same frequency. Fig. 1(b) demonstrates the
electric field distributions of the two modes. The following
analysis and design are based on the characteristics of this
kind of cavity.
Another key factor is how to design the coupling structure
that provides a wanted passband as well as a good sideband
rejection. Fig. 2(a) presents the structure of the twopole
dualmode SIW cavity filter proposed in [7]. Two metallic
vias near particular diagonal corners are set to perturb the
two degenerate modes. The two degenerate modes thus
become nonorthogonal so as to induce a coupling. Such
coupling is usually regarded as an intracavity coupling,
which accounts for the generation of the passband. The
farther the via is pushed apart from the corner, the stronger
the coupling is induced. The feed lines are allocated at two
near sides of the square cavity with coupling apertures
opened on the sidewalls, and the feed points are both at the
center of contacted sides. This topology provides two TZs,
each on each side of the passband. A validating coupling
scheme [6] as shown in Fig. 2(b) characterizes this feature.
Node 1 and 4 represent the transitions from microstrip
(TEM mode) to waveguide (TE mode). Node 2 represents
the natural mode excited by port 1 and also the degenerate
mode seen by port 2. On the contrary, node 3 represents the
natural mode excited by port 2 and also the degenerate mode
seen by port 1. A coupling matrix of the lowpass equivalent
prototype [8] corresponding to this kind of filter is
(
(
(
(
0 82 . 0 1 . 0 05 . 0
82 . 0 0 8 . 0 1 . 0
1 . 0 8 . 0 0 82 . 0
05 . 0 1 . 0 82 . 0 0
. (2)
The network has to be antisymmetrical so that the matrix
elements must meet the requirements, M
12
= M
34
and M
13
=
M
24
. The appearance of the two TZs results from the cross
coupling path formed by M
14
, which is typically regarded as
a sourceload coupling.
An example for inspection was simulated and is described
as follows. The size of the cavity is 200 x 10 x 200 mil
3
. The
dielectric material of the substrate is LTCC of dielectric
constant of 7.8 and loss tangent of 0.005. The material of the
conductor is silver. The distance between the perturbation
via and the nearby sidewall is 28 mils. The coupling
aperture is 70mil wide. The simulation responses are shown
in Fig. 2(c). It is worthy to note that the response is not well
symmetrical. The highside TZ is much more distant from
the passband than the lowside one. This phenomenon is
attributed to the weak couplings, M
13
and M
24
, while the
feed points are close to the null of electric resonance of the
degenerate modes. Note that the null is no longer at the
center of the cavity side since the degenerate modes have
been perturbed.
B. Shift Feeding Structure and Adjustment Techniques
It can be proven that the elimination of M
13
and M
24
yields a symmetrical response [8]. This paper proposes a
modification on the feeding structure of Fig. 2(a) to achieve
the elimination. It is done by shifting the feed points toward
vertex point A as shown in Fig. 3(a). Note that the coupling
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 2 Twopole dualmode SIW cavity filter [7]. (a) Structure. (b)
Coupling scheme. (c) Simulation responses.
apertures must be shifted along with the feed points. The
shift can effectively reduce those weak couplings and move
the two TZs to lower frequencies. A critical shift can
relocate the feed point at the null of the electric resonance of
the degenerate mode so as to completely eliminate these
couplings, making the response symmetrical. An over shift
yet alters the sign of these couplings and results in an
opposite asymmetrical response as well. Fig. 3(b) displays
the effect of the shifts on the frequency responses in the
cases of 10mil and 20mil shift distance. The shift feeding
technique is therefore useful in the control of these TZs.
Unfortunately, after the shift, both the external loading to
the input/output and the intracavity coupling are spoiled; so
are the responses. Therefore, we propose two adjustment
techniques, reducing the perturbations and widening the
apertures, to optimize the response. The shift feeding and
adjustment techniques were used to refine the previous
example for a symmetrical frequency response, as described
as follows. The feed points were shifted by 12 mils. The
perturbation distance was reduced to 24 mils. The width of
the apertures was extended to 75 mils. Fig. 3(c) shows the
optimized frequency responses.
