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Operations Manual (Part-A)Edition II INTRODUCTION

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OPERATIONS MANUAL (PART-A)

PAKISTAN INTERNATIONAL

Issued by Directorate of Flight Operations

Document # FOD/OM/02 Edition II Revision # 00 Revision Date: Nov 01, 2012

Copy #________

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Operations Manual (Part-A)Edition II INTRODUCTION


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0.0

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5

1 2 3 4 5 6-7 8 9 Introduction 10 0.1.1 Authority...... 10 0.1.2 Purpose..... 10 0.1.3 Aim....... 10 0.1.4 Contents........ 10-11 Organization of Operations Manual 0.2.1General.. 11-12 Revisions 12 0.3.1 General.... 12 0.3.2 Record of Revisions.... 12 0.3.3 Summary of revisions...... 12 0.3.4 How to find changes/revision.. 13 List of effective pages. List of abbreviation 14-17

Title Page Documents Approval Table of Content Revision Record. Revision Highlight. List of Effective pages.. Table of Contents Distribution List.

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Revision Record
No. 0 2 4 6 Revision Date Nov 01,2012 Date Filed No. 1 3 5 7 9 Revision Date Date Filed

8
10

11
13 15 17 19 20

12 14 16
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Revision Highlights
Chapter 0.
..Distribution list revised to include DGM QA Flight Operations. Chapter 1. 1.0. Flight Operations organogram updated. 1.2.6 -..Duties and responsibilities of GMCC revised

1.2.8- Duties and responsibilities of equipment chief pilots revised 1.4.2 .Duties of Supernumery Crew added Chapter 2. 2.0.13. List of aircraft library updated. Chapter 3. 3.0.3. List of simulator evaluators to be maintained by CP Training. Chapter 5. 5.0.2...Added CLC related records to aircraft documents. Chapter 6. 6.0.3.1- .Company VFR minima revised. 6.0.3.2 Change from IFR to VFR flight. procedure elaborated 6.1.2- Explanation added to clarify female cabin crew requirement. Chapter 8. 8.2.1 ..Clarification Added 8.4 Clause for operation from uncontrolled airfields added Chapter 11. 11.6-...Criteria for accepting pregnant females revised. Chapter 16. 16.7.8- Cycling of seat belt sign introduced to prepare the cabin for landing. Chapter 17. 17.4.7-...Approach stabilization criteria revised. 17.7.1-CDFA concept for non precision approaches introduced. Chapter 21. 21.6.3 Announcement for cabin crew added after emergency descent. 21.11.2.. .Guidance for pilot incapacitation during approach added.
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Chapter 22. 22.6-Route supplement referred to training policy to avoid duplication.

Chapter 23. 23.2-ANO reference updated.

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List Of Effective Pages


Ch No. Description
Title Page Documents Approval T.O.C Revision Record Revision Highlight List of Effective pages Table of Contents Distribution List Introduction Organization & Responsibilities Company Regulations Training, Checking, Qualification & Recency Flight Crew Rostering Administrative Instructions & Forms General Flight Rules Fuel policy Flight Preparation & planning Communication Safety and Security Passenger Handling Cargo Handling Ground handling General Flight Deck Procedures Use of Equipment Normal Procedures Approaches All Weather Operations Adverse Weather

Effective Pages
01 02 03 04 0 5-6 0 7-8 09 10 11-18 1-56 1-16 1-17 1-08 1-08 1-12 1-17 1-16 1-17 1-27 1-20 1-11 1-15 1-15 1-20 1-43 1-29 1-21 1-33

Revision
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

Rev .Date
01st Nov, 2012

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

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20 21 22 23 24

ETOPS/Remote Destination Abnormal Special Flights Flight Duty Time Limitations Safety performance Monitoring & Management

1-06 1-35 1-05 1-19 1-03

00 00 00 00 00

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Table of Contents
Chapter No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ITEM Introduction Organization & Responsibilities Company Regulations Training Checking Qualification & Recency Flight Crew Rostering Administrative Instructions & Forms General Flight Rules Fuel Policy Flight Preparation & Planning Communication Safety and Security Passengers Handling Cargo Handling Ground Handling General Flight Desk Procedures Use of Equipment Normal Procedures Approaches All weather Operations Adverse Weather ETOPs/Remote destination Abnormal Special Flights Flight Duty Time Limitations Safety Performance Monitoring & Management Page No. 2-18 1-56 1-16 1-17 1-08 1-08 1-12 1-17 1-16 1-17 1-27 1-20 1-11 1-15 1-15 1-20 1-43 1-29 1-21 1-33 1-06 1-35 1-05 1-19 1-03

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Doc# FOD/OM/02 DISTRIBUTION LIST

S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Designation Director Flight Standards (PCAA) Director Flight Operations Director Engineering & Maintenance Director Marketing All Chief Pilots -Flt-Ops All Flight Crew General Manager Central Control Chief Pilot Corporate Safety & QA Principal PIA Training Centre Chief Medical Officer Chief Engineer Q/A Chief Engineer Line Maintenance General Manager PHS Dy. Chief Engineer Simulator Situation Room DGM QA- Flight Operation

Mode Hard Copy Hard Copy +CD Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy +CD Hard Copy Hard Copy +CD Hard Copy +CD Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy Hard Copy +CD Hard Copy +CD

IMPORTANT NOTE: A copy of the OM (soft or hard) shall be placed in the Flight Dispatch Sections at all PIAC domestic and outstations. It is also available on the PIA web site.www. piac.com.pk This distribution list will be maintained and updated under the authority of the Chief Pilot (Technical) according to operational needs and requirements

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INTRODUCTION
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0.1 INTRODUCTION The Operations Manual complies with all applicable regulations and with the terms and condition of the applicable Air Operator Certificate. This manual contains operational instructions those are to be complied with, by the relevant personal 0.1.1 AUTHORITY The PIAC Operations Manual (OM) is a controlled document and is published under the authority of the Director Flight Operations and is distributed according to the Distribution List. This manual is approved by Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority. The Chief Pilot Standards Inspection is responsible for the issuance and dissemination of amendments and revisions to this manual. 0.1.2 PURPOSE The purpose of this Operations Manual (OM) is to provide an, upto-date document that allows flight crew and others concerned, easy location of the general company policies and procedures, for implementation as part of the operational system, monitored and

evaluated, as necessary, for continued effectiveness. 0.1.3 AIM The aim of the OM and other operational documents is to create a high degree of user friendliness by: Being clearly laid out. Providing a comprehensive Table of Contents. Discouraging the repetition of information. Providing cross-references. Providing a comprehensive Index. Ensuring easy access to all concerned. Being responsive to the end users by providing feedback to the Flight Operations Management. 0.1.4 CONTENTS The Operations Manual (OM) contains policies and procedures that are generic to our Fleet operations which also includes Non aircraft type related and/or standard operating procedures for each phase of flight, policies, procedures, checklists, descriptions, guidelines, emergency procedures and other relevant information

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Authorities, duties and responsibilities associated with the operational control of flights. 0.2 ORGANIZATION OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS MANUAL

0.2.1GENERAL The structure and contents of the operations manual are in accordance with PCAA ANO 91.0003 issue 3 dated December 2006, however the sequence of presentation may vary from the above mentioned ANO. The OM consists of four parts. Part A: General / Basic This part comprises all non type related policies, instructions and procedures needed for a safe operation. Part B: Aircraft Operating Information This part comprises all type related instructions and procedures needed for a safe operation (FCOM, SOP, QRH etc.) Part C: Areas routes and Aerodromes This part comprises all instructions and information needed for the area of operation (JEPPESEN) Part D: Training

This part comprises all training instructions for personnel required for a safe operation (Training policy) The OM part A is divided into two Sections, Section A (Administrative) Chapter 1-5 Section B (Operational) Chapter 6-24. Each Section is further divided into Chapters. Each Chapter is then divided into sub sections. The chapters and Sub sections are numbered. The Table of Contents provides an overview of each Chapter. Section- A (Administration) This section covers Administrative Policies and Procedures that do not directly affect the Flight Crew conducting a flight. Section- B (Operations) This section covers Operational Policies and Procedures that concern the Flight Crew from the commencement of their Duty till the completion of Duty. The sequence of Chapters in section B approximates the progression of flight from reporting of Crew at Flight Briefing to the successful

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completion of the Flight including contingencies. 0.3REVISIONS 0.3.1GENERAL Amendments to Operation Manual shall be issued from time to time with a list of effective pages to ensure information contained therein is kept up-to-date. Amendments shall be done when required by law, to keep abreast of all regulatory requirements and in case of change of airline policies and procedures. Amendments are covered by a Letter of Revision, handwritten amendments and revisions are not permitted. Out Station amendments for the Flight Operations Manual located in the Flight Dispatch will be mailed. All amendments to the OM will become effective from the dates of revisions, unless a different date has been specified in the respective Letter of Revision. 0.3.2 RECORD OF REVISIONS A revision record for the OM is shown on the following page. This is numbered and

dated. All OM copies shall be kept current with latest revisions. When an amendment is received the number and date shall be entered to reflect the currency of the individual copy. 0.3.3 SUMMARY OF REVISIONS Each revision shall include a summary of the revision which shall list any pages that are to be removed (without being replaced) and in general terms the changes that the revision contains. This revision summary shall be placed in FOM, immediately after the Record of Revisions. 0.3.4 HOW TO FIND CHANGES / REVISIONS Changes to any page(s) will be shown by using one or both of the following methods:Below the last horizontal line on the page, a list of effective changes will be shown. An example of this can be seen at the bottom of this page. A vertical line will be displayed beside to the left of this paragraph.

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0.4 List of Effective pages. These are shown chapter by chapter wise in the Table of Contents. Each chapter I listed In serial order with the total number of effective pages in it clearly indicated. The Chapter wise list of effective pages is immediately after the Table of contents. Any changes thereto will be reflected in the Summary of revision accordingly.

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0.5 List of Abbreviations


A/C ACARS ADF AGL AIMS ANO AOC APD APU ASF ATC ATIS ATS AWO AWO B.D C.G. CAA CARs CDL CFPs CLC CPP&S CPSI CRS CVR DBR DDPG DFO DCP DDG DGCAA Aircraft Aircraft Communication Addressing & Reporting System Automatic Direction Finder Above Ground Levels Airlines Information Management System Air Navigation Order Air operator Certificate Performance Deterioration Factor Auxiliary Power Unit Airport Security Force Air Traffic Control Aerodrome Terminal Information Service Auto Throttle System All Weather operation All Weather operation Bomb Disposal Centre of Gravity Civil Aviation Authority, Pakistan Civil Aviation Rules Component Deviation List Computerized Flight Plans Centralized Load Control Chief Pilot Planning & Scheduling Chief Pilot Standards Inspection Certificate to Release to Service Cockpit Voice Recorder De-Brief Report Dispatch Deviation Procedure Guide Director Flight Operations Designated Check Pilot Dispatch Deviation Guide Director General CAA

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DGM QA DH/A DME DQC EICAS ETA ETOPS E.O.D F/O FAF FAR FCI FCOM FCTP FCU FD FDR FDTL FGS FIF FMS FOO FPV FRM HF HQCAA IAF IATA ICAO IFR IMC INAD JAR

Dy. General Manger-Quality Assurance Decision Height or Altitude Distant Measuring Equipment Departmental Quality Control Section Engine Indication & Crew Alerting System Estimated Time of Arrival Extended Twin Engine Operations Explosive Ordinance First Officer Final Approach Fix Federal Aviation Regulations Flight Crew Instructions Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Crew Training Policy Flight Control Unit Flight Director Flight Data Recorder Flight Duty Time limitation Flight Guidance System Flight Information File Flight Management System Flight Operations Officer Flight Path Vector Fault Reporting Manual High Frequency Head Quarter CAA Initial Approach Fix International Air Transport Association International Civil Aviation Authority Instrument Flight Rules Instrument metrological Information Inadmissible Joint Aviation Regulations

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JRM LMC LOFT LVP MABH MAC MAP MCS MCP MDA MEL/ DDG MEDIF MMELS MNPS MOCA MORA MOE MR MSL NAV NDB NOTAM NOTOC OM OFP OFZ P.A. PAPI PF PIAC CAPT./PIC PIREPS PM PNF PPC

Jespersen Route Manual Last Minute Correction Line Oriented Flight Training Low Visibility Procedure Minimum Approach Break-Off Height Mean Aerodynamic Cord Missed Approach Point Manager Crew Scheduling Mode Control Panel Minimum Descent Altitude Minimum Equipment List Medical Information Form Master Minimum Equipment List Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications Minimum Operating Clearance Altitude Minimum Off Route Altitude Maintenance Organization Exposition Maintenance Release Mean Sea Level Navigation Non-Directional Beacon Notice to Airmen Notice to Crew Operations Manual Operational Flight Plan Obstacle Free Zone Passenger Announcement Precision Approach Path Indicators Pilot Flying Pakistan International Airlines Corporation Pilot -in-Command Pilot Reports Pilot Monitoring Pilot Not Flying Pilot Proficiency Check

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PTC PVS QRH R/T RA RVR RNAV RNP RTOGW RVR RVSM SEP SOP STD TA TCAS TOD TOGW TR TSN TSO VASIS VFR VHF VMC VOR ZFW

PIA Training Centre Personal Video System Quick Reference Handbook Radio Telephony Resolution Advisory Runway Visibility Range Area Navigation Required Navigation Performance Runway Regulated Takeoff Gross Weight Runway Visual Range Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Safety Equipment Procedures Standard Operating Procedure Standard Traffic Advisory Traffic Collision and Avoidance System Top of Descent Takeoff Gross Weight Temporary Revisions Time Since New Time Since Overhaul Visual Approach Slope Indicators Visual Flight Rules Very High Frequency Visual Metrological Conditions Very High Omni Frequency Range Zero Fuel Weight

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CHAPTER 1: ORGANIZATION & RESPONSIBILITIES


1.0 1.1 PIAC Corporate Organization Chart Flight Operations Department Organization Chart.. Overview. 1.1.1 Conduct of Flight Operations.. 1.1.2 Delegation of Responsibilities.... Duties and Responsibilities of Flight Operations Senior Executives 1.2.1 Director Flight Operations...... 1.2.2 Chief Pilot Training...... 1.2.3 Chief Pilot Standards Inspections..... 1.2.4 Chief Pilot Technical. 1.2.5 Chief Pilot Planning and Scheduling........... 1.2.6 General Manager Central Control........ 1.2.7 General Manager North.. 1.2.8 Equipment Chief Pilots..... 1.2.9 Chief Flight Surgeon... 1.2.10 DGM Quality Assurance... Flight Crew 1.3.1Subordination of Air Crew... 1.3.2 Personnel undergoing Flight Crew Training... 1.3.3 Authority of Pilot-in-Command.. 1.3.4 Duties of the Pilot-in-Command. 1.3.5 General Responsibilities of Pilot-in-Command.. 1.3.6 Captain supervision and co-ordination of flight duties... 1.3.7 Additional Duties of captain in aircrafts without Flight Engineer. 1.3.8 Duties of First Officer. 1.3.9 Special duties of First Officer. 1.3.10 Duties of Flight Engineer. Cabin Crew 1.4 Cabin Crew 1.4.1Duties of Cabin Crew.. 1.4.2 Supernumery Crew Line Stations.. Duties and Responsibilities of Flight Operations Administration 1.6.1Manager Operations Engineering- I. 1.6.2Manager Operations Engineering II... 1.6.3Manager Routes and Navigation.. Company Regulations and Policies.. 1.7.1 Applicability... 1.7.2 Aircraft Knowledge and Preparation.. 1.7.3 General Cooperation.. Compliance with Rules/ Regulations and Orders.. 2 3 4 4 4-5

1.2

1.3

6-7 8-11 11-13 13-16 16-17 18-19 20-21 21-24 25 26 27 27 27 28-30 30-31 32-34 34 35 35-39 40-43 44 44 45-46

1.4

1.5 1.6

1.7

1.8

47-49 49-52 52-53 54 54 54 55 55-56

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ORGANIZATION OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS DEPATEMENT DGM Quality Assurance

Finance Manager (Flt-ops)

DIRECTOR FLIGHT OPERATIONS

CP
Training

CP
Standards Inspection

CP Tech (Ops)

CP Planning & Scheduling


DGM Crew Planning Flt-Ops DGM Crew Scheduling Flt-Ops

CP North (Ops)

Chief Flight Surgeon

GM Central Control

CP
B747/777

DGM TRG FLT-OPS CFE B747

DGM Ops Engg Line-I

DGM Flight Dispatch

DGM Central Control

CP
A310

DGM Ops Engg LineII DGM Routes & Navigation

CP
B737

DGM Simulator

Manager Flight Control

Manager Passport & Visa

CP
ATR 42

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1.1 OVERVIEW 1.1.1. CONDUCT OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS PIAC has main base at Karachi Located at, PIA Head Office, Karachi Airport Karachi 75200. Additional Bases are located at Lahore and Islamabad The PIAC corporate function is to provide air transport service which is safe, efficient, reliable and profitable within the required conditions and limitations of the state approved air transport operations. Regular Public Transport (RPT) Chartered Flight Aerial Work PIA shall have a management system for the flight operations that ensures supervision and control of flight operations, functions and other associated activities in accordance with standards of the operator and requirement of the state. The Flight Operations Department will achieve these objectives by efficiently managing the personnel, equipment and

facilities allocated to it by the company. All flights shall be conducted in accordance with the PIAC operating policy as follows: Safety has always the first priority. Depending on the actual situation and with due regard to possible consequences: economy, schedule and passenger comfort should be weighed carefully against each other. The Key position holders of the flight operations department are responsible for the outcome of safety, quality audits, accident & incident investigation reports recommendations etc. in their respective areas of responsibilities. The key position holders are also responsible for ensuring implementation of proper corrective/ preventive actions as a result thereof in a timely manner.

1.1.2.

DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES Succession plan for delegation of responsibilities within the

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Management system of Flight Operations, for significant positions, to assure managerial continuity when nominated post holders are absent from work place.
Position Director FO Successors Chief Pilot TRG Chief Pilot CP&S Chief Pilot SI Chief Pilot SI Equipment CPs (in order of seniority DGM Ops Eng (I) DGM Ops Eng (II) DGM Routes & Navigation CP Training DGM Crew Plng DGM Crew Schd DGM Central Control Available CP(Equipment) CP Ops(EO) CMO/SFS Manager DOC

Chief Training

Pilot

Chief Pilot Technical Ops Chief Pilot Standards Inspection CP Planning & Scheduling General Manager Central Control CP(Equipment) CP North Chief Flight Surgeon DGM QA

DFO may change the succession order if situation demands

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Note:The Person nominated for the position of Director Flight Operations is subject to approval of PCAA for appointment. 1.2 DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES OF FLIGHT OPERATIONEXECUTIVES 1.2.1 DIRECTOR OPERATIONS FLIGHT

General The Director Flight Operations reports to the Managing Director of the Company for the following:Effective supervision & control of Flight Operations functions (& other associated activities) and management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations. Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement. Effective SMS implementation through Safety Action Groups (SAG) in accordance with procedures as defined in the

Safety Management System (SMS) Manual. Ensure that all Flight Operations safety and security requirement are satisfied through provision of necessary facilities, workplace equipment, and supporting services as well as work environment. Development and implementation of the Flight Operations/Safety policies and procedures. Ensuring safe and efficient Line and Fleet operation so that they are in compliance with all the relevant regulations both in Pakistan and into or over the territories of other states. To liaise with the Civil Aviation Authority on matters concerning the flight operations of all company aircraft, including any variations to the Air Operator's Certificate. To liaise with appropriate authorities of other states. Coordinate with the higher management to ensure the existence of a physical infrastructure and work environment that satisfies flight operations

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management system and operational requirements. Shall hold regular review meeting to ensure significant issues arising from audits of flight operations functions are reviewed. Such other duties as assigned to him by the Managing Director. Specific Responsibilities Approve aircraft performance criteria of current and any new inductions prepared by the Chief Pilot Technical. To ensure that data or products purchased/acquired from external sources meet the technical requirement prior to being used in the operations. Direct and support Chief Pilots in dealing with flight crew welfare, disciplinary, personnel and admin problems/issues. Supervise the write-ups, updating and continuous improvement of all flight operations and related technical/ admin documents. Supervise aircrew training activities while ensuring highest professional standards in accordance with

applicable regulatory, safety and proficiency standards. Ensure that training facilities are equitant or comparable to accepted industry standards. Directing and providing guidance into investigations involving aircraft accidents, incidents and mishaps. Approve flight proficiency standards for each equipment type and for all levels of aircrew. As required, deal with any disciplinary cases amongst Cockpit crew. Compare PIAs standards of operational performance with the best practices and standards of other Airlines and strive for continual improvement. Approve manpower plans for recruitment, training and upgrades to ensure their availability (with commensurate qualifications) in accordance with the Companys short/long term objectives. Department and exercise control over the actual expenditures. Establish annual expense and capital budgets for the

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Note:The person nominated for the position of Chief Pilot Training is subject to approval of PCAA for appointment 1.2.2 CHIEF PILOT TRAINING GENERAL The Chief Pilot Training is responsible to Director Flight Operations for the following:Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions & other associated activities and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirements. Approve specific curricula/syllabi for all cockpit crew on all equipment, covering qualification training continued training, currency and evaluation requirements. Approve PIA Training Centre flight training, material, flight training manuals and flight crew Instructor's manuals, for all equipment.

To ensure that instructors, evaluators, line check Captains use only approved Documents for the conduct of training. Liaise with Flight Technical (ops) to ensure that Operation Manuals are upto-date and consistent with training materials. Ensure that cockpit crew understands and comply with approved Aircraft Operating Manuals. Remain abreast of industry developments by studying other carrier's and manufacturer's training and standards practices and adopting them as appropriate to PIA's needs. Maintain high morale of cockpit crew by facilitating the Chief Pilots (Equipment) in their administrative role of representing cockpit crews interests. Resolving their legitimate concerns and grievance vis--vis other sections in Flight Operations Department or other Company Departments. Develop a set of standards for PIA Training Centre flight Simulator, Instructors, Flight

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Instructors and Chief Pilots (Equipment) and Ensure adherence to these standards. Approve the selection of new Instructors. Establish minimum flight standards requirements for initial issue, type rating endorsements and renewal of flight crew licenses, before flight crew is assigned for duty. Prepare periodic report on cockpit crew proficiency and propose specific or unusual training, as the need arises to improve proficiency or safety. Resolve any conflict between training and inspection functions so as to preserve the independence and objectivity of proficiency inspection. Establish procedures to ensure that all relevant information is communicated to Planning and Scheduling, regarding the timing of each crew member's nonproductive requirements for license renewal, up-grading, license lapses, Instructor's duties and Inspection duties etc.

To ensure dissemination of polices rules, instructions and procedures to equipment CPs Chief Instructor PTC, CPSI, CP-Tech (Ops) and all Supervisory Pilots. Ensure that a complete, coherent and easily accessible record system exists which contain all Licensing and medical information of each crew members. Undertake, or direct other subordinates in undertaking any special studies that may be assigned from time to time. Exercise effective human resource management in terms of selecting, training, motivating, evaluating and disciplining staff subordinates. PIA Training Centre functions Assess current and future training requirements of the Airline and make proposals and plans to meet them economically and effectively. Implement, direct and execute the programs / plans approved by the Management and monitor the achievements of the Training objectives.

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Coordinate and exercise overall supervision on all activities and administer the overall functioning of the PIA Training Centre. Liaise with Organizational Development division regarding requirements for management development training. Coordinate with all departments to ascertain short and long term training needs throughout the Corporation. Develop specific curriculum for the user departments so as to achieve the desired training objectives as and when required. Ensure that standards of instructions conform to the procedures and standards as laid down by Corporation, Director General Civil Aviation Authority and other International Regulatory Agencies wherever applicable and maintain close liaison with all concerned. Ensure continuous evaluation of all training programs by most effective methods and carry

improvements in the light of results achieved. Develop the standards of performance by analyzing the results of training and adopt suitable performance measuring systems so as to ensure overall improvements and effectiveness of training. Develop and maintain suitably qualified and trained instructional faculty and support facilities required to impart training in their diversified environments. Maintain an awareness of development in the training field and direct incorporation of new techniques in the Training Centre. Evaluate the local and foreign educational and training institutes for the purpose of availing their facilities in the areas of training where so necessitated due economic considerations or other constraint. Negotiate terms / conditions for training PIA personnel by outside Agencies / Airlines. Seek to provide PIA training facilities to outside Agencies / Airlines with a view to earning revenues for the

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Airline and develop cordial relationship. Negotiate terms for training staff from other Airlines / Agencies subject to management, approval and capacity being available. Negotiate with aircraft manufacturers so as to ensure availability of trained manpower at the time of induction of a new aircraft. Submit plans and budget proposals for meeting training needs for in-house, on-the-job and external programs and obtain management authorization. Provide necessary assistance to all departments / sections regarding specified training needs. Keep abreast of the latest techniques of Scientific Management and new developments in the sphere of his activities. Ensure proper application of new techniques and procedures for improving the efficiency and productivity level of employees reporting to him. Ensure effective, efficient and smooth functioning of the PIA Training Centre.

1.2.3

CHIEF PILOT STANDARDS & INSPECTION GENERAL The Chief Pilot (Standards Inspection) is responsible to the Director Flight Operations for the following: Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement Study standards and practices of other carriers and manufacturers to recommend revisions to PIA's standards, as necessary to ensure that the Corporation's Flight Operations and Flight Training compare favorably with industry standards. Monitor activities of the Flight Training Section to ensure that effective training courses are being developed. Ensure a high level of performance of the

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Instructors and check pilots in the standards section, through periodic cross testing and cross checking. Contribute to selection decisions of individual Pilot to next equipment or assignment, as Instructor or Route Check Pilot and make recommendation for selection of cockpit personnel for special assignments, as the need arises. Undertake special assignments, as directed. Supervise Standard Check Pilots, in their function of flight crew inspection, license endorsements and renewals. Liaise with Planning and Scheduling to ensure that no conflicts develop in rostering

of Standard Check Pilots between their normal duties, as line Pilots and their duties as Standard Check Pilots. Plan for medium and long term requirements of Standard Check Pilots based on projected flight schedules, fleet plans and planned Pilot strength. Liaise with the Training section to establish schedules of flight checks and route checks. Shall be responsible within the flight management for maintaining compliance with standards established by the Operator Coordinate with Director Flight Safety and Health Safety Environment for flight risk analysis.

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1.2.4

CHIEF PILOT TECHNICAL The Chief Pilot Technical is responsible to Director Flight Operations for the following: Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement Provide leadership and expertise in the technical aspects of flight operations and contribute to continuous improvement of quality, economy and safety throughout the Flight Operations Department. Ensure that policies, processes and systems are in place, based on effective liaison with government regulatory agencies, aircraft manufacturers and those servicing the aircraft, so that aircraft are flown and other flight equipment is used According to the standards and regulatory requirements

to meet PIAs business and operational objectives. Develop policies, processes, systems and plans for the development of Pilots and Flight Engineers to meet the operational objectives of PIA. Approve content and direct publication of current Flight Crew Operating Manuals, Aircraft Mass and Balance Manuals, Airport Analysis, Minimum Equipment Lists, Configuration Deviation Lists and all other publications and associated hand-outs relevant to Flight Operations for each type of aircraft flown by PIA. Manage the performance of the Flight Operations Technical through the development and implementation of effective communication, planning and monitoring systems so that Pilots and Flight Engineers have the information and support they need to deliver to the performance standards required of them by PIAs business and operating objectives.

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Direct design of new routes and review of the present route structure to achieve the safest and most economic operation for the Carrier. Direct and review the Airline Fuel Policy and advise other departments for implementation. Coordinate, with respect to safety issues, proposed purchase or acquisition of used or new aircraft and acquisition of wet/dry lease aero planes by PIA with: a) Other Flight Operations areas of concern; b) Cabin crew; c) Engineering & maintenance; d) Manufacturers; e) Regulatory agencies. The coordination shall include: a) Regulatory requirements; b) Line operations policies, rules, instructions and procedures; c) Flight crew training; d) MEL/CDL; e) Fleet and variants standardization concerns; f) Cockpit layout.

Coordinate with aircraft manufacturers and the Engineering and Maintenance Department to achieve standardization of operating techniques and cockpit layout. Stipulate criteria and formats for flight tests after major modifications and changes for PIA aircraft to meet airline / CAA (Pak) requirements. Coordinate with ICAO, IATA, other regulatory agencies & CAA (Pak) for the implementation of latest regulations / recommendations. Direct and supervise Mass and Balance and Extended Twin Operations (ETOPs) and Aircraft Performance Training / Refresher training on PIA network. Maintain liaison with other operators in the industry on operational technical matters to remain abreast of industry best practice. Extend technical assistance to other airlines, as and when appropriate. Maintain liaison with Engineering and

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Maintenance Department on an Ongoing basis for operational technical matters. Initiate and receive amendments to Operations Specifications and recommended changes to Air Navigation Orders (ANOs) before issue by CAA (Pak). Liaise with various departments of PIA and CAA (Pak) for renewal of Air Operators Certificate (AOC) and associated inspections of PIA operational facilities by CAA (Pak) team/s. Maintain document control system of Operation Manuals within flight operations department. Shall be responsible for the operation manuals (OM) including amendments and/or revisions, is submitted to the Authority for acceptance or approval. Shall be responsible for the dissemination of safety critical information to the appropriate personnel within (and external to)the flight operations organization, to include:

Airworthiness Directives(ADs): Manufacture Bulletins: Flight Crew Bulletins or directives: NOTAMs and Any other safety and security related information By using appropriate means and with due acknowledgements:

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1.2.5

CHIEF PILOT PLANNING & SCHEDULING General Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement The Chief Pilot (Planning & Scheduling) is responsible to the Director Flight Operations for the following: Analyze the effects of changes to routes, changes to schedules and introduction of new equipment. Formulate flight crew manpower projections for both short and long term needs. Direct development of flight slip patterns for the airline to meet schedule requirements and to ensure optimum crew utilization. Monitor the day to day adjustment in the crew roster as the need arises Ensuring that this schedule is

kept up-to-date as changes occur due to substitutions, cancellations and the like. Direct the development of a crew record system for Passport and Crew Cards and coordinate with Personnel and Welfare and Training and Testing to ensure that the crew record system is complete, coherent and effective. Develop manpower projections and plans for flight crew requirements. Project needs to be met by recruitment, up-grade training and the like, recognizing the long lead time required to train flight personnel for PIA's fleet. Develop scheduling policies and procedures to provide guidance for schedule monitoring officers regarding rotation of crews on desirable slip substitution, casual leave, off days etc. Direct development of utilization and manpower statistics for the Flight Operations Department. Support the Director Flight Operations, Chief Pilots Respective Equipment in resolving conflicts or

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disciplinary action related to rostering. Exercise effective human resource management in terms of selecting training, motivating, evaluating and disciplining subordinates. Execute corporate policy concerning increased productivity and demanding. Shall ensure flight crew recencies, continued training and evaluation requirements are fulfilled as directed by the Chief Pilot training.

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1.2.6

GENERAL MANAGER CENTRAL CONTROL

The General Manager Central Control is responsible to the Director Flight Operations for the following:Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement. Ensure that clear, accurate and easily accessible personnel records are kept for all employees of the Section. Exercise effective human resource management, in terms of selecting training, motivating, evaluating and disciplining subordinates. Central Control functions Ensure that dispatch and flight watch functions are carried out in conformity with procedural and regulatory requirements. Ensure that the situation Room (Central Control) is

aware of the safety, security, handling and progress of the flight in s timely manner. Maintain contact with concerned departments/divisions to deal with additional requirements such as VVIP, Charter or Extra Section operation and to restore schedule regularity after some difficulty is encountered. Work with CP (Technical) Operations to maintain the dispatch manual that spells out dispatch policies and procedures and limitations for all of PIA routes and aircraft types. Ensure that this manual is in agreement with PIA Operations Manual, Procedures Manual and regulatory requirements. Establish and maintain the Corporate Emergency Notification Directory. Work with designated representatives of all departments to develop procedures to be followed in meeting adverse conditions such as accident, incident, riots, hijacking, extremely adverse weather and other major abnormalities.

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Develop procedures for briefing of Captains and compilation of debriefing reports, coordinate with other Departments/Sections providing information for developing reports for management action. Direct preparation of Daily Performance Report, Daily Report, Regularity Report and the like, operations of last 24 hours, highlighting abnormalities, irregularities and exceptions to plan. Prepare periodic reports to identify trends and deviations from plan. Identify recurring problems in maintaining schedule integrity, so that management action can be taken by the responsible departments. Execute corporate policy concerning increased productivity and demand.

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1.2.7 CHIEF PILOT NORTH The Chief Pilot North reports to the Director Flight Operations for the following: General Functions Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement Supervise administratively and functionally Cockpit crew based in his sector, monitor crew rosters for flights in his sector and coordinate with other Flight Operations divisions as required. Specific Duties and Responsibilities Ensure that flight and safety standards are being met by all crew on all flights in the sector. Coordinate closely at each airport in the sector with the concerned Engineer and Station Manager.

Provide the initial contact point for Government and other organizations in the sector in respect of all matters concerning flight operations; labor laws, administrative policies, etc. Ensure that flight techniques, procedures and regulations issued by the Flight Operations Department are followed by all Cockpit crew in the sector. Ensure that each Cockpit Crew in the sector has adequate route familiarization, ground and flight training checks, etc., and arrange for training with the Chief Pilot Training as required. Keep abreast of flight equipment procedures, experience and development in aviation, bringing relevant items to the attention of the Director Flight Operations. Execute corporate policy concerning increased productivity and demanding. Ensure implementation of all special directives and bulletins issued from the Flight Operations Department which apply to the sector and recommend

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modifications required to cater for peculiarities of the sector. Maintain all technical manuals for the sector up to date in consultation with Chief Pilot Technical. Prepare annual expense and capital budgets for his sector and, once approved, control expenditures against the annual budget. Exercise effective human resource management in terms of selecting, training, motivating, evaluating and disciplining subordinates. Perform any other function as assigned, from time to time, by the Director Flight Operations. Administratively supervise Manager Operations Lahore, Islamabad and Manager Passport and Visa Islamabad. Ensures that all personnel under his administrative control meet the PIA standards set for Uniform regulations and punctuality.

1.2.8

EQUIPMENT CHIEF PILOTS The Chief Pilots (Respective Equipment) are responsible to the Chief Pilot Training for the following: Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement Review continuously Aircraft Operating Manuals and technical literature to ensure strict compliance by Pilot of his group and recommend changes in Manuals as required to improve efficiency, economy and safety. Maintain morale of Pilots of his group by representing them, as warranted, in dealing with the Personnel and Welfare Section or the Planning and Scheduling Section and communicating

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Legitimate grievances to management. Evaluate debriefing report and passenger comments and recommend corrective measures, as required. Participate in the selection of Training & Check Pilots on his equipment. Assist Planning and Scheduling by providing input, for routes flown by the respective equipment, for decisions on slip patterns off days rest, 3 Pilot crew and dead heading etc. Ensure that all Pilots of the respective equipment are obtaining fair and timely inspections for license renewal. Set objectives to be achieved at each step in the training of Pilots for respective equipment, PIA Training Centre, cockpit procedures training, flight simulator training and in-flight training. Develop specifications and standards for PIA Training Centre material, flight crew training manuals and flight crew Instructor's manuals for the respective equipments. Work with the Chief Pilot

Technical, to ensure that these specifications and standards are incorporated in the appropriate publications as part of the PIA Flight Operations Manual. Develop and maintain a system of standards for PIA Training Centre Instructors, Flight Instructors and Check Pilots and ensure adherence to these standards. Maintain training and medical records of all Pilots on the respective equipment. Identify requirement of training and flight checks for each Pilot of the respective equipment and notify planning and scheduling, so that scheduling may be effected for each individual. Plan for medium and long terms staffing requirements for Flight Instructors, Simulator Instructors and Check Pilots for respective equipment and direct the cross training and periodic proficiency cross testing of Instructors and Check Pilots. Other Responsibilities Coordinate with Chief Pilot Standards Inspection and liaison with Planning and

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Scheduling division for rostering the standardization checks of instructors and Line pilots Coordinate with Chief Pilot Standards Inspection for evaluating/ updating of Equipment Standard Operating Procedures. Coordinate with Director Flight Operations for Fleet and Line Operation requirements. Provide a conduit to Flight Operations management for cockpit crew sentiment and opinion, as a means of modifying policy where warranted and dealing with potential morale problems. Direct disciplinary action, when required, against a cockpit crew member in accordance with prescribed policies and procedures and propose modifications to those policies, as necessary. Explain and interpret existing rules, regulations and contract provisions to cockpit crew and staff. Assist in contract negotiations with collective bargaining agents, particularly in the areas of allowances, benefits rest, and

leave and out station allowance etc. Process, through subordinates, newly recruited Cadet-Pilots, Cadet Flight Engineers and expatriate flight crews as per administrative procedures. Develop contracts for flight crew deputations from PIA to other airlines and ensure that their medical, training and personnel record are kept up-to-date during deputation. Liaise closely with the Administration Department to implement new procedures coming into force or for decisions on unusual matters. Present periodic statistical reports on quantities and qualities of department personnel and prepare special studies and reports as requested. Exercise effective human resource management, in terms of selecting training, motivating, evaluating and disciplining subordinates. Establish PIA management's involvement in such secondary welfare schemes as loss of license insurance,

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additional life insurance for air crew, supplemental pensions etc. Vis--vis collective bargaining units and coordinated policy development and implementation as required. To coordinate with GM Security and Security department for security related policies and procedures. To discuss, negotiate and execute contracts with hotel administration domestic and international for cockpit crew slip requirements To liaison with CMO/Chief Flight Surgeon PIA and Chief Pilot Aero Medical Centre Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority on behalf of Director Flight Operations for all Cockpit Crew Medical requirements.

