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Systems Analysis and Design 9th Edition Chapter 10 System Architecture

Chapter Objectives Provide a checklist of issues to consider when selecting a system architecture D escribe servers, server-based processing, clients, and client-based processing E xplain client/server architecture, including tiers, cost-benefit issues, and per formance Compare in-house e-commerce development with packaged solutions 2

Chapter Objectives Discuss the potential impact of cloud computing and Web 2.0 Explain the differen ce between online and batch processing Define network topology, including hierar chical, bus, ring, and star models 3

Chapter Objectives Explain network protocols and licensing issues Describe wireless networking, inc luding wireless standards, topologies, and trends Describe the system design spe cification 4

Introduction An effective system combines elements into an architecture, or design, that is f lexible, cost-effective, technically sound, and able to support the information needs of the business System architecture translates the logical design of an in formation system into a physical structure that includes hardware, software, net work support, and processing methods 5

System Architecture Checklist Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) The objective of ERP is to establish a companywide strategy for using IT resourc es Supply chain management (SCM) Initial Cost and TCO During the final design stage, you make decisions that will have a major impact on the initial costs and TCO for the new system You should review all previous c ost estimates 6

System Architecture Checklist Scalability Scalability, also called extensibility, refers to a systems ability to expand, ch ange or downsize easily to meet the changing need of a business enterprise Espec ially important in implementing systems that are volume-rated, such as transacti on processing systems 7

System Architecture Checklist Web Integration An information system includes applications Web-centric architecture Avoids many of the connectivity and compatibility problems that typically arise E-marketpla ces 8

System Architecture Checklist Legacy System Interface Requirements The new system might have to interface with one or more legacy systems Interfaci ng a new system with a legacy system involves analysis of data formats and compa tibility The analyst must know if the new application eventually will replace th e legacy system 9

System Architecture Checklist Processing Options In planning the architecture, designers also must consider how the system will p rocess data - online or in batches Provision must be made for backup and speedy recovery in the event of system failure 10

System Architecture Checklist Security Issues Security threats and defenses are a major concern to a systems analyst The analy st must consider security issues that relate to system design specifications Web -based systems introduce additional security concerns 11

Planning the Architecture Servers Server Clients Mainframe architecture Server-based processing 12

Planning the Architecture Clients As PC technology exploded in the mid-1980s and 1990s, powerful microcomputers qu ickly appeared on corporate desktops Users found that they could run their own w ord processing, spreadsheet, and database applications Companies linked the stan d-alone computers into networks 13

Planning the Architecture Clients Stand-Alone Computing Local and wide area networks Client-based processing 14

Client/Server Architecture Overview 15

Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Design Styles 16

Client/Server Architecture Fat and Thin Clients 17

Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Tiers Two-tier design Three-tier design Middleware Enables the tiers to communicate and pass data back and forth Provides a transpa rent interface Can integrate legacy systems and Web-based applications 18

Client/Server Architecture Cost-Benefit Issues Client/server systems enable the firm to scale the system in a rapidly changing environment Client/server computing also allows companies to transfer applicatio ns from expensive mainframes to less expensive client platforms Client/server sy stems reduce network load and improve response times 19

Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Performance Issues In contrast to the centralized system, a client/server design separates applicat ions and data Distributed database management system (DDBMS) The system is scala ble, so new data sites can be added without reworking the system design The syst em is less likely to experience catastrophic failure 20

Internet-Based Architecture Developing E-Commerce Solutions In-House 21

Internet-Based Architecture Packaged Solutions and E-commerce Service Providers Many vendors offer turnkey systems for companies Another alternative is to use a n application service provider (ASP) Another option is managed hosting Consider the experience of other companies in the same industry 22

Internet-Based Architecture Corporate Portals A corporate portal can provide access for customers, employees, suppliers, and t he public Cloud Computing Effectively eliminates compatibility issues Scaling on demand Requires significa ntly more bandwidth 23

Internet-Based Architecture Web 2.0 Envisions a second generation of the web that will enable people to collaborate, interact, and share information more dynamically Wiki Internet operating system 24