C. Rectangular SIWs for IntraCavity Couplings
Making two degenerate modes nonorthogonal is a key
factor of generating the intracavity coupling. Based on the
concept, this paper proposes an alternative design of intra
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 3 (a) Demonstration of the shift feeding. (b) Frequency responses of
shift distances of 0, 10, and 20 mils. (c) Frequency responses of the
optimized twopole cavity filter.
cavity coupling without the use of perturbation vias. The
alternative design adopts rectangular cavities, of which two
main dimensions (a and c) are different, instead of square
ones. TE
201
and TE
102
are still used as the degenerate modes,
but their resonant frequencies are separated. As a result, the
two modes become nonorthogonal at any frequency, and
the desired intracavity coupling is induced. The more
difference in the dimensions results in the farther separation
in frequency and also the stronger coupling.
D. Proposed FourPole DualMode Filter
Cascading two above mentioned rectangular cavities
creates a fourpole filter. A fourpole dualmode cavity filter
was designed in this way and optimized using the shift
feeding and adjustment techniques. Fig. 4(a) demonstrates
the structure of the fourpole filter. All of the intercavity
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fig. 4 Fourpole SIW cavity filter(a) Structure. (b) Structure of the stacked
cavities. (c) Coupling scheme. (d) Lowpass equivalent responses.
couplings are generated through the iris between the two
cavities. For taking advantage of multilayer lamination of
LTCC substrates, stack up the cavities to save half of the
circuit area, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The iris for intercavity
couplings is then replaced by the aperture slot in the
common conductor plate of the cavities. The structure looks
more compact, and the feed lines are laid in the same line.
Fig. 4(c) demonstrates the coupling scheme of the fourpole
filter. The coupling matrix of the corresponding lowpass
equivalent prototype is
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0 98 . 0 014 . 0 0 0 03 . 0
98 . 0 0 79 . 0 032 . 0 28 . 0 0
014 . 0 79 . 0 0 76 . 0 032 . 0 0
0 032 . 0 76 . 0 0 79 . 0 014 . 0
0 28 . 0 032 . 0 79 . 0 0 98 . 0
03 . 0 0 0 014 . 0 98 . 0 0
. (3)
Fig. 4(d) shows the equivalent lowpass responses. A wide
and deep sideband rejection can be obtained by the four
TZs, two of which are on the low side of the passband and
the other two on the high side. The generation of these TZs
is attributed to two cross coupling paths. The coupling path
that generates the inner pair of TZs is formed by M
25
, and
the other that generates the outer pair is formed by M
16
. M
13
and M
46
are again weak due to the shift of feed lines. Other
weak couplings, M
24
and M
35
, are the couplings between
degenerate modes of different cavities. It is evident that
these weak couplings tend to spoil the symmetry of the
frequency response.
The fourpole SIW cavity filter has a center frequency of
23.4 GHz and a bandwidth of 2 GHz and was fabricated
using LTCC process. The dimensions are detailed as follows.
The size of each cavity is 212 x 10 x 176 mil
3
. The diameter
of all the vias is 4 mils. The interval between two adjacent
vias of the sidewall is 16 mils. The aperture for feed lines is
100mil wide. The feed lines were shifted from center points
of the corresponding sides by 40 mils. The size of the
aperture slot is 68 x 10 mil
2
. The distance between the edge
of the aperture slot and the nearby sidewall is 6 mils. Fig. 5
displays the measurement results.
III. CONCLUSIONS
The new methods of designing dualmode SIW cavity
filters, including the use of rectangular cavities for
generating the intracavity couplings and the shift of feed
points for controlling the TZs, have been presented. Two
adjustment techniques for optimizing the filter responses
also have been presented. Using the method of shift feeding
and the adjustment techniques has effectively modified the
frequency response of the twopole filter topology being
symmetrical. The new methods and adjustment techniques
were then used to design a fourpole SIW cavity filter that
Fig. 5 Measurement results of the fourpole SIW cavity filter.
can provide a symmetrical response and four TZs aside the
passband. This filter has a small form factor due to the
stacked cavities and was fabricated using LTCC process.
The measurement results are good enough to validate the
design.
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