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1.2.9

CHIEF FLIGHT SURGEON The Chief Flight Surgeon reports to the Director Flight Operations and has to provide health care services and maintain health of the employees reporting to Aircrew Medical Centre(s) (Cockpit / Cabin Crew / Directors and above). In order to assess the flying fitness status of the Cockpit, Cabin Crew; the Chief Flight Surgeon is responsible for the following actions: Initial medical examination of Crew at the time of induction as per the guidelines given by PCAA for medical fitness which includes testing for psychoactive and problematic substances. To keep liaison with the foreign stations where crew stays during their layover period. To keep liaison with Civil Aviation Authority and International Aviation Agencies to promote crew health and maintain physical fitness standards. To conduct orientation lectures and programs for crew members which help in

prevention of diseases and their effect. To arrange medical boards in cases of serious and prolonged illnesses as per PIAC policies. To ensure availability of qualified flight surgeons, to prescribe medicines, and/or deal with all medical problems of cockpit cabin crew. Chief Flight Surgeon shall adapt procedures from time to time for screening requirements of the employees regarding the use of psychoactive substances by the flight crew.

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1.2.10

DGM QUALITY ASSURANCE Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Compliance with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement DGM Quality Assurance functionally reports to Corporate Quality Assurance Department whereas administrative Control and support is retained by Flight Operations Department. This is to maintain objectivity and independence in all areas of work of Quality Assurance. Support his/her/her departments Director and Chief Pilots on Quality and performance matters of the Department. Manage and control the Quality Assurance functions in his/her respective department. Prepare and monitor his/her/her departments

Quality objectives, targets and implement a measurement system in line with the PIAs Quality Policy Prepare action plans for achievement of the quality targets and related activities schedules given by CQA from time to time. Measure performances, compile and analyze the generated data on a regular basis. Identify the critical areas where frequent problems are arising. Conduct root cause analysis and initiate. corrective actions Encourage, promote, create, and motivate Quality Improvement Team functions in the Department. Ensure that departmental quality reviews are held regularly. Safeguard the integrity of Quality Assurance activities and provide oversight to Centralized Document Control functions in the department. Perform any other tasks/duties on special projects as assigned to him by Director Flight

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perations or GM (QA) from time to time. To help ensure that all regulatory requirements are met in maintaining training devices /simulators through an internal quality audit programme. To ensure monitoring & regular auditing of flight operations outsourced functions. The following are outsources services of flight operations: Flight Simulators. New Databases & JEPPSEN Manual Crew Transportation Crew Hotel ling To ensure internal audits are conducted at regular intervals by COA as per procedures defined in CQM. The duration of each internal audit to cover FLT OPS should be at least 5 days 1.3 FLIGHT CREW 1.3.1 SUBORDINATION OF AIR CREW PERSONNEL ON DUTY The Captain is under the authority of the Director Flight Operations. All other Flight and Cabin Crew are under the authority of the captain.

Personnel off Duty When not on flight duty, the official channel for Air Crew is as follows: Flight Crew report to their respective Chief Pilots Cabin Crew report to their nominated Cabin Crew Supervisors and Managers Flight Crew may contact directly to Director Flight Operations (DFO), if important personal or private matters are involved. All other matters should be dealt with via concerned fleet Chief Pilot. 1.3.2 PERSONNEL UNDERGOING FLIGHT CREW TRAINING When Flight Crew undergoes initial or recurrent training they report to Chief Pilot Training for the entire duration of training till he/she is cleared to fly online. He/she then reports to Chief Pilot Planning and Scheduling for his duties schedules.

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1.3.3

AUTHORITY OF THE PILOT-IN-COMMAND The authority of the Pilot-inCommand is delegated from DFO The Pilot-in-Command of each flight has full authority to discharge all his legal and Company responsibilities for the operation, disposition and safety of the aircraft and all persons or materials on board during the period of his command. Nothing in the operations Manual shall be construed as limiting or detracting from this authority. All members of the Flight and Cabin Crew are subject to the authority of the Pilotin-Command. This authority starts at check-in at base before the start of the service, until reporting back at base at the end of the service, including any layover period at an outstation, scheduled or unscheduled, for that serviceThe Pilot-inCommand is accountable for the safe, economic and efficient execution of his duties and responsibilities.

1.3.4

DUTIES OF THE PILOTIN- COMMAND (PIC) The Captain is the legal representative of PIAC with non company personnel as far as his authority is specified in the various regulations. The Pilot-in-Command has full authority over: All members of his crew on duty and off duty when away from home base. The captain designated for the flight shall be the Pilot-in-Command. He/she shall be responsible for the safety of all crew members, passengers and/or cargo onboard the aircraft when the doors are closed, also the operation and safety of the aircraft from the moment when the aircraft is ready to move for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight and the engines are shut down. He/she shall be responsible for

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maintaining discipline amongst crew and passengers. He/she shall also supervise and direct the other crew members in carrying out their duties satisfactorily at all times. Before taking over command of the aircraft the Pilot-in-Command must be satisfied that all the crew rostered for that service has reported for duty, are smartly dressed, meet uniform regulations and hold valid licenses for the duties required. A report to this effect from the Purser/Senior Cabin Crew member as appropriate, is a satisfactory compliance with this intent as far as the Cabin Crew on the service are concerned. Such a report from the

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purser/senior cabin crew member should also confirm that Cabin Crew members have been fully briefed on their duties. The Pilot-in-Command shall ensure that checklists and Standard Operating Procedures as laid down are properly used by crew members at appropriate stages of flight. Only in extraordinary circumstances, and then only after specifically briefing the crew, will procedures other than SOPs be used. Any such deviations are to be reported by means of a Captains Special Report as soon as possible after landing. The Pilot-in-Command shall at all times occupy the appropriate seat for takeoff and landing and shall execute (or delegate to the other Pilot) the actual takeoff and landing. The Pilot-in-Command shall be responsible for bringing to the attention of the ground engineers

all known or suspected defects of the aircraft. For departure and approach, the Pilot-inCommand will confirm all necessary navigation approach and departure aids are correctly selected and identified. The Pilot-in-Command has the authority and responsibility to declare an emergency situation whenever deemed necessary. As far as practically possible, he/she shall keep the appropriate air traffic control centre fully informed of the progress of the flight, his intentions, and any action taken in such a situation. In the event of an emergency which endangers the safety of the aircraft or safety of persons on board such that the Pilot-inCommand is compelled to take actions which involve a violation of local regulation or procedures, he/she shall

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notify the appropriate ATC facility without delay and shall submit a detailed report of such violation to the CAA/ local authority as soon as possible. The Pilot-in-Command shall be responsible for notifying and submitting, if required by the state of occurrence, a report to the appropriate local authority and also to the authority of state of the operator without delay, in the event of any emergency situation that necessitated action in violation of local regulation and/or procedures. He/she shall also inform the Company Operations Control by the quickest means of the details of any accident or incident. The Captain of an aircraft involved in an accident or incident resulting in damage to the aircraft shall not commence another flight until such time as he/she has received authorization from the DFO, or his designated deputy. Before granting

approval, DFO or his designated deputy shall ensure that: Procedures established for inspection and certification of the aircraft after damage has occurred have been followed. The cause of the accident or incident was not attributable to the state of competence, fatigue or health of the crew of that flight. Details of the accident or incident have been properly reported to the appropriate local authority. The Captain has completed all documents such as aircraft Technical Log, Voyage Report, Occurrence Report etc, required by legal or Company rules before the end of duty. 1.3.5 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PILOT-INCOMMAND The Pilot-in-Command is responsible for:

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The safety, proper servicing and maintenance of airworthiness of his/her aircraft, while executing his/her flight within the instructions and limitations of the relevant FCOM chapters. Decisions with regard to maintenance of airworthiness shall be made after due consideration of the advice of a technical specialist, i.e. Station Engineer where available. A safe and efficient operation during flight duty in accordance with the Company operating policy and common practices of good airmanship. The safety of passengers and crew as well as the safety of the load on board. Discipline and order on board during flight. To maintain safety and good order, the Pilot-in-Command may temporarily remove a crew member from his/her duty or off the aircraft. If deemed necessary, the Pilotin-Command may refuse passengers for onward transportation if, after several requests, they still

behave in an objectionable and offensive manner or refuse to follow orders given for their own or other passengers good. Persons obviously intoxicated with alcohol, drugs or narcotics shall be refused boarding. The PIC shall report without delay to the appropriate ATC facility any hazardous flight conditions encountered and shall later submit the required detailed report to the Company.

The PIC shall notify the nearest Authority by the quickest available means of any accident or serious incident that result in personnel injury, death or substantial damage to the aircraft.

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CAPT.S SUPERVISION & CO-ORDINATION OF FLIGHT DUTY The Pilot-in-Command shall: Ensure that standard and emergency procedures and regulations are adhered to by all members of his/her crew on the ground and in the air. Co-ordinate and assign at his/her own discretion, duties to the various crew members with due regard to the composition of the actual crew and their licenses. Delegate at his/her discretion, but in a clear manner, part of his/her responsibilities on the ground and in the air to the authorized ground staff and/or his/her crew members. Instruct and correct all crew members, especially his/her First Officer, and give them the fullest possible benefit of his/her experience. Notify his/her superiors whenever the behavior or performance of a crew member is outside acceptable limits. 1.3.6

Duties Prior to Flight The CAPT. shall: Report on board the aircraft at least 35 minutes (45 minutes for international flight) prior to departure and to start preflight checks at least 30 minutes prior to the STD. Know the application of all documentation required for preflight, in-flight and post flight. In a 2-Crew Cockpit: Review the technical status of aircraft. Study Note/s for attention of crew. Be aware of Periodic checks due. Scrutinize carried forward snag/s and their rectification/operational procedure/s. Study last flight snag/s. Check all maintenance release and understand their effect on aircraft performance. Prepare the cockpit, in accordance with FCOM

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On receipt of trim sheet announce TOGW, MAC and PERSONS ON BOARD (applicable to A-310, B-737, and ATR42-500 only). Check trim sheet for ZFW, BLOCK FUEL and verify TOGW and C.G. are within limits and signs it. Check take-off computation card. In 3-Crew Cockpit: Prepare the Cockpit in accordance with FCOM. Check trim sheet for ZFW, BLOCK FUEL, TOGW and C.G. are within limits and signs it. Cross Check Take off computation card. CAPT. Duties (During Flight) The CAPT. shall: Fly the aircraft safely within the operating envelope during all phases of flight, according to relevant regulations and with due consideration to passengers comfort, punctuality and economy.

Perform the Pilot Flying or Pilot Monitoring duty as required. Closely follow the flight progress and be prepared to take over controls at all times, especially on take-off and approach/landing, and whenever the Copilot/First Officer hands over the controls or shows signs of incapacitation. Inform the Copilot/First Officer and Flight Engineer (where available) immediately if something in the operation of the aircraft is considered to have become abnormal or if deviations from prescribed procedures, clearances or from the plan of operation show up. Apply all procedures and regulations according to the relevant documents for normal, abnormal and emergency operations. Fulfill firmly the Pilot Monitoring duties when the Co-pilot/First Officer is flying the aircraft. Make routine announcements in Urdu and English. Check landing computation card.

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In a 2-Crew Cockpit: Monitor Engine Power settings throughout climb and not get involved in nonessential paper work e.g. filling of log books, etc. Be fully conversant with the operation of all aircraft system under all conditions defined in the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) and operational documents. Know all the critical limits of aircraft and its systems. In a 3-Crew Cockpit: Know all the critical limits of the aircraft. Have sufficient knowledge of all aircraft systems under all conditions to operate them as defined in the FCOM and operational documents. 1.3.7 ADDITIONAL DUTIES OF
CAPTAIN ON AIRCRAFT WITHOUT FLIGHT ENGINEERS

maintenance and changeover crew. Carry out post flight inspection or depute Copilot/First Officer to do so. Duties (After Flight) The CAPT. shall: Check and sign the Flight Log Book. Check and sign the Captain's Debrief Report. Be responsible after flight to leave the Route Manuals and cockpit in proper order.

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Maintain close cooperation with the Station Engineer regarding technical services and maintenance of the aircraft. Perform the technical debriefing with the
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1.3.8

DUTIES OF THE FIRST OFFICER Pre Fight. Before every flight the First Officer must be fully aware of the flight planned route, contents of the briefing sheets and valid notices, and the forecast meteorological conditions and runway states at departure, destination and alternate airfields. Act as Second-in-Command. Should the Pilot-inCommand, through illness or any other reason, be unable to continue his/her duties during flight immediately assume command and will continue to operate in command till parking of the aircraft. For Cockpit Crew incapacitation refer General Cockpit Procedure chapter21 Para 21.11.3 of this OM. Have sufficient knowledge of all aircraft system in order to operate them by means of checklists and other documents in the case of a CAPT. incapacitation.

SPECIAL DUTIES OF FIRST OFFICER The First Officer shall: Be responsible for collection, completion and dispatch of all paperwork, i.e. Flight Plan, technical reports, etc., if this duty is not expressly assigned to other crew members or persons. Report on board the aircraft at least 35/45 minutes prior to departure and will carry out preflight checks at least 30 minutes prior to departure. Be especially well familiar with all technical matters on Flight without Flight Engineer. Assist the CAPT. in instructing and monitoring of under training Copilots / First officers. Carry out preliminary cockpit inspection as per FCOM ensuring that all cockpit emergency equipment is on-board.

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Duties Prior to Flight The First officer shall: Attend the preflight planning.Compute the Company Flight Plan if Flight Dispatch facilities are not available. File the ATC Flight Plan (in the absence of Flight Dispatcher) and also check the availability of air defense clearance where required. Know the application of all documentation required for preflight and in-flight. Be responsible to check that all the relevant Route Manuals up to the terminating station of the flight inclusive of alternate stations are on board. Remain vigilant that all check items are properly called and responded by other crew members when the checklist is being read out. Bring any malfunction to the notice of CAPT. along with operating manual procedures where applicable. Be prepared to follow up immediately any instructions given by the CAPT.

Compute and provide the take off computation card to the CAPT.

In 2-Crew Cockpit: On turbojet aircraft, after Senior Purser/substitute confirms that all doors are closed, announce on P.A. "Cabin Crew prepares for departure, arm the door slides and cross check". On turbojet aircraft, after senior purser/substitute confirms that all doors slides are armed lock the Cockpit door. On ATR42-500 aircraft, Senior Flight Attendant will check ground locks, and report to the Pilot-inCommand "All doors closed, locks on board, and passengers as per Trim sheet". On aircraft without Flight Engineer, the First Officer shall additionally, Check the technical library as given below: B-777

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Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) Vol. I & Vol. II. MEL/ DDG Weight and Balance Book. Takeoff Gross Weight Book. Flight Information File Book. Operations Manual (OM). Dangerous Goods Manual. B777 ETOPS Guide. SEP Manual Security Manual A-310 Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) Vol. II. Minimum Equipment List (MEL). Weight and balance manual. Take off gross weight book. Flight Information File Book. Operations Manual (OM). SEP Manual Dangerous Goods Manual. A310 ETOPS Guide. B-737 FCOM Vol. I & III. MEL. Dispatch Deviation Procedure Guide (DDPG). Weight and balance manual. Take off gross weight book.

Flight Information File Book. Dipstick manual. Operations Manual. Dangerous Goods Manual. ATR42-50MEL. Regulated Take-off Gross Weight (RTOGW) table. Flight Information File Book. Operations Manual. Note: FCOM will be carried by the First Officer. Check availability of the following documents: Certificate of Airworthiness. Certificate of Registration. Certificate of Maintenance. Certificate of Noise(if applicable) Valid fuel carnet. Wireless license. Weight Schedule. Aircraft technical log. Flight Pack list. Captains debrief. Aircraft Flight log. First Officer Shall Record fuel quantity gauges reading on fuel indent form and check for correct Block Fuel. Retain copy of fuel

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receipt and cross check that fuel uplift plus fuel remaining equals Block Fuel. Inform the maintenance of any technical deficiencies. Carry out external preflight walk-around checks. Accept the aircraft and its equipment from the maintenance Personnel. Enter present position into the FMS, ensuring NAV selection approximately thirty minutes prior to departure. DURING FLIGHT The First Officer will: Act as the Pilot-inCommands deputy. Assist the Pilot-in-Command and act as a monitoring crew member during all phases of flight. Act as Captain in case of the Pilot-in-Commands incapacitation. Be responsible for the collection, completion and dispatch of all paperwork i.e. CFPs, fuel slips, takeoff & landing data cards, weather reports, etc, unless such duties are expressly assigned to another crew members.

Perform or monitor the execution of all normal, abnormal and emergency checklists in such manner as specified in the FCOM, and ensure that they are all properly completed. Monitor all aspects of the flight, checking that correct procedures and techniques are used, cross-checking all flight instrument indications, in particular attitude, altitude and height. The First Officer shall alert other Flight Crew members whenever: The aircraft departs significantly from its intended flight path, or he/she considers a hazardous situation is developing, or Any abnormal instrument indication, warning light or flag is displayed. Inform the Pilot-inCommand of all communications and navigation aid frequency changes, ensuring that all aids are correctly tuned, selected, and identified and indication on the respective instrument. Record flight progress and ATC clearances, altimeter settings, met reports and forecasts on

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the flight log as applicable, informing the Pilot-inCommand of their contents. Conduct radio communications as instructed by the Pilot-inCommand. Maintain an adequate lookout at all times. Check fuel score every 45 minutes approximately Carry out any other duties required by the Pilot-inCommand. When the First Officer duties are performed by a Pilot under training, then both in departure and arrival terminal areas he/she must be continuously supervised by a fully qualified Captain or First Officer occupying an observers seat until released to fly without a Safety Pilot by the Chief Pilot Training. Post Flight The First Officer will ensure that the flight deck is left in good order, with papers collected and items properly stowed. On turbojet aircraft, after engine shut down announce on P.A. "Cabin Crew, prepare for arrival, disarm

the door slides and cross check". On turboprop aircraft, after propellers have stopped rotating, advice Cabin Attendants "clear to open doors". Complete the flight log book. Enter deficiencies/snags in the aircraft technical log book after discussing with the Pilot-in-Command. Report all delays due to technical or any other reason in sequence of developments through debriefing report and present it to the Pilot-inCommand. Carry out post flight inspection.

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1.3.10

DUTIES OF FLIGHT ENGINEER Flight engineer is the Technical assistant to the CAPT. he/she is responsible to the CAPT. that the aircraft, its systems and equipment are operated and maintained technically in a safe and efficient manner as laid down in the various manuals, checklists and instructions issued from time to time. He/she is directly responsible to the CAPT. or to the CoPilot/ First Officer, in the absence of the CAPT.

Duties Prior to Flight Flight Engineer shall check: Necessary data entered in the take off data card. Takeoff weight allowed at the existing environment. Burn off in relation to flight time and estimated TOGW. Alternate/s and fuel. Block fuel. Flight Engineer is to report on board the aircraft at least 60 minutes prior to departure and carry out preflight

checks in accordance with FCOM. In case of diversion to alternate aerodrome where Maintenance/ Technical handling personnel are not available carry out Transit Checks (the FCOM crew preflight check will suffice as transit Check) Flight Engineer is responsible to check the aircraft technical library and availability of the following flight documents: FCOMs Weights & Balance Manual TOGW MEL DDPG FIF Certificate of Airworthiness C of Registration C of Maintenance Valid fuel carnet Wireless / Radio license Weight Schedule A/C Technical Log Flight Pack List of spares A/C Flight Log Captains Debrief Reports.

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Flight Engineer must ensure the following; Maintenance releases and their effect on aircraft performance. Record fuel quantity gauges reading on fuel indent form and check for correct Block Fuel. Retain copy of fuel receipt and cross check that fuel uplift plus fuel remaining equals Block Fuel. Accept the aircraft and its equipment from the maintenance on behalf of the CAPT. Inform the maintenance of any technical deficiencies. Help the maintenance engineer in locating the flight pack file, maintenance procedure/s in MEL, etc. at out station to minimize the delay. Brief and/or initiate corrective action of any observed technical malfunction in accordance with the FCOM. Carry out Final Cockpit Preparation in accordance with the FCOM. Enter present position into the INS, ensuring NAV selection approximately 30 minutes prior to departure.

Remain vigilant that all check items are properly called and responded by other crew members when checklist is being read out. Bring any malfunction to the notice of CAPT. along with operating manual procedures if applicable. Be prepared to follow up immediately any instructions given by the CAPT. On receipt of trim sheet announce TOGW, MAC and PERSONS ON BOARD (POB). Check trim sheet for ZFW, BLOCK FUEL, TOGW and C.G. are within limits and signs it. Compute and provide the take off computation card to the CAPT. After Senior Purser/substitute confirms that all doors are closed, announce on P.A. "Cabin Attendants prepare for departure arm door slides to automatic and cross check", and on B-747 Combi also announce, "Close the latch retainer".

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Flight Engineer sets engine power on CAPT.s command. After senior purser/substitute confirms that all door slides are armed, lock the Cockpit door. Duties during Flight Flight Engineer shall: Monitor Engine Power setting throughout climb and not to get involved in nonessential paper work e.g. filling of log books, etc. Prepare cruise data card with fuel flow corrected for temperature. Update cruise data card every 10,000 Kgs of aircraft weight reduction. Man the flight engineer's panel in accordance with the FCOM. Check fuel score every 45 minutes approximately together with the pilots by subtracting the fuel consumed from the block fuel. Also check totalizes and individual fuel gauges that they agree with the remaining fuel within acceptable limits.

Obtain weather of destination on ATIS, to be cross checked by the pilots. Contact flight dispatch and pass on ETA, A/C status, arrival fuel, company messages; obtain weather and gate/stand number. Compute and provide the computation card for landing. Flight Engineer Instructor: May delegate the execution of duties to the flight engineer trainee depending on the trainee training status, i.e. when cleared by CAA to fly under-supervision and with the consent of CAPT. Will closely supervise the performance of the trainee and make the necessary cross checks. A flight engineer trainee is responsible to the flight engineer instructor for proper execution of all duties. Duties after Flight Flight Engineer shall: On engine shut down announce on P.A. "Cabin Attendants, prepare for arrival, disarm the door slides to manual and cross

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check", and on B-747 Combi also announce "Open the latch retainer". Announce arrival fuel by adding individual fuel quantity gauges. Complete the flight log. Enter deficiencies/snags in the aircraft technical log book after discussing with the Pilot-in-Command. Report all delays due to technical or any other reason in sequence of developments through debriefing reports. Hand over his/her flight documents to the Copilot/First Officer for inclusion in the post flight document envelope. Leave the cockpit in good order and manual, etc. properly stowed. Maintain close cooperation with the Station Engineer regarding technical services and maintenance of the aircraft. Perform the technical debriefing with maintenance and changeover crew. Carry out post flight inspection of the aircraft.

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1.4 CABIN CREW Duties of the Purser / Cabin Crew All Cabin Crew members on duty and also off duty when away from home base are subordinated to the Pilot-inCommand or his/her delegate. The Purser / Cabin Crew take orders directly from the Pilot-in-Command or his / her delegate. He / she acts as chief of the Cabin Crew members on duty regardless of seniority. In the absence of both the Captain and his / her delegate at outstations (i.e. due to different rotations of Flight and Cabin Crew) the Cabin Crew members are subordinated to the Senior Purser / Cabin / Crew. The Senior Purser / SFS are responsible for the comfort and safety of the passengers as well as the cabin service on board. In particular, he / she shall: Check that the cabin crew is complete before commencing flight duty. Assign particular duties and responsibilities to all Cabin Crew members.

Brief the Cabin Crew before each flight. Be responsible for maintaining good discipline among all Cabin Crew members whilst on duty. Be responsible for observance of the safety regulations in the cabin. Be responsible for emergency preparations as instructed by the Pilot-inCommand. Report all technical irregularities in the cabin to the CAPT. Handle all operational cabin irregularities in co-ordination with Pilot-in-Command Ensure the orderly handover of the aircraft to the new Cabin Crew taking over at transit situations. Ensure that the necessary documents are maintained and processed as laid down in the respective regulations. Report any important incidents or irregularities occurring during flight to the appropriate office. 1.4.1 Duties of the Cabin Crew The duties and responsibilities of the Cabin

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Crew members are detailed in the Cabin Crew Safety Equipment and Procedures (SEP) Manual and the Flight Services Manual. 1.4.2 Supernumery Crew Under normal conditions, crew travelling supy will not interfere with the operating crew in the performance of their duties. However, in case of an abnormal / emergency situation, the supy crew may assist the operating crew if requested to do so. Such assistance must be authorized by the PIC of the aircraft. 1.5 LINE STATIONS Main responsibilities of Line Stations are:PIAC staff at line stations shall maintain liaison with Operations Control (Situation Room) in Karachi regarding the progress of any flight through their stations. They shall notify Operations Control (Situation Room) of any change in the security situation at their station that might affect the operation of any PIAC flight. They shall supply the crew of any PIA flight transiting

their station with up-to-date Aeronautical information Service and meteorological information and shall file an ATC flight plan and provide the crew with a copy of the ATC flight plan and two copies of the operational flight plan when applicable. They shall co-ordinate with the PIAC handling agent and shall arrange the supply of all necessary ground services. They shall ensure that the manuals issued to the handling agent are kept current and that PIA procedures and policies are Closely adhered to. They shall monitor quality of services and the proficiency of handling personnel and take the required steps to remedy any deficiencies. In the event of an overnight stop or a major delay in departure they shall provide the crew with an updated CFP. They shall notify Flight Operations of any change to local regulations which may affect the operation of the aircraft or affect disembarking crews at their station.

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In the event of the diversion of a flight to their stations they shall assist the crew in any way that is required of them to expedite the turnaround of the aircraft, or to obtain accommodation for the crew if conditions or flight time limitations prevent the continuation of that flight, and shall arrange transportation of the crew to and from that accommodation. In the event of a delay in departure from, or a diversion to their station, they shall supply Operations Control (Situation Room) in Karachi with an estimated time of departure of the flight from their station and shall modify that estimated time of departure according to changing situation. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TECHNICAL OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION 1.6.1 DGM OPERATIONS ENGINEERING-I Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated
1.6

activities) and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations. Company with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement The DGM Operations Engineering I reports to the Chief Pilot Technical and have administrative control of: All Operations Engineers and other staff assigned to airplanes in Line I (as in Line Maintenance I in Engineering and Maintenance Department). The Manuals Cell at the PIA Head Office. DGM Operations Engineering is responsible for: Preparation and Maintenance of Flight Manuals, FCOMs, Checklists, MMELs, MELs, Mass & Balance Manuals, Weighment Checklists, Test Flight Procedures / proformas, Special operation booklets / proformas,

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Bulletins, Circulars and all other technical documents related to Flight Operations. Arrange printing and distribution of required manuals to Pilots, Flight Engineers and Flight Ops. Officers. Provide all required documents to Aircraft Library Cells. Maintain sufficient stock of up-to-date manuals in the manuals cell. Evaluate airplanes being considered for induction into PIA fleet on short term/ long term dry/wet lease, charter or purchase. Evaluate all modifications that affect operation /performance of the aircraft. Evaluate performance capabilities of aircraft on various routes. Determine payload capability on various routes and advise Marketing and Planning Departments. Conduct production Test flights, Acceptance Test Flights, C of A Test Flights and all other test

flights specified from time to time. Conduct Aircraft Weighment and Maintain Weight Schedules and Weighment Checklists. Coordinate with CAA Pak. for approval of MEL, Weighment Checklists, Test Flight Proformas, Special Procedures, Checklist and Mass & Balance training /control, release of aircraft below MEL, Ferry flights and Runway requirements. Coordinate with Engineering and Maintenance on Technical delays, Investigation of incidents/accidents; follow up of DBRs and Modification status of airplanes. Design and print load sheets and load advice forms. Issue policy on Mass and Balance and ensure its implementation. Conduct basic and type mass and balance training as per CAA

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approved syllabus and policy. Conduct examinations for issuance of Mass & Balance Competency Certificates and periodic refreshers examinations for renewal of Mass & Balance Competency Certificates of all personnel preparing PK load sheets. Maintain AHM050 data and check/verify and ensure integrity of computerized weight and balance software and database. Conduct investigation of all Mass and Balance discrepancies and delays due load sheet problems.Maintain liaison with Aircraft Manufacturers International Regulatory Agencies and CAA Pakistan for two-way communication on all operational and safety matters. Advise Chief Pilot Technical on preparation of fuel policy, selection of alternates and selection of routes.

Suggest ways and means for economy and improvement of in Flight Safety. Conduct performance Checks to establish APD factor for use in flight planning and suggest action for improvement in airplane performance and fuel base line. Conduct performance classes for cockpit crew / FOO. Conduct ETOPS training for flight operations officers. Advise DFO on release of aircraft with multiple defects, release below MEL, Ferry flight etc. Provide RTOGW analysis. Advise Central Control / Flight Dispatch on performance restriction with C/F item. Maintain liaison with Routes section and give advice on route constraints.

1.6.2

DGM OPERATIONS ENGINEERING - II. Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated

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activities) and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations. Company with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement The DGM Operations Engineering II reports to Chief Pilot Technical and has administrative control of: All Operations Engineers and other staff assigned to airplanes in Line II (as in Line Maintenance II in Engineering and Maintenance Department).The aircraft library cells at Airports. Manager Operations Engineering is responsible for: Preparation and Maintenance of Flight Manuals, FCOMs, Checklists, MMELs, MELs, Mass & Balance Manuals, Weighment Checklists, Test Flight Procedures/Proformas, Special Operation booklets / proformas, Bulletins, Circulars and all other technical

documents related to Flight Operations. Arrange provisioning of up-to-date manuals on board the airplanes. Maintain crew mail boxes at the airports and deliver all revisions and circulars thru mail boxes. Evaluate airplanes being considered for induction into PIA fleet on short term/ long term dry/ wet lease, charter or purchase. Evaluate all modifications that affect operation/ performance of the aircraft. Evaluate performance capabilities of aircraft on various routes. Determine payload capability on various routes and advise Marketing and Planning Departments. Conduct production Test flights, Acceptance Test Flights, C of A Test Flights and all other test flights specified from time to time. Conduct Aircraft Weighment and Maintain Weight

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Schedules and Weighment Checklists. Coordinate with CAA Pak. for approval of MEL, Weighment Checklists, Test Flight Proformas, Special Procedures, Checklist and Mass & Balance training /control release of aircraft below MEL, Ferry flights and Runway requirements. Coordinate with Engineering and Maintenance on Technical delays. Investigation of incidents/accidents; follow up of DBRs and Modification status of airplanes. Design and print load sheets and load advice forms. Issue policy on Mass and Balance and ensure its implementation. Coordinate safety issues on line operation policies, rules, procedures and flight crew training. In this regard he/she will also support all activities relating to introduction of new aircraft types,

systems, fleet modifications and upgrades. Conduct basic and type mass and balance training as per CAA approved syllabus and policy. Conduct examinations for issuance of Mass & Balance Competency Certificates and periodic refreshers examinations for renewal of Mass & Balance Competency Certificates of all personnel preparing PK load sheets. Maintain AHM050 data and check/verify and ensure integrity of computerized weight and balance software and database. Conduct investigation of all Mass and Balance discrepancies and delays due load sheet problems. Maintain liaison with Aircraft Manufacturers, International Regulatory Agencies and CAA Pakistan for two-way communication on all operational and safety matters.

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Advise Chief Pilot Technical on preparation of fuel policy, selection of alternates and selection of routes. Suggest ways and means for economy and improvement in Flight Safety. Conduct performance Checks to establish APD factor for use in flight planning and suggest action for improvement in airplane performance and fuel base line.Conduct performance classes for cockpit crew/FOO. Conduct ETOPS training for cockpit crew and flight operations officers. Advise DFO on release of aircraft with multiple defects, release below MEL, Ferry flight etc. Provide RTOGW analysis. Advise Central Control / Flight Dispatch on performance restriction with C/F item. Maintain liaison with Routes section and

advise any constraints.


1.6.3

route

DGM ROUTES & NAVIGATION The DGM Routes and Navigation reports to Chief Pilot Technical and is responsible for: Supervision and Control of relevant flight operation functions (& other associated activities)and Management of Safety & Security of Flight Operations Company with company polices & procedures, regulatory requirements, condition & restrictions of AOC and other statutory requirement Coordinate with CAA Pakistan and all PIA Departments regarding AOC renewal and AOC Audit and other relevant matters. Inspections reports of CAA Pakistan officials. Maintain up-dated Operations Specifications issued by CAA - Pakistan and Aviation Authorities of various countries. Coordination with aviation authorities for approval of revisions in Operations

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Specifications issued by them. Carry out Block Time Analyses Perform Route Analyses Obtaining permissions for over-flying PIAs Scheduled/ Special flights from various countries. Finding ways and means to increase payload availability on various sectors. Selection of nearest suitable alternates. Keeping up to-date data of all airfields and associated facilities.Liaison with HQCAA for all factors effecting our domestic operations and domestic airfields, notifying various discrepancies and pursuing them with DGCAA, for necessary remedial action. Maintain up to-date ICAO, US FAR and JAR documents. Keeping and providing up to-date Jeppesen Routes Manuals to the pilots. Maintaining up to-date Aircraft Library for all routes. Supplying current Route data for our A-310, B-747, B-777, and B737 navigation system.

Issuance of Route & Navigation Bulletin information, T-Charts etc. for our Manuals and for the information of crew. Handling routing and other relevant data for charter/VVIP flights. Participating in various domestic / international meetings of CAA, IATA, and ICAO when required. Liaison with CAA - Pakistan regarding pilots DBRs. Development and recommending various instrument let down procedure in coordination with Chief Flight Standards, CAA. Interpretations of CAR Pakistan ICAO, FAR and JAR regulations. Any other operational work as assigned by the Director Flight Operations through Chief Pilot Technical. Coordinate with respect to safety issues on line operation policies, rules, instructions and procedures including flight crew training.

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COMPANY REGULATIONS & POLICIES Company regulations are based on compulsory international, national and local regulations and must be used for the planning and execution of all Company flights. Should it be observed that company regulations inadvertently violate official rules and regulations, the latter shall be followed. Any such discrepancy must be reported via the Voyage Report or Captains Special Report.
1.7

practices if conditions so dictate. For emergency situations all instructions are guiding principles. The Pilot-inCommand has the authority to deviate from them when and if the situation so dictates. However such deviations may be made only in the interests of flight safety. 1.7.2 AIR CREW KNOWLEDGE AND PREPARATION All Air Crew shall remain thoroughly familiarized with the governmental regulations and instructions which are issued in the operations manuals, bulletins, FCIs etc. In addition they all shall: Be familiar with the duties to be performed on the respective type of aircraft. Be familiar with the handling of the aircraft system for normal and emergency operation, especially with regard to the differences between aircraft of the same type.

1.7.1 APPLICABILITY Under routine conditions strict compliance is required with all policies, rules, regulations and procedures laid down in the company manuals. However: No rules or regulations can be the substitute for awareness. Nothing in this manual, however carefully out lined and precisely adhered to can replace the exercise of good judgment and the application of conservative operating

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Be familiar with emergency equipment and procedures. Carry all material necessary for flight duty.

1.7.3

GENERAL COOPERATION: All Crew shall ; Co-operate closely with other crew members at all times to ensure the highest possible standard of safety and efficiency in the preparation and conduct of a fight. Co-operate with all other personnel involved with the actual fight. Such as the ground staff in order to comply with the company operating policy. In case of crew shift or relief, will give full information to the next crew for all aspects of the flight progress so far.