Processing Methods Online Processing Because it is interactive, online processing avoids delays and allows a constant dialog between the user and the system Online processing also can be used with fileoriented systems 25

Processing Methods Batch Processing The IT operations group can run batch programs on a predetermined schedule, with out user involvement, during regular business hours, at night, or on weekends Re quire significantly fewer network resources than online systems 26

Processing Methods Combined Online and Batch Processing 27

Network Models The OSI Reference Model The OSI model consists of seven layers Each layer performs a specific function O ffers a set of design standards 28

Network Models Network Protocols In all cases, the network must use a protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Inte rnet Protocol (TCP/IP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 29

Network Models Network Topology Hierarchical network it mirrors the actual operational flow in the organization One disadvantage of a hierarchical network is that if a business adds additional processing levels, t he network becomes more complex and expensive to operate and maintain 30

Network Models Network Topology Bus network Devices can be attached or detached from the network at any point without distur bing the rest of the network Overall performance declines as more users and devi ces are added Today, the bus design is much less popular 31

Network Models Network Topology Ring network One disadvantage of a ring network is that if a network device fails (such as a PC or a server), the devices downstream from the failed device cannot communicat e with the network Multistation Access Unit (MAU) 32

Network Models Network Topology Star network Disadvantage of the star design is that the entire network is dependent on the s witch However, in most large star networks, backup switches are available immedi ately in case of hardware failure 33

Network Models Network Topology Mesh network While this design is extremely reliable, it also is very expensive to install an d maintain Originally developed for military applications 34

Network Models Routers Routers differ from switches in that they work at a higher OSI level Can connect to a larger, dissimilar network, such as the Internet Gateway Proxy server 35

Network Models Network Modeling Tools As you translate the OSI logical model into a physical model of the networked sy stem, you can use software tools Network Licensing Issues Software licensing restrictions 36

Wireless Networks A wireless local area network, or WLAN Wireless Network Standards 802.11 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Amendments Mbps (megabits per second) 37

Wireless Networks Wireless Network Standards 802.11g 802.11n Multiple input/multiple output (MIMO) Multipath design 802.11y 38

Wireless Networks Wireless Network Topologies Basic Service Set (BSS) infrastructure mode Access point Extended Service Set (E SS) Roaming Independence Service Set (ISS) peer-to-peer mode 39

Wireless Networks Wireless Trends Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) BlueTooth On addition to 802.11 protoco ls for LANs, IEEE is working on 802.16 standards MANs (metropolitan area network s) WiMAX 40

Systems Design Completion System Design Specification A typical system design specification uses a structure similar to the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Management summary System components System environment Implem entation requirements Time and cost estimates Additional material 41

Systems Design Completion User Approval Users must review and approve the interface design, report and menu designs, dat a entry screens, source documents, and other areas of the system that affect the m Other IT department members also need to review the system design specificatio n When the system design specification is complete, you distribute the document to a target group of users, IT department personnel, and company management 42

Systems Design Completion Presentations The first presentation is to the systems analysts, programmers, and technical su pport staff members Your next presentation is to department managers and users f rom departments affected by the system The final presentation is for company man agement Management might reach one of three decisions: proceed with systems deve lopment, perform additional work on the systems design phase, or terminate the p roject 43

Chapter Summary An information system combines hardware, software, data, procedures, and people into a system architecture The analyst must consider enterprise resource plannin g, initial cost and TCO, scalability, Web integration, legacy interface requirem ents, processing options, and security issues An architecture requires servers a nd clients 44

Chapter Summary Compared to file server designs, client/server systems are more scalable and fle xible In implementing a design, an analyst should consider e-commerce strategies , the availability of packaged solutions, and corporate portals, which are entra nces to a multifunction Web site The primary processing methods are online and b atch processing 45

Chapter Summary Networks allow the sharing of hardware, software, and data resources in order to reduce expenses and provide more capability to users The way a network is confi gured is called the network topology The system design specification presents th e complete systems design for an information system Chapter 10 complete 46