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1.8 COMPLIANCE WITH RULES / REGULATIONS & ORDERS All Air Crew serving with PIA shall comply with company orders, regulations and procedures, and may be subject to disciplinary action in case of violations omissions and irregularities. In order to make PIAC flights safe efficient and economical it is expected that all company personnel will closely comply with all regulations instructions and orders issued which are relevant to their duties. Air Crew observing any deviation or departure from prescribed normal or emergency procedures will immediately bring such deviations to the attention of the Pilot-in-Command and their respective superiors. Report any details (in general or in particular) which are considered to be unsafe impractical or inconsistent with Company standards or procedures which could be improved. Such reporting offers the double benefit of company

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sharing of experience and the chance to adopt corrective measures. Therefore information about such incidents should be as complete as possible and it shall normally be forwarded via established company channels. Non-reporting may be detrimental to safety. The Pilot-in-Command is responsible for ensuring that significant events relating to safety will be reported without delay to Operations Control in Karachi, to enable the safeguarding of essential data, and the adoption of immediate measures for potential corrective actions. Situations may arise where a crew member considers it necessary to report an incident or deviation from normal procedure etc., but wants to remain anonymous. Under these circumstances he/she should contact the Director Quality Assurance / Director Corporate Safety & HSE either personally or in writing. After analysis and discussions, they will advise the crew member concerned of potential further developments. If the crew member wishes to maintain

anonymity, this guaranteed.

will

be

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CHAPTER 2: COMPANY REGULATIONS


2.0 Company Publications 2.0.1 General..... 2.0.2 Scope.... 2.0.3 Description... 2.0.4 Flight Crew Issues... 2.0.5 Operations Manual- OM (Part-A) 2.0.6 FCOM (Flight Crew Operating Manual). 2.0.7 Flight Crew Training Manual... 2.0.8 Amendment Procedure. 2.0.9 Jeppesen Airway Manual. 2.0.10 Jeppesen Airway Manual Amendments. 2.0.11 Flight Crew Instruction (FCIs) or Temporary Revision (TRs).... 2.0.12 Flight Operations Department Library..... 2.0.13 Aircraft library . Crew Conduct.................... 2.1.1 Uniform .. 2.1.2 Conversation... 2.1.3 General Health and Physical Fitness................. Medical Regulations 2.2.1Substance Abuse, Psychoactive and Pharmaceutical Prescription 2.2.2 Sleeping Tablets.................. 2.2.3 Alcohol 2.2.4 Quarantine.. 2.2.5 Diving Before Flight .................. 2.2.6 Blood Donation... 2.2.7 Immunization..... 2.2.8 Rehabilitation of Persons Involved in use of Flight Crew Licenses 2.3.1 General............................ 2.3.2 Renewal.. 2.3.3Authority to Operate... 2.3.4 Retirement Age.......................... Crew Baggage: Lost, Mishandled or Damaged 2.4.1 Reporting Procedure... 2.4.2 Applicability of Procedures 2 2-3 3-4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6-7 7 7-8 8-9 9 9 10-11 11 11 11 11-12 12 12 12 13 13-14 14-15 15 16 16

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

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2.0

COMPANY PUBLICATIONS 2.0.1 GENERAL All PIA Flight Crew shall handle all material belonging to the Company with due care. They shall ensure that their personal manuals and other company documents are kept current. Any loss, damage or neglect of company material caused by careless handling must be paid for or made good by the person responsible. To ensure effective communication of operationally relevant information throughout the flight operations management systems and operational personnel, the respective designated officials shall be responsible to communicate all relevant information by appropriate means such as Airline Information Management System (AIMS), emails, circulars bulletins, intranet etc. and also ensure acknowledgements accordingly Publications are controlled documents and are distributed in accordance

with the guidelines given below. Each Publication shall have an authorized Distribution List. 2.0.2 SCOPE The PIA Flight Operations Manual (FOM) contains instruction covering that part of the Companys Operations which relate to the Flight Operations Department. The operational procedures are based on the latest technical data and operational experience available at the time of publication. Air Crew and Flight Operations personnel are required to abide by laid down instructions and procedures and any deviation should be reported to the Company as soon as possible with reason for such deviation. Should any individual consider that all or any part of a procedure or instruction needs amendment, he/she should notify his respective Chief Pilot in writing, detailing any proposed changes and reasons. These shall cover any amendments, amplifications

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or extension of procedures published in the specific aircraft FCOM, or the introduction of new SOPs to cover specific operations. Information of a more general nature may be disseminated in the form of : Flight Crew Instructions (FCIs) Memoranda Safety / Alert Bulletins Admin Orders and Office Orders Note: The type specific operating manual for PIA aircraft is the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM). 2.0.3 DESCRIPTION The general conditions under which PIA operates its aircraft are contained in the PIA operational manuals which include: Operations Manual (OM) Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) Flight Dispatch Manual. Quick Reference Handbooks (QRH) Jeppesen Airway Manual Weight & Balance Manual or Station Loading Guides

Safety Management System Manual Security Manual Flight Crew Training Manual and Training Policy Cabin Crew Safety Equipment and Procedures Manual Minimum Equipment List (MEL), Dispatch Deviation Guides (DDG) Runway Analysis Manual or TOGW (takeoff gross weight) charts. As part of the FCOM, each fleet may publish supplementary operational information relevant to its own aircraft type. This shall be in the form of : Operations Engineering Technical/Information Bulletins Flight Crew Bulletins Training Bulletins Standards Bulletins Routes & Navigation Bulletins Standards Operating Procedure (SOPs) These shall cover any amendments, amplifications or extension of procedures published in the specific aircraft FCOM, or the

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Introduction of new SOPs to cover specific operations. Information of a more general nature may be disseminated in the form of: Flight Crew Instructions (FCIs) Memoranda Safety / Alert Bulletins Admin Orders and Office Orders 2.0.4 FLIGHT CREW ISSUES Each crew member shall be issued with: Crew Licenses Competency Certificate with appropriate ratings Valid medical Additional pair of glasses (if applicable) Valid passport with required visa (if applicable) Company ID Certificates of vaccination (if applicable) Serviceable flash light/torch(with D size batters) QRH ( if applicable) Any the respective equipment SOP Not: Each flight crew member is responsible to ensure that only updated &

valid documents and manuals are carried. 2.0.5 FLIGHT OPERATIONS MANUAL OM All general PIAC policies and procedures for flight operations which are of permanent nature are contained in the OM. It must be clearly understood that the policies in this OM (e.g. fuel planning) reflect minimum requirements in the interest of safe operations. The Captain may at all times apply a policy in a more restrictive sense if the prevailing circumstances require, or he/she deems a higher safety standard is justified in any specific situation. Whenever a conflict exists between the OM and any other company Publication, the OM shall take precedence, except any SOPs on the subject. Flight Crew shall advise their Chief pilot of this conflict as soon as possible. Wherever an amendment is issued to the OM, Flight Crew shall receive a copy of the amendment.

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2.0.6

FCOM (FLIGHT CREW OPERATING MANUAL) The Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are considered part of FCOM. Instructions and detailed procedures for the technical operation of each aircraft type are contained in the relevant Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) Amendments to the applicable aircraft operating manual (FCOM) normally originating from the aircraft manufacturer and distributed to manual holders after receipt by PIAC. Wherever an amendment is issued to the FCOM, Flight Crew shall receive a copy of the amendment.

Hand-written amendments are not approved Any revision will be covered by a Letter of Revision. The letter of revision shall include: Where the changes are extensive, a summary of changes List of Effective pages Revised text will be annotated by either a vertical line on the outside of the text. Alternatively, the changes may be indicated on the bottom of the applicable page. 2.0.9 JEPPESEN AIRWAY MANUALS The Airway Manual contains specific information pertaining to PIAC specific area of operation. As well as general briefing information, active Airway Manuals contain the latest: Alternative priority listing Navigation Report Detailed changes or anomalies in the navigation data either in the OMs data base or the computer flight plan. Company Notams Airfield Categorization

2.0.7

FLIGHT CREW TRAINING MANUAL Instructions and detailed procedures pertaining to training matters are included in the Flight Crew Training Manual and Training Policy. 2.0.8 AMENDMENTS PROCEDURE Revisions will be issued as required, with CAA approval.

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Performance information Company Communication numbers and the FCIs shall remain valid as long as the information contained within is valid or until the information has been incorporated into the applicable publication. Incorporation shall normally take place within 6 month frequencies 2.0.10 AIRWAY MANUAL AMENDMENTS Active copies shall receive a monthly amendment. Flight Crew copies of the Route Manual shall have a limited amendment services and are not considered active copies. Normally they will only be amended on a six monthly basis. Amendments requiring immediate inclusion will be placed in the Company Notams. Amendments of a non urgent nature will be incorporated in a monthly amendment. Company Notams that are of a permanent nature will be included in the following monthly amendment cycle. The FCIs and Temporary Revisions shall remain valid as long as the information contained within is valid or

until the information has been incorporated into the applicable Manual / Publication. Incorporation shall normally take place within 6 months. Operational FCIs and Temporary Revisions are also available on each aircraft. 2.0.11 FCIS (FLIGHT CREW INSTRUCTIONS) OR TEMPORARY REVISIONS (TRS) Information of an urgent nature not covered by Company Notams shall be communicated to Flight Crew by FCI/TR. Copies of all current FCIs / TRs are allocated in aircraft specific folders and in Pilot Briefing rooms. Additionally current Operational FCIs are carried on each aircraft. These folders are updated monthly by removal of cancelled FCIs and the inclusion of a new index. Current FCIs that amend a publication shall be incorporated into the applicable manual within a period of 6 months.

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There are three types of FCIs or Temporary Revisions: (a) Administrative Changes of a permanent or temporary nature to: Part A of the OM Layover information The FCIs shall remain valid as long as the information contained within is valid or until the information has been incorporated into the applicable publication. Incorporation shall normally take place within 6 months. (b) Operational These are changes of a permanent or temporary nature to: Part- B of the FOM FCOM (c) Informational Background information to already established policy that does not change policy or is not intended to be included in any Manual or Publication. These FCIs or Temporary Revisions shall remain valid only for three months. This is considered sufficient time for the information to be circulated to all Flight Crew.

2.0.12 Flight Operations Departmental Library Fully amended copies of the complete set of PIAC operations manuals will be maintained in Flight Operations Department library. The library shall maintain available for reference by crews the following documents: Operations Manual (part A) FCOM and QRH Approved Airplane Flight Manual Jeppesen Airway and Route Manual 2.0.13 Aircraft Library Fully amended copies of those manuals appropriate to the specific aircraft type will also be maintained in each aircraft library. Each aircraft library shall contain a copy of the following: OM (part A) FCOM Weight & Balance Manual Minimum Equipment List DDPG / DDG / Operational and Maintenance

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Procedures (in case of A310 aircraft). Security Manual Maximum Takeoff Gross Weight Charts (Airport Analysis) Jeppesen Route Manual (one set for each pilot station) Flight Information File ETOPS and MNPS Guide Dangerous goods Manual De-Icing/Anti-icing hold over time table. Emergency response guide for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goods

2.1

Note: PIA is exempted from carrying the cabin crew SEP manual as part of the onboard library by PCAA as the manual is to be carried by individual cabin crew members.

GENERAL CREW CONDUCT The publics confidence in an Airline is highly dependent on its impressions of the crews appearance and conduct. Therefore crew members should present a clean and smart appearance and act in a disciplined and correct manner most likely to reflect credit on the Company. When wearing the PIA uniform in public while on duty, crews must not only make sure it is clean and pressed but also meets the company uniform regulations. When on duty and a uniform is worn, the Captain is responsible for ensuring the correct appearance of all his crew members. UNIFORM White full/half sleeves uniform shirt Authorized epaulettes Authorized wing Authorized Uniform Cap Black uniform neck tie Black uniform trousers Black belt Black Socks

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2.1.1

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Black shoes Note 1: For winters and international flights black uniform blazer is compulsory Note 2: Black Jackets shall be only worn by crew when operating to northern areas and Quetta airfields. 2.1.2 CONVERSATIONS When talking with passengers, authorities, superiors, colleagues and any outside agencies, crew members should always remember to be tactful and polite. On duty as well as off duty, flight personnel should be discreet while discussing Company matters, especially irregularities. 2.1.3 GENERAL HEALTH & PHYSICAL FITNESS Air Crew must commence flight duty in good physical and mental condition, so that the tiredness which will accumulate during the assigned duty period will not affect the safety of the flight. The stipulated minimum rest time prior to starting flight duty must, therefore, be spent appropriately. Flight duty is prohibited when a crew members capacity for work is reduced

because of illness or general physical condition. Decrease of fitness includes the effects of disease, injury, alcohol, drugs, fatigue, etc. Decrease of fitness under the influence of mental stress may also occur. It is the responsibility of the crew member to decide whether or not he/she is fit for flight duty in such circumstances. The flight crew shall be subject to medical assessment at periods as specified in CAAs document Manual of Flight Crew Medical Requirements. All flight crew members must be in possession of a valid medical certificate prior to any flight duty.

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2.2

MEDICAL REGULATIONS 2.2.1 SUBSTANCE ABUSE, PSYCHOACTIVE & PHARMACEUTICAL PRESCRIPTIONS Crew members shall not consume drugs and psychoactive substances in any form. Taking pharmaceutical products in any form is generally not compatible with flight duty and therefore not authorized for at least 6 hours before the commencement and during the entire flight duty period. Except when permitted under medical direction or supervision of the PIAC approved flight surgeon. Readily available cold or allergies remedies are prohibited as they can produce harmful side effect such as vertigo, dizziness, blurring of vision, drowsiness etc. In case of uncertainty, the advice of an approved aviation medical examiner or the company appointed doctor at outstations shall be consulted. Substance abuse refers to the use of substance that causes detriment to individual health, legal, social, financial or
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problems like endangering their lives or lives of others. It relates to problematic/psychoactive substance use/dependency/addiction of legal or illegal drug abuse, alcohol use, getting drunk or high. In case symptoms confirm such abuse the violators shall be removed from safety sensitive position. 2.2.2 SLEEPING TABLETS Tablets or any medicines to induce or encourage relaxation or sleep are not to be used when their use could affect the performance of Flight Crew while on duty Tablets to prevent tiredness or sleep will never be prescribed or used. 2.2.3 ALCOHOL Alcohol abuse by airline crew members poses a potential danger to the safety and welfare of the flying public. In case a crew member is found involved in problematic use of alcohol, he/she shall be removed from all safety sensitive functions pending rehabilitation/ medical fitness.

Crew members must not consume alcohol of any nature within 12 hours of the commencement of flight duty or while on active duty. Crew member must not consume alcohol of any nature in excess of published limits and must not consume alcohol while in uniform. 2.2.4 QUARANTINE If any crew member or passenger shows any symptoms which might indicate the presence of an infectious/major disease, the PIC must inform the destination, Port Medical/ Health Authorities, i.e. before landing, or allowing passengers or crew to disembark. Their instructions must be fully complied with. Fine and possible imprisonment may be imposed, for not providing the necessary notification. 2.2.5 DIVING BEFORE FLIGHT It has been found that scuba diving before a flight can produce adverse blood disorders (bends) if a sufficient rest period is not taken. Crew members have become incapacitated in flight due to compression sickness after such activities and all

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Flight and Cabin Crew are warned of the dangers of mixing diving and flying. Scuba diving to depths of less than 60 ft is considered to be Recreational Diving and the following rest periods should be applied before operating a flight. Diving to depths of greater than 60 ft is considered to be outside the sphere of recreational diving and professional advice should be obtained to determine the rest period required for the depth of dive performed. But this rest period should not be less than 48 hours. 2.2.6 BLOOD DONATIONS Crew members shall not commence flight duty less than 48 hours after donating blood and may only give one unit of blood at a time. A period of three months must pass between donations. 2.2.7 IMMUNIZATION The Chief Flight Surgeon PIAC has recommended that Flight and Cabin Crew, as well as other staff members that travel abroad on Company business, be immunized against the following:

Meningitis A & C, Typhoid, Hepatitis A. They should also have received full vaccination against: BCG/Tuberculosis, Polio, Diphtheria Tetanus

2.2.8

REHABILITATION OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN USE OF PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES Crew members found involved in use of psychoactive substances will be referred to Chief Flight Surgeon at the flight crew medical center. Then Chief Flight Surgeon after examination will determine a course of treatment and rehabilitation. The member of the flight crew may be reinstated after rehabilitation subject to a fitness report taking into consideration other regulatory requirements.

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2.3

FLIGHT CREW LICENSES 2.3.1 GENERAL Any person who acts as a flight crew member of an aircraft registered in Pakistan must be the holder of an appropriate valid license granted or rendered valid by the CAA Pakistan entitling him to perform his duties. A person who is not the holder of such a license, but holds the appropriate temporary authority may act as Pilot of an aircraft registered in Pakistan for the purpose of undergoing training, provided that the Captain of the flight is a holder of an appropriate license. The term an appropriate license when used within this section means a license and rating which entitles the holder thereof to perform the function which he/she is required to undertake in relation to the aircraft concerned and the flight on which it is engaged. The CAA Pakistan may refuse to issue, renew, or extended the validity of any license, and has the power to revoke or suspend any license if it is

found that the applicant or the holder does not meet the required standard or violates any of the provisions of the Civil Aviation Regulations. It is the responsibility of the license holder to ensure, prior to each flight that his license, medical, competency checks and other continued training requirements are fully current, and that none of them shall expire during the projected period of that flight. In case the license formalities are not completed due to crew negligence, he/she shall not be entitled for guaranteed flying allowance during the period he/she is removed from flying duties, apart from a disciplinary action and recovery of penalty by the concern crew, if imposed. 2.3.2 RENEWALS Renewal of Flight Crew licenses is the responsibility of the individual crew member, but is coordinated through the Manager Crew Licensing, who will advise DGM Crew Scheduling the requirements 60 days prior to the expiry date. Crews are to complete the application by obtaining

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the necessary forms and signatures, which should then be returned not less than 21days prior to expiry. The Airline Transport Pilot License, Commercial Pilot License, Flight Engineers License and instrument rating is valid for One year. Renewal is initiated by the Manager Crew Licensing with a procedure approved by CAA Pakistan for renewal of such licenses. Proficiency checks shall be performed twice within any period of one year, any two such checks which are similar and which occurred within a period of four consecutive months shall not alone satisfy this requirement. If crews have not received renewal forms within four weeks of the renewal date, or the renewed license within one week of renewal date, they should contact Manager Crew Licensing. 2.3.3 AUTHORITY TO OPERATE Dual type ratings are strictly prohibited by CAA Pakistan. All the appropriate elements or components of different

equipments, equipment location, or safety procedures on currently operated aircraft types or variants shall be included in differences and familiarization training program. Existing CAA Pakistan license holders whose licenses are due for renewals must not operate any PIA flight after expiry date. Newly joining crew must not operate a PIA aircraft for flight or line training purposes until they are in possession of a validation from CAA Pakistan for flight and line training purposes only. This validation is normally valid for three months. It is not necessary to hold any validation from CAA Pakistan for the purpose of supernumerary familiarization flights prior to flight and line training. Newly joining crew should not operate a PIA aircraft for operation purposes (i.e. after release to the line following final line check) until they are in possession of a CAA Pakistan license with valid type rating.

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Note: In most cases it is expected that a CAA Pakistan license has been issued before the expiry of the Permit for flight and line training, at which point the license replaces it and becomes the Authority to operate for flight/line training, and line operation purposes. Crew transferring to another type must not operate the new type for flight or even line training purposes until they are in possession of a temporary authority from CAA Pakistan to operate for those purposes only. This authority is normally valid for three months. Note: In most cases it is expected that crews will have had their license returned to them with the type rating endorsed before the expiry of the three month temporary authority for flight and line training and line operation purposes. Flight crews are to advise Manager Crew Licensing and Crew Scheduling in event that they reach on stages listed above without having received the prescribed authority.

2.3.4 Retirement Ages- Flight Crew The normal retirement age for PIA flight crew is 60 years. Crew member after retirement may be hired depending on the company policy and requirements, up to the age limit as specified by CAA/Gazette notification/company admin order subject to medical fitness and other recency requirements.

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2.4

CREW BAGGAGE LOST, MISHANDLED OR DAMAGED 2.4.1 REPORTING PROCEDURE A crew member whose baggage is damaged or mishandled when he/she is traveling on company duty either as a member of the operating crew or as a ticketed passenger shall immediately report the damage or mishandling to the station staff. 2.4.2 APPLICABILITY OF PROCEDURES The above procedures and claims settlement do not apply to crew traveling for purposes other than duty travel, when procedures applicable to passengers will apply. All claims for compensation for damaged or mishandled baggage when traveling on duty on other carriers shall be lodged with the carrier. The assistance of PIA Station Managers may be sought in such instances. Refer to Admin Order No. 17/2001 Chapter 2, Para 2 for further details.

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3.0 FLIGHT CREW TRAINING 3.0.1 General............... 3.0.2 Training Objectives.... 3.0.3 Out Sourced Flight Simulator Devices Performance Standards- Flight Crew Members 3.1.1 Captain........ 3.1.2 First Officer.... Checking and Evaluation 3.2.1 General........................................ Renewals..... Flight Crew 3.4.1 Qualification and Requirements...... 3.4.2 Responsibilities... 3.4.3 Flight Crew Minimum Requirements..... 3.4.3.1 Captain..... 3.4.3.2 First Officer.. 3.4.3.3 Cadet Pilot.... 3.4.3.4 Upgrading..... AWO/LVP Training and Authorizations 3.5.1 Training ..... ETOPS, MNPS & Special Airfield Authorizations 3.6.1 ETOPS Authorization..... 3.6.2 MNPS. 3.6.3 Special Airfield Authorization........ Recency Requirements.. Crew Resource Management.. 3.8.1 Philosophy. 3.8.2 Policy. 3.8.3 Four Words of CRM.. 3.8.4 Authority 3.8.5 Participation.. 3.8.6 Assertiveness. 3.8.7 Respect.. 3.8.8 Crew Performance Indicators 3.8.8.1 Communication.. 3.8.8.2 Team Building 3.8.8.3 Workload Management.. 3.8.8.4 Technical Proficiency. 3.8.9 Conclusion. 2 2 3 4 3-4 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7-8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12-13 13-14 14 14 15-16 16 17

3.1

3.2 3.3 3.4

3.5 3.6

3.7 3.8

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3.0

FLIGHT CREW TRAINING 3.0.1 GENERAL The Purpose of this Chapter is to give a brief outline of the PIAC flight operations checks and training system. Detailed instructions, procedures and guidelines are laid in the Flight Crew Training Policy- FCTP, respective aircraft training manuals and CAA ANOs. 3.0.2 TRAINING OBJECTIVES All phases of transition and recurrent training, as well as competency checks are conducted with the emphasis on training rather than checking. Once selected for aircraft type training, all Flight Crew members will undergo the following sequences of training and evaluation phases: Company approved regulations and procedures training. Aircraft technical course and simulator training and evaluation. Safety Equipment and Procedure course Dangerous Goods/Security course

Transition flight training and evaluation Under supervision line training and evaluation For additional requirement refer to Training Policy At various stages throughout the course, as approved in training policy, flight crew members will be evaluated regarding aircraft knowledge and handling. 3.0.3 OUT SOURCED FLIGHT SIMULATOR DEVICES External Simulator Selection criteria, Service Level Agreement, Monitoring, Surveillance, Evaluation and Auditing of an outsourced Flight Simulator(s) used for crew training and checking will be carried out in accordance with the current edition of SOP # FLT/SOP/GMCT/01/09, Edition 01, Revision 1.0 dated February 12, 2009 (as revised from time-to-time). An updated list of qualified Simulator evaluators shall be maintained by Chief Pilot Training as approved by Director Flight Operations.

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3.1

PERFORMANCE STANDARDSFLIGHT CREW MEMBERS The following standards of performance define the professional competencies required by Flight Crew members. 3.1.1 CAPTAIN The Captain must be trained and able to: Supervise and direct the duties of all crew members subordinated to him. Make and enforce all necessary decisions. Be conversant with the relevant regulations and able to interpret them correctly. Represent the Company satisfactorily in all dealings with passengers and authorities Plan and execute a flight in accordance with the respective regulations Check a submitted flight plan for correctness. Fly the aircraft safely during all phases of normal and abnormal situations according to the relevant regulations and with due

consideration to passenger comfort. Supervise and judge the F/Os performance Be proficient in PM duties and right hand seat qualification Recognize and correct possible mistakes in due time while the F/Os flying the aircraft. Understand the duties of the Cabin Crew sufficiently to enable him to make any appropriate decisions. Complete a flight safely with the assistance of the crew and under the condition stipulated in the OM and FCOM. Complete a flight on his own in case of F/O incapacitation. Know and apply all procedures and regulations expediently and economically according to the relevant documents for normal and abnormal operations as well as in the event of an emergency. Be fully conversant with the operation of all aircraft systems under all conditions defined in the technical manuals

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Know the critical limits of the aircraft and its systems. 3.1.2 FIRST OFFICER The First Officer must be trained and able to: Plan a flight according to Company regulations. Know the application of all documents required for pre-flight and inflight. Perform the administrative duties assigned to him reliably and independently. Fly the aircraft within the operating envelop during all phases of normal operations. Fly and land the aircraft safely with technical malfunction and/or execute a one-engine out precision or non-precision approach and missed approach. Fulfill reliably the duties of PM. Monitor Captains activities and draw his attention to any possible deviations. Complete the flight safely should the Captain becomes incapacitated. Apply all procedures and regulation according to the relevant documents for

normal and abnormal operations. Co-operate with all crew members Deputize for the Captain whenever necessary Be fully conversant with the operation of all aircraft systems under all conditions as defined in the FCOM. Know the critical limits of the aircraft and its operating systems.

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3.2

CHECKING & EVALUATION 3.2.1 GENERAL Checks serve the following purpose: To highlight the Flight Crews proficiency level in relation to the required standards with special emphasis on points that need to be improved. To record the performance of flight crew member during: A particular course. A particular period. A check/evaluation. A flight crew member receiving an Unsatisfactory grading must be given a detailed debrief. If desired by the candidate such an explanation can be discussed further in the presence of the Chief Pilot Training. Since Flight crew members must be in good physical and mental condition for flight/simulator training and evaluations, no subsequent claim of indisposition as an excuse for an unsatisfactory grading can be accepted.

Results of flight crew checks/evaluations shall be treated as confidential. Initial proficiency and line checks for transition training, upgrading, route and proficiency checks shall be documented on prescribed forms by the DCP/ Airline check captain duly assigned by Chief Pilot Training.

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3.3 RENEWALS All pilots are required to satisfactorily complete the recency and continued training requirements as per the training policy and CARs.

3.4 3.4.1

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FLIGHT CREW QUALIFICATIONS REQUIREMENT Company regulations require that flight crew members will not be allowed to operate an aircraft unless they hold valid licenses, and have successfully qualified the required initial and recurrent trainings and proficiency checks as outlined in the Flight Operations Training Manual and requirements of the state. For details on retention of records for flight crew qualification referred to Flight Crew Training Policy. In accordance with the regulations, it is the responsibility of the company to appoint only flight crew members that hold valid licenses and have successfully qualified the required initial, recurrent/continued training and proficiency checks as outlined in the Flight Crew Training Policy FCTP. For details on retention of records for flight crew qualification refer to Flight Crew Training Policy.

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3.4.2 RESPONSIBILITIES The objective and extent of all training will be determined by Chief Pilot Training in accordance with national, international and Company regulations. The syllabi / programs shall be established under the authority of the Chief Pilot Training with approval of CAA- Pakistan. 3.4.3 FLIGHT CREW MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 3.4.3.1 CAPTAIN The screening process for upgrading to PIC shall include: Training Records Review Training Divisions Recommendation including verification of experience acceptable to CAA-Pakistan. Clearance by command Board Any other screening requirements in accordance with the needs of the airline or requirements of CAAPakistan

3.4.3.2 FIRST OFFICER The requirements to qualify as First Officer are: Possession of at least a valid Pakistan Commercial Pilots License. Type and instrument rated. Checked out for operational First Officer duties. 3.4.3.3 INITIAL HIRES (INCLUDING CADET PILOTS) Prior to being employed as flight crew members (at any level), the following shall be minimum screening requisites to ensure that the Initial Hires possess the needed certifications, skills, competencies and other attributes in addition to any specific requirement of the State/Regulator: Technical Competencies & Skills Aviation Experience Possession of a valid Pakistan Commercial Pilot License with Instrument Rating; License shall be verified for authenticity through CAA.

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Educational qualifications commensurate for what is required by the respective level. Written test for technical competencies and skills. Interview to assess interpersonal skills and English language fluency. Medical Fitness Security Background check

3.4.3.4 Upgrading It is Company policy to offer employment only to those Pilots considered having the personal and professional qualities necessary for successful upgrading. Therefore, having undergone the required developmental training and contingent upon a vacancy, each individual may expect to be offered command responsibility in the course of time. The format of this development minimal upgrade training will be required for the transition from First Officer to Captain. It is known as (Captain under Supervision) CAPT.US System as described in the Training Policy section 5.1

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3.5

ALL WEATHER OPERATION (AWO) / LOW VISIBILITY PROCEDURE (LVP) TRAINING & AUTHORIZATION

3.6

3.5.1 TRAINING For details refer to Training Policy and Flight Crew Training Manual and chapter 18 of this manual.

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ETOPS / MNPS & SPECIAL AIRFIELD AUTHORIZATIONS 3.6.1 ETOPS AUTHORIZATIONS Prior to the commencement of ETOPS operations each Flight Crew member will undergo ETOPS training and evaluation, consisting of ground training, simulator LOFT scenarios and line training. The line training consists of two sectors for each crew member, during which the ETOPS planning and procedures will be highlighted. One route familiarization/route training followed by a route check Satisfactory completion of both sectors provides coverage for any other ETOPS sector unless otherwise specified. Training and evaluation shall be completed during initial training. For recency refer to Training Policy

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3.6.2 MNPS Prior to the commencement of MNPS operations each Flight Crew member will undergo for north Atlantic aerodromes training and evaluation, consisting of ground training and line training. The line training consists of one route familiarization / route training followed by a route check TO and FROM a North Atlantic aerodrome. For details on operating limitations, procedures and the required ground and airborne equipment refer to MNPS manual 3.6.3 SPECIAL AIRFIELD AUTHORIZATIONS There are some airfields on the PIA network that are considered to have more difficult approaches or departures, terrain, local procedures, seasonal weather, and associated factors etc. Further details of special airfield authorizations are provided in Chapter 22 of FOM.

RECENCY REQUIREMENTS PIAC flight crew recency requirements require that a pilot must have carried out not less than three take-offs and landings in the preceding 90 days period or one takeoff and landing in 45 days. The Training Policy Chapter 10 specifies in details, the training requirements for Flight Crew members whose currencies have lapsed. For continued training requirements please refer to Training Policy.

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3.8

CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TRAINING 3.8.1 PHILOSOPHY It is PIA philosophy that the application of the principles and concepts of Crew Resource Management (CRM) enhances safety through better operating efficiency and higher crew morale. CRM is a dynamic and critical part of the safety culture of the airline. As such, it lies at the interface between the systems of Flight Training, Flight Operations, and Flight Safety. Successful CRM training requires commitment to the principles of CRM both from PIA Flight Operations management and from each and every pilot. Ongoing and continual reinforcement of the principles and concepts of CRM will result in a safer and more efficient operation. 3.8.2 POLICY The design and application of CRM training used by crews during operations is

the responsibility of Flight Training. Application of CRM principals during line operations is the responsibility of every individual crew member. Crew Resource Management (CRM) is the effective use of all resources, including hardware, software, and personnel, to achieve the highest level of safety possible. In addition to pilots, the Personnel in the above definition includes flight attendants, air traffic controllers, maintenance personnel, dispatchers, and any other groups that may interact with the Cockpit Crew. This more encompassing definition is reflected in the shift in terms from Cockpit Resource Management to Crew Resource Management. 3.8.3 FOUR WORDS OF CRM The cornerstone of CRM training at Pakistan International Airlines is contained in the Four Words. The Four Words are Authority with Participation, Assertiveness with Respect.

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The concept behind the four words is designed to increase the efficiency with which crew members interact by focusing on communication skills, teamwork, task allocation and decision making. 3.8.4 AUTHORITY Authority starts with the Captain, but is vested in every crew members as well: Secure Authority Not only invites but demands participation, gives empowerment, invites feedback from subordinates and allows others to take leadership roles. Insecure Authority Jealously guards authority, very autocratic, tries to do everything alone, never allows subordinates to be successful, blames mistakes on others, refuses to allow others to take leadership roles and discourages as well as resists input from others. 3.8.5 PARTICIPATION Participation is the sharing of ideas and knowledge, respecting experience, taking leadership roles when necessary, and performing with team goals, not personal goals, in mind.

3.8.6 ASSERTIVENESS Assertiveness is ensuring your input is heard and understood rather than hinting or silently watching as perceived mistakes are about to be made. The five steps to an assertive statement are: 1. Opening statement Amir, Sohail, Captain, etc. 2. State your concern Take ownership, Im uncomfortable with. 3. State the problem The problem as you see it. 4. Offer a suggestion Suggested solution to the problem 5. Reach agreement Crew members, reaching a mutually agreeable solution, may take more than one assertive statement from one or more of the crew 3.8.7 RESPECT You know when you give it. You know when you get it. Respect others ideas, opinions, positions and feelings. Respect them as a Pilot, Crew Member and a person. 3.8.8 CREW PERFORMANCE INDICATORS The set of behaviors which should be employed in all operations at Pakistan

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International Airlines is described in this section. These behaviors are called Crew Performance Indicators since they indicate the performance of pilots as crew members and, more importantly, of the crew as a whole. Each Crew Performance indicator represents a clearly defined, desired behavior which should be observed during simulator training and practiced on the line. As shown below, the Crew Performance Indicators are divided into four broad categories or clusters Communication, Team Building, Workload Management, and Technical Proficiency. These categories provide a way to group associated Crew Performance Indicators. 3.8.8.1 COMMUNICATION Briefs crew thoroughly. The preflight briefing includes the entire crewthe cabin crew as well as the flight crew. Briefings should be given throughout the flight to address pertinent safety and operational issues, and identify potential problems, such as weather, fuel management and distribution,

and abnormal system operations. Briefings also provide guidelines for crew actions, including standard operating procedures, distribution of crew workload, and any anticipated deviations from SOP. The captain establishes a team environment by emphasizing the importance of interactive decision making and participation by the entire crew. The Captain encourages the crew to voice any concerns they may have. Clearly communicates decisions about operation of the flight Crewmembers clearly state operational decisions. The Captain shares the parameters of operation with the entire crew throughout the flight and the crew contributes their perspectives. Minimum acceptable standards of safe operation (or bottom lines) are established and communicated. Explicitly encourages participation. The captain encourages participation by the entire crew and emphasizes the importance of crew interaction in maintaining a safe operation. Crewmembers are encouraged to ask questions about crew actions and decisions.

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Seeks information and direction from others when necessary. Crewmembers ask questions and seek information from each other about operational issues and decision made. Crewmembers minimize confusion on the flight deck by using sufficient inquiry to remain informed. Crewmembers recognize personal limitations, such as limited experience in a particular seat or aircraft, and actively seek direction or advice on operational issues from each other when necessary. Asserts with appropriate level of persistence to maintain a safe operation. Crewmembers state their own ideas, opinions, and recommendations. Crewmembers assert themselves and advocate their point of view. Crewmembers use increasing levels of assertiveness, as required, to maintain safety of flight. Critiques self and other crewmembers when appropriate. Crew continually assesses performance to improve the operation on the flight deck. Feedback may be of a positive or negative nature. It is specific,

based on observation, and provided for the purpose of maximizing crew effectiveness. 3.8.8.2 TEAM BUILDING Exercise secure authority. The captain exercises authority in a confident and competent manner, without being autocratic. The captain acts decisively when the situation dictates. Other crewmembers exercise the authority vested in their respective positions, as required, to discharge their duties. Involves entire crew in decisionmaking process. Decisions are made in a timely and competent manner, and conveyed to the entire crew. The crew is included in the decision-making process, whenever possible, to increase the likelihood of making an optimal decision. Use appropriate techniques to manage interpersonal and operational conflict. Crewmembers assess underlying problems, identify crew goals, and suggest solutions to alleviate interpersonal or operational conflict.

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Crewmembers employ a style of resolution appropriate to the nature and criticality of the problem, and look for collaborative (or win-win) solutions whenever possible. Adapts to crew interpersonal differences. Crewmembers demonstrate an ability to adapt to different personalities and characteristics. Crewmembers identify and establish commonalities as a basis for building an effective team environment. Crewmembers cope effectively with operational stress. Crewmembers demonstrate understanding of the debilitating effect of stress on performance in an aviation environment, and identify the symptoms of stress in self and other crewmembers; Crewmembers communicate observations to others when operational necessity dictates. Crewmembers cope effectively with operational stress, remaining calm in critical situations. The crew handles emergencies effectively and professionally. Crewmembers cope with, or remove themselves from,

situations in which stress from anon-operational origin may negatively affect job performance. 3.8.8.3 WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT Distributes tasks to maximize efficiency. The crew distributes the workload so that everyone is utilized, while no one is overtaxed. Each crewmember recognizes and reports work overload in self and other crewmembers. Further, the crew uses all available resources to accomplish required tasks in the most efficient way. Resources may include flight crew, cabin crew, deadheading crew as well as external resources. A few examples of external resources are dispatch, ATC, and maintenance support. The crew uses automated systems to decrease the workload whenever possible. Conversely, sufficient resources are allocated to use automated systems effectively. Prioritizes tasks for effective accomplishment. The crew clearly prioritizes operational

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tasks. Primary tasks, such as continuing to fly the aircraft, are allocated sufficient resources before secondary duties, such as external communications, are addressed. Low priority or non-essential activities such as social interaction do not interfere with more important tasks. Manages time for accomplishing tasks. The crew allows sufficient time to accomplish flight duties; they recognize the need for and request additional time when operational considerations dictate. Crewmembers are not rushed in the discharge of their duties. Monitors and analyses all relevant operational factors to remain situationally aware. The crew monitors climatic conditions, traffic, internal and external communications, aircraft instruments and performance, automated systems and all other relevant operations factors to maintain situational awareness. The crew analyzes the information collected from monitoring processes to determine changes in operation and to report them to other crewmembers

3.8.8.4 TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY Adheres to SOP, FCOM, FOM, CARs. The crew follows all Standard Operating Procedures and Flight Operational Manual procedures as outlined by Pakistan International Airlines. In addition, the crew adheres to all applicable Civil Aviation Regulations. Deviation from SOP, FCOM, FOM, and CARs are justifiable and articulated to the other crewmembers. Demonstrates technical skills. The crew performs all maneuvers within acceptable tolerances. Demonstrates knowledge of aircraft systems and normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.

3.8.9 CONCLUSION Pilots are responsible for constantly brining to mind the behaviors represented by the Crew Performance Indicators and adopting them in all appropriate circumstances. When these behaviors become habits, CRM skills will have been firmly established. Once this embodiment occurs, pilots will

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cease to think of CRM skills as separate areas of competency but will practice the expertise as an integral part of their professional lives. Willingness to offer constructive criticism is one key to wider adoption of CRM principles. When Pilots encounter behavior which adversely affects crew performance, they should first examine the situation to determine if their own behavior is contributing to the problem. If necessary, they should modify their behavior in order to adapt to the interpersonal differences existing, thus providing an example of high level CRM skills. Finally, they should voice their opinions at an appropriate moment, phrasing their observations in a non-judgmental way. They should explain the impact of the behavior on other crewmembers and offer insights into methods of improving interactions and hence crew performance. Mandating behavior conducive to good crew performance is not an acceptable approach to the development of CRM skills. But informal teaching through example and practical critique is an effective

method in which all pilots must play a part.

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4.0 Cooperation with Crew Scheduling 4.0.1 General........ 4.0.2 Contact with the company...... 4.0.3 Reporting of Unforeseeable Factor and Irregularities.... 4.0.4 Complaints..... Crew Scheduling Division 4.1.1 General............................................ 4.1.2 Duties of the Scheduling Department. 4.1.3 Roster Maintenance........ 4.1.4 Pairing of Inexperienced Pilots.. 4.1.5 Access to the Scheduling Department 4.1.6 Roster Change Request...... 4.1.7 Roster swaps.. 4.1.8 Open Flights.. 4.1.9 Standby Duty Period..... 4.1.10 Standby Duty- Policy 4.1.11 Stand by Duty- Scheduling... 4.1.12 Leave Entitlement Policy........ 2 2 2 3 3 3-5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7-8 8

4.1

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4.0

COOPERATION WITH CREW SCHEDULING 4.0.1 GENERAL The crew roster and all changes thereto are issued by Crew Planning and Scheduling section. For further details concerning rostering procedures, rostering requests, mutual changes and duty time limitations refer to Chapter 23 Air Crew Duty Time Limitations of Flight Operations Manual. 4.0.2 CONTACTS WITH THE COMPANY 4.0.2.1 PAKISTAN Flight crew must provide and report any changes in their residential addresses, email addresses or telephone contact number(s) to the Crew Scheduling section in writing, as soon as practical. 4.0.2.2 OUTSIDE PAKISTAN The Company places certain restrictions on the movements of crew members during layovers. It is the Company policy that the flight or cabin crew slipping at outstations should be contactable at all times. The layover time at outstations is intended primarily to provide crew sufficient rest in order to start

flight duty in the best physical condition. Crews at outstations are under the supervision of the Captain and must be contactable, as their services, within reason, may be needed to cover disruptions caused by diversions or rescheduling. Both flight and cabin crews are responsible to the Pilot-inCommand, and they should not make direct contact with the Station Manager other than with his/her explicit permission. During layovers if the Pilot-in-Command is away from the hotel, he/she shall authorize the First Officer to act on his behalf. Under normal circumstances, the crew will reside only at the accommodation provided to them by the Company where they may be readily contacted by phone or written messages. 4.0.3 REPORTING OF UNFORESEEABLE FACTORS AND IRREGULARITIES Crew members shall report, as early as possible, any factor that may affect their removal or rostering by the Crew Planning and Scheduling section whether on or off duty.

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Such irregularities may include: Illness Accidents Surgery or Pregnancy Fatigue Urgent family problems Use of psychoactive substance use of medication blood donation deep underwater diving Refer to chapter 2 of this manual for complete details. At outstations reporting will be made to the Pilot-inCommand, Station Manager or the flight dispatcher. 4.0.4 COMPLAINTS Complaints about all matters regarding crew scheduling shall be referred to the Chief Pilot Planning and Scheduling or the respective equipment Chief Pilot.

4.1

CREW SCHEDULING DIVISION 4.1.1 GENERAL The crew scheduling division is headed by the DGM Crew Scheduling who reports to Chief Pilot Planning and Scheduling (CPP&S). The Flight Crew rosters are produced under his direction. The division is manned during normal office hours, whereas crew scheduling office in operations control is manned 24hours a day. The company uses a computer based method (AIMS Software) for constructing rosters and publishing them for crew and departmental use. A copy of the master roster will be available in operations control. Rosters are produced for a period of one calendar month and are to be ready for publication not less than 7 days before the expiry of the preceding roster. 4.1.2 DUTIES OF THE SCHEDULING DIVISION The Crew scheduling division has three main tasks:

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Generation and publication of successive rosters for each fleet. The subsequent administration of each roster during its active phase. Administration of the Flight Crew leave programmes. To accomplish these tasks, the division is required to: Establish and maintain in current status, a list of all crew members by rank and aircraft type and variant. This list shall be monitored closely and revised as necessary. Construct pairings based on flight experience and medical conditions. It shall be used to create preferential lines for rostering of individual crew members. Maintain liaison with all other departments both to receive and provide information for crew scheduling purposes. In particular it is the responsibility of crew scheduling through liaison with Chief Pilot Training and licensing section to distribute all ground

school courses evenly throughout the roster thus ensuring optimum manpower availability at all times, this also included transition and evaluation requirements, license validation and continued training requirements. Make changes to the assignment of crew member dictated by illness, flight cancellation, delays, addition of extra flights, or any other circumstance which alters the previously existing crew requirement for a particular flight. Inform crew members by telephone, mail box, person-to-person communication or messenger service regarding any change of duty assignment or other important information. All such communications are to be logged. Co-ordinate the scheduling of crew transport pickups and drop. Normally, a copy of the Air crew daily roster which lists all of the crew members for each flight

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can be used to convey this information. However, in the case of additional flight replacement of crew member, or other additions or changes to the crew assignments the crew scheduler shall relay the information required.

Between 0600 and 2200 hrs LT, the families of affected crew members will be telephoned, whenever a flight is delayed by an hour or more. The message will give as much detail as is available about the delay, as well as its revised ETA, if known. Where the delay is expected to be protracted, follow up call will be made as circumstance dictate. Should it prove impossible to contact families by telephone, Crew scheduling will in the event of long delay, send a message to crew members home. Publish and deliver monthly crew schedules to individual 7 days before the end of the preceding month.

Maintain daily records of various crewmembers accumulated flight times and crew rest times, to ensure legality for future scheduled duty assignments. Ensure that the number of flight crew members on leave each day is correct, taking into account all planned flying and nonflying activities and the overall manpower situation. It shall be a requirement that each fleet annual leave entitlement be consumed each year and that backlogs should not be allowed to develop. In addition to the three main tasks, the crew scheduling department will assist concerning slip patterns, crew establishment, etc. as required. 4.1.3 ROSTER MAINTENANCE Every possible endeavor will be made to maintain the published roster unaltered. However, changes in the roster will be made when absolutely essential, e.g. due to sickness or aircraft change. Under normal circumstances, crew will be given at least

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twelve hours of prior notice regarding any changes to previously rostered duty. 4.1.4 PAIRING OF INEXPERIENCED PILOTS Scheduling Division shall ensure that a crew with less 100 hours on type shall not be planned together to operate a flight. A captain with less than 100 Hours shall not be planned to operate a flight with a First Officer having less than 100 Hours on the type and vice versa. Scheduling will ensure that two pilots having age greater than 60 years are not paired together. Paring should also be in compliance with OML Medical restrictions ACCESS TO THE SCHEDULING DIVISION The following Flight Operations personnel and SVP Flight Operations have unrestricted access to Flight Crew Scheduling: Chief Pilot Planning & Scheduling Chief Pilot Coordination Chief Pilot Training

Chief Pilot Central Control DGM Manager Crew Scheduling DGM Manager Crew Planning Chief Pilots respective aircrafts All of the above appointees are authorized to make inputs regarding the composition or amendment of the roster within the limits of their authority. Amendments to the roster after publishing should only occur for unforeseen operational, training or personal reasons. 4.1.6 ROSTER CHANGE REQUESTS Flight crew may request a limited number of trips and day off requests using the comprehensive set of specific and generic rostering options offered by the preferential lines scheduling system. These requests may be submitted through the AIMS PCs assigned for the purpose in Operations Department. Requests for a given month shall be submitted during the preceding months bid entry period which may be different

4.1.5

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for various equipment.

4.1.7 ROSTER SWAPS Each crew member is permitted to take part in one roster mutual change per month. Crew scheduling will accommodate such requests at their own discretion subject to the overriding constrains of the roster. Mutual Change Requests Form is to be made available in Operations and must be signed by both parties. 4.1.8 OPEN FLIGHTS The following policy shall be applied: Open flight shall only be assigned where no collateral roster changes are necessary. where two Volunteers are available and eligible, an open flight shall be assigned to the crew member with the lower projected credit for the month Where the flight cannot be assigned in accordance with the points above, then it shall be kept open until the day before its commencement, at which time it shall be assigned to one of the following

days available crew members according to the need to minimize roster disruption. Any depletion of the standby coverage shall thereafter be made good by assigning vacant duties to available crew.

4.1.9 STANDBY DUTY PERIODS There are two regular standby duties that provide continuous reserve coverage for PIAC flights. These are: SB AM- 0000-1200 SB PM-1200-0000 4.1.10 STANDBY DUTY POLICY The purpose of holding crew members on standby is that should an event occur which prevents an member of a crew rostered for a flight from operation, a replacement crew member can be found at any short notice thereby minimizing any delay to that flight. A crew member rostered for standby duty shall, during the assigned standby period, be ready to operate a flight at short notice should this be required. He/she shall:

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Not have consumed any alcohol during the 12 hours prior to the commencement of his standby period Not have taken any medication or narcotic substances which could impede his ability to perform his duties as a crew member. Hold himself ready at his place of residence or at the hotel assigned to him as accommodation if he/she is away from base, so as to be ready to depart to the airport within 30 minutes of receiving notification that he/she is required for a flight. Should the crew member wish to locate himself at any place other than his place of residence or hotel for any period during his standby duty, he/she shall inform crew scheduler/ flight dispatcher office location and a contact telephone number, and shall be able to be at his residence or hotel ready for collection within 30 minutes being notified. Inform Crew Scheduler /Flight Dispatcher of any

event, illness or accident that will prevent him from fulfilling the requirement of this section as quickly as possible, in order that a replacement standby crew member can be allocated for that period. 4.1.11 STAND BY DUTY SCHEDULING Flight Crew located to standby duty coverage shall be marked on the roster as being available. Prior to such an available day, crew scheduling will normally allocated either a fixed standby duty for that day as defined above, or alternative flying or non-flying assignment.

4.1.12

LEAVE ENTITLEMENT POLICY For Cockpit Crew leave entitlement policy refers to PIA Policies and Procedures manual.

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5.0 Administrative Records 5.0.1 Responsibility........ 5.0.2 Types of Record.... Reports and Forms 5.1.1 General.. 5.1.2 Debrief Report... 5.1.3 Air Safety Report... 5.1.4 Confidential Report... 5.1.5 Auto land Report.... 5.1.6 Missing Passenger Report. Completion & Filing of Reports and Forms 5.2.1 Responsibility 5.2.1.1 Completion.... 5.2.2 Filing of Reports.. 5.2.2.1 Air Safety Reports. 5.2.2.2 Other Reports

5.1

5.2

2 2-4 4 5 5 5-6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7-8

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5.0

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS 5.0.1 RESPONSIBILITY Each Division in the Flight Operations Department shall be responsible for maintaining a system to index, file and store all papers, documents, correspondence and information which may be required for record purposes. The records organisation shall retain custody of all such material and shall release it to authorised persons under controlled conditions. Material retained in Flight Operations records files may come from its flight operational activities as well as inputs from the CAA Pakistan, PIA departments and other organisations. The maintenance of operational and crew records is the responsibility of each concerned division in the Department. 5.0.2 TYPES OF RECORDS Two types of records are required to be kept: The documentation raised in support of each flight by a Company aircraft. This must be retained for

at least 3 months after completion of the flight.

Data to support the renewal or validation of crew licences or their qualifications in accordance with CAA Pakistan regulations. All such records shall be retained for at least 5 years after active service Documentation raised in support of each flight is stored in the fuel control section. It consists of all MET information, NOTAMS, CFPs, CLC records, Takeoff Computation Data cards, DBR forms etc. issued to and completed by each respective Flight Crew. Successful and unsuccessful flight crew evaluations.

Flight crew licenses and qualification data is computer stored in the Flight Operations Department. Hard Copies of records are maintained by Planning and Scheduling Division. This division is

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responsible for maintaining the following records for each Flight Crew: All dates and times spent on duty for whatever reason, including standby duty. All dates and times spent on crew rest and leave. All dates and times that crew members are unable to report for duty due to illness or other reasons. Dates of completion of Pilot Proficiency, and Instrument Rating checks and subsequent renewal or expiry dates. Dates of completion of line checks and subsequent renewal expiry dates. Routes and special airfield experience. Takeoffs and landings currency record. Auto-landings and AWO/LVP qualifying approaches. ETOPS currency. Licences and medical expiry dates. Total flying and duty hours over any 30 day period. Total flying hours per calendar month

The day to day disposition of crew members. The date of completion of emergency training, continued training as per training policy and subsequent expiry dates. The dates of expiry of CAA Pakistan training authority (if applicable). These records may be either stored in a computer data file or in manuscript form. The records must be capable of easy interpretation by Management and CAA Pakistan Inspectors and must also readily show any potential hours or duty time exceedance.

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5.1 REPORTS & FORMS 5.1.1 GENERAL There are many types of reports and forms used by the Company to cover various eventualities that may occur before, during or after flight. Copies of pertinent forms and reports are stored in a folder in each aircraft library. Those reports and forms which are relevant for all types of Company aircraft are described in this Section. Only one form that is required to be filled in on each flight is the Debrief Report (DBR). The others are designed to report/explain various additional operational incidents or divergences from normal procedures. There are some forms that are pertinent for a particular type of aircraft only. These are explained in the relevant aircraft FCOM/ Operations Manual. Examples are fuel logs, takeoff / landing data cards, load/trim sheets, etc. In addition to above, there are ICAO flight plan forms and private property declaration forms.

5.1.2 DEBRIEF REPORT (DBR) The DBR is the official document on which the Pilotin-command shall log any significant event occurring during a flight. Delays and incidents will be recorded even though dedicated report forms for such incidents may be raised as well. In addition to the log function the form is also used for recording: Crew names and functions. Sectors flown plus block and flight times for the sectors. In case of two captain operations captain operating the sector. Auto-landings All aspects of duty times. Amount and reason for any delay in departure and arrival time. Any special duties performed by crew members. Training flight validations. Where delays to departure or arrivals occur, the actual difference is logged in minutes. As these times form the basic data for punctuality analysis, it is necessary for the

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block and flight times to be logged to the nearest minute. If a delay exceeds 4 minutes, the reason for the delay shall be recorded. The Captain will be responsible for the accuracy of the information in the Debrief Report. The elaboration of reasons for delays or additional comments pertaining to the flights should be clear, concise and not provocative. They should be confined to the subject matter being reported and should not express views of a personal nature on subject which are irrelevant to the flight. Language that is sarcastic or worded so as to cause antagonism between departments of the Company should be avoided. When entries on the request of the Pilot-in-Command are made by the co-pilot or flight engineer, these should be checked and signed. Beside the mandatory incidents or occurrences reporting requirement the flight crew is encouraged to report any or all incidents or occurrences for feedback and corrective remedial actins.

5.1.3 AIR SAFETY REPORT A Captain must raise an Air Safety Report whenever any event related to aircraft safety occurs. Required Reports Occurs and at any time there is an incident, defect or malfunction relating to the aircraft or its equipment, or any ground equipment or facility which endangers, or which if not corrected, would endanger the aircraft its occupants, or any other person. Any member of staff may submit an Air Safety Report at any time if they believed that air safety has been compromised or if they have any information which may enhance flight safety. Air Safety incident or accident sample report and guidance on its completion is given in Safety Management Systems Manual. 5.1.4 CONFIDENTIAL REPORTS Confidential Reports are the means by which individual staff members may report sensitive human factors related events to the Director Quality Assurance or the Director Corporate Safety. The reports will be treated with strict confidence within the Quality Assurance or the Corporate Safety

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Department. Originators are encouraged to enter their names to enable the Chief Pilot Corporate Safety for follow up. The forms for these reports are available in Briefing Rooms, Dispatch and CS & QA Division. They may also be down-loaded from the Corporate Website. Confidential reporting can also be made at pksms@piac.aero. 5.1.5 MISSING PASSENGER REPORT Should a passenger be offloaded, or fail to go to the aircraft after checking in, the details of this and the fact that the passengers baggage has been found and offloaded will be presented to the Pilot-in-Command as a Missing Passenger Report. 5.1.6 AUTO-LANDING REPORTS The quality of Cat. II equipment is assessed periodically in compliance with the CAA Pakistan regulatory requirements and to ascertain continued satisfactory operations. The flight crew must complete an auto land coupled ILS approach to touch down at least every 45 days in an

aeroplane to keep the recency updated. It is each Captains responsibility to complete Auto-land Report for each AWO approach in actual or non actual conditions. Completion of the report form is self explanatory. The completed form shall be included in the documents folder. In addition to above, an aircraft Technical Log entry is required to be made to report either a problematic or a successful Auto land.

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5.2

COMPLETION AND FILING OF REPORTS & FORMS 5.2.1 RESPONSIBILITY The Pilot-in-Command is responsible for ensuring that all flight documents are completed according to the relevant instructions. Where his signature is required, he/she is accepting that the information is correct. Although the Pilot-inCommand remains responsible, he/she may delegate signature authority for flight documents, forms reports, etc. to a Pilot undergoing initial upgrading or to any other Captain under training. Reports and forms are to be kept in a place accessible to authorised persons only. Flight documents must be kept on file at Fuel Control Cell for a period of 3 months. 5.2.1.1 COMPLETION All reports and forms must be completed before blocks off or after blocks on or during the cruise phase. After completion they shall be forwarded or filed in the document folder by the responsible

crew member in accordance with current instruction. 5.2.2 FILING OF REPORTS 5.2.2.1 AIR SAFETY REPORTS It is essential that reports are received with the least delay possible. If an Air Safety Report is raised for a flight on which the originator is immediately returning to Karachi then the report should be filed as soon as possible after arrival. If, however, the originator is night-stopping elsewhere, the report should be given to the station staff that has instructions to forward copies by fax immediately on receipt. The originator should retain a copy and annotate the DBR accordingly. 5.2.2.2 OTHER REPORTS In the event of a report being generated during a flight, it should be returned in the trip folder along with the DBR. Only in Urgent cases should reports be passed directly to individuals, as this bypasses the normal distribution. Where a copy exists, it should be kept and forwarded in the trip folder at the completion of the service.

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Copies of the ATC flight plan, load and trim sheets and completed Tech Log page must be left with responsible personnel at the departure airport.

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CHAPTER 6: GENERAL FLIGHT RULES


6.0 General 6.0.1 Principles... 6.0.2 Aircraft operation -legal Requirements. 6.0.3 Application of IFR and VFR. 6.0.3.1 Choices of Airspace 6.0.3.2 Change from IFR flight to VFR Flight.. Composition of Flight Personnel 6.1.1Flight Crew .... 6.1.1.1 Captain 6.1.1.2 First Officer 6.1.1.3 Flight Engineer.. 6.1.2 Cabin Crew .. Routings Maps & Charts 6.2.1 Routings......... 6.2.1.1 Definition 6.2.1.2 Policy.. 6.2.1.3 Deviation from Company Routing. 6.2.2 Maps and Charts ... 6.2.3 Noise Abatement Procedures. Minimum Altitude/Flight Levels 6.3.1 General . 6.3.2 Policy..... 6.3.3 Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA).... 6.3.4 Minimum Off-Route Altitude (MORA)... 6.3.5 Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude 6.3.6 Minimum Enroute IFR Altitude ............. 6.3.7 Minimum Vectoring Altitude... 6.3.8 Other Altitude Restrictions .. Collision Avoidance and ATC Separation 6.4.1 Avoidance of Aircraft Collision ..... 6.4.2 Maintenance of ATC Separation .. 6.4.3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RNSM). 6.4.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP). Aircraft Attitude 6.5.1 Level Off .... 6.5.2 Angles of Bank..
2 2 2 2 3

6.1

3 3 3-4 4 4

6.2

5 5 5 5 6-7 7-8

6.3

9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10

6.4

11 11-12 12 12 12 12

6.5

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6.0 GENERAL 6.0.1 PRINCIPLES Flight crew must follow all Company policies and procedures laid down in the prescribed operational publications, and must adhere strictly to international, national or local regulations according to the Jeppesen Airways Manual and ATC instructions. These may be overruled only if, in any situation, the safety of the aircraft demands different action. The PF (Pilot Flying) should endeavour to make his flying as accurate and smooth as possible, which is important not only from a safety, but also from a passenger comfort point of view. No rough or extreme manoeuvres are allowed. AIRCRAFT OPERATION LEGAL REQUIREMENTS It is the Captains responsibility to ensure that the aircraft under his command is operated within the law. PIAC aircraft shall be operated according to PCAA laws. However, should the laws of a country of over flight or landing be more restrictive, then the aircraft shall be operated in compliance with those more restrictive laws, whilst in that countrys airspace. 6.0.2

6.0.3

APPLICATION OF IFR & VFR 6.0.3.1 CHOICE OF AIRSPACE All route flights shall be operated within either controlled airspace, airspace with advisory service or airspace with positive radar control where possible, except when the situation warrants a deviation (e.g. thunderstorm avoidance etc.) VFR flight shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater then specified in the table given below.Ref PCAA ANO 003 DRAN-1.1 clause D -4

Company VMC Visibility and Distance from clouds Minima VMC In-Flight Conditions Flight Visibility 5 Kilometres Vertical Distance from Cloud Horizontal Distance from cloud 300 m

1500 m

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6.0.3.2 CHANGE

FROM IFR FLIGHT TO VFR FLIGHT

6.1

An aircraft electing to change the conduct of its flight from compliance with Instrument Flight Rules to compliance with Visual Flight Rule shall, notify the Appropriate air traffic service unit if a flight plan was submitted specifically that IFR flight is cancelled and communicate thereto the change to be made to its current flight.This would typically occur when operating into or out of an uncontrolled airfield where a portion of the flight is conducted under VFR conditions whereas an IFR flight plan has been filed . For details on changes from IFR flight to VFR flight or vise versa refer jeppesen ATC chapter.

COMPOSITION OF FLIGHT PERSONNEL 6.1.1 FLIGHT CREW The minimum number of Flight Crew members on PIAC aircraft is as laid down in the FCOM/Operational Manual for the aircraft type and will consist of the following: 6.1.1.1 CAPTAIN All flights shall be planned and carried out with a qualified Captain as the Pilot-in-Command. 6.1.1.2 FIRST OFFICER All flights shall be planned and carried out with a minimum of one qualified First Officer. In order to be considered qualified as First Officer; the following requirements must be met: 1. Route flights Any First Officer with a current license on the aircraft type and qualified for route operation. Training Captains or line captains who have been trained and evaluated from Right Hand Seat may be scheduled /or replace as a first officer at any stage of the flight.

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2.

Two Captain Operation In case Captain who has completed Right Hand Seat training as per CAA approved PIA training policy and ANO may be scheduled for such operation. Currency from the P-1 Seat (Left Hand Seat) shall also mean currency from P-2 seat (Right Hand Seat) Training Flight without Passengers Any licensed pilot, without type endorsement, undergoing type conversion training.

3.

load configuration is given in the Flight Services and the Safety Equipment and Procedures Manual. The PIA policy is to operate (wherever possible) with a full cabin crew complement. Exceptions to this will be made whilst ensuring that there is no compromise to Passengers and Flight safety. Similarly PIA policy towards cabin crew requirement is not gender specific and there is no specific requirement for having a minimum number of female/ male cabin crew. Airplane B 747300 B 747200 B 777200ER B 777200LR B 777300ER A-310 B 737 ATR 42500 Maximum Cabin Crew 16 15 14 14 14 10 06 02 Mandatory Cabin Crew 11 10 07 07 08 04/5* 03 01

6.1.1.3 FLIGHT ENGINEER All flights on aircraft that require a three man Flight Crew shall be flown with a qualified Flight Engineer. 6.1.2 CABIN CREW The minimum legal number of Cabin Crew members required for a flight shall be determined by the number of passenger seats fitted in the aircraft allocated to that flight. The details of minimum cabin crew requirements for each type of aircraft and passenger

*AP-BGN/BGO/BGP/BGQ/BGR/BGS-05

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6.2

ROUTINGS, MAPS AND CHARTS 6.2.1 ROUTINGS 6.2.1.1 DEFINITION Routings give specific data and procedures for use as a basis of the flight plan for in flight navigation. 6.2.1.2 POLICY Both normal routings and if available, alternative route(s) are listed in the Jeppesen Airways Manual. They are prepared in accordance with State regulations (AIP, AIC, AIRAC) and PIA regulations and are issued by the Routes and Navigation Section Flight Operation. For routings which are not covered therein, but are required temporarily due to air space restrictions, the Routes and Navigation section will prepare an alternative special routing. When more than one routing is available between departure and destination, the routing that results in the shortest trip time will normally be chosen provided that no cost penalty due to over flight charges etc is incurred. If definite reasons require change (weather, danger areas, ATC etc.) a different or a combination of

two or more different routing segments may be used for the same flight. Overflying of danger/restricted areas must be avoided if possible. For instructions and exceptions, refer to the Jeppesen Airways Manual. 6.2.1.3 DEVIATION FROM COMPANY ROUTINGS When deviating from a route or when a route has been chosen for which no routing is given in the Jeppesen airway manual, the following factors must be considered: The ground facilities enroute (navigation, communication, emergency airfields etc). Terrain to be over flown in relation to aircraft performance. Regulations issued by the countries over flown, e.g. the proximity of danger areas, the requirement of over flight permission etc. Meteorological Conditions and services. SAR facilities. The reliability of maps and charts.

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6.2.2 MAPS AND CHARTS Flying under IMC may only be done with maps, charts, routing, etc. provided in Jeppesen Airway Manual and approved by PIA. For special operations outside the area covered by the existing Jeppesen Airway Manual, the necessary documentation will be provided by Routes and Navigation section. The Jeppesen Airways Manual is the main source of information for all PIA flights concerning: Navigation data relevant to a flight. Terminal information for departure, destination and alternate airfields relevant to a flight. Terrain clearance and minimum safe altitudes required for the safe operation of a flight. Runway lengths, slopes, lighting and availability. Special procedures applicable to any route, airspace, or terminal area as designated by the aviation authority of any state.

Emergency procedures applicable to any route, airspace or terminal area as designated by the aviation authority of any state. Company airfield operating minima, as authorised by CAA-Pakistan provided that the airfield operating minima published by Jeppesen shall not be lower than the basic minima for each type of approach as laid down or as otherwise approved by the state authorities where the airfield is located. Two sets of the specially tailored Jeppesen Routes Manual shall be maintained on the flight deck of each PIA aircraft. These shall be amended and kept current by the Routes and Navigation Section. Any discrepancies or missing pages of the Manual must be promptly reported to the Routes and Navigation Section via the Deficiency Proformas. The navigation department will ensure that the Manual is complete prior to the next departure of the aircraft from base. Should a captain discover whilst down route, discrepancies or missing pages and these affect the next

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or subsequent sectors, he/she must use the most expeditious means available to correct this before commencing flight. Should any flight be dispatched that will enter any area outside that covered by the Jeppesen Airway Manual, operations control will ensure that the operating crew are issued with two copies of all necessary additional Jeppesen publications that are required to cover that flight. Any information contained in the Jeppesen Airway Manual may be superseded by the publication of NOTAMs and the manual must be used in conjunction with any NOTAM(s) received before or during a flight. The company does not permit manuscript alterations to its Manuals. Therefore crews must not mark or otherwise disfigure any pages, charts, etc of the Jeppesen Airway Manual. Any pages removed from the manuals during flight must be re-inserted to their original location before leaving the aircraft at the end of flight. All binders should be returned to the onboard navigation bag in

the proper sequence at the termination of the flight. From time to time terminal charts and en route charts are issued in advance of their effective date. They will be processed as follows: Pages or charts which are part pf a normal weekly revision but are not effective immediately will be put in the Jeppesen Airway Manual in front of the page / chart they will eventually replace. When an amendment involves including a chart with an effective date sometimes in the future, the old chart and the revised chart will remain in the Manual until the due date of the revision. On that date crew may remove the old chart but return it to Flight Operations in the flight documents. Crews must ensure that effective dates are checked and the effective page is referred to. 6.2.3 NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES In addition to all route instructions, every PIA flight will be planned and flown with reference to route and altitude so as to cut down the disturbance by aircraft noise as

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much as possible. Published noise abatement procedures will be adhered to. Every aircraft will carry NOISE certificate issued by CAA (if applicable).

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6.3

MINIMUM ALTITUDES / FLIGHT LEVELS 6.3.1 GENERAL The selection of cruising altitudes/flight levels shall be based on: Company operating policy. The specified terrain clearances to ensure safety on the route to be flown. ATC requirements. Noise Abatement procedures. Since ATC objectives generally do guarantee prevention of collision with terrain, however it is the full responsibility of the Captain to ensure compliance with all company regulations with regard to terrain clearance. 6.3.2 POLICY All segments of a flight, except takeoff approach or landing, shall be operated at an altitude or flight level which is at or above the permitted minimum altitude with due consideration of corrections for temperature and pressure variations from standard values. The aircraft shall have reached and then remain at or above the minimum cruising flight

level or altitude before cruising over the route section concerned. The published minimum altitudes shall be used conservatively whenever difficulties with respect to navigation accuracy have to be expected, e.g. unreliability of navigation aids, detours due to weather etc. Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA) shall be used to determine minimum altitudes for drift down and for engine-out operation. Other published altitudes, such as MEA or MORA use different areas for calculations and may therefore differ from MOCA. 6.3.3 MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE A MSA is published on each instrument approach chart and is based on a terrain clearance of 1000 ft above, the highest terrain or obstruction, within a radius of 25NM from the navigation aid as indicated on the chart. MSAs are rounded up to the next 100ft. This altitude is for emergency use only and does not necessarily guarantee reception of navigation aids.

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6.3.4

MINIMUM OFF-ROUTE ALTITUDE (MORA) This is an altitude derived by Jeppesen. The MORA provides reference point clearance within 10NM of the route centreline and end fixes. A grid MORA provides reference point clearance with in the section outlined by latitude and longitude lines. MORA values clear all reference points by 1000ft where the highest reference point is 5000ft AMSL or Lower and 2000ft where it is 5001 AMSL and higher.

requirements between those fixes and in many countries assures acceptable navigational signal coverage. 6.3.7 MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE (MVA)The lowest MSL altitude at which a minimum vectoring IFR aircraft will be vectored by a radar controller, except otherwise authorized for radar approaches, departures and missed approaches 6.3.8 OTHER ALTITUDE
RESTRICTIONS

Check the current NOTAMS for any altitude restrictions that may have been imposed by the sate/Authority.

6.3.5

MINIMUM OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA) The lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off airways routes, or route segments which meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment and for the USA only, ensures acceptable radio signal coverage within 22 NM of a VOR. 6.3.6 MINIMUM ENROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA) MEA is the lowest published altitude between radio fixes that meets obstacle clearance
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6.4

COLLISION AVOIDANCE & ATC SEPARATION 6.4.1 AVOIDANCE OF AIRCRAFT COLLISION Look-Out A good look out is still required for collision avoidance in spite of modern aircraft technology and more sophisticated ground devices. Thus whenever visibility permits the crew must keep a sharp look-out. In the vicinity of an airfield, during descent and climb to an airfield or out of an airfield, and in areas where traffic is dense Flight Crew members shall keep paper work, map readings etc., to the minimum necessary. Paper work shall only be done during the cruise phase of flight. Irrespective of the type of clearance received from ATC, it is still the responsibility of the Captain to avoid collision with other aircraft. Thus, during VMC, a look out for conflicting traffic is a necessity. Traffic information given by ATC is of great value and should always be requested. It must, however, always be kept

in mind that ATC information includes known traffic only and therefore be incomplete. If unidentified traffic is reported which cannot be seen in due time and a collision risk is suspected, request immediate avoiding action. In order to protect the eyes from the sun, only the use of sunglasses and sun visors are permitted. The use of objects restricting good look-out is prohibited during flight. 6.4.2 MAINTENANCE OF ATC SEPARATION To ensure safe vertical separation during cruise and in holding areas it is necessary to maintain the assigned flight level/altitude accurately (+/100 ft only). Extreme caution is required when changing from one area or airspace layer to another where different altimeter settings or procedures are used for vertical separation. It is important to remember that if all errors of altimeter are added unfavourably, the vertical separation between aircraft can be reduced to a value below the acceptable minimum.

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If the navigation becomes inaccurate due to defective, unreliable equipment on board, this must be reported to ATC immediately. 6.4.3 REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM) Refer to ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual. 6.4.4 REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) Refer to ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual.

6.5

AIRCRAFT ALTITUDE 6.5.1 LEVEL-OFF To prevent altitude divergence of the assigned flight level or altitude, or undesirable g forces while levelling off whenever the aircraft has a high rate of climb or decent, it is important to monitor closely the flight progress, especially when flying manually. Rate of climb/descent to be within 500 / 1000 ft / min (not to exceed 1500 ft / min) in RVSM airspace when approaching the selected altitude or when changing flight levels. 6.5.2 BANK ANGLE During normal operation, the maximum bank angle when carrying passengers is 30. For limitations on takeoff and approach and equipment limitations, refer to the applicable FCOM / Operations Manual.

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7.0

Fuel Policy for Turbo Jet Aircraft (NON ETOPS) 7.0.1 Fuel Planning and Management.... 7.0.1.1 Basic Principals.. 7.0.1.2 General Factors... 7.0.1.3 Planning Factors.. In-Flight Fuel Monitoring and Low Fuel 7.1.1 Procedure... Aircraft Performance Deterioration (APD) Factor... Selection of Alternate Airfield.. Dispatch Requirements 7.4.1 Taxi Fuel.... 7.4.2 Trip Fuel. 7.4.3 Contingency Fuel. 7.4.4 Alternate Fuel. 7.4.5 Holding Fuel.. 7.4.6 Stored Fuel. 7.4.7 Discretion... 7.4.8 Block Fuel.. 7.4.9 Minimum Block Fuel. 7.4.10 Reserve Fuel. 7.4.11 Extra Fuel. Alternate Policy for Turbo Jet Aircraft 7.5.1 General.. 7.5.1Takeoff Alternate. 7.5.3 Planning Minimums (IFR flight) Fuel Policy for Turbo Prop Aircraft(ATR42-500) Taxi Fuel. 7.6.2 Fuel for Operations of Hotel Mode on ATR 42-500 Aircraft. 7.6.3 Trip Fuel... 7.6.4 Contingency Fuel.... 7.6.5 Alternate Fuel... 7.6.6 Holding Fuel.. 7.6.7 Block Fuel.. 7.6.8 Fuel Tankering (for the next sector)..... Fueling Procedures 7.7.1 General 7.7.2 Supervision of Refueling and Fuel Check 7.7.3 Fuel Tankering... 7.7.4 Fueling with Passengers on Board 7.7.5 Precautionary Disembarkation / Emergency Evacuation

3 3 3 3

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8

7.5

9 9 9

7.6

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12-14

7.7

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7.8

In-flight Fuel Management.. 7.8.1 General ....................... 7.8.2 Company Minimum Reserve............... 7.8.3 Insufficient Fuel Remaining (En route) 7.8.4 Approaching Destination.. 7.8.4.1 General. 7.8.4.2 Prior to Top of Descent

15 15 16 16 17 17

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7.0

FUEL POLICY FOR TURBO JET AIRCRAFT (NON ETOPS) 7.0.1 FUEL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 7.0.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES The total fuel carried on board an airplane must be sufficient for the intended flight and must include a safe margin for contingency, alternate and holding to meet regulatory recommendations as per CAA ANO 91.0010. 7.0.1.2 GENERAL FACTORS: A Computerized Flight Plan (CFP) will normally be provided for every intended flight. If the CFP shows a recommendation to carry extra fuel (tankering) as a result of Maximum Fuel Policy, then it should be ensured that enough fuel is carried to cater for the next sector only (payload and other limitations permitting). On a multi sector flight additional sector fuel could be uplifted subject to payload at respective locations. Tankering of fuel, when not recommended is UNECONOMICAL. Copies of completed CFP on which fuel checks have been recorded, along with Trim-sheet, ATC Clearance and Weather information are to be placed in the Flight Document Envelope for Post Flight analysis and record.

7.0.1.3 PLANNING FACTORS: The total fuel required for a safe flight comprises of the following components: Trip Fuel which comprises: o Take Off, Acceleration, SID and Climb o Cruise o Descent o STAR and Instrument Approach Procedure to land Note: Where published most commonly used SID and STAR are considered. Where SIDs have not been published a distance of 6 NM is to be added. Additional Fuel is required for: i) Start UP and Taxi ii) Use of APU iii) Quantities known to be unusable iv) Contingencies v) Alternate airfields vi)Holding

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7.1

IN-FLIGHT FUEL MONITORING & LOW FUEL 7.1.1 PROCEDURE The PIC shall ensure that the correct type and quantity of fuel is carried on board. Units of weight shall be the same as on the cockpit fuel gauges. In flight fuel burn and flight time monitoring checks shall commence from the first convenient waypoint in cruise and thereafter approximately every 30 minutes over a waypoint. The PM shall record on the CFP the actual time over waypoint and the actual fuel quantity for comparison Close vigilance and early decision making is necessary in order to ensure that diversion and holding allowances are not eroded to an extent that OPERATIONAL SAFETY is compromised. o A Diversion to alternate may not be initiated if landing at destination is assured, when weather at destination is above its own alternate minima, and expected to remain so until after Expected Approach Time. The PIC shall ensure that the minimum fuel quantity upon landing is not less then that required to fly the airplane for 30 minutes at clean holding speeds, at 1500 feet altitude, under standard atmospheric conditions. This

restriction shall also ensure that it is better than the minimum landing fuel requirement of the Authority. A landing must be made with a minutes of 30minutes of fuel remaining. Any time it is expected to go below 30 minutes of fuel, an emergency must be declared. .If at any time it is known that the aircraft may land with fuel less than RESERVE FUEL at destination (Alternate Plus Holding), ATC must be informed about Fuel Remaining in minutes. Advice ATC of your minimum fuel status when your fuel supply has reached a state where, upon reaching destination/alternate you cannot accept any undue delay. Be aware that this is not an emergency situation, but merely an advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur. Be aware a minimum fuel advisory does not imply a need for traffic priority. If the remaining usable fuel is expected to go below 30 minutes and suggests the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing, an emergency shall be declared on account of

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low fuel and report fuel remaining in minutes. 7.2 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION (APD) FACTOR: o APD factor is to be applied to all fuel calculations. It is depicted on each CFP. Latest list of APD factors of each aircraft is available at Flight Dispatch. o The APD figures will be revised periodically or as and when warranted. 7.3 SELECTION OF ALTERNATE AIRFIELD Selection of an Alternate Airfield will be as follows: If the Destination Forecast Wx for a period 2 hrs of ETA indicates: Ceiling 2000 ft or above and Visibility 5 km or more then only one nearest alternate should be nominated, however, alternate fuel for at least 100 nm will be carried. If the Destination Forecast Wx + 1 hr. of ETA is above its own Alternate Minima for an Instrument Approach then

only one Alternate more than 100 nm away should be nominated. If the weather criteria does not meet the above conditions then two alternated shall be nominated. Fuel to be carried for the farther of the two, one of which must be more than 100 nm direct distance away from destination.

Note: Tempo conditions in the forecast Wx is only to be considered if at the estimated time of arrival it is below the pre-flight planning minima. Where a condition is forecast as Prob. it will be considered only if the probability factor is 30% or more.

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7.4

DISPATCH REQUIREMENTS 7.4.1 TAXI FUEL A standard quantity of fuel to cater for ground maneuvers from engine start to brake release (including APU consumption). For all airports, except those listed below, the standard taxi fuel shall be as follows: B747 B777-200 ER B777-200 LR B777-300 ER A310 B737 800kgs 400kgs 400kgs 400kgs 300kgs 200kgs

7.4.2 TRIP FUEL The fuel required from departure station to the planned destination, based on forecast meteorological conditions, is called Trip Fuel. This includes Take-off, Acceleration, SID, Climb, Cruise, Descent, STAR and Instrument Approach Procedure or 6 min. to Land whichever is higher. 7.4.3 CONTINGENCY FUEL The fuel required to cover unforeseeable variations from the planned operation after engine start, i.e. changes in forecast wind/temperature, as well as ATC restrictions. The contingency fuel will be 5 % of Trip Fuel, limited by the following: A/C B747 B777200 ER B777200 LR B777300 ER A310 B737 Min. Qty 1600kgs 1000kgs 1500kgs 1500kgs 600kgs 500kgs Max. Qty 3500kgs 3500kgs 3500kgs 3500kgs 1500kgs 700kgs

USA, Canada and Japan B747 B777 200-ER B777 200-LR B777 300-ER A310 Europe B747 B777 200-ER B777 200-LR B777 300-ER A310 1500kgs 700kgs 700kgs 700kgs 500kgs

1200kgs 500kgs 500kgs 500kgs 400kgs

Note: This quantity may be increased whenever required

Note: Total fuel carried must be sufficient to permit flight with engine / pressurization failure from any point along track to an en route airport with 30 minutes holding fuel.

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7.4.4 ALTERNATE FUEL The fuel required to fly to an Alternate Airport, based on forecast meteorological conditions, which includes one Missed Approach at Destination, Climb, Cruise at LRC, Descent, STAR and Instrument Approach Procedure or 6 min. to Land whichever is higher. Note: Fuel for 6 nm is included as additional distance to join the airway after conducting missed approach. 7.4.5 HOLDING FUEL The fuel required for 30 minutes in clean Configuration at 1500 ft over the Alternate Airport in Standard Atmospheric Condition and will be calculated at estimated Landing Weight at the Alternate Airport. 7.4.6 STORED FUEL Any quantity of fuel carried for the purpose of ECONOMIC TANKERING. 7.4.7 DISCRETION Commander may ask for extra fuel uplift. Reasons for any EXTRA FUEL uplifted as DISCRETION will be mentioned in the remarks column of the CFP and also summarized in the Captains Debrief Report.

7.4.8 BLOCK FUEL The block fuel is the sum of following:


Taxi fuel Trip fuel Contingency fuel Alternate fuel Holding fuel Any stored fuel Discretionary Fuel, if any Extra fuel , if any

7.4.9 MINIMUM BLOCK FUEL The minimum fuel required for Takeoff, EXCEPT Test or Training Flight will be as follows: B747 B777-200 ER B777-200 LR B777-300 ER A310 B737 ATR 42-500 20000kgs 9000 kgs 10000kgs 10000kgs 6000 kgs 4000 kgs 1000 kgs

Note: The Minimum Block Fuel is not applicable to Test and Training Flights, on which Fuel should be taken in accordance with the duration of the flight. 7.4.10 RESERVE FUEL Reserve fuel depicted on CFP is the sum of alternate and holding fuel.

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7.4.11 EXTRA FUEL Any additional fuel i.e. MEL required, Ballast, extra holding over destination due ATC or company requirements such extra holding fuel shall be calculated at the expected landing weight over destination at 1500 AGL. NOTE: the pilot-in-command is the final authority to decide the amount of fuel to be carried on each flight.

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7.5

ALTERNATES POLICY FOR TURBO JET AIRCRAFT 7.5.1 GENERAL Scheduled Destinations and Alternates are listed in two sections: International Destinations and Alternates. Domestic Destinations and Alternates. The Listing of Alternates, (a) and (b) are being provided in the form of Routes and Navigation Bulleting(s) which shall be revised as and when warranted. Note 1: Alternates shown in bold italics are also PIA scheduled destinations. Note 2: The above Alternate Lists override all previous information regarding Alternates issued in any form. Alternates are being listed in order of distance from destination, the nearest being listed first. For planning purposes the distance to alternate includes 6 n.m. as additional distance to join airway after conducting Missed Approach Procedure. At planning stage, in case an alternate is not available due to weather or any other reason, then the next available

Alternate in the list should be nominated. The alternate list also shows the type of aircraft that can be accommodated at an airport e.g. A310 means all aircraft up to A310. Blank space in front of the alternate means that all aircraft in PIA fleet can operate. Some airports may have restricted hours of operation. These airports are marked H. For hours of operation the relevant Notams and Jeppesen Manuals must be consulted. Company Preferred alternates are marked P. 7.5.2 TAKEOFF ALTERNATE If the weather conditions at the airport of takeoff are below the landing minimum for that airport, an alternate is required for flight release within the following distance of the departure airport. 2 Engine Aircraft Not more than a distance equivalent to a flight time of one hour at the single engine cruise speed. 3 or 4 Engine Aircraft Not more than a distance equivalent to a flight time of two hours at one engine inoperative cruise speed.

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7.5.3

PLANNING MINIMUMS (IFR FLIGHT) Planning minimums for takeoff alternates, destination and destination alternates and for Enroute alternate aerodrome refer to Aerodrome Operating Minimums in the ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual

7.6

FUEL POLICY FOR TURBO PROP AIRCRAFT (ATR 42500) 7.6.1 TAXI FUEL A standard quantity of 91kgs to cater for ground maneuvers from engine start to brake release should be added as taxi fuel. 7.6.2 FUEL FOR OPERATION OF HOTEL MODE ON ATR 42-500 AIRCRAFT Whenever operation of Hotel mode is anticipated, an additional fuel for the anticipated time will also be included in taxi fuel. This fuel will be calculated on the basis that use of hotel mode for 30 minutes will require 55 kg /122lb of fuel. 7.6.3 TRIP FUEL The fuel required from departure station to the planned destination, based on forecast meteorological conditions, is called Trip Fuel. This includes Take-off, Acceleration, SID, Climb, Cruise, Descent, STAR and max of 10min fuel for approach or expected Instrument Approach Procedure to land. Some aircraft have a fuel flow in excess of FCOM data. In view of this a pre-calculated percentage of fuel is added to all components of the required

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fuel to meet this aircraft performance deterioration (APD). 7.6.4 CONTINGENCY FUEL 5 % of trip fuel (min 45kgs/100 lbs, max 91kgs/200lbs). 7.6.5 ALTERNATE FUEL The alternate fuel required from destination to the alternate is based on estimated weight at destination, optimum altitude, enroute forecast OAT and wind velocity. This includes fuel for one overshoot at destination, acceleration, climb, cruise, descend and approach to land maneuver. 7.6.6 HOLDING FUEL Fuel required for 45 minutes with holding speed at 1500 ft, estimated weight and forecast temperature above the alternate. 7.6.7 BLOCK FUEL The block fuel will consist of the following: i) Taxi fuel plus, ii) Trip fuel plus, iii) Contingency fuel plus, iv) *Alternate fuel plus, v) Holding fuel plus, vi) Any extra fuel, 7.6.8 FUEL TANKERING (FOR THE NEXT SECTOR) Fuel Tankering shall be provided as per policy on flights to destinations where fuel is not available in such a way that the

fuel remaining at destination is calculated considering trip fuel inclusive of contingency fuel.

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7.7

FUELING PROCEDURES 7.7.1 GENERAL The Captain is responsible for ensuring that sufficient fuel is on board for the completion of the planned flight and that it is correctly distributed in the fuel tanks. 7.7.2 SUPERVISION OF REFUELING AND FUEL CHECK Refueling has to be supervised and the quantity checked by a qualified person, i.e. an authorized Station Engineer or if he/she is not available, one of the flight crew. Prior to departure, the Captain shall ensure that the quantity and distribution of fuel on board correspond with that indicated in the Technical Log/fuel uplift Performa. The total fuel onboard shall be verified to be within +2 / - 1% of that required.

7.7.3 FUEL TANKERING PIA maintains an updated list of sectors on which fuel tankering provides financial benefit to the Company. This list takes into account the fuel cost differential between the airfields of departure and destination as well the cost of transportation of the additional

fuel. Whenever a sector is nominated for tankering, fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) is to be uplifted, subject to the landing weight limitation. This figure will take into account all pertinent factors, e.g. possible fuel savings enroute. Where fuel adequate to perform the return trip (or next sector) cannot be uplifted due to landing weight limitation, selected tankering fuel figure shall allow a margin between planned and maximum landing weight of at least the maximum permitted LMC (CHAPTER 12) in order to avoid overweight landings. It should be borne in mind that planning with a margin below maximum landing weight as outlined in the last paragraph is applicable only to tankering sector. Whenever necessary to uplift the maximum payload, planning should be to the maximum landing weight. Tankering is not recommended if: a) The runway for takeoff is contaminated. b) Runway length is marginal.

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7.7.4

REFUELING

WITH PASSENGERS ON BOARD, BOARDING, OR DISEMBARKING THE AIRCRAFT.

Refueling with passengers onboard is not permitted unless a flight crew member or a ground engineer is present. Subject to this provision, refueling operations may take place with the following precautions. Local rules and regulations may require additional precautions, and the PIC should check with the ground engineers, or the fuel supplier, at outstations before commencing such operation. Sufficient number of qualified personnel / cabin crew shall be ready to initiate and direct an evacuation by the most practical and expeditious means, if so required. At least one flight crew or ground engineer, and half of the minimum required cabin crew members, shall remain on board in the vicinity of the available exits. Avio Bridge or stairway if used must be available on exists normally used for embarkation or disembarkation be available and ready to use in order to permit the safe evacuation of

passengers if required. In addition, access to doors where aircraft escape slides may be deployed are to be kept clear, except for those exits not available due to their use for catering or other ground servicing activities. If Avio bridge or stairway not installed, minimum required cabin crew shall remain on board, and the main doors used for passengers embarkation / disembarkation should be un-obstructed by ground equipment to permit the use of escape slides. Ground servicing activities and work inside the aircraft, such as catering and cleaning should be conducted in such a manner that they do not create hazard and the aisles and emergency doors remain unobstructed. When passengers are embarking or disembarking during refueling operations, their route must avoid areas where fuel vapors are likely to be present and they are to be under the supervision of a responsible person. If during refueling the presence of vapor is detected inside the aircraft, or any other hazard arises, then fueling/defueling must be stopped immediately. Resumption may continue only after the person

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supervising the fueling considers it safe to do so. For variation to this standard procedure due to local regulations, see the applicable Route Manual The Flight Crew must: Establish communication with the ground engineer before the start of refueling operation Ensure that the fire service is alerted and ATC is informed. Inform the cabin crew of the beginning and ending of refueling NO SMOKING signs are switched ON b) EMERGENCY EXITS LIGHT switched to ARMED/ON. c) FASTEN SEAT BELT signs are switched OFF. Be prepared to initiate passenger evacuation when necessary. Activate EVAC signal or Command. Inform the cabin crew of the EXITS to be used. The Ground Engineer must: Establish communication with the flight crew before the start of refueling operation. Ensure that area beneath exits is clear. Inform the flight crew of the beginning and ending of refueling. Notify flight crew when a large fuel spillage, smoke, a)

fumes or a hazardous leakage occurs and stop refueling immediately. Ensure, when an emergency evacuation is required, the flight crew is informed of the exits that are usable. Stop refueling immediately, in case flight crew requires, and remove the fueling truck. Note: In case refueling operation is initiated prior to the arrival on board of the flight crew, then the ground engineer shall ensure all the flight crew tasks, as listed above, are completed. The Cabin Crew must: Establish communication with the flight crew before the start of refueling operation. Make announcement about refueling process and the necessary preparations and restrictions. And ensure the following. a) NO SMOKING signs must be ON. b) CELLULAR PHONES restricted. c) Operating ELECTICAL EQUIPMENT shall be stopped. d) PHOTOGRAPHIC FLASH EQUIPMENT restricted. e) CABIN / AISLES are to be kept clear at all times (no meal service can be conducted while refueling is in process).

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Ensure that mandatory cabin crew as per aircraft type is on board (action by SP / LCC). Ensure passenger boarding / disembarkation is achieved in a controlled manner Ensure that emergency exits remain clear of obstructions. Ensure that ground servicing (catering / cleaning) activities cannot hinder or delay an emergency evacuation. Be prepared to initiate passenger evacuation by responding to EVAC signal or Command. Use the exits as specified by Flight Crew. The Ramp Staff/Agents must: Ensure area beneath exits intended for emergency evacuation is kept clear and the passage for the fuel truck is clear so that if required it may be removed easily, in case of spillage, smoke, fumes or fire situation. Ensure passenger boarding / disembarkation is achieved in a controlled manner Take control of passengers below stairway, or in gangway (Avio Bridge), in case of precautionary disembarkation or evacuation.

7.7.5

PRECAUTIONARY DISEMBARKATION / EMERGENCY EVACUATION. When passengers are on board the aircraft, precautions must be taken to ensure their safe and timely evacuation in the event of a fuel spillage / leakage / smoke / fire. These precautions must be taken by the ramp staff / agent, the ground engineer, the cabin crew and the flight crew. In case of a large fuel spillage / hazardous leakage, or a fire resulting from refueling operations, a precautionary disembarkation or an emergency evacuation may need to be performed. Information about a fuel spillage or a leakage shall be provided by the ground engineer, but an on-board detection of fumes or vapors will be identified by a crew member, or a passenger. Good communication between ground engineer, ramp staff / agent, and flight and cabin crew is essential for an efficient precautionary disembarkation / evacuation. The cabin crew shall then follow the directive from flight crew, make the necessary passenger announcement, and initiate an

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immediate and controlled precautionary disembarkation / evacuation. If an Avio Bridge / gangway are used for boarding, it should be used for disembarkation or evacuation. They provide a safe and efficient way to evacuate an aircraft, leading passengers away from the fire source which would likely be on the ramp, instead of the escape slides / slide raft. If stairways are positioned against the aircraft, it is better that the passengers use them instead of escape slides / slide raft. If escape slides / slide raft are needed for an emergency evacuation, it is essential to verify that there are no obstacles or hindrances where the escape slide/slide raft will be deployed.

7.8

IN-FLIGHT FUEL MANAGEMENT 7.8.1 GENERAL Fuel checks shall be carried out at regular intervals throughout each flight in order to establish that actual fuel consumption matches that planned. Such checks should be carried out over enroute waypoints at intervals normally not exceeding 30 minutes. Comparison of actual fuel on board with the Minimum required as indicated on the CFP will enable early identification of higher than anticipated consumption. 7.8.2 COMPANY MINIMUM RESERVE It is the Captains responsibility to ensure by the manner in which he/she conducts the flight that the fuel calculated to be remaining on board at the destination is at least equal to the sum of alternate fuel and holding fuel. For convenience this sum is referred to as Company Minimum Reserve (CMR). The value of the CMR may change as the flight progresses. 7.8.3 INSUFFICIENT FUEL REMAINING (ENROUTE) The CFP provides Minimum Required fuel values at each waypoint. These values are only accurate if the CFP conditions of weight, wind, temperature, route and flight

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level are encountered for the remainder of the flight. Crews are expected to make maximum use of any flight Management systems to predict fuel on board at destination based on actual conditions. If it becomes apparent that the predicted fuel remaining at destination will be less than the required minimum corrective action must be taken. This corrective action should ensure that adequate fuel will be on board at destination and may involve any of the following: Reducing consumption for the remainder of the flight by: (1) Flying at a more fuel economical speed. (2) Flying at a more economical flight level. (3) Flying a more direct routing. Selecting an alternate airfield closer to the intended destination. When considering a closer alternate it should be noted that the 100 NM limit, while applicable at the preflight planning stage, does not apply in flight. Furthermore, any airfield listed in the Route Manual may be considered in this regard, provided that the weather conditions at ETA are forecast to be at or above the

applicable landing minima at that airfield. If available and valid, a TREND forecast updates a TAF. Should none of these actions be possible, an enroute technical stop for refueling should be made. 7.8.4 APPROACHING DESTINATION 7.8.4.1 GENERAL In the latter stages of any flight, it may be possible to reduce the fuel reserves required at destination. This option is subdivided into two phases. One is applicable based on fuel calculations prior to the top of descent (TOD), and the other is applicable after the aircraft has commenced its descent to the destination airfield. 7.8.4.2 PRIOR TO TOP OF DESCENT The Company Minimum Reserve can be reduced by recalculating the fuel to alternate. Within one hour of destination, diversion fuel to the alternate airfield may be calculated from cruise altitude, provided the forecast and actual weather for both destination and alternate airfields indicates at least 5000 meters visibility and 1000 ft ceiling.

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CHAPTER: 8 FLIGHT PREPARATIONS & PLANNING


8.0 General
8.0.1 Flight Preparation. . 8.0.2 Definitions. .... 8.0.2.1 Adequate Airport. 8.0.2.2 Suitable Airport 8.0.2.3 ETOPS (Extended Twin Operations).. 8.0.3 Route Planning Principals.. 8.0.4 Trip Folder. 8.0.5 Pre-Flight Planning. 8.0.6 Computer Flight Plan. 8.0.7 Weather.. 8.0.8 NOTAMs .. 8.0.9 Aircraft Technical Status and Performance 8.0.10 Fuel... 8.0.11 Flying Crew Instructions.. 8.0.12 Security (Personal Documentation..... 2 2 2 2 2 3 3-4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6-7 7 7 7 8 9 9

8.1

Briefings
8.1.1 General.. 8.1.1.1 Company Briefing.. 8.1.1.2 Meteorological Briefing..... 8.1.1.3 Route Briefing.... 8.1.1.4 Technical Briefing.. 8.1.1.5 Cabin Crew Pre-Flight Briefing............. 8.1.1.6 Sterile Cockpit Rule..

8.2

Flight Plans
8.2.1 Requirement ..................... 8.2.2 Submission ... 8.2.3 Selection of Cruising Levels .

9-10
11 11 11 11-12 12 12 12 12-13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16

8.3

Selection of Destinations & Alternate Airfields


8.3.1 General ..... 8.3.2 Minima for Pre-Flight Planning ..... 8.3.3 Destination Selection .... 8.3.4 Destination Weather Minima 8.3.5 Destination forecast below Minima... 8.3.6 Destination Forecast and Alternate Selection.... 8.3.7 Destination Alternate.. 8.3.8 Takeoff alternate. 8.3.9 Alternate Weather Minima. 8.3.10 En-route Alternate/Emergency Airport (Non- ETOPS) 8.3.11 In Flight Considerations 8.3.12 Published One Engine Out Minima. 8.3.13 Aircraft Approach Category 8.3.14 In Flight Diversion to Alternate Aerodrome 8.3.15 Runway Requirements 8.3.16 Pavement Strength.. 8.3.17 Rescue And Fire Fighting (RFF) Categories 8.4. Operation to uncontrolled airfields

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8.0 GENERAL The procedures outlined in this Chapter shall be used for all PIAC flight operations. The final responsibility for adequate flight preparation rests with the Captain. Additional requirements for ETOPS flights and flights to remote destinations are given Chapter 16. 8.0.1 FLIGHT PREPARATION Flight preparation consists of: Collecting and evaluating all data required to carry out the flight. Preparation of the Computer Flight Plan. Filing the ATC flight plan Preparing the fuel indent form. Acceptance of the aircraft / technical status. 8.0.2 DEFINITIONS 8.0.2.1 ADEQUATE AIRPORT An airport is considered adequate by operator and agreed with the national authority based on the aircraft performance requirements applicable at the expected landing weight. Following consideration should be met at the expected time of use: Availability of airport.

Adequate runways length Over flying and landing authorizations. Capability of ground operational assistance. (ATC, MET, AIS offices, lighting, rescue and fire fighting category) At least one let-down navaid must be available for instrument approach. (ILS, VOR, NDB) No provision is made for the meteorological conditions that may prevail at adequate airports, however, good airmanship demands that the forecasts for any adequate intermediate airfields be checked at the planning stage and monitored during flight if marginal.

8.0.2.2 SUITABLE AIRPORT Suitable is a confirmed adequate airport which satisfies ETOPS weather minima requirements in terms of ceiling and visibility with in a validity period. This period begins one hour before earliest ETA and ends one after latest ETA, cross wind forecasts and field conditions should also be considered in this validity period.

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8.0.2.3 ETOPS (Extended Twin Operations) ETOPS is the acronym created by ICAO to describe the operation of twin-engine aircraft over a route that contains a point farther than one hours still air flying time, at the approved selected one engine inoperative cruise speed under ISA conditions, from an adequate airport. 8.0.3 ROUTE PLANNING PRINCIPLES Route selection during flight preparation shall be based upon approved routes or route segments. Deviation from a standard routing for the purpose of sight-seeing in not authorized except for specifically chartered flight(s). Whenever an operation does not specify a particular route, or for any reason it is necessary to deviate from an approved route, the following factors shall be considered: The availability of enroute, terminal and alternate navaids. Weather conditions and the availability of meteorological services Diplomatic clearance, over flight and traffic rights, politically sensitive areas and special national requirements.

The availability of ground handling and servicing facilities. Terrain to be over flown compared to aircraft performance limitations. Fuel availability. The reliability of available charts and maps. Whenever possible, Company flight operations shall be conducted within controlled airspace or, if not practical, within airspace provided with traffic advisory or similar service. Within the constraints of route requirements, the flight routing selected shall be that which will result in a minimum cost operation consistent with ATC restrictions, weather conditions and passenger comfort. Every flight shall be planned in such a way that it will proceed at or above MOCA / MORA (i.e. service ceiling equal to or higher than MOCA /MORA) of the planned route in case of one engine failing. This can be achieved by either using drift down procedures as published in the respective FCOM or limiting the takeoff gross weight to meet the MOCA / MORA requirement along the planned route.

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Additional requirements for 2 engine aircraft on non-ETOPS flights An Adequate en route alternate shall be available within 60 minutes flight time (still air) at normal single engine cruise speed. Additional Requirements for 2 Engine Aircraft on ETOPS Flights A Suitable En route Alternate shall be available at any point along that part of the planned route that lies within the ETOPS area of operations as approved for the specific aircraft type. The ETOPS area is defined by single engine cruise speeds in still air for 120/180 minutes for each specific aircraft type. 8.0.4 TRIP FOLDER On reporting at Operations Control the Flight Crew will be presented with a trip folder containing the following documentation: Computer flight plan. Meteorological forecast and charts. NOTAMS. NOTOC if any. Debriefing Report. Copy of ATC flight plan if applicable

Any special relevant information All completed paperwork and forms, together with any additional documents received during the flight, e.g. fuel receipts, copies of ATC flight plans filed at outstations must be returned to Operations Control in the flight document envelope upon completion of the flight. 8.0.5 PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING Items to be covered by the crew at Pre-Flight Briefing include: 8.0.6 COMPUTER FLIGHT PLAN Check plan for accuracy and validity. 8.0.7 WEATHER Actual and expected conditions for takeoff and climb, including runway conditions. En route significant weather, forecast winds, temperatures, icing, turbulence. Terminal forecasts for destinations, en-route alternate and destination alternate airports, and expected conditions at airports along the planned route.

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8.0.8

NOTAMS:

Check that all required facilities at departure, destinations and alternate airports are operational. En route navaids and facilities at en-route airports. 8.0.9 AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL STATUS & PERFORMANCE To review ATL, MEL/CDL to determine the airworthiness status of aircraft and to review and re determine any impact on aircraft performance. Weight and balance after checking the load sheet for accuracy it will be signed by the PIC, indicating its acceptance.

Use this as a gross error check against the figure presented on the CFP. 8.0.11 FLYING CREW INSTRUCTION For flights originating from Pakistan check the latest Circulars (Ops. Engineering bulletins, route Bulletins, training and standards Bulletins). For flights originating outside Pakistan refer to aircraft library. SECURITY (PERSONAL DOCUMENTATION)

8.0.12

Check carriage and validity of licenses, Medical and other required documents including ID and crew membership cards etc.

8.0.10 FUEL Calculate a fuel load which is adequate for the proposed flight by using any credible and safe method.

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8.1 BRIEFINGS 8.1.1 GENERAL Briefing in this context means obtaining /disseminating the necessary information for flight preparation either in oral or written form. This information shall be made available to the flight crew , and also for self briefing at stations where flight dispatcher is not available, during which the following will be reviewed: Company briefing. Met briefing. Route briefing. Technical briefing / aircraft acceptance. 8.1.1.1 COMPANY BRIEFING This briefing concerns CFP routing, bulletins, estimated load data and fuelling. This information will be available in written form but may be given verbally according to local procedures. The Flight Crew shall ensure that the regulations of the FOM, Jeppesen Airway Manual, FCOM, etc. are applied according to the latest changes and instructions.

8.1.1.2 METEOROLOGICAL BRIEFING This briefing is enclosed in the briefing folder issued by Operations Control or outstation handling agents and shall include the following information: Actual reports forecasts, runway report and airfield warnings and other information of hazardous weather conditions for the airfield of departure as well as any takeoff alternate airfields. Forecasts for the destination, destination alternate(s) and appropriate en-route airfields. The latest available synoptic, surface and upper air charts. Information on any expected significant en-route weather (preferably significant weather charts) jet streams and where required the tropopause. The documentation provided shall cover the flight in respect of time altitude and geographical extent. This includes additionally required routes, e.g. routes to alternates and all airfields required for legal flight planning (Enroute

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alternates as required for reduced Reserve and ETOPS planning). It shall contain the latest available information, especially as far as airfield forecasts and actual reports, TREND and runway reports are concerned. Should a Captain be in any doubt about any of the information provided at the briefing he/she should obtain clarification from the nearest Meteorological Office. Interpretation of Weather Forecasts For flight planning purposes refer to the guidelines and detailed information provided in the Meteorology chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual. 8.1.1.3 ROUTE BRIEFING All applicable NOTAMS relevant to the intended route and airfields will be presented to the flight crew and shall be reviewed to determine, their affect on the intended operation. These NOTAMS will be part of the briefing folder provided by the Operations Control or the outstations by the handling agent(s). If a briefing folder is not provided the flight crew shall obtain any relevant information from Air Traffic Services personnel at the local

flight planning office. The route briefing also includes preparation or scrutiny of the ATC flight plan as appropriate. The company instructions contain company generated information affecting PIA operations. 8.1.1.4 TECHNICAL BRIEFING Technical status information of each Company aircraft is available in Operations Control. These should be studied to ensure that there is no performance penalty, irregularities that may compromise the planned flight. After boarding the aircraft, the Captain shall review the previous maintenance discrepancies and corrective actions. He/she shall also check the current list of carry forward defects and review MEL requirements to determine the overall serviceability of the aircraft. 8.1.1.5 CABIN CREW PREFLIGHT BRIEFING For specific requirements of the Cabin Crew briefing refer to Chapter 9 on Communication Procedures.

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8.1.1.6 Sterile Cockpit Rule The flight deck shall be considered sterile during all flight operations at or below 10.000 feet AGL including ground operation of the aircraft, and during all other critical phases of flight as declared by PIC. The following protocols shall be followed during the sterile phase; All communication & activates on the flight deck should be limited to those essential to the operation of the flight. Interphone shall be used for all communication between cockpit and cabin crew. Headset and boom mikes shall be used for all communication with ATC Remember, below 10,000 ft if its not directly related to flight safety, its in violation with the sterile cockpit rule. SEP manual also covers the sterile cockpit concept. The following table gives Guidelines on cockpit interruptions given to our cabin crew. (Do not interrupt, enter, knock, call cockpit on interphone during the period when the cockpit is sterile except for the categories listed and indicated)

Category 1: Routine Interruption 1. Door closing 2. Safety announcements & Checks Completed 3. Cabin hot & cold Category 2: Unusual Occurrence 1. Sudden illness / sickness of Pax 2. Disorderly pax 3. Last minute serious cabin defect Category 3: Emergency Situation 1. Cabin fumes / smoke / fire 2. Any abnormality observed wing or engine area

8.2 FLIGHT PLANS 8.2.1 REQUIREMENT Details in the form of a flight Plan shall be submitted to the Air Traffic Services Units, prior to operating all PIA, IFR/VFR flights including test and training flights, with information relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight requiring air traffic control services. A flight plan shall be submitted before departure to the appropriate designated unit or if communication facility is not available be transmitted during flight to the appropriate air traffic unit. For details of the ATC flight plan refer Jeppesen ATC chapter.

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With the exception of training test and local observation flights, a Computer Flight Plan, (CFP) will also be prepared. This CFP is also used as the log for the flight. By signing the CFP the Captain Certifies that the flight has been planned in accordance with the valid regulations and policies as stipulated in the FOM, FCOM and Jeppesen Airway Manual And that he/she has performed a thorough check of the information. For details of the CFP refer latest OETB on the subject. 8.2.2 SUBMISSION Copies of ATC Flight plan shall be prepared by operation control except when the arrangement has been made for submission repetitive fight plans to the Air Traffic Services Unit. The ATC Flight Plan will be submitted to the air traffic services by operation control or by the outstation agent as appropriate and a copy along with CFP will be presented to the captain for review and approval. Stations not providing operational control services the flight plans will be completed by the Captain and

the ATC flight plan will be filed by him with the nearest ATS facility. 8.2.3 SELECTION OF CRUISING LEVELS Cruising levels will be selected based on the following factors: Distance between departure airfield and destination. Height of terrain over which the flight is to operate. Air Traffic Control and airspace considerations. Fuel consumption at a given altitude or flight level. Wind conditions and resulting wind components at a given altitude or flight level. Other meteorological conditions such as turbulence, icing or thunderstorm activity. Aircraft or equipment performance capability or limitations. PIA flights shall maintain a minimum buffet margin as a maneuvering protection against turbulence and airspeed excursions. The buffet margin depends is on type, weight, speed and atmospheric conditions. If no turbulence is anticipated the following buffet margins are recommended:

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B 747 B 777 A 310 B 737

1.3 G 1.3 G 1.3 G 1.3 G

Buffet margins vary with cruise Mach number. Operating at Mach numbers significantly faster or slower than the speed for optimum buffet margin will reduce the actual margin considerably. Ideally a cruising level should be selected which will satisfy all flight requirements and result in optimum aircraft performance with regard to the above factors. However this is not always possible. A single factor such as terrain elevation, wind component or aircraft performance limitation may, on a given flight, determine the selection of the cruising level but all factors must be considered. When planning climb to higher levels assess if this will result in improved fuel economy. In headwinds, levels below optimum may be preferred if ground speed increases by more than 5kts for each 1000ft below optimum cruise level. The altitude or flight level nominated on the CFP should

be used if, after the above factors have been considered, it is determined that: No significant performance or fuel economy penalty will result from its use. All en-route altitude requirements are met. No other factors exist which preclude its use or dictate the use of another altitude or flight level.

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8.3

SELECTION OF AIRFIELDS 8.3.1 GENERAL Safety is the predominant factor when selecting destination and alternate airfields. Prior to commencement of any flight the most important points to be considered are: Airfield infrastructure (e.g. runways, taxi ways, ramp area, lighting, navigation aids, etc.)and aircraft performance requirements Meteorological and ATS services. Customs and immigration facilities and regulations. Rescue and Fire Fighting Curfews PPR (prior permission required) Technical Facilities The possibility for onward transportation of passengers, Cargo and crew. 8.3.2 MINIMA FOR PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING The planning according to this section shall be based on the forecast conditions i.e. weather forecast and airfield condition. Circling minima apply if forecast conditions indicate

that a circling approach will be necessary for landing. The forecast weather should be at or above the applicable planning minima at the expected time of arrival or is expected to improve to those minima within a time period for which supplementary fuel is carried. 8.3.3 DESTINATIONS SELECTION A destination is an airfield served by PIA scheduled, charter and special flight. It must be designated as being available for such use and are contains in the Jeppesen Airway Manual. 8.3.4 DESTINATION WEATHER MINIMA It is PIA policy to plan all flights with at least one destination alternate. However if the destination airfield is forecast to be below the applicable planning minima at the expected time of arrival, the flight may be dispatched providing two destination alternates are filed. The alternate fuel must be

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sufficient to proceed to the alternate airfield which requires the greater amount of fuel. 8.3.5 DESTINATION FORECAST BELOW MINIMA.

It is PIA policy to plan all flights with at least one destination alternate. However if the destination airfield is forecast to be below the applicable planning minima at the expected time of arrival, the flight may be dispatched providing two destination alternates are filed. The alternate fuel must be sufficient to proceed to the alternate airfield which requires the greater amount of fuel. 8.3.6 DESTINATION FORECAST & ALTERNATE SELECTION Forecast must indicate that weather condition at the planned time of arrival will be at or above the approach chart minima for the expected arrival runway as published in the Jeppesen Airway Manual. It is PIA policy to plan a flight with one destination alternate. If the destination forecast weather for period of 2 hrs of ETA indicates:- Ceiling 2000 ft or above and

- Visibility 5 km or more then: Only one nearest alternate should be nominated. However alternate fuel for at least 100 nm will be carried. If the Destination Forecast Wx + 1 hr. of ETA is above its own Alternate Minima for an Instrument Approach then only one Alternate more than 100 nm away should be nominated. If the weather criteria mentioned above are not met then two Alternates will be nominated. Fuel to be carried for the farther of the two, one of which must be more than 100 nm direct distance away from destination. 8.3.7 DESTINATION ALTERNATE An alternate aerodrome is an aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Any airfield nominated as an alternate should be designated as being available for use, included in the list of PIA domestic / international destinations and alternates

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prepared by Routes & Navigation Section and available in Jeppesen Airway Manual. The destination alternate(s) is to be specified in both the CFP and ATC flight plan. 8.3.8 TAKEOFF ALTERNATE A takeoff alternate aerodrome (at or above its own operating minima) shall be selected and specified in the operational flight plan if the weather conditions at the aerodrome of departure are at or below the applicable aerodrome operating minima or it would not be possible to return to the aerodrome of departure for any other reasons. The takeoff alternate aerodrome shall be located within the following distance from the aerodrome of departure: Two Engine Aircraft Not more than a distance equivalent to a flight time of one hour at the single engine cruise speed in still air in ISA conditions. Three of Four Engine Aircraft Not more than a distance equivalent to a flight time of two hours at one engine inoperative cruise speed in still air in ISA conditions.

NOTE: for takeoff alternate, En route alternate and destination alternate refer to ATC chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual. 8.3.9 ALTERNATE WEATHER MINIMA Company planning minima for destination alternates will be as per the following table unless restricted by local regulation. Flight crew and flight planning personnel should take into account the most probable expected runway, to be in use when selecting an alternate.

Alternate Airport Minima Type of Application Approach in Planning Use Minima Precision Precision Approach Approach (CAT-II) CAT-I Precision Non Precision Approach Approach (CAT-I) Non Precision + 200ft / Non Precision 1000m ceiling Approach at or above MDH Circling Circling Approach Note: Once airborne the Approach chart Minima of Jeppesen Airway Manual shall be applicable.

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8.3.10 ENROUTE ALTERNATE / EMERGENCY AIRPORT (NONETOPS) ICAO Regulations dictate that an airport should be designated for flights over high terrain, where for performance or oxygen requirements, an en-route landing can be safely made. For planning purposes the Weather Minima of an Enroute Alternate/ Emergency Airport shall be as per Alternate Airport Minima above. A company list of en route emergency airports is available in the Jeppesen 8.3.11 IN FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS If required the destination and/or alternate may be renominated during flight, taking into account the fuel remaining, the latest meteorological information and/or other operational considerations. Alternate: Published one engine out Minima shall only be considered if higher that the applicable alternate planning minima. Takeoff alternate: Published one engine out minima shall only be considered if higher than the applicable takeoff alternate planning minima.

8.3.12 PUBLISHED ONE ENGINE OUT MINIMA In any case where a oneengine-out Minima is published on the approach chart for destination or alternate, pre-flight planning is affected as follows: Destination: Normal all engines minima apply, i.e. one engine out Minima to be disregarded. 8.3.13 AIRCRAFT CATEGORY
APPROACH

For planning purposes, aircraft approach category for straight-in and circling approaches are as follows: Aircraft Type B747-200 / 300 B777-200 ER B777-200 LR B777-300 ER A-310-300 B737-300 ATR42-500 Straight Circling In CAT D CAT C CAT C CAT D CAT C CAT C CAT B CAT D CAT D CAT D CAT D CAT C CAT C CAT B

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8.3.14 IN FLIGHT DIVERSION TO ALTERNATE AERODROME Whenever a diversion is necessary the following should be considered: Irrespective of the alternate airport designated in the ATC flight plan, conditions permitting, the flight may be diverted, in order of preference, to: The Next Destination, Company preferred alternate In case of emergency or situation where the Pilot-inCommand has to land as soon as possible or land at the nearest suitable airport, he/she shall take whatever action is deemed to be necessary taking into account the urgency of situation. ANY OTHER SUITABLE AIRPORT The company or its agent, if contactable, should be informed of the diversion, reason of diversion and the intended alternate aerodrome. However, if they recommend a different airport, then, conditions permitting, diversion be made to the recommended airport. 8.3.15 RUNWAY REQUIREMENTS It is PIA policy to plan with anticipated runway conditions,

i.e. to apply FCOM corrections for wet runway conditions in the pre-flight planning if the weather forecast for destination or alternate indicates this to be necessary. Further corrections due to runway contamination when appropriate will be applied. The Met and Route briefings shall include the runway reports (METAR, SNOWTAM etc) where available. Performance penalties are stipulated in the FCOM for operation under: Wet runway conditions. Contaminated runway conditions. The Captain/ Flight Engineer shall ascertain that actual takeoffs and landings are safe with regard to runway conditions (water, slush, snow, ice braking action, and crosswind). In critical cases the latest runway surface conditions and the availability of the visual guidance elements (runway markings and lighting) may be obtained from ATC.

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8.3.16 PAVEMENT STRENGTH Flight Crew should be aware that all destinations and alternate aerodromes nominated in the List of PIA Destination and Alternates provided in Jeppesen Route Manual or any company produced CFPs meet the load bearing specification of the particular aircraft type operated to that airfield. In case of emergency captains shall take whatever action is deemed to be necessary taking into account the urgency to the situation. 8.3.17 RESCUE & FIRE FIGHTING CATEGORIES The following RFF (Rescue & Fire Fighting) categories are desired for PIA operations. Departure Categories Aircraft Type B-747 B-777-200ER B-777-200LR B-777-300ER A-310 B-737 ATR 42-500 & Destination Aircraft Category 9 9 9 9 8 6 4

Destination Alternate Categories RFF Aircraft Category B-747 8 B-777-200ER 8 B-777-200LR 8 B-777-300ER 8 A-310 7 B-737 5 ATR 42-500 3 ETOPS Alternate Categories Aircraft RFF Category B777-200ER 4 B777-200LR 4 B777-300ER 4 A310 4 8.4 OPERATION TO UCONTROLLED AIRFIELDS An uncontrolled airport is an airport without an operating control tower. A few airports on our network fall in this category. Details covering operations to uncontrolled airfields are published in the form of Route and Navigation bulletins for specific airfields. These bulletins cover applicable procedures and limitations such as ATC procedures, operating minima, airfield information etc.

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CHAPTER: 9 COMMUNICATION
9.0 Flight Crew Members
9.0.1General.. 9.0.2 Standard Calls . 9.0.3 FCU/MCP,AP Selection.. 9.0.4 Transfer of Controls & Radio Monitoring.. 9.0.5 Climb and Descent.. 9.0.6 Deviation During Approach 9.0.7 Non Standard... 2 2 2 3-4 4-5 5 5
5

9.1

Flight Crew to Cabin Crew


9.1.1General .... 9.1.2 Pre-flight Briefing.... 9.1.3 Use of the Interphone .. 9.1.3.1 Flight Deck to Cabin.... 9.1.3.2 Cabin to Flight Deck 9.1.4 Adverse Weather..... 5-6 6 6 6 6-7 7-8 8 8 8-9 9 10 11 11 11 11-12 12 12 12-13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14-15 15 15-16 16-17

9.2

Flight Crew to ATC


9.2.1 Monitoring.. 9.2.2 Standard Procedures... 9.2.3 Altimetry Procedures.. 9.2.4 VHF Selection ... 9.2.5 Wearing of Headsets..............

9.3

Flight Crew to Company


9.3.1 General Policy .. 9.3.2 Use of Communication Equipment ... 9.3.2.1 ACARS... 9.3.2.2 HF Radio. 9.3.2.3 SATCOM 9.3.3 Required reports.. 9.3.3.1 Push Back and Punctuality.. 9.3.3.2 Departure Reports.... 9.3.3.3 En-route Delay reports... 9.3.3.4 Abnormal Situation Reports.... 9.3.3.5 Arrival Reports.... 9.3.4 Outstations..

9.4

Flight Crew to Passengers


9.4.1General. 9.4.2 Responsibility for Information........ 9.4.3 Co-ordination 9.4.4 Presentation of Information.. 9.4.5 Procedures for normal operations... 9.4.6 Procedures for Off-Schedule Operations. 9.4.7 Briefing of Passengers in an Emergency.

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9.0

FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS 9.0.1 GENERAL For all types of communication within PIA, English is the designated common language. All flight crew members shall use English for communication: On the flight deck during line operations. With cabin crew during line operations During all training and evaluation activities. Communication is vital for any flight crew. Assertive standardized communication produces a system where repeated interchange of crew members is possible without compromising operational safety. Flight crews shall communicate by speaking clearly and using standard terminology. Any time a crew member makes an adjustment or change to any information or equipment on the flight deck, he/she will advise the other

crew member of his intentions or actions and receive an acknowledgement. This includes items such as FMS alterations, changes in speed, tuning navigation radios, flight plan deviations, selecting such systems as anti-ice , economy flow etc. All calls will be made and acknowledged as specified in the SOPs. Proper adherence is required to provide early detection of crew member incapacitation during critical phases of flight.

9.0.2 STANDARD CALLS For standard calls to be effective they should be given at the correct time. Failure to make a call at the correct time does not mean that it should be omitted. At busy times it may be convenient to anticipate a call or delay it to an appropriate quiet period. 9.0.3 FCU / MCP, AP SELECTIONS MANUAL
FLYING

When flying manually, FCU/MCP & FMS changes should be called for by the PF and actioned by the PM. ATC

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instructions regarding heading and altitude should be set by the PM and confirmed by the PF. Autopilot engaged When flying on autopilot, PF makes FCU/MCP changes. The PF should advise the PM prior to disengaging autopilot(s). FMA Calls should be made as per the SOP and FCOM of the related aircraft type. When a navigation aid is tuned, it should be identified and announced to the other crew member. 9.0.4 TRANSFER OF CONTROLS & RADIO MONITORING The transfer of control between pilots is intended to result in a complete role reversal of PF and PM duties. The pilot receiving control relinquishes Radio Communication responsibility to the other pilot (unless otherwise stated), and assumes all duties associated with the PF. In a situation where one pilot is leaving his seat, the remaining pilot shall be responsible for the Radio Communication During flight when a pilot transfers control of the aircraft or leaves the flight deck, for

physiological or any other requirement a minimum of one pilot continuously maintain: Unobstructed access to the flight controls Alertness and situational awareness One cabin crew to be deputed in the cockpit to observe alertness of the other pilot on long haul flights. There must be no confusion as to which pilot is in control of the aircraft. The pilot handing over control to the other pilot will say You have the controls And the pilot receiving control will say I have the controls Similarly transfer of radio monitoring responsibility should be called / acknowledged by : You have the radio. / I have the radio. Flight crew member is only permitted to leave the flight deck duty station for a minimum time during flight in the performance of duty or to meet the physiological needs. 9.0.5 CLIMB & DESCENT During climb and descent, any time a pilot adjusts the

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subscale of his altimeter to STD, to QNH, or to amended QNH, he/she will announce it and crosscheck that the other pilot has also made the required change. TRANSITION ALT will be called by the PM when passing the published transition altitude during the climb. On receipt of a new assigned altitude/level, the appropriate pilot will insert it on the FCU/MCP where applicable. The PF will call .. (altitude/level) SET Whenever an aircraft commences a climb or descent the PF shall call Leaving _ _ _climbing/descending***(E.g. leaving six thousand feet climbing flight level two one zero.) If During A Climb or descent an aircraft is selected to a new Altitude/ Flight Level, the crew shall call Leaving _ _ _ for _ _ " ***. At 1,000feet below or above the altitude to which the flight has been cleared the PM will call 1000ft to go the altitude or flight level passing and the target altitude or level (E.g. Flight level three two zero for flight level three, three, zero).

Transition LVL will be called by the PM when passing the published transition level during the descent. If the PM has neglected either of these altitude calls; the PF shall make the call. 9.0.6 DEVIATIONS DURING APPROACH In addition to standard calls, the PM will call out the following deviations:
Speed If at any time deviation exceeds + 10/-5 Kts. If- descent rate below 3,000 ft AGL exceeds 2.000 ft/min or Descent rate below 1,000 ft AGL exceeds 1,000 ft/ min If at any time bank angle exceeds 30 degrees or 7 degrees once established In approach Any deviation beyond tolerances from any altitude specified for the procedure Any deviation from the approach path.

Sink Rate

Bank

Altitude Localizer / Glide-slope

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Additionally the PM shall alert the PF should any of the following occur: Deviation from the required aircraft configuration. Any instrument malfunction directly relating to the approach and landing. 9.0.7 NON-STANDARD If the PF determines that a non standard action would be more appropriate for a given situation, he/she shall preface this with the statement Non Standard.

9.1

FLIGHT CREW TO CABIN CREW 9.1.1 GENERAL Communication between crew members must be as easy as possible using official terminology. All crew members should be actively encouraged to use all available and suitable means of communication as dictated by any given situation, and limitations on the use of any particular form of communications should be as a result of operational necessity only. Cabin crew members should be encouraged to communicate freely with the flight crew, especially if safety is thought to be at risk, and should be free to use any available means. 9.1.2 PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFING Flight crews are required to give a pre-flight briefing to the cabin crew on every flight, preferably on ground or on board the aircraft. The suggested contents of the briefing are : Introduction of crew Estimated taxi time Flight time Cruising altitude

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Enroute weather Anticipated turbulence Routing Destination weather Emergency procedures Security Code Special instructions Additionally, the Captain shall also brief the cabin crew about any special condition which may influence efficient passenger service. Significant changes in these forecast conditions shall be communicated to permit necessary adjustments to the service plan. The purser will ensure that the reports to the flight crew will not interfere with a cockpit briefing etc. 9.1.3 USE OF THE INTERPHONE 9.1.3.1 FLIGHT DECK TO CABIN Flight crew are advised that preferred communication shall be the use of interphone in their Pre-Flight and during flight briefings and communication with the cabin crew. Flight crew shall use the interphone to communicate/call any or all cabin crew members at any stage.

9.1.3.2 CABIN TO FLIGHT DECK Prior to switching OFF the seat belt sign or at 10,0000ft AGL on departure, and below 10,000ft AGL on arrival, the use of the interphone should be restricted to reports concerning flight safety, because of the high flight deck workload during take-off and landing. At other times, the interphone may be used for communication, especially when passenger comfort and safety can be improved. The purser, or the cabin staff member, shall report to the flight deck in answer to the called station. 9.1.4 ADVERSE WEATHER In event of expected adverse weather during flight the senior pursor or senior cabin crew will be briefed in advance by the Flight Crew. Cabin crew must remain seated until specifically cleared. In the event of unexpected turbulence after take-off, a PA announcement must be made for passengers/cabin crew. Cabin crew to refer to SEP Manual (relevant paragraphs) for their own expected turbulence announcements.

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All flight briefings should reflect the need for unfettered communication, and promote a culture of openness on operational matters with as few impediments as possible. It must be impressed on all crew members that each of us carries and shares responsibility for flight safety.

9.2 FLIGHT CREW TO ATC 9.2.1 MONITORING Both pilots will maintain a listening watch on the appropriate ATC frequency. When a requirement exists for a pilot to monitor an alternative frequency he/she will notify the other pilot both on leaving and returning to the ATC frequency. Communication shall normally be handled by the PM according to standard radio-telephone procedures. The PM will normally maintain two-way communication with ATC and monitor en-route weather frequencies. The PF at all times will monitor two-way communication with ATC. 9.2.2 STANDARD PROCEDURES Within the PIA network, ATC personnel have a varying command of English and flight crews should adhere to standard phraseology. During R/T transmissions, PIA call signs will be in the standard form, for example Pakistan 302. Both pilots should monitor and conform ATC clearance especially in terminal areas, wherever heading, altitude,

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level, frequency or routing is changed, in high terrain areas, and during ground operation that specifically involve runway hold sort instruction Every ATC clearance shall be read back by the PM and confirmed by the PF prior to acting on the clearance. Departure and airways clearances shall be recorded by the PM on the CFP. Any intended deviation from previously received clearances will be requested beforehand from ATC. Unintended deviations must be reported immediately they become obvious. Whenever any doubt arises, request clarification from the ATC unit 9.2.3 ALTIMETRY PROCEDURES All calls to ATC for altitude will include the term feet, meters or flight level as appropriate. A clear destination shall be made between the terms flight level and Altitude when reading back clearances and position reporting. Flight Crew shall ensure altitude awareness during all phases of flight through the:

d.

Use of verbal flight crew altitude callouts Use of procedures for altitude deviations Use of procedures related to altitude clearance, acceptance and read back Reporting of cleared flight level on first contact with ATC unless specially requested not to do so by ATC

9.2.4 VHF SELECTION VHF 1 shall normally be used for ATC communications VHF2 will normally be used to guard frequency121.5MGz,except during periods of VHF communication on other channels or due to duties or equipment limitations. The appropriate common Frequency, e.g.123.45 MHz, shall be selected as a backup on VHF 2, or on VHF 3, if available. On B-777 VHF-L shall be used for ATC communications, VHF-R for Guard Frequency/ATIS/Air to Air Communication/ Company Frequency. VHF-C shall be kept on DATA. Each VHF set is equipped with a change-over switch allowing ON-SIDE operation and OFF-SIDE standby. When

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frequency changes are required, the new frequency is to be set on the OFFSIDE prior to operating the change over switch, thereby leaving the previous frequency available should it be needed. Where sequential frequencies are known, they may be selected in advance on the OFF-SIDE after contact has been established on the ONSIDE. The PM is required to closely monitor the VHF selections to avoid loss of radio contact due to inadvertent operation of the change over switch. ATC must always be advised whenever a relevant part of the communication equipment fails or becomes unreliable. The ATC transponder shall be operated according to instructions received by relevant ATC or as published in the Jeppesen Airway Manual, the altitude reporting mode selector switch will be left in the ON position at all time, except at the request of ATC. 9.2.5 WEARING OF HEADSETS Headsets and boom microphones are to be used for all flight phases with the

exception of cruise subject to the following: Whenever a headset is in use, the corresponding loud speaker should be turned OFF. Whenever a headset is removed ensure the speaker is ON and interphone switch is OFF. During cruise when HF is in use, the headset should be used. It is recommended that the PM avoids using the transmit switch on his control wheel whenever the aircraft is manually flown by the PF. PIA engineering will provide a serviceable headset at each flight crew member station. If a headset should become unserviceable, the headset from an observer station may be used, but this station will then be considered unusable for training, check or other operational use. Personal headsets/boom microphones are acceptable provided they comply with the applicable company specifications. If it cannot be established that a headset conforms to these standards, PIA Engineering shall be consulted for remedy.

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9.3

FLIGHT CREW TO COMPANY (PIAC) 9.3.1 GENERAL POLICY Company radio frequencies shall be used to the maximum possible extent for coordination: To provide operational and technical assistance. To avoid unnecessary delays resulting from problems in flight. To consider and arrange for passenger convenience. etc. As soon as the Captain considers any development concerning a particular flight is not in accordance with normal operation (e.g. technical mishaps, significant ground or in-flight delays, weather deterioration at designation. Intermediate or alternate airport (s) or enroute), he/she should inform operations control/flight dispatch or the outstation representative of such developments and, at the same time, may request assistance. Maintaining communication channels with PIA flights. Communication can be achieved by means of: VHF radio ACARS HF radio

Sat Com (B-777) Any other suitable means. Communication should be attempted using the equipment according to the priority above, subject to the qualifications under Use of communication equipment shown below. It is important to advise operationally significant events. Examples would be imminent diversion or protracted holding, or any event which will impact on subsequent schedules or required special action by base staff. Procedure for situation room functions relevant to flight crew are detailed in the situation room manual. PIA Engineering monitors the PIA Karachi Operations Control VHF frequency and can be accessed using the call sign Line 1 or Line 2 (as applicable) should technical assistance be required. All PIA company frequencies. Handling frequencies and HF service providers can be found in the Flight Dispatch Manual.

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9.3.2

USE OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT Crews shall use the communication equipment subject to the following guidelines: 9.3.2.1 ACARS ACARS is to be used for departure report and enroute reports. ACARS should only be used to gather weather data if it is not available through other means e.g., VOLMET, and then only if the destination weather was forecast to be at or below the higher of CAT 1 or applicable landing minima at the time of arrival. It is not necessary to update an ETOPS alternate forecast. ACARS should only be used to pass IFS requests in the event of a medical emergency occurring during the flight. Routine requests for wheelchairs are passed by other company communication channels. Utilize ACARS to provide as early advice as possible to maintenance control of any additional technical problems that have occurred since dispatch.

ACARS equipped aircraft will dispense with SELCAL checks unless the aircraft is dispatched with an unserviceable ACARS. 9.3.2.2 HF RADIO The route manual indicates the current primary and secondary HF service provider. At the commencement of the cruise phase, select an appropriate HF frequency for monitoring the company nominated HF service provider for: Any flight not in continuous VHF contact with ground stations. Any flight of more than two hours duration. Additionally for flights that have no serviceable ACARS, a call to the company nominated primary HF service provider is to be made for flight watch purposes. The following information shall be passed: Call sign. Departure and destination airfields. Time that aircraft will cease flight watch monitoring. SELCAL case. A satisfactory SELCAL check should be obtained and a SELCAL watch maintained

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until the time given. On short return flights, where the applicable HF frequency is not likely to change, only one call need be made for both sectors. During longer duties, where changing propagation conditions may mean that the optimum frequency changes, a further SELCAL check should considered. If contact with primary HF service provider is not possible, a SELCAL watch should be maintained with a secondary HF service provider. In this case, request that Karachi operations control be alerted by telex that you are maintaining flight watch with the particular service provider. Phone patches can be arranged through any commercial HF facility, but use should be restricted to essential messages. In abnormal situations use of phone patch facilities to either Operations Control or Engineering in Karachi should be made as appropriate. 9.3.2.3 SATCOM Satcom charges are expensive and should therefore only be used for communication when other means have been unsuccessful.

9.3.3 REQUIRED REPORTS 9.3.3.1 PUSH-BACK & PUNCTUALITY The Captain will mention on the de-brief report the departure delay times and reasons in consultation with ground staff prior to push back. This information will be part of the regular departure message. It is the responsibility of the Flight Control duty manager to compare the delay reasons given by the de-brief report and the departure message and to examine the circumstances in more detail whenever there is any significant discrepancy between the two accounts. 9.3.3.2 DEPARTURE REPORTS Communications with the company will be carried out at the Captains discretion. Such communications shall not be made until the flight is above 10,000 feet MSL and outside the TMA. Above 10,000 ft the PM/Flight Engineer shall contact company designated frequency and notify : Blocks Off time Airborne time ETA Any special messages Actual Zero Fuel Weight

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The reason for any delayed departure Flight Crew are requested to advise Engineering of any unserviceability which occurred during departure from Karachi and which is likely to affect subsequent sectors. Such timely advice will facilitate the arrangement of the necessary engineering support at outstations. In flight, communications with ATC units and monitoring of the Guard frequency 121.5 MHz, shall take precedence over company communications at all times. 9.3.3.3 ENROUTE DELAY REPORTS If unable to advise company/ground handling at departure airport of departure details, or if ETA changes by more than 30 minutes. Due to an enroute delay, pass these to Karachi Operations Control. 9.3.4 ABNORMAL SITUATION REPORTS Any un-serviceability that occurs en-route and is likely to affect the dispatch of the aircraft from the next station should be reported to

PIA engineering/operations control at the earliest opportunity. 9.3.5 ARRIVAL REPORTS Flight Crew are also reminded to report aircraft technical status for further service when within VHF range and inbound to Karachi. The PM/Flgiht Engineer will contact company/ ground handling at destination when within VHF range and advise : ETA. Special passenger handling requirements as requested by purser. Aircraft serviceability and operational requirements. 9.3.6 OUTSTATIONS The Operations Manager or Station Manager (in case Operations Manager is not posted at that station) shall keep the Captain informed of any possible irregularities with ground handling and should request his decision on all problems which may influence flight safety, the schedule and the workload of the aircraft flight crew. The traffic agent shall supply the Captain with the latest estimated zero fuel weight when available.

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9.4

FLIGHT CREW TO PASSENGERS 9.4.1 GENERAL It is the Captains responsibility to maintain contact with the passengers in order to ascertain that they receive the best service possible and are kept informed about details of the flight and deviations from normal operations. The Public Address System (PA) is a very effective service tool. Full use should be made of the PA within the guidelines set out below whenever flight deck workload permits, to promote greater confidence in PIA service. For all public address messages primarily intended for the passengers, the Flight Deck loud speakers should be off and the flight deck door closed. 9.4.2 RESPONSIBILITY FOR INFORMATION As long as the doors are still open, it is the duty of ground staff to inform the Captain about delays exceeding 5 minutes. The Captain in turn will provide appropriate information for the passengers, either personally or via the purser. In case of delayed boarding, information should be sought from the ground staff as to announcements already made

to the passengers (e.g. reason for delay). As soon as the doors are closed, it is the full responsibility of the Captain or the designated crew member to inform passengers about all substantial irregularities, such as departure or approach delay, technical troubles, go-around etc. 9.4.3 CO-ORDINATION Announcements should be coordinated with the purser in order to avoid duplication of information. Care must be taken not to disturb passengers with routine announcements during night or while movies are being shown. Whenever delays or irregularities occur, the flight crew maybe busy with the operational or technical handling of the situation. Therefore, if a delay or irregularity becomes obvious e.g. if the aircraft is returning to the tarmac or has discontinued its takeoff and is back at taxi speed or prepares for landing shortly after takeoff, the purser shall contact the flight crew on his/her own initiative to seek information on the details of the irregularity so as to be able to

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advise the passengers accordingly if required by the Captain. 9.4.4 PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION When using PA system, the following rules may be helpful: Introduce yourself before the first announcement. Stick to the facts, use direct and simple expressions and well known geographical names for position reports. Do not use technical terms which the passengers might not understand. Avoid expressions like Going Down or Final Approach that might make nervous passengers even more anxious. Be cautious in using humour, passengers might disagree on what is funny. Avoid expressing opinions. Passenger announcements should be made in positive manner as far as possible. Expressions which could alarm the passengers, such as Bad Weather, Heavy Turbulence, etc, should be

avoided when forecasting weather conditions. At STD, if the aircraft is delayed more than 5 minutes (give reasons for the delay and approximate duration). A delay shall not be mentioned repeatedly. After one announcement and one apology, further information should refer to Remaining Flight Time or ETA only. The Captain should automatically include an apology in the welcome speech if the flight is delayed substantially. In addition to advice of any delays, routine announcements from the flight deck should be restricted to the introductory welcoming and farewell addresses. Other than this, announcements from the flight deck during cruise should be restricted to those relating to en route flight information, progress ,emergency or abnormal situations, or when turbulence is encountered. 9.4.5 PROCEDURES FOR NORMAL OPERATION The Captain should introduce himself, then his first officer by name. At the end of the initial welcome, the purser

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should also be introduced by name. Having spoken to the passengers, the Captain may, if he/she wishes, handover responsibility for the remainder of the announcement to the First Officer. Information should be provided about the flight plan, weather en route and any other information deemed necessary. Subsequent announcements, if appropriate, should state additional en-route information, e.g. flight progress, points of special interests, leaving and reaching coastlines on ocean flights, etc. These announcements shall normally also be made in IMC. The closing announcements should be made when the destination actual weather report has been received and the traffic situation at the landing airfield can be better judged as to possible arrival delays, etc. This announcement should be given close to the top of decent once it has been established that the in flight entertainment system has been switched off. Coordination with the purser is

recommended if the Captains address is to be made at the optimum moment. 9.4.6 PROCEDURE FOR OFFSCHEDULE OPERATION Suitable information should, if possible be transmitted before passengers start impatient inquiries, but not before a sound explanation of the circumstances can be given. Information should be based on the following principles. Reasonable and realistic statement of the duration of delay. Once a definite time has been given this time should not be extended further without informing the passengers accordingly. If no time statement can be made, the passenger should be told so. In case of prolonged delay, the Captain should inform the passengers via the Purser of all arrangements which concern them in such a way that absolutely no misunderstanding between the flight and cabin crew, and passengers will arise. During extended ground stays in case of irregularities, personal contact between the crew and passengers may

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assist in handling the situation. It is of great importance that the Captain and station personnel are always aware of each others whereabouts and those of all crew members. Changes to departure time should be transmitted to these groups as soon as practicable by the station personnel. When a diversion becomes necessary, passengers shall be informed as soon as possible and be advised that their onward transportation or accommodation will be arranged by ground personnel. 9.4.7 BRIEFING OF PASSENGERS IN AN EMERGENCY Proper briefing of passengers is most important to prevent shock or panic. It is of special importance that the Captain should perform the passengers briefing personally. He/she shall explain the situation in a calm, professional manner. The intent is to instil confidence in the passengers that the crew members know exactly what they are doing. The briefing should include instructions as appropriate depending on the circumstances.

Only when conditions prevent the Captain from informing the passengers him/herself he/she may designate and brief another crew member to give this passenger briefing.

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CHAPTER 10: SAFETY AND SECURITY


10.0 General Crime On Board
10.0.1 Purpose...... 10.0.2 Definitions.... 10.0.2.1 Security.. 10.0.2.2 Crime on Board .. 10.0.2.3 Sabotage. 10.0.2.4 Bomb Threat or Hoax 10.0.3 Crime on Board.. 10.0.3.1 Policy.. 10.0.3.2 Reporting... 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4

10.1

Aircraft & Crew Security


10.1.1 Reporting of Damage 5 10.1.2 Safeguarding of Aircraft and Load.. 5 10.1.3 Attempted breaches of Security and local authorities. 5 10.1.4 Regulatory Authority Inspector Random Inspections.. 5-6 10.1.5 Crew Security on Layovers.. 6 10.1.5.1 Crew Baggage. 6-7 10.1.6 Assault by Passengers on Crew Members 8

10.2 10.3 10.4

PREVENTION OF SABOTAGE AND HIJACKING


10.2.1 Measure.. 8-9 SABOTAGE / BOMB THREATS GENERAL 10 10.3.1 INTRODUCTION THREAT ASSESSMENT.. 10

Sabotage / Bomb Threats On Ground


10.4.1 Red Warning Basic Procedure On Ground, Parked at Gate 10.4.2 Red Warning Basic Procedures On Ground Taxiing

11
11 11-12 13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16

10.5

SABOTAGE / BOMB THREATS IN FLIGHTS


10.5.1 RED WARNING BASIC PROCEDURE IN FLIGHT 10.5.2 Suspicious Article Discovered in-Flight Cabin Crew Actions 10.5.3 Suspicious Article Discovered in-Flight Flight Crew Actions 10.5.4 Suspicious Activity or Security Breach in the Cabin ..

10.6

Hijacking

16 10.6.1 Policy 17-19 10.6.2 General Guidelines 19 10.6.3 Communication Procedures. 19-20 10.6.4 Flight Crew Actions. 20 10.6.5 Cabin Crew Actions.. 20-21

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10.7

Notification of Aircraft Accident and Incidents

10.7.1 Definitions 22 10.7.1.1 Aircraft Accident 22 10.7.1.2 Aircraft Incident. 22 10.7.1.3 Fatal Injury. 22 10.7.1.4 Serious Injury. 22 10.7.1.5 Substantial Damage.. 23 10.7.2 Immediate Notification 23-24 10.7.3 Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Baggage, Cargo and records 24-25
2

10.8

Required Reports
10.8.1 Penalty free Reporting of Occurrences or Incident. 10.8.2 Reporting. Withdrawal From Flying Duties... 25 25-27 27

10.9

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10.0 GENERAL CRIME ON BOARD 10.0.1 PURPOSE This chapter is intended to provide crew with useful information relevant to safety and security measure on board PIA aircraft. It shall also stress that constant vigilance with respect to security is necessary by all flight and cabin crew members. Focus of safety and security training is to ensure that flight crew shall maintain control of the flight deck in all situations that can jeopardize the safety and security of flight. More detailed regulations pertaining to security are laid down in the PIA Security Manual. 10.0.2 DEFINITIONS 10.0.2.1 SECURITY Security is the term used in conjunction with legislation, regulations, programs, staff, equipment, devices measure and procedures required to safeguard the assets of an organization. It is

used in reference to all aspects of protecting international civil aviation against unlawful acts and unwanted interference. 10.0.2.2 CRIME ON BOARD (On ground and in flight) Crime on board whether on ground or in-flight is an infringement of law committed on board an aircraft. 10.0.2.3 SABOTAGE Sabotage is an act or a deliberate omission, intended to cause malicious or wanton destruction of property, endangering or resulting in unlawful interference with civil aviation and its facilities. 10.0.2.4 BOMB THREAT OR HOAX A bomb threat or hoax is a warning given by an anonymous informant pretending knowledge that a dangerous device, such as a bomb, has been or is about to be placed in an aircraft. 10.0.2.5 HIJACKING Hijacking is an act of aggression where the Captain is forced, by threat of violent reprisal, to relinquish his authority as commander of an aircraft.

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10.0.3 CRIME ON BOARD 10.0.3.1 POLICY If a crime is committed on board between doors closed and doors opened the Captain is responsible for ensuring that action is taken for the safety of passengers and aircraft to protect lives and aircraft, and for safeguarding the necessary evidence. In urgent cases, the captain may arrange a preliminary inquiry until official personnel take control. Should he/she consider it necessary, the Captain may start a search of clothes and belonging to safeguard pieces of evidence. If there is any special risk, the Captain has the authority to order detention of any person suspicious of having committed an offence. He/she must hand over the suspect together with any evidence to the law enforcement authorities at the destination. Written reports by the Captain and any witness Performa must be submitted to the authorities as soon as possible. He/she must also advise Flight Dispatch as soon as possible if

away from Pakistan, and complete a Captains Special Repot giving all relevant details at the completion of the flight. The captain may perform an unscheduled landing due to security situation on board. 10.0.3.2 REPORTING The Captain shall notify the next landing place authorities in advance if he/she considers a crime has been committed on board the aircraft. After landing, he/she must report the case to the local police authorities and other agencies in coordination with the Station Manager. On return to Pakistan, the Captain shall forward Captains Special Report giving details of the actions taken. This report will be forwarded to the company Legal Department for transmission to the authorities.

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10.1

AIRCRAFT & CREW SECURITY 10.1.1 REPORTING OF DAMAGE Any Crew member noticing damage to any aircraft equipment or goods on board should report his / her observation to the Captain or the responsible ground agent as soon as practicable, and before leaving the ramp at the station where the damage has first been observed. If this is not possible the ground personnel at the next station should be informed. If such damage cannot be immediately reported, a Captain Special Report should be submitted, giving full details of the circumstances. 10.1.2 SAFEGUARDING OF AIRCRAFT AND LOAD The designated Station Manager is responsible for the safety and the safeguarding of aircraft, passengers and cargo from the time that the aircraft doors are opened until they are closed again. At outstation where insufficient ground staff are available to fulfill this commitment, close cooperation between the Captain and Station Manager will be

necessary to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to prevent any unwarranted persons entering the aircraft or associating with any activities in close proximity to the aircraft. On turnaround flights and during transit stops at least one crew member should remain on board to monitor ground staff activity. 10.1.3 ATTEMPTED BREACHES OF SECURITY BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES At some outstations State organizations responsible for security may attempt to get personnel or items on board aircraft to evaluate crew alertness. Crew members should monitor all movement and activities of ground personnel during turnarounds, and not hesitate to question any person who is not wearing an identity pass or to report to the Captain any suspicious person or an item. 10.1.4 REGULATORY AUTHORITY INSPECTOR RANDOM INSPECTIONS Any regulatory authority inspector may carry out random periodic spot checks on carriers operating through their Airports. All crew

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member Doc# FOD/OM/02ers are to be aware of the possibility that these personnel may attempt to gain access to the aircraft without production or display of an ID card. A possible motive for this action is to place objects of questionable nature on board in order to assess the securitymindedness of Air Crew. If an aircraft is subjected to inspections in this way, the occurrence should be noted on the Captains Debrief Report. 10.1.5 CREW SECURITY DURING LAYOVERS 10.1.5.1 CREW BAGGAGE At the PIA Operations Centre, crew baggage may be left in the designated area. The baggage area inside Karachi Operations Control is considered to be a safe area. However this may not be the case at other airports or outstation hotels where the baggage must be supervised at all times. The continuous supervision of individual baggage is the responsibility of every crew member. Baggage should be locked at all times and always be under the supervision of the owner or member of the crew delegated to perform these

tasks. This includes the time the baggage is being transported to the airport, up until it is handed over the ground staff. When collective transportation is arranged, the Purser will delegate a crew member to coordinate with ground personnel in order to ensure that crew baggage is not left unattended at any time in an insecure area, including when checking in or out of the hotel. The intention of this precaution is to prevent interference with baggage in any way. When due to political unrest, a curfew is imposed in a country or city where a crew is a on a layover, air crew are advised to remain within the confines of their hotel as far as possible during the stay. If a crew member happens to travel outside the hotel, he/she should ensure that he/she keeps in contact with the hotel, and returns to the hotel well in advance of pickup time. They must carry their ID-Cards with them. Where it is considered that any civil disturbance that could endanger the safety or well being of the crew is likely to occur near the crew hotel, the

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Captain should liaise with the Station Manager to arrange for accommodation in a more secure area. If any travel restrictions are imposed by the local authorities that could prevent the crew from traveling to the airport prior to the flight, a move to a hotel at the airport should be considered. 10.1.6 ASSAULT BY PASSENGERS ON CREW MEMBERS Flight Crew and Cabin Attendants are assured that the company takes a serious view of unwarranted misbehavior by passenger on board on our aircraft and will actively pursue preventive measures. In the event that a Flight Crew/Cabin Attendant is assaulted by a passenger, he/she should: Report the assault to the Captain who will request for Police/Security to meet the aircraft on arrival. Refer the matter to Police/Security who will meet the aircraft. If the Police/Security authorities do wish to take legal action against the offender, Flight Crew/Cabin Attendant desiring to institute legal

proceedings should initiate the following course of action: Lodge a Police report and, if possible, obtain copy of the report. In Pakistan this will have to be lodged at the Police Station serving the airport. Flight Crew will inform DFO Cabin Attendants will inform Director Airport Services through G.M Airport Services as soon as possible. The GMCC/G.M. airport Services respectively will advise PIA legal and security department who will then assist the crew member in the proceedings. The company will provide all legal assistance, including cost, to Flight Crew/Cabin Attendants assaulted by passengers whilst on duty in flight.

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10.2

PREVENTION OF SABOTAGE & HIJACKING 10.2.1 MEASURE In order to prevent hijacking and sabotage on PIAC aircraft, a set of precautionary measures have been established which can be varied according to the actual threat situations by the decision of the PIA Security Division with co-operation of Airport Security Force (ASF) Confidential information pertaining to security measures in force at stations (if any) can be obtained from Karachi Operations Control. Prior to departure or landing if a threat is received at the destination, the following measures can be taken to save guard the aircraft during a turnaround at the airport: Bombs or weapons have been placed onboard an aircraft by catering personnel, so uplifting round trip catering can eliminate that possibility by preventing catering and catering personnel from boarding the aircraft during the turnaround. Cleaning personnel have been known to place bombs or weapons on

board an aircraft. So if a positive threat exists, instructing the outstation that cleaning personnel are not to board the aircraft can eliminate that source of danger. Under these circumstances the crew can carry out the basic cleaning and cabin preparations prior to boarding of the passengers. Additional security search of passengers may be arranged. In particular a physical check of all hand baggage and body searches can considerably diminish the threat. Personnel of contracting maintenance agencies should be prevented from approaching the aircraft and refueling should be carried out by the crew, ensuring that the refueling vehicle is not permitted to approach closer to the aircraft than is absolutely necessary. This should considerably reduce the risk of a device being attached to the external structure of the aircraft. In particular it should be ensured that no one approaches the

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undercarriage and wheel well areas. Loading personnel should be physically searched before they are permitted to approach the aircraft or to enter the holds, as this is known to be a major area of risk. Security measures should be initiated to ensure that no unauthorized person approaches the aircraft. If a request to open any aircraft door is received outside the parking area, the aircraft shall return to the parking position and the doors will be opened in the presence of authorized security personnel/s and concerned PIA/handling agent staff if so authorized.

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10.3

SABOTAGE / BOMB THREATS GENERAL Threats to Sabotage Aircraft (Known as Bomb Threats) 10.3.1 INTRODUCTION THREAT ASSESSMENT Sabotage or bomb threats are periodically received by all airlines against their aircraft. The action taken in respect of these threats will be influenced by the nature of the threat and the way in which the threat is made known. From the facts available it will be necessary to assess the threat and to decide into which category it falls. For threat assessment categories and details refer to PIA Security Manual. In all cases when a threat has been received and assessed. The operating Captain will be informed. In the event of a

threat having been assessed as non-specific (Green), there will be no need for any further actions to be taken by the operating crew unless they possess any supplementary information which leads the Captain to decide that further actions are required.

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10.4

SABOTAGE / BOMB THREATS ON GROUND 10.4.1 RED WARNING BASIC PROCEDURE ON GROUND, PARKED AT GATE Captain will: Make the P.A. Purser to the flight deck immediately Notify Ground Control and Ramp Agent. Ensure Electrical Supply Shut down engines. Brief the Senior Purser on the nature of the emergency and the disembarkation of the passengers. (Nature of disembarkation will be dependent on the type of information received). Normally all hand baggage will also be taken off. Senior Purser: Brief rest of Cabin Crew accordingly. Cabin Crew will: Carry out the given instructions. Captain will make the following P.A (similar to the effect) : Ladies and Gentlemen. We have been advised of a security threat to one of our aircraft. This will mean that the aircraft must be searched. Please follow the

instructions of the Cabin Crew. You are requested to disembark and proceed to the lounge and carry all personal belongings with you. 10.4.2 RED WARNING BASIC PROCEDURES During Ground Taxiing Captain will: Make P.A Purser to Flight Deck Immediately. Proceed to the designated area as instructed by A.T.C. Plan to use mobile steps for disembarkation if available within reasonable time. If mobile steps are not available. Plan controlled evacuation using slides. If a device has been discovered carry out full emergency evacuations using slides as per QRH. Notify ATC of intentions and request that vehicles be kept clear of doors / slides. Inform the Ramp Agent/ Ground Handling. Brief Senior Purser on the nature of emergency and the disembarkations or

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evacuations procedure, which doors / slides to be used. For controlled egress using steps will be as follows: Seat Belt Signs Off. Emergency Exit Lights On and P.A. announcement. For Slides it will be Evacuation Alarm / P.A. Just prior to reaching designated area. Make the following P.A. (similar to the effect) Ladies and Gentlemen, we have received a message that a threat has been made against one of our aircraft. Airlines received many such threats. However, we intend to take all possible precautions therefore we shall park the aircraft and request everyone to disembark promptly follow the Cabin Crews instructions. Ensure electrical power supply. Shut down engines

Keep Cabin Crew advised of any changes of plan using interphone or P.A direct to cabin. Purser will:Brief Cabin Crew accordingly. Cabin Crew will:Carry out given instructions

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10.5

10.5.1

SABOTAGE / BOMB THREATS IN FLIGHTS RED WARNING BASIC PROCEDURE IN FLIGHT

Captain will: Switch on Cabin Signs Declare an emergency. Select transponder to 7700. Plan to land at nearest suitable airport. Giving consideration to emergency and passenger handling facilities that would aid in evacuation. (e.g. aircraft steps, medical facilities etc). Request ATC / Company to advise Police and Airport Authorities at selected destination airport. Make P.A. Senior Purser to flight deck immediately Brief the Senior Flight Purser on :o Nature of threat. o Time remaining to landing. o Evacuation plan e.g. mobile steps (which doors) or slides

o Re-seating of passengers close to appropriate exits. o Maintain cabin altitude Do not allow it to climb. o Descend aircraft to cabin altitude as soon as practicable, MSA (Minimum Safe Altitude) and all performance parameters considered. o De-pressurize aircraft when operationally possible and maintain the cabin altitude. (See Note I) o Make Following P.A (similar to the effect): Ladies and Gentleman, we have received a message that a threat has been made against one of our aircraft. Airlines receive many such threats. However, we intend to take all possible precautions therefore we will be landing at Airport in Minutes. After landing we will ask you to leave the aircraft as quickly as possible please follow the Cabin Crews instructions. If time permits, initiate Flight Deck and Cabin Search procedures. As required and as time permits, adopt procedures under Suspicious Article Discovered in Flight

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o o

o o

Flight Crew Actions on next page. Keep Cabin Crew advised of any changes of plans using interphone or P.A direct to cabin. Senior Flight Purser will:Brief cabin crew accordingly Instigate Cabin Search Procedures if ordered by the Captain. Cabin Crew will:Carry out given instructions. Carry out Cabin Search Procedure if ordered by Captain.

Note 1: This is to reduce structural loads, should an explosion occur. 10.5.2 SUSPICIOUS ARTICLE DISCOVERED IN-FLIGHT (CABIN CREW ACTIONS) The following Guidance to Cabin Crew material is provided here to ensure commonality of procedures. Cabin Crews are generally familiar with nearly every area of the cabin, and will know where to expect and find stowages, etc. They will know whether the item is standard equipment normally carried on our flight for the purpose of in-flight services or safety.

If something is found which does not seem right or is in any way suspicious: DO NOT TOUCH IT OR MOVE IT Inform the Flight Crew immediately. Give exact location and a brief description of the article. Where possible, move passenger away from that area. Instruct them to sit with their heads below the tops of seat backs. In the area itself, remove oxygen bottles, perfumers, inflammables, or other stowed equipment which would present a hazard as a projectile should there be an explosion. Fire extinguishers should be readily available. Await further instructions; be prepared to give an accurate description of the device. Once it is decided that the article is in a safe location, cover with a split gash bag or duty free bag (To prevent liquid entering device), cover with a cushion of soft clothing or blankets to a depth and area as large as possible. Cover the whole

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with blankets opened out and saturate with water. This will reduce the risk of fire in the event that the device is an inflammable type. If the Captain considers it essential to move the article, for the safety of the aircraft, he/she will liaise with experts on the ground who will give instructions to the person moving the device. They will need detailed information as to its appearance, size etc. After establishing that it is safe to move the device, it should be taken to the L.B.R.L (Least Bomb Risk Location) and secured there. This is usually the center of the aft service door. The route from the location of the suspicious article to the LBRL, area must be clear of all obstructions and loose equipment. Cabin divider curtains must be open. In addition, place door in MANUAL, mode (Slide disarmed) and secure article to the middle of the door on a pile of bags and with adhesive tape. Carry out items (c) (d) & (f) above.

10.5.3 SUSPICIOUS ARTICLE DISCOVERED IN-FLIGHT (FLIGHT CREW ACTIONS) Follow INFLIGHT BOMB DISPOSAL/BOMB ON BOARD and Least Risk Bomb Location procedures outlined in aircraft type related checklist and in addition: Keep ATC fully briefed on flight intentions so that appropriate ground measure can be initiated at the aerodrome of intended landing. If flying time is not excessively increased request a routing clear of heavily populated areas. Brief Cabin Crew to be prepared for a possible emergency landing. Prepare for possible use of crew oxygen / smoke masks. Minimize maneuvers and try to avoid turbulence. Consider carefully the choice between flying fast to minimize airborne time and flying slowly to minimize air loads and damage in the event of fuselage rupture. In most cases, the turbulent air penetration speed will be a reasonable compromise.

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Consider establishing landing configuration as soon as possible. On contacting the airfield of landing, request details of remote parking requirements and confirm immediate availability of passenger coaches and steps. Advise airfield of need to remove passenger from the vicinity of the aircraft to at least 200m in an upwind direction as quickly as possible. If flying time allows make PA: Ladies & Gentlemen. If there is anyone on board with B.D. or E.O.D experience, please make themselves known to the crew. Note: BD stands for Bomb Disposal. EOD stands for Explosive Ordnance Disposal. Only the initials should be used on the Public Address system. 10.5.4 SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITY OR SECURITY BREACH IN THE CABIN. Any suspicious activity or security breaches in the cabin are noticed by the cabin crew during flight he/she shall immediately inform the cockpit crew discreetly through the interphone by using the code words.

The code words shall be set by the Pilot-in-command and the senior purser shall be informed accordingly who will subsequently brief to the entire cabin crew prior to each departure. 10.6 HIJACKING 10.6.1 POLICY Security measures in force on the ground are intended to reduce the possibility of potential hijackers gaining access to an aircraft. In the event of hijacking, the safety of passengers and crew are the first and primary consideration. When necessary, for this reason, the demands of hijackers shall normally be complied with by maintaining passive control of the situation. The Captain shall, as far as possible, retain his authority over crew, passengers, aircraft and load. Flight Crew should not flee, and leave the Cabin Crew and passengers behind, in order to immobilize the aircraft. However, although it is against basic principles, there may be a situation where the Captain decides that the escape of the Flight Crew will improve the success of the

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mission and save lives and goods. 10.6.2 GENERAL GUIDELINES The best solution in dealing with hijacking is to prevent its occurrence. PIAC in cooperation with the Local Authorities has established tight security measures in dealing with checking individuals and their belongings. The following is offered as a guide for crews in the event of a hijacking, despite having taken all precautionary measures. It is, of course, not possible to provide definitive instructions that will cover every conceivable situation that may develop or to outline in detail the exact steps to be followed. When an aircraft is under armed threat during a flight, it is extremely important that all crew members adopt a manner and attitude that will avoid alarming or frightening the hijacker or the passengers. All Crew members must remain calm regardless of circumstances and must convey an air of composure to others. The ability to remain cool, think straight, and operate methodically requires knowledge of what to do

under given circumstances, and for this reason, the procedural guidelines detailed in this section were established. In any emergency there can be no substitute for the use of individual initiative and personal judgment. The procedures given in this section of the Manual are intended primarily as guides and are subject to change as required. Obviously, the best solution to any emergency is to prevent its occurrence. Accordingly, crewmembers must continually be alert to note any incident or circumstance which might develop. If possible, the matter should be handled so as to eliminate the hazard involved. Prompt notification must be given to those responsible for dealing with the particular type of emergency. Cabin Crew members shall mentally catalogue their passengers with the idea of noting those who appear capable of disturbing other passengers or creating an emergency situation. Additionally, they shall observe those from whom they

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could expect help in case of emergency, such as Company or military personnel or other able-bodied, mature men. Cabin Crew members are to make frequent checks of the cabin during flight, being particularly watchful at night. They must always be on the alert for unusual or peculiar actions on the part of any passenger. Each time a suspect passenger uses the lavatory, it should be inspected for timebombs or other devices. Suspect passengers are to be observed closely when they come in contact with other passengers, and Cabin Crew are to be on the lookout for weapons left on board to be picked up later by a hijacker. If and when accosted by a potential hijacker, crewmembers are to remain calm and refrain from arguing with or antagonizing the suspect, as his/her actions are likely to be irrational. He/she should be addressed in a normal tone of voice and no unusual movements or actions must be made to startle or annoy him/her. At some point during the flight, he/she may make known his/her intentions. More than likely it will be a

request or demand for access to the cockpit and conversation with the Captain. At this point it will become necessary to alert the Flight Crew of the situation without alarming the hijacker. He/she should be told that access can be permitted only after an interphone request to and subsequent approval by the Captain. The crew member must then alert the Captain over the interphone advising him of a passenger who demands access to the flight deck. The message should not emphasize the word demand but simply state it as thought it were normal phraseology. This alert will provide the Captain with sufficient warning to permit him to take certain actions during the time required to escort the hijacker to the flight deck. The rear interphone should be used to provide the maximum warning time. Flight Crew shall remain calm, make every effort to cooperate with the hijacker at all-times, and refrain from any physical action to subdue even though such action looks feasible. Routine flight duties should continue.

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Upon notification by a Cabin Crew member that a potential hijacking is in progress, or upon verification of such an attempt by conversation with the suspect, every effort should be made to immediately select transponder code 7500 to alert ATC to the situation. ATC will continue to track the flight and give priority assistance wherever possible. If possible, the Captain should try to draw information from the hijacker by using the fuel ruse, i.e. advise him/her of the need to know his plans so that fuel loading, charts, clearances, etc. can be arranged. Any information obtained by this means should be passed on to ATC in a methodical and routine manner. An aircraft squawking Code 7700 and not in radio contact with the ground will be considered by ATC to have an in-flight emergency (in addition to hijacking), and the emergency procedures in the appropriate ATC handbooks shall be followed. In this case, notification of other concerned authorities shall include information that the aircraft was observed to have

displayed the hijack code as well as the emergency code. Above all, co-operation and compliance with the hijackers demands are essential in safeguarding the lives of the crew and passengers. Again, the entire crew must remain calm, alert ATC, comply, and use common sense. ATC will provide interference free communication and continuous radar monitoring wherever possible. They will also alert PIA personnel, police, ASF and relevant local authorities to request surveillance action. 10.6.3 COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES Probably the single most critical aspect of dealing with hijacking is communication. Each crewmember should be fully familiar with the standard hijack code signals so as to assure proper transmittal of messages in actual hijack situations. Experience gained from past hijackings indicates that there are certain things a crewmember can do to reduce the threat to the safety of a flight under control of hijackers. Critical situations

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have developed which have caused serious concern for the safety of both passengers and crew. In each of those situations, certain common actions were taken by the Air Crew and personnel on the ground because communications were either sketchy or non-existent. Each party involved acted almost independently without the knowledge of what the other party was doing or wanted to be done. Should an in-flight hijacking or diversion occur, to the extent permitted by circumstances, crewmembers should transmit as much information as possible to the ground. Ground stations have been advised not to reply to such transmissions unless requested. 10.6.4 FIGHT CREW ACTIONS If the hijacker has been in the flight deck, the Flight Crew should, if possible pull the cockpit voice recorder circuit breaker after the hijacking is over this will assist in the subsequent recovery of evidence. When the situation is finally secured the appropriate Tech. Log entry should he/she made

all

recorded

10.6.5 CABIN CREW ACTIONS The Cabin Crew plays an extremely important role in any hijacking or diversion. The following actions, if performed during hijacking, will contribute to the safe completion of the flight : Remain calm and poised. Attempt to talk to and calm the hijacker. If possible, discourage the hijacker from going to the fight deck. Impress upon the hijacker that safety of flight requires that he/she remain seated in the cabin. Impress upon the hijacker that his/her wishes and instructions will be complied with immediately even though he/she is seated in the cabin. Impress upon the hijacker that safety of flight requires that he/she remain seated in the cabin. Impress upon the hijacker that he/she is able to maintain constant communication with the flight deck and if he/she desires, he/she may at any

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time communicate directly with the Captain. If the hijacker insists upon going immediately to the flight deck, advise the Captain via interphone, if conditions permit, without sounding panic stricken. If possible, set aside and save eating and drinking utensils used by the hijacker. Observe the hijackers actions and conversation with other passengers, who might be accomplices. Observe the hijackers seat number.

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10.7

NOTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS 10.7.1 DEFINITIONS 10.7.1.1 AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT An occurrence which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such times as all such persons have disembarked, in which; any person suffers death or serious injury as a result of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or which the aircraft receives substantial damage. 10.7.1.2 AIRCRAFT INCIDENT Any other occurrence that affects or might have affected the safety of the aircraft, its occupants or any other third party. 10.7.1.3 FATAL INJURY Any injury which results in death within 30 days of the accident. 10.7.1.4 SERIOUS INJURY An injury which: Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within 07 days from the date the injury was received.

Results in fracture of any bone (except simple fracture of fingers, toes, or nose). Involves lacerations which cause severe hemorrhages, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage. Involves injury to any internal organ. Involve second or third degree burns, or any burn affecting more than 5% of the body surface.

10.7.1.5 SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE Damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component. Note:- Engine failure or damage limited to an engine; bent fairing or cowling; dented skin; small puncture holes in the skin or fabric; damage to landing gear, wheels, tyres, flaps, engine accessories, brakes, or wingtips are not considered. Substantial damage for the purpose of this section.

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10.7.2

IMMEDIATE NOTIFICATION The occurrences (Accidents and Incidents) that are described in this sub chapter are required to be reported to the Director General Civil Aviation Authority(DGCAA) on an Air Safety Report Form. If a report falls under the criteria for a Mandatory Occurrence Report (MOR), the Captain shall ensure that all affected crewmembers make a written statement. This should contain the facts, conditions and circumstances that relate to the accident or incident, as they appeared to the Crewmembers. This should be written at the earliest convenient opportunity. The Captain shall immediately notify the Operations Control, who will liaise with Company personnel to inform concerned regulatory authorities. An aircraft accident or any of the following listed incidents occurs: Flight control system malfunction or failure. Inability of any required Flight Crew member to perform his/ her normal

flight duties as a result of injury or illness. Turbine engine rotor failures excluding compressor and turbines blades. In-flight Fires. Aircraft collisions in flight. In-flight major failure of the electrical systems that require sustained use of an Emergency power source, e.g. Emergency Generator, or RAT to retain Flight Control or Essential Instruments. In-flight multiple failure of hydraulics systems, such that there is sustained reliance on one remaining means of moving the flight control surfaces. Sustained loss of thrust or power from one or more engines. Evacuation involving slides usage. An aircraft is overdue and is believed to have been involved in an accident. The notification required shall contain the following information if it is available: Type, nationality, and registration marks of the aircraft.

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Name of owner, and operator of the aircraft. Name of the Captain. Date and time of the accident. Points of departure and intended landing of the aircraft. Position of the aircraft with reference to some easily defined geographical point. Number of persons aboard, number killed, and number seriously injured. Nature of the accident, the weather and the extent of damage to the aircraft if known. A description of any explosives, radioactive materials, or other dangerous articles carried. 10.7.3 PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, BAGGAGE, CARGO, AND RECORDS The Company is responsible for preserving wherever possible any aircraft wreckage, baggage, cargo, and mail aboard the aircraft, and all records, including tapes of flight recorders and voice recorders, pertaining to the

operation and maintenance of the aircraft and the Flight Crew involved in an accident or incident for which notification must be given until the concerned regulatory authority takes custody thereof or a release is granted. Prior to the time the concerned regulatory authority takes custody of the aircraft wreckage, mail, baggage and cargo, such wreckage, mail, baggage and cargo may be disturbed or moved only to the extent necessary: To remove persons injured or trapped in the wreckage. To protect the wreckage from further damage. To protect the public from injury. Where it is necessary to disturb or move aircraft wreckage, mail, baggage or cargo, sketches, descriptive notes, and photographs shall be made, if possible, of the accident scene, including the original position and condition of the wreckage and significant impact marks. Director Corporate Safety shall retain all records and reports, including all internal documents and memoranda dealing with the accident or

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incident, until advised by the CAA Pakistan that such matter is no longer required for further investigative purposes. 10.8 REQUIRED REPORTS 10.8.1 PENALTY FREE REPORTING OF OCCURRENCES OR INCIDENTS The primary purpose of submitting an Air Safety Report is to assist in the prevention of any future Incidents. Flight Crew is expected to submit an Air Safety Report in an expeditious manner after any relevant event. It is not the normal policy of PIA to institute disciplinary procedures in response to the reporting of any incident affecting Air Safety. 10.8.2 REPORTING Incidents (either Operational or Non-Operational) must be reported to the Corporate Safety Division immediately by the most expeditious means. The Captain shall submit an Air Safety Report on all matters relating to abnormal occurrences. The report shall include as much useful information as is

possible depending on the incident or deviation in which the flight was involved, including: Flight description. Flight number. Date Captains name. Number of passengers. Departure stations and destination Type of aircraft and registration. Where applicable: Gross weight. Flight profile Configuration. Aircraft component malfunction. Weather. Airport and navaids. Runway conditions. A description of the occurrence. Time Location Emergency equipment used. Personal Injury A complete incident report must be raised whenever: A system defect occurs, which adversely affect the handling characteristics of the aircraft or renders it unfit to fly There is warning of fire or smoke.

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An emergency is declared. Safety equipment or procedures are defective or inadequate. Deficiencies occur in any operating procedures or manuals. There is incorrect loading of fuel. Cargo or livestock, or dangerous goods or a significant error on the load sheet. Operating standards are degraded due to deficient ground support or ground facilities. Ground damage occurs. A rejected take off is executed after takeoff power is stabilized. An excursion occurs; if any part of the aircraft leaves the paved surface during the taxiing, takeoff or landing. Significant handling difficulties are experienced. A navigation error occurs, involving a significant deviation from the intended track. A height control error of more than 300ft occurs. There is an exceeding of the limiting parameters

for the specific aircraft configuration, or when a significant unintentional speed change occurs. Communication fails or is impaired. A go-around (below 1000ft) or a windshear go-around is flown. A GPWs warning occurs. A stall warning occurs. A overweight landing check is required. A serious loss of braking occurs. An aircraft is evacuated. The aircraft lands with final reserve fuel or less remaining. Air-miss or an ATC incident or a wake turbulence event occurs. A TCAS resolution advisory occurs. Significant turbulence or windshear or other severe weather is encountered (including lightning strikes.) Crew or passengers are seriously ill, injured, or have become incapacitated. There is difficulty in controlling violent armed or intoxicated passenger(s) or when a

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passenger restraint kit is used. Toilet smoke detectors are activated or vandalized. An act of aggression e.g. Bomb threat or hijack occurs or security procedures are breached. A bird strike or other foreign object damage occurs. Any event, where safety standards are significantly reduced. Any event which may provide useful information for the enhancement of flight safety. Whenever an emergency situation results in a violation of local rules & procedures. The Captain shall complete the Air Safety Report as soon as possible after an aircraft incident / accident and if it is reportable, it will be reported to the CAA-Pakistan as early as possible.

WITHDRAWAL FROM FLIGHT DUTIES The Captain, First Officer and Flight Engineer of an aircraft are automatically withdrawn from flying duties pending investigation, if the aircraft on which they are acting as members of the Flight Crew is involved in an accident or incident while in motion and which results in: Death or serious injury to any person. Damage to property, either Company or third party. Major structural damage to the aircraft. A serious breach of air safety or operational security. Any flight operations person suspected or involved of deliberate violation of the Company Operational Safety Standards will be suspended or discontinued from active duty pending finalization of the proceedings of a formal investigation. The terms of reference for investigation will be given by the Director Flight Operations. Reinstatement to active duty will be subject to Company top management decision based on the findings of the investigation.

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CHAPTER

11:

PASSENGER

HANDLING
3

11.1

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

Responsibility 11.0.1 General Passenger Exclusion 11.1.1General.... 11.1.2 Medical /Serious Sickness Cases....... 11.1.3 Liability . BOARDING, OFFLOADING, UPGRADING 11.2.1 General... ... 11.2.2 Ramp Transfer.... 11.2.3 Unaccompanied Minors .... 11.2.4 Wheelchair for use in Wide bodied Aircraft. 11.2.5 Transit Passengers.............................................. 11.2.6 Passenger Baggage......... 11.2.7 Offloading Missing Passenger Baggage. Passenger Upgrading ............ SAFETY OF PASSENGERS IN FLIGHT 11.3.1 CABIN RATE OF CLIMB/DESCENT 11.3.2 USE OF SEATS AND SEAT BELTS 11.3.3 SMOKING IN THE CABIN.. 11.3.4 OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS.. 11.3.5 USE OF OXYGEN.. 11.3.6 OXYGEN MASK DEMONSTRATION . 11.3.7 LIFE VEST DEMONSTRATION/BRIEFING 1 11.3.8 CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Carriage of Deportees/ Inadmissible Passengers 11.4.1 GENERAL............. 11.4.2 HANDLING ON BOARD.. 11.4.3 NOTIFICATION . 11.4.4DISEMBARKATION. DISABLED PASSENGERS 11.5.1GENERAL.... 11.5.2 Handling and Boarding... 11.5.3 Individual Disabled Passengers. 11.5.4 Group of Disabled Passengers 11.5.5 Evacuation Procedures... 11.5.5.1 Individual Disabled Passengers 11.5.5.2 Group of Disabled Passengers

4 4 4-5 5 5 6 6 6-7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8-9 9 9 10 10 10-11 11 11-12 12 12-13 13 13 13-14 13 13-14 14 14

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Carriage of Pregnant Passengers.. Passenger Misconduct 11.7.1 General ..... Illness, Birth and Suspected Death 11.8.1 Policy ..... 11.8.2 Illness/Injury. 11.8.3 Birth . 11.8.4 Suspected Death..

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11. RESPONSIBILITY General Passenger handling at an airfield is the responsibility of PIA station staff and/or the contracted local handling agent. The responsibility extends until the Captain accepts the release of the aircraft from an authorized member of the ground staff, and the aircraft doors are closed and the boarding ramps/ steps withdrawn. At that point the passengers become the responsibility of the Captain. Notwithstanding this, the Captain is to ensure that the combined number of adult and child passengers on board the aircraft does not exceed the number of certified passenger seats. It is the responsibility of the Senior Cabin Crew member to bring to the Captains attention cases, where the amount of hand baggage in the cabin exceeds that which can be safely stowed in approved areas. Hand baggage that cannot be safely stowed in the cabin shall be offloaded by the ground staff. If space is available it may be loaded in the aircraft holds. A cabin is

not to be reported ready for takeoff until all hand baggage aboard the aircraft is safely stowed. In the event that an aircraft experiences a prolonged delay after the passengers have boarded, the Captain having considered all relevant factors, shall decide whether they shall remain on board or disembark. The following points should be considered:

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11.1

PASSENGER EXCLUSIONS 11.1.1 GENERAL The following extract from the ICAO Conditions of Carriage is reproduced for the guidance of Flight Crews and Traffic Staff. A Carrier may refuse to carry, cancel the reserved space of or remove en route any passenger, when in the exercise of reasonable discretion, the Carrier decides that the conduct, status, age, or mental or physical condition of the passenger is such as to: Require special assistance from the Carrier. Cause discomfort or be objection-able towards the other passengers. Involve any hazard or risk to himself or to other persons or property. The sole recourse of any person refused carriage or removed en-route for any reason specified above, shall be the recovery of the refund value of the unused portion of the ticket. 11.1.2 MEDICAL / SERIOUS SICKNESS CASES A Captain has the right to refuse to accept an invalid or

incapacitated passenger if he/she believes the passenger is likely to be placed at risk by the journey, or to constitute a flight safety hazard, or might cause inconvenience or discomfort to others, whether or not the travel has been medically cleared. The expected duration of the delay. Whether the presence of the passengers will hamper the task of maintenance personnel in the event of a technical delay. The availability of suitable space in the terminal building to accommodate the passengers. Any local restrictions on the temporary disembarkation of passengers. Passenger inconvenience. PIA authorizes the travel of passenger on stretcher. Such passengers must be accompanied by a doctor or an attendant / escort. For detail refer PHS Manual. 11.1.3 LIABILITY PIAC may suffer serious liabilities if a passenger is excluded for reasons which are later proven to be unjustifiable or unreasonable.

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However, PIA officials must exclude any passenger who is obviously likely to endanger him/ herself or the aircraft or its contents, or to cause substantial annoyance or inconvenience to other passengers. A Captains Special Report must be made whenever any passenger is excluded from a flight. It must state the complete details of the incident, the name and address of the excluded person(s) and names and addresses of at least two independent witnesses who are willing to give evidence, if required to do so. The Captain is ultimately responsible for the decision to exclude any passenger from carriage and the final decision must rest with him.

BOARDING, OFFLOADING, UPGRADING 11.2.1 GENERAL It is general policy in PIAC not to inconvenience a large number of passengers to accommodate a few. However in compassionate or gravely urgent cases, Captains may use their discretion to delay a flight departure. Unless there are operational reasons i.e. deteriorating weather, Captains will delay a departure when officially requested to do so through the Chief Pilot Central Control. Mandatory Cabin Crews must be on board at all stations whenever the passengers are on board or in process of embarking/disembarking. 11.2.2 PASSENGER BOARDING Boarding shall normally be conducted in accordance with company procedures and after clearance from the operating Captain or his representative. In case the Captain or his representative is not on board, the clearance will be obtained from the Flight Dispatch who shall ensure the aircraft is serviceable and there is no significant weather at the destination aerodrome.

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11.2.3 RAMP TRANSFER Ramp transfers of passengers and their hand baggage between two different aircraft is not approved. 11.2.4 UNACCOMPANIED MINORS Whenever there are fifteen or more unaccompanied minors travelling on a particular flight, Flight Services may be asked to provide a supernumerary crew member to look after the children in flight without cost to the passengers. Unaccompanied minors will be handed over to the Senior Purser by a member of ground/ traffic staff upon boarding. It will be the Senior Pursers responsibility to ensure that no unaccompanied minors are inadvertently disembarked at any transit station. In case of flight disruption at a transit station, unaccompanied minors remain the responsibility of the Senior Purser until being handed over to the appropriate ground / traffic staff.

11.2.5 TRANSIT PASSENGERS During an en route stop where transit passengers are carried, onward passengers may remain on board the aircraft unless local regulations prohibit this. The Captain is responsible for those remaining on board, and he/she shall, through the Cabin Crew, take all necessary steps to ensure their safety and comfort. Wherever the passengers remain on board, it is necessary for the Cabin Crew to remain on the aircraft for the duration of the stopover, or until they are handed over to the next crew. In the event that transit passengers are required to disembark, the Captain shall liaise with the ground staff through the Purser in order to ensure that terminal arrangements are satisfactory, and that those passengers are issued with transit boarding passes. They should also be made aware of the boarding time. The Captain shall also take measures to ensure the safety of any personal belongings left on board by the passengers. Transit passengers shall be physically counted and the

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number checked with the load message. In case of any discrepancy, the Captain shall ensure airline security procedures are applied. 11.2.6 PASSENGER BAGGAGE Whenever a baggage identification procedure is initiated, it is a Company requirement that the baggage is positively identified. By merely pointing towards their bags, baggage can easily be misidentified. To avoid any possible errors, normally passengers should touch their bags as a means of positive identification. 11.2.7 OFFLOADING MISSING PASSENGER BAGGAGE Whenever a passenger fails to show up at the boarding gate after he/she had previously checked in with baggage, then : Offloading of baggage belonging to the missing passenger will commence 10 minutes before STD. If the passenger is located before this process is completed, then he/she will be accepted for the flight. When the bags are recovered, they are to be

placed forward and to the left of the cockpit, in full view of the Pilot-inCommand (Domestic Stations Only). Traffic Staff will then obtain a signature from the Captain on the Passenger offloading Performa, together with a written confirmation that he/she acknowledges the physical existence the bags offloaded from the aircraft. (Refer to CHAPTER 5 for further information on the Missing Passenger Report). The traffic staff will adjust the weights on the Load Sheet via LMC entry. If the passenger is located after the baggage offloading has been completed, then he/she will not be accepted for the flight.

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11.3

SAFETY OF PASSENGERS IN FLIGHT 11.3.1 CABIN RATE OF CLIMB/DESCENT For passenger comfort, rate climb/descent altitude of cabin greater than 500 ft. per minute will be avoided. 11.3.2 USE OF SEATS & SEAT BELTS There must be adequate serviceable seats and safety belts available on board for all passengers. Passengers must use their seat belts and the Fasten Seat Belts sign must be on during: Taxiing and any period of flight below 10,000 ft. Flight in turbulent air or at any time when turbulence can be expected. In case of the latter, the Captain shall brief the Cabin Crew as early as possible, thus enabling them to secure in advance those passengers who wish to sleep. An announcement shall be made by the Purser as soon as Fasten Seat Belts sign is switched off after takeoff, recommending the

passengers to keep the belts fastened for safety reasons whenever seated. An announcement shall be made by the Purser as soon as Fasten Seat Belts sign is switched on before landing, recommending the passengers to keep the belts fastened for safety reasons till the engines are switched off. 11.3.3 SMOKING IN AIRCRAFT CABIN Smoking on board all PIA aircraft is strictly prohibited. During turn-rounds when there are no passengers on board, crew members who wish to smoke should seek the Captains permission to leave the aircraft for this purpose. This will be subject to the fact that there are no prohibiting airport regulations. 11.3.4 OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS PIA aircraft are required to carry the following supplemental oxygen for passengers: To supply Oxygen to 10% of the passengers for any period in excess of 30 min at cabin pressure altitudes

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between 10,000 and 13,000 feet. To supply Oxygen to all (100%) passengers for any period at cabin pressure altitudes higher than 13,000 feet.

demonstration or by the use of an approved video. 11.3.7 LIFE VEST DEMONSTRATION / BRIEFING A life vest demonstration for passengers must be made before takeoff if: The takeoff or approach path is over water, and in the event of a mishap there is the possibility of a ditching. The aircraft will be flying over water which is more than one hour flying time away from shore. The aircraft will be flying en-route over water beyond gliding distance from shore. Detailed instructions regarding how and when a demonstration or briefing must be made are stipulated in the relevant instructions issued to Cabin Crew members in their SEP Manual. Demonstrations/briefings may be replaced by a relevant video performance if such a system is available on the respective aircraft type.

11.3.5 USE OF OXYGEN Passengers must use oxygen when cabin altitude is above 14,000 ft. Passengers need not use oxygen at or below 14,000 ft. For CREW oxygen requirements see CHAPTER 15. Whenever a passenger shows sign of oxygen deprivation, he shall be given therapeutic oxygen in accordance with current medical instructions. When dispensing oxygen, proper oxygen masks should be used. The use of oxygen must be recorded in the aircraft Technical Log. 11.3.6 OXYGEN MASK DEMONSTRATION Demonstration is compulsory for all flights. It will be carried out in accordance with the relevant instructions issued to the Cabin Crew, either by an actual

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11.3.8 CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES No passenger may drink any alcoholic beverage onboard the aircraft. No alcoholic beverages may either be served or consumed on the flight deck under any circumstances.

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CARRIAGE OF DEPORTEES/ INADMISSIBLE PASSENGERS/PASSE NGER IN CUSTODY 11.4.1 GENERAL A deportee is a person who has entered a country and who at some later time is formally ordered by the authorities to be removed from that country. An inadmissible passenger (INAD) is a passenger who is refused admission to a country by the authorities of that country. A passenger in custody is a person charged with criminal offence and is wanted by the governmental authorities of another country or is being sent to the home country for trial/conviction. Normally such passenger remains under close physical supervision and custody as court. Deportees shall be accompanied by security officers or equivalent unless they are expelled for one of the following reasons only: Lack of working permit Illegal entry Expired visa or passport Cancelled or invalid permit of residence

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Insufficient funds Repatriation (runaway youth, refugees) and when there is a reasonable assurance that the deportee: o Needs no special handling o Will not be a source of annoyance to other passengers o Does not jeopardize the safety of the persons, goods or aircraft PIA Security/ Traffic/ Immigration will be advised in advance of any potential deportees/ INAD passengers/ passenger in custody, and will make the decision on whether they may travel unaccompanied or will require an escort. 11.4.2 HANDLING ON BOARD In all cases the Captain must be advised that DEPO/ INAD passengers/ passenger in custody are on board, with or without an escort. He/she has the authority to refuse to carry deportees in any doubtful case. Persons who refuse to board the aircraft with physical resistance shall be excluded from the carriage.

Arrangements shall be made that such persons will be boarded ahead of passengers and seated as discreetly as possible at the rear of the aircraft. The escort may carry restraining devices, and will use them if required. Otherwise, such persons will be treated with the same courtesy and tact as all other passengers on board To avoid deportees/ INAD passengers/ passenger in custody destroying their travel documents and claiming asylum on arrival, which could result in Airline being fined by the immigration control authorities at the destination, the departure station must ensure that the tickets and passports are handed to the escort or the Purser of the flight for his/ her retention. 11.4.3 NOTIFICATION For all deportees/ INAD passengers/ passenger in custody a Deportee Report must be completed and distributed as indicated on the form. The Purser must initial the station records. Passports and travel documents, along with the copy of the Deportee Report,

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must be handed to the PIA Station Manager or his representative at the destination station for the follow up action. 11.4.4 DISEMBARKATION It is the Captains responsibility to ensure that such passengers are not permitted to disembark at any point within the jurisdiction of the deporting country, unless ordered to do so by that countrys authorities. When an aircraft lands at another station within the jurisdiction of the deporting country or returns to the point of departure, the Captain will inform the station staff and the authorities of the passengers presence. Station staff must ensure that the authoritys instructions for custody of the passengers, either on board the aircraft or elsewhere pending re-embarkation, are carried out.

DISABLED PASSENGERS 11.5.1 GENERAL Disabled passengers belong to different medical categories and may travel either individually or in groups. These categories are subdivided into: Passengers able to reach an emergency exit during an evacuation without assistance. Passengers requiring assistance in order to reach an emergency exit during an evacuation. Detailed procedures (e.g. authorization for travel, maximum number accepted etc.) are laid down in Passenger Handling Manual. An escort will accompany the disabled passenger at his/ her own expense. The Captain must be advised if disabled passengers are on board the aircraft. He/she has the final authority to accept or reject incapacitated passengers for a specific flight. This authority is valid for last minute boarding as well as for already accepted incapacitated passengers.

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The following guidelines are intended to assist the Captain in his decision making: Are appropriate documents e.g. a statement from the attending physician, Medical Forms etc. on board? Are there qualified accompanying personnel (doctor / nurse/ escort) or as specified by the Physician. No imminent danger to life as far as is recognizable. Is proper care and transportation organized at the destination?. If the Captain decides to refuse carriage, he/she shall inform such passenger(s) about alternate travel means after consultation with the station personnel. 11.5.2 HANDLING AND BOARDING Cabin Crew will offer general assistance to disabled passengers and escorts, but cannot be expected to undertake nursing duties, etc. The Captain must be notified in the event of any deterioration in the

passengers condition during the flight. He/she may not be able to divert always but can make arrangements for extra medical help to be available at the destination and also request for doctor assistance in case one is onboard as a passenger. 11.5.3 INDIVIDUAL DISABLED PASSENGERS The standard Cabin Crew is considered to be able to care for comfort, safety and assistance in an emergency. Passengers able to reach an emergency exit without assistance shall be seated near the floor type emergency exit/doors but not in the seat blocks immediately adjacent to exits/ doors. Passengers unable to reach an emergency exit without the assistance are required to travel with an escort who will be able to assist them in an emergency. 11.5.4 GROUPS OF DISABLED PASSENGERS Accompanying persons are always required in addition to the standard Cabin Crew. These able-bodied attendants are responsible for the disabled passengers comfort,

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and their safety and assistance during emergency evacuation. Groups will be subdivided into smaller groups (depending on the aircraft type) and shall be seated in areas specifically designated for the purpose. Further information is available in the Passenger Handling Manual. 11.5.5 EVACUATION PROCEDURES 11.5.5.1 INDIVIDUAL DISABLED PASSENGERS The standard Cabin Crew is responsible for the evacuation of passengers able to reach the emergency exits without assistance. Passengers requiring assistance will be evacuated by their escorts or Cabin/Flight Crew and able-bodied passengers, depending on the situation. 11.5.5.2 GROUPS OF DISABLED PASSENGERS Primarily, it is the responsibility of the accompanying persons to evacuate groups of disabled passengers. Cabin/Flight Crew shall assist as far as possible depending on the situation.

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11.6

CARRIAGE OF PREGNANT PASSENGERS Expected mothers are not normally regarded as incapacitated and pregnant women will be accepted without a medical certificate up to the end of their 24th week of pregnancy. From the 25th of the 28th week of the pregnancy a duly signed MEDIF(Medical information)is required. In emergencies or on compassionate grounds women between 28 to 32 weeks of pregnancy may be accept for travel if there MEDIF is approved by CMO PIA or PIA nominated Doctor and the passenger is accompanied by an attendant. Beyond 32 weeks of pregnancy expectant mothers shall not be accepted for travel. Women within first 7 days after delivery are not permitted for air travel.

11.7 PASSENGER MISCONDUCT 11.7.1GENERAL Should any passenger(s) become unruly during the flight; it is the responsibility of the cabin crew to act under the instruction of Pilot-inCommand against such type of passengers. The crew may achieve control by talking with the unruly individual(s), but if that is not effective, he/she may have to use more positive measures, such as restraining the passenger with belts, ropes, blankets, or the restraining devices if provided. If a number of passengers are involved the Captain shall initiate positive steps to bring the situation under control. Enlisting the assistance of able bodied passengers may be necessary. The Captain should notify via ATC, the law enforcement officials at the airfield of the intended landing, so that they can meet the aircraft and take custody of the passenger(s). Cabin Crew should be alert to the personal behavior of any passenger who could threaten

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the welfare of any other passenger or crew member. The Captain is to be informed immediately. The following acts or conditions violate the law. Any person violating any of these or any other law or regulation may be removed from the flight and prosecuted to the extent of the law. A report should be submitted accordingly upon completion of the flight: Apparent intoxication Being obviously under the influence of drugs (except under proper medical care). Threatening another passenger or a crew member with physical violence Indecent exposure or proposals Theft Carrying an unauthorized deadly or dangerous weapon either concealed or unconcealed. Interfering with the safety of a crew member or the aircraft Conveying false information concerning the flight and its safety.

Committing or attempting to commit an act of aerial piracy. The Captain is responsible for ensuring that this policy is applied and that appropriate written reports are submitted by members of the crew. For this reason, Pursers should ensure that any incidents of this nature are fully documented by themselves and by any crew members who are involved in an incident or are witness to it. As there are many different types of incidents, the Captain shall use his discretion in deciding when an incident should be referred to the Authorities. Refer to PIA Security Manual for the following: Disorderly Passenger Release Performa Unacceptable Behavior Final Waning Performa Witness Report Form As a guideline the following definitions with reference to ICAO Annex 17, the Tokyo convention rule, ICAO Doc 288 and IATA security manual are being reproduced. Violent: Actual or Threatened Violence. Any activity involving physical assault or

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threat of physical assault. Assault is defined as an unlawful and intentional display of force against another in such a way that it creates in the mind of the other person the belief that force is about to be used against them. (Assault includes the use of force, e.g. Battering) Unruly: Breach of Aviation/Criminal Law. Any activity directed towards another person that constitutes offensive, menacing or reckless behavior. Such behavior would include the use of offensive language, verbal abuse and offensive conduct such as willful exposure all of which are prosecutable offences. The behavior would be directed towards or directly affect passengers or crew on the aircraft. Disruptive: Any other unacceptable behavior. Behavior that interferes with the comfort of fellow passengers, or interferes with the duties of crew onboard the aircraft. This would include minor disturbance not including acts of violence or

unruly behavior. Example include intoxicated but not unruly passengers, food throwing or boisterous passengers and similar. 11.8ILLNESS, BIRTH & SUSPECTED DEATH 11.8.1POLICY The preservation of the life and maintenance of passenger health whilst in PIA care is paramount. Cabin Crew members shall administer first aid in cases of injury and/or illness encountered by passengers. Such cases shall be handled in a calm assuring manner and will not be discussed with other passengers. For detailed guidance relating to cabin crew functions, actions and task sharing refer to the SEP Manual. The Purser should always make a PA requesting qualified medical assistance should the severity of any illness/ injury warrant. He/she must verify the medical qualifications of anyone Volunteering to assist. Under no circumstances shall an injection be given to passenger(s) by a Cabin Crew member. The only medication they may be given is that

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provided by PIA, either in the first aid/ medical kits or supplied along with the passenger amenities and stowed in the galleys. The Captain shall be notified immediately in case of: Serious illness or injury Imminent birth Suspected death 11.8.2ILLNESS/INJURY In the event of a passenger becoming ill or appearing to be unfit to continue that journey whilst on the aircraft or when about to board, the Captain should seek medical advice to establish if the passenger is fit to continue. Some Airport Medical Authorities will give written opinions to indicate that the passenger is fit to continue the journey, but if a written opinion is not available and the Captain is in any doubt, he/she can offload the Passenger. In a medical emergency, Cabin Crew may open the Emergency Medical Kit without first seeking permission from the Captain. Pursers must inform the Captain when the seal on the Emergency Medical Kit has

been broken, so that he/she may make entries in the Technical Log and in the Debrief Report. In the event of illness or injury to a passenger during flight, it is the duty of the Purser to report the occurrence to the Captain. The assistance of a physician or a nurse should be requested from amongst the passengers. If the condition of the passenger is critical, the Captain shall contact the nearest suitable airfield for landing and ask for preparation for the care of the sick passenger. In the event that no specialist advice is available, the crew shall consider the following symptoms in deciding to continue the flight or to land as soon as possible: Fever, perspiration or swelling Acute skin rash with or without fever Any other apparent symptoms Severe diarrhea or vomiting When requesting assistance from the airfield of intended landing, the following details shall be relayed if possible: Name of the passenger

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Illness (if known) or injury Request for a doctor and/or ambulance Details of the Captains actions should be included in the Debrief Report. 11.8.3BIRTH If a child is born during flight, the aid of a physician or nurse should be requested from amongst the passengers. In the absence of such aid, female Cabin Crew will assist. After landing the Station Manager will take over care of the passenger, on the understanding that PIA is not responsible for any medical charges incurred. The Captain shall notify the next airfield in advance, requesting an ambulance to meet the aircraft. On arrival, in conjunction with the Purser, he/she shall complete a report in duplicate containing the following items: Date and time of birth in hours and minutes Place of birth (given in lat/long) Sex

Full name of the parents( including maiden name of mother) Nationality of the parents or former nationality for displaced persons, as well as the place of birth. Home Address of the parents Witnesses of birth (full names and home addresses) Signature of the Captain and 02 other crew members The original of this report is to be handed over to the local police authorities and the copy included with the ships papers in the Flight Document Folder. 11.8.4SUSPECTED DEATH If a passenger appears to be dead, the person should be considered seriously ill and not presumed dead. Confirmation of death can only be made by a physician due to the complexities of the modern definition of death. The assistance of a Physician should be sought to administer treatment and provide a medical opinion. If the occurrence takes place before takeoff, return to the

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gate. If it takes place in flight and a physician or nurse is in attendance their advice to continue the flight or land at the nearest suitable airfield should be accepted. The following brief checks may assist the crew in evaluating the situation: Respiration Check if a mirror placed in front of the nose or mouth will steam. Circulation. Check the pulse on the neck and heartbeat by ear on chest Response. Pinch a sensitive area. Pupils. Check if both eyes are dilated wide. The authorities and medical services at the airfield of landing shall be informed that there is a very seriously ill passenger on board.

The Captain shall notify the PIA Station Manager at the next point of landing as soon as possible, of the following particulars: Full name of the passenger Nationality Date of birth Home address Station of Embarkation Destination Whether accompanied by relatives or friends The Station Manager shall immediately inform: The local police authorities and the airport authority giving all details. The airport medical officer.

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CHAPTER 12:
12.0

CARGO HANDLING
2 2 3 3 3-4 4 4 5 5 5-6 7 7 8-9 9 9 9-10 10 10 10 10 11 11

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

Aircraft Loading 12.0.1 Carriage of Cargo-General ... 12.0.2Suspected Inaccurate Cargo & Baggage Weights . Load Sheet 12.1.1 General.. 12.1.2Standard Passenger Weights. 12.1.3 Manual Load sheets. 12.1.4CaptainsAecptance 12.1.5Last Minute changes (LCMs) Live Animals, Mail, Valuable Cargo 12.2.1 Carriage of Live Animals....... 12.2.2 Carriage of Mail 12.2.3 Carriage of Valuable Cargo....... Carriage of Dangerous Goods 12.3.1 General.. 12.3.2 Acceptance, Storage & Loading ... 12.3.3 Loading of Hazardous Cargo 12.3.4 Notification of Crew (NOTOC). 12.3.5 Incidents .... 12.3.5.1 During Flights. 12.3.5.2 On Ground.. 12.3.6 Damage to Dangerous Articles...... 12.3.6.1 Definitions.. 12.3.7 Reporting of Dangerous Goods -Accidents & Incidents.. Carriage of Firearms and other Weapons 12.4.1 Policy. 12.4.2 Definitions.

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12.0 12.0.1

AIRCRAFT LOADING CARRIAGE OF CARGO GENERAL Cargo is carried on scheduled flights subject to space and weight availability. Passenger baggage, including accepted excess baggage, and mail shall have priority over general cargo. All cargo shall be packaged in the manner laid down by the Company, to ensure that it will not present a hazard in turbulence. It shall be loaded in a manner that precludes movement in flight. Any abnormally large or heavy cargo shall be secured in a special manner specified by the Company, and the Captain will be informed of its location weight and dimensions. Aircraft shall be loaded in accordance with the respective Weight and Balance Manual to obtain the best centre of gravity that the load permits. This responsibilities lies with the PIAC Ground Handling Staff and Agents, who should ensure that the centre of gravity limits are not exceeded. The Captain shall satisfy himself of the security of the loading of any abnormal cargo

with respect to the anticipated weather conditions for the flight. 12.0.2 SUSPECTED INACCURATE CARGO & BAGGAGE WEIGHTS Whenever a Captain suspects that the weight or balance of an aircraft is grossly in error, either by virtue of its handling qualities or lack of performance he/she should take the following actions. Maintain the aircraft well within the safe operating envelopes and buffer margins for the remainder of the flight, Make arrangements for weighing of all cargo and baggage at the destination airport, and make an entry in the Technical Log Book to request the download of the DFDR within 24 hours of landing.

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12.1 LOAD SHEET 12.1.1 General Load and trim sheets shall be prepared for each flight by either Company personal or contracted agents or, in exceptional cases, Flight Crew. Before departure the trim sheet must be checked, approved and signed off by the Captain. Under certain conditions particularly where the load sheet has been computer generated, the requirement for a trim sheet may be waived off. The following information shall be given to the person responsible for preparing the load sheet as early as possible i.e. generally at the briefing stage: Applicable takeoff weight restrictions. Take-off and Taxi fuel Planned trip fuel to the final destination. Potential loading weight restrictions. 12.1.2 Standard Passenger Weights PIA is authorized to use the following standard weights for load sheets. They include a standard 5

kg allowance for hand baggage. For specific flights, whenever the need is identified, an additional allowance is made for hand baggage. Standard Passenger Weights Adults (Male) 75 kg Adults (Female) 75 kg Children 38 kg Infants 15 kg 12.1.3 Manual Load sheets Each Flight Crew member shall be trained in, and retain competency in the completion of manual load sheets and trim sheets for the types of aircraft he/she is currently operating. A supply of manual load sheets and trim sheets shall be carried in the spare Documents Folder in the aircraft library. At outstations where a manual load sheet and trim sheet is prepared by the ground staff, it should be checked that the signature and license number of the person who completed that load sheet / trim sheet is on the document. All PIA outstation staffs who are authorized to complete the manual load sheets and trim sheets are qualified license holders.

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12.1.4 Captains Acceptance Before departure, the Captain or delegated Flight Crew member must check the following details on the load and trim sheets: The number of crewmembers is correct. Passenger totals do not exceed or deviate from the seating and safety equipment limitations according to the aircraft certifications. Actual weights do not exceed the structural and operational limits for takeoff, landing and zero fuel weights Dry Operating Weight and Dry Operating index for gross errors. ZFW MAC and Take-off MAC. Stabilizer setting is within prescribed limits. Fuel figure corresponds to the actual fuel distribution on the aircraft. The aircraft does not exceed certificated limits after Last Minute Changes (LMCs). It is the responsibility of the departure station personal to ensure:

Correct passenger totals. Correct weights and distribution of baggage, mail and freight. Correct load sheet calculation. Correct trim sheet calculation. By signing the load sheet, the Captain certifies on behalf of the Company that the aircraft load is correctly distributed and secured for safe flight. The Captains signature will be treated as his confirmation that he/she is satisfied with the accuracy of these figures. 12.1.5 Last Minute Changes (LMCs) On occasions it may become necessary to adjust the load sheet and trim sheets after completion due to late load and adjustments. Such a change is referred to as last minute change. (LMC). For any Last Minute Changes, reference is to be made to the Policy Chapter of Weights and Balance Manual for the respective aircraft type.

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NOTE: One Pax off-loaded and one pax added represents 2 LMCs and not zero LMC. Refer Mass and Balance for such LMCs. 12.2 LIVE ANIMALS, MAIL & VALUABLE CARGO 12.2.1 CARRIAGE OF LIVE ANIMALS Live animal may only be carried in holds designated as being suitable for the purpose. The captain shall be notified of the nature and location of any live animal carried and shall where possible, ensure the correct ventilation and temperature control of that cargo hold. 12.2.2CARRIAGE OF MAIL International mail is carried on PIA aircraft only when the permission of both the state of origin and intended destination has been given. Such mail shall be carried only in the cargo holds. International mail has loading priority over all other cargo, and will be offloaded only after all other cargo, in the event of a flight being weight restrained.

The captain shall be advised of any mail being carried by the annotation of the letter M in the section of the load sheet showing load breakdown. Company mail shall be carried either in the cargo holds or may in the case of urgent communications or AOG spares, be handed to the captain or purser to be given to the station manager or ground engineer at the destination. The captain shall be informed of the contents of any items of company mail so presented and carried in the hold if he/she so wishes. 12.2.3CARRIAGE OF VALUABLE CARGO Valuable cargo stowage areas for some aircraft are provided in the cabin. Larger items should be consigned to the hold unless accompanied by a courier. Valuable cargo shall not be accepted for carriage on the flight deck. Valuable cargo may be carried in the hold even through there is so secure stowage for it. In this the captain should be presented with the NOTOC from which should be signed to knowledge the presence of the cargo on board. The

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Captain has no responsibility for its safe keeping except in the case of a diversion, where he/she is expected to ensure that suitable precaution are taken to ensure its safety. From a security point of view a notification to all ground staff involved is issued to maintain a watch at the hold door and to ensure proper hand over procedure at the beginning and end of the flight. Whenever valuable cargo is carried the second copy of the NOTOC form will be retained by the purser and should be included with the ships paper on return to Karachi.

12.3CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS 12.3.1GENERAL ICAO Regulations (Annexure 18) and state legislation requires that the carriage of dangerous goods on board aircraft shall be in accordance with the ICAO technical instructions for the safe carriage of dangerous good by air. In addition, written permission may be required by the state of origin, transit or destination

and it may be general permission or specific to any particular flight. Dangerous goods are articles or substance which are capable of posing significant risk to health, safety or property when carried by air and which are classified in technical instruction. The technical instruction contain a list of those goods which are most frequently carried and together include detailed provision which must be followed when dangerous good are carried on any PIA aircraft. Information concerning the regulations requirements and provisions of the technical instructions are supplied to PIA employees in the form of IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations booklet and PIA Dangerous Goods Manual. It contains all the necessary information in a practical format designed for airline use. A copy is maintained in each relevant department on the ground and on board relevant aircraft as part of its library. Any article or substance which by its nature or quantity is classified and labelled as

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being restricted to CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY is prohibited from carriage on any PIA passenger flight. PIA responsibilities regarding the carriage of dangerous goods relates to the areas of: Acceptance of dangerous goods Storage Loading Inspection Provisioning of information 12.3.2ACCEPTANCE, STORAGE & LOADING Traffic and Cargo departments of PIA or its appointed Handling Agents are responsible for the acceptance, Storage & Loading. Dangerous goods acceptable for carriage must be properly packaged and must be labelled in accordance with the technical instructions and accompanied by the appropriate documentation. Each consignment must be properly inspected and prepared for loading using the designated acceptance check lists and any specific provisions regarding the acceptance and carriage of dangerous good in unit load

device (ULDs). Precautions for the self reactive substances, organic peroxides and radioactive materials must be fully complied with. These packages must be clearly marked and coloured accordingly. 12.3.3LOADING OF HAZARDOUS CARGO Under no circumstances are the crew allowed to handle dangerous good directly. If required to inspect qualified and concerned staff should be summoned to inspect the consignment along with the crew.All dangerous goods, except radio active, materials shall not be loaded in the bulk hold of aircraft. The loading and packing should be as per IATA DGR manual. Where dangerous goods or restricted articles are to be carried on a flight all conditions laid down in this chapter must be complied with. The Captain shall be informed in writing of the nature packing and location of any hazardous cargo in sufficient time prior to departure so as to permits him to personally inspect the

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loading and security of the cargo (if deemed necessary). The Captain shall have the authority to offload any hazardous cargo should he/she consider that: The material is incorrectly packaged. There is evidence of damage to, or spillage from container. There are several different packages loaded which contain substances which if they were to be inadvertently mixed together could pose a threat to the safety of the aircraft. The expected condition of flight is such that damage could occur to the container in the form in which it is packaged. Carriage of the particular cargo is prohibited on aircraft. 12.3.4NOTIFICATION TO CREW (NOTOC) Whenever dangerous good are carried on board the captain shall be advised by notice to crew (NOTOC). NOTOC will be presented to the flight crew at the time of briefing at all stations (fax or copy or the

original). The original NOTOC will be presented with the load sheet on the aircraft before departure. The NOTOC highlights significant facts about the dangerous goods or special cargo requirements. The NOTOC must be kept readily available in flight for reference in the event of an incident and should be drawn to the attention of and passed onto the joining pilots in command in the event of the crew changes at transit stops. In case the crew taking over is delayed or not available to due to a longer turn-around, the crew leaving the aircraft should leave a message to refer to the ships papers left onboard which will contain the NOTOC. This will preclude the possibility of new crew not being aware of the presence of dangerous goods. Should there be a query or information sought on the NOTOC presented, reference should be made to the Dangerous Goods Regulation book placed in the aircraft library or the flight dispatcher who will liaise with the people concerned if necessary.

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12.3.5INCIDENTS For the safe transportation of dangerous goods special IATA dangerous goods regulation (DGR) have been stipulated for all persons involved in handling loading and transporting these goods. The following guide line should be used if an incident should occur on board an aircraft which may be related to the dangerous goods. 12.3.5.1DURING FLIGHTS Consider landing as soon as possible. Switch No Smoking signs on. Consider switching off non essential electrical power. Recirculation fans off (where technically possible ) All air-conditioning packs to full flow. If necessary follow the appropriate aircraft emergency procedure for fire fighting and smoke removal. Consult the dangerous goods manual carried on the aircraft. For goods carried inside the cargo compartment, determine the source of smoke/fire/fumes. Consult the NOTOC and attempt to identify relevant item (s). Time permitting, consult the

Operations Control (Situation Room) at Karachi to request advice. 12.3.5.2ON GROUND Disembark passengers and crew before opening any cargo compartment door. Inform ATC and ground personnel and emergency services of the nature of the dangerous goods items and its loading positions according to the NOTOC. Make an appropriate entry in the aircraft Technical Log. 12.3.6 DAMAGE TO DANGEROUS ARTICLES 12.3.6.1DEFINITIONS An accident associated with or related to the carriage of dangerous good is an occurrence which results in fatal or serious injury to a person, or major property damage. An incident is an occurrence other than an accident not necessarily on board an aircraft, which results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, spillage, leaking of fluid, or radiation or other evidence that the integrity of the packing has not been maintained. Any occurrence

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relating to the transport of the dangerous goods which seriously jeopardizes an aircraft or its occupants is also deemed to be a dangerous goods incident. 12.3.7 REPORTING OF DANGEROUS GOODS ACCIDENT AND INCIDENTS Whenever an accident or incident occurs involving dangerous goods, the details must be reported to the PCAA. The captain shall notify the Director Corporate Safety and HSE department who in turn shall by the most expedition means available notify the PCAA. The Captain will supply a written air safety report to the effect. 12.4CARRIAGE OF FIREARMS AND OTHER WEAPONS 12.4.1POLICY The carriage of weapons and ammunition in the cabin or on the flight deck of PIA aircraft is prohibited. All weapons and immunization must be carried in the baggage hold. Weapons and ammunition must be stored separately. This restriction includes the firearms and ammunition

carried by security and police officers on official escort duties. The Captain must be informed of the numbers of weapons and the quantity of ammunition as well as their storage position. In case of air guards if permitted by the state the PIC shall be notified prior to the departure of the flight with information, which includes the numbers of authorised armed personnel on board and their location. Weapons and ammunition must not be returned to the owner on the airside of the terminal. Should such a requirement be claimed, special dispensation is needed. At all Pakistan airports, the police are responsible for providing armed protection for heads of state, VIPs and others whenever such protection is necessary. When foreign police or personal bodyguards seek to disembark firearms, or endeavour to take them beyond the security check point when embarking, the ASF/ Police must be notified immediately.

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12.4.2DEFINITIONS Weapons and ammunition include the following: Note that most forms of ammunition are subject to IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. Additionally under IATA DGR, some of these items may be precluded from carriage on our aircraft under any circumstances. Firearms (including handguns, rifles, machine-guns, shotguns, air guns, human killers, bolt guns, starting pistols): ammunition for firearms: replica for firearms: crossbows. Explosive materials (military commercial or homemade explosives): explosive devices: detonators: smoke cartridges, grenades; mines and other explosive military stores; replica or imitation explosive materials or devices. Pointed or bladed items made or adapted to cause injury (e.g. flick knives, gravity catch

knives, stilettos daggers, kukris; other knives (real or ceremonial) with blades exceeding 8 cm in length (including sheath knives); open razors; scalpels; ice ; swords; sword stick; umbrellas containing sword blades, harpoons; spears; arrows. Items containing incapacitating substances (including tear gas, mace, phosphorus and acids). Highly inflammable substances (e.g. gasoline). Gas containers or aerosols with a capacity of more than 500ml. Knuckle duster; clubs; coshes; rice flails. Passengers are not allowed to carry any of the above noted articles beyond the security checkpoint in the terminal. If a Passengers wishes to carry a dangerous article on the aircraft it must be surrendered to our ground staff who will be responsible for its safety custody.

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CHAPTER 13: GROUND HANDLING


13.0 Responsibility 13.0.1 General.... 13.0.2 Policy... 13.0.3 Load & Trim Sheets.... 13.0.4 General 13.0.5 Standard Passenger Weights 13.0.6 Manual Load sheets. 13.0.7 Captains Acceptance.. 13.0.8 Last Minute Changes (LMCs). Catering & Clearing 13.1.1 Catering... 13.1.2 Aircraft Cleaning Technical Log & Cabin Log 13.2.1 Technical Log ... 13.2.1.1 Maintenance Release (MR) or Certificate to Release to Service (CRS) 13.2.2 Minimum Equipment List (MEL).. 13.2.3 Technical Faults Recording .. 13.2.4 Cabin Defect Log .. Aircraft Technical Support 13.3.1 Stations with Authorised PIAC Contact Engineer 13.3.2 Stations without an Authorised Engineer . 13.3.3 Unserviceable Aircraft.. 13.3.4 Requirement for an MR/CRS................. Diversions to Airfield with Company Support. Diversions to airfields without Company Support 13.5.1 General... Charges & Administrative Procedures 13.6.1 Landing Fees . 13.6.2 Fuel Purchase 13.6.3 Administrative 2 2-3 3 3-4 4 4 4-5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8-9 10 10 11 11-13 13-14 15 15

13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4 13.5 13.6

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13.0 RESPONSIBILITY 13.0.1 GENERAL Ground handing in this Chapter relates primarily to areas that concern the Flight Crew either before or during the flight. The responsibility for the ground servicing of the aircraft generally lies outside the sphere of the Flight Operation Department. Such functions are normally carried out by other departments within the Company, or by designated outside contractors. However, ultimate responsibility for the acceptance of the aircraft for a flight always lies with the Captain. Responsibility for ensuring the satisfactory preparation of the aircraft for flight may be delegated to members of the crew as necessary. Close co-operation shall always be maintained between the Captain (or his delegate) and the ground personnel to secure smooth and efficient handling of all flight and ground operational matters. Whenever a captain is required to countersign any document at any outstation for handling charges, goods, or

other services, he/she should print his name by his signature and also his staff number. 13.0.2 POLICY It is PIA policy to subcontract the ground handling of its aircraft to outside agencies at stations abroad. In Pakistan this ground handling is done by PIA. Ground handling consists of: Passenger and baggage check-in. Cargo handling., Embarking and disembarking of passenger. Loading and unloading of Cargo, including dangerous goods. Toilet servicing. Fresh water servicing. Aircraft pushback (if applicable) Supply of passenger steps and loading equipment. Load and Trim sheet computation. At most outstations, PIA staff generally function in a supervisory capacity to ensure that the appointed handling agent is performing his duties correctly and to liaise with the passengers. They do, however, perform additional duties at

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some outstations like filing of ATC flight plans etc. but they serve primarily as a channel of communication with the handling agents. Where the aircraft is docked at a passenger loading bridge, the allocation and operation of the bridge is the responsibility of the local airport authorities. 13.0.3 LOAD & TRIM SHEETS The load and trim sheets are prepared by licensed personnel only (whether PIAC employees or Handling Agents). It is the Captains responsibility to ensure that the license number of the person preparing the load / trim sheet is written below his signature. The Captain may inspect such licenses to ensure their validity. At least one member of PIAC station staff will hold a valid license to compile load and trim sheets. 13.0.4 GENERAL Load and trim sheets shall be prepared for each flight by either Company personal or contracted agents or, in exceptional cases, Flight Crew. Before departure the trim sheet must be checked, approved and signed off by the Captain.

Under certain conditions particularly where the load sheet has been computer generated, the requirement for a trim sheet may be waived off. The following information shall be given to the person responsible for preparing the load sheet as early as possible i.e. generally at the briefing stage: Applicable takeoff weight restrictions. Take-off and Taxi fuel Planned trip fuel to the final destination. Potential loading weight restrictions. 13.0.5 STANDARD PASSENGER WEIGHTS PIA is authorized to use the following standard weights for load sheets. They include a standard 5 kg allowance for hand baggage. For specific flights, whenever the need is identified, an additional allowance is made for hand baggage. Standard Passenger Weights Adults (Male) 75 kg Adults (Female) 75 kg Children 38 kg Infants 15 kg

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13.0.6 MANUAL LOAD SHEETS Each Flight Crew member shall be trained in, and retain competency in the completion of manual load sheets and trim sheets for the types of aircraft he/she is currently operating. A supply of manual load sheets and trim sheets shall be carried in the spare Documents Folder in the aircraft library. At outstations where a manual load sheet and trim sheet is prepared by the ground staff, it should be checked that the signature and license number of the person who completed that load sheet / trim sheet is on the document. All PIA outstation staffs who are authorized to complete the manual load sheets and trim sheets are qualified license holders. 13.0.7 CAPTAINS ACCEPTANCE Before departure, the Captain or delegated Flight Crew member must check the following details on the load and trim sheets: The number of crewmembers is correct. Passenger totals do not exceed or deviate from

the seating and safety equipment limitations according to the aircraft certifications. Actual weights do not exceed the structural and operational limits for takeoff, landing and zero fuel weights Dry Operating Weight and Dry Operating index for gross errors. ZFW MAC and Take-off MAC. Stabilizer setting is within prescribed limits. Fuel figure corresponds to the actual fuel distribution on the aircraft. The aircraft does not exceed certificated limits after Last Minute Changes (LMCs). It is the responsibility of the departure station personal to ensure: Correct passenger totals. Correct weights and distribution of baggage, mail and freight. Correct load sheet calculation. Correct trim sheet calculation. By signing the load sheet, the Captain certifies on behalf of the Company that the aircraft

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load is correctly distributed and secured for safe flight. The Captains signature will be treated as his confirmation that he/she is satisfied with the accuracy of these figures. 13.0.8 LAST MINUTE CHANGES (LMCS) On occasions it may become necessary to adjust the load sheet and trim sheets after completion due to late load and adjustments. Such a change is referred to as last minute change. (LMC). For any Last Minute Changes, reference is to be made to the Policy Chapter of Weights and Balance Manual for the respective aircraft type. NOTE: One Pax off-loaded and one Pax added represents 2 LMCs and not zero LMC. Refer Mass and Balance for such LMCs. For further details please refer to the Weights and Balance Manual in aircraft technical library (Policy Chapter).

13.1

CATERING & CLEANING 13.1.1 CATERING PIA catering is both self supplied and under contract by outside agencies, either on a round trip basis or as single sector uplift from an outstation for the onward portion of the flight. Where round trip catering is supplied, the catering for the return sector is based on the latest load figures available for the sector at the airport of departure. It is PIA practice for the Purser to check the quantity and quality of all uplifted catering. Any discrepancies shall be reported to the Captain. Where any shortfall exists, due consideration has to be given to ordering additional catering taking into account the resultant delay, and the suitability of catering at that station. In extreme circumstances the Captain may decide to depart with insufficient catering for the actual number of passengers on board, but in this event he/she should explain the situation to the passengers, and record his

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reasons for doing so on the Voyage Report. 13.1.2 AIRCRAFT CLEANING The interior cleaning of PIA aircraft is carried out both by PIAC and outside agencies contracted by the Company. This agency may be the Handling Agent or another outside contractor. It is company practice for the Captain to delegate the responsibility for ensuring that the interior of the aircraft is properly cleaned and prepared for service to the senior purser. However the ultimate responsibility remains with the Captain. Under exceptional circumstances, such as where a positive security threat exists, the Captain may decide that it is inadvisable to permit cleaning staff to board the aircraft. In such an event he/she should request the crew to carry out basic cleaning and tidying of the cabin prior to boarding of passengers. He/she should explain the situation to the passengers, if this can be done without causing them undue alarm.

TECHNICAL LOG & CABIN LOG 13.2.1 TECHNICAL LOG 13.2.1.1 MAINTENANCE RELEASE (MR) OR CERTIFICATE TO RELEASE TO SERVICE (CRS) Whenever a defect is entered into the Technical Log (Tech Log). The Certificate of Airworthiness ceases to be valid. The Maintenance Release/ Certificate to Release to Service (MR/CRS) is the means by which the Certificate of airworthiness is revalidated. For such entries the flight crew shall ensure that the information entered is up to date, legible and cannot be erased, and correctable in the case of an error provided each correction is identifiable and error remains legible. Thus, whenever a defect is entered in the Tech Log and the defect has been actioned, an MR/CRS must be issued. Persons authorised to sign in the Certified Column of the Technical Log are in fact issuing a Maintenance Release /Certificate to Release to Service(MR/CRS). Generally only CAA Pakistans licensed and approved aircraft

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engineers are allowed to issue a MR/CRS. 13.2.2 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) If a fault that cannot be immediately rectified is discovered on servicing and inspection of the aircraft, it shall be reported to the Captain, and action decided in accordance with the applicable Minimum Equipment list (MEL). Each Aircraft MEL contains a preface that gives definitive guidelines regarding its scope and applicability. Note: Once the aircraft has been accepted for service the MEL and the procedures contained within it serve only to give guidelines on serviceability. Any operational decision relating to un serviceability after dispatch has taken place are at the discretion of the Captain. A Captain shall not accept aircraft for service if MEL requirements are not met unless a Waiver has been granted by PAK CAA. Such waiver must always be forwarded to the Captain in writing.

Copies of any waiver given will also be sent to any en route outstation for the information of the next Captain. Whenever a waiver for the continuation of a flight has been obtained, the final decision regarding the execution of that flight still rests with the Captain. The Captain must ensure the following correct entries are made in the aircraft Tech Log: Exact statement of the problem, The fact that a waiver for continuation of the flight has been granted (possibly including special conditions). The expected weather conditions of the intended flight where applicable. 13.2.3 TECHNICAL FAULTS RECORDING. PIC shall ensure full accurate report in the ATL of all known or suspected defects that may affect the safe operation of the aircraft, for each sector of flight. For aircraft having a fault Reporting manual the applicable code shall also be noted..

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If the defect is a recurring problem, a brief description of the defect must be entered and a reference to known prior occurrences should be made (include the Tech Log Page & Item No) 13.2.4 CABIN DEFECT LOG The Cabin Defects Log is used to record defects noted in the cabin. Purser is responsible for entering cabin defects in cabin defect log. The Purser will inform the Captain about reporting of cabin defects in the Cabin Log. A one line entry will also be made in the Aircraft Tech Log stating, Please check Cabin Defect Log for fresh entries. This will be signed off by the Flight Crew responsible.

13.3

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AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL SUPPORT 13.3.1 STATIONS WITH AUTHORISED PIAC OR CONTRACT ENGINEERS At Karachi or any outstation where resident PIA aircraft engineering staff is available, the PIA Engineering shall be responsible for ensuring that any technical defects on the aircraft are rectified or entered in the Aircraft Technical log by a duly authorised person in accordance with aircraft MEL/ CDL, and that: There are sufficient hours remaining on the current check cycle of the aircraft to allow the proposed flight to be completed. All prescribed pre-flight, hours limited, cycle limited or time limited checks have been performed prior to the flight. All fluid levels have been checked and where necessary replenished. The fuel required by the Captain for the flight has been correctly loaded and distributed.

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An authorised PIA Aircraft Engineer will sign the MR/CRS section of the Technical Log and submit it to the Captain when all of the above items have been completed. The latter, having satisfied himself that the aircraft is technically fit for service will accept the aircraft. 13.3.2 STATIONS WITHOUT AN AUTHORISED ENGINEER At outstations where there is no PIA maintenance establishment, it shall be the responsibility of the Captain to ensure that that all fluid levels are sufficient for that flight. Where a maintenance agreement exists with an outside agency at a line station, the Captain shall utilize the facilities and personnel supplied by that agency to assist in this. In the event that technical assistance is unavailable the Captains authority to certify the Tech. Log is restricted to the following: Refuelling. Pre-departure inspection and transit checks.

UNSERVICEABLE AIRCRAFT Where there is no agreement with an outside maintenance contractor at an outstation and the Captain of an unserviceable aircraft requires technical assistance, he/she shall contact the Operations Control who will liaise with the Engineering. The Captain shall not enter into any arrangement for maintenance assistance without an agreement in writing by fax or telex from C.E. Quality Systems in Karachi. Should an aircraft become unserviceable at an outstation, it shall be the responsibility of the Captain to determine, with reference to the aircraft Minimum Equipment List and / or Configuration Deviations List, whether or not the aircraft can continue the flight in its current condition. He/she may also consult with a local maintenance agency or the PIA Engineering and Chief Pilot Technical in Karachi through Flight Control to assist him in reaching a decision as to the suitability of the aircraft to continue the flight. Should further flight not be feasible without the

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rectification of a defect, the Captain shall liaise with the local maintenance agency for it to be done and make any necessary arrangements with them for the supply of spare parts on a loan or purchase basis in consultation with PIA Engineering in Karachi. Under these circumstances a waiver from PIA Quality Systems will be necessary. The waiver is required to permit the use of the parts and allow the local engineer to issue a MR/CRS. Any arrangement with an outside agency for the supply of spare parts for a PIA aircraft shall be confirmed by fax or telex by PIA Engineering, a copy of which shall be retained by the Captain and submitted with the flight documents. 13.3.4 REQUIREMENT FOR AN MR / CRS a) All PIA flights will require a Maintenance Release /Certificate to Release to Service (MR/CRS) to be signed by a qualified Engineering staff before commencement of flight. However if no maintenance work is performed on the

aircraft as a result of pre-flight inspection a CRS/MR may not be issued. b) Defect(s) Raised and Fixed. The Maintenance Release /Certificate to Release to Service (MR/CRS) should indicate the following: - The type of defect. - The circumstances regarding the defect. - The action taken to clear the defect, including the organization / personnel involved; the qualifications of the engineers (license, rating) and the communications with PIA Engineering (if any). (Refer to Maintenance Organization Exposition (MOE) Section 2.16. c) The aircraft that has a defect which is allowable under the terms of the MEL. Defect is reported on Tech Log. The engineer will give MEL reference and will close the entry. The record of C/F defect is transferred in the hill pocket of Tech Log and also included in the list of C/F items which is part of the Tech Log. (Refer to MOE Sections 2.16.2.5 & L2.3.2.5)

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13.4 DIVERSIONS TO AIRFIELDS WITH COMPANY SUPPORT Upon arrival at the alternate aerodrome, Captain shall consult with the PIA station staff to determine the course of action best suited to minimize inconvenience to the passengers. If the aircraft is expected to depart shortly after refuelling, it is preferable to keep the passengers on board as offloading them could result in further delay: If a protracted stay is expected then the decision shall be made after consideration of all relevant factors such as terminal congestion, availability of refreshments and local regulations etc. If the length of stay is likely to infringe on the flight time limitations of the crew, the Captain should coordinate to arrange for the reservation of hotel accommodation and transportation for the crew as quickly as possible so as to minimize any delay in departure caused by the required crew rest period. In such cases planning must be carried out in close cooperation with the Station

Manager and Operations Control. The crew must never leave the airport for their accommodation until suitable arrangements have been made for the well being of the passengers, and that the security and maintenance of the aircraft is ensured. The Captain shall ensure that all necessary arrangements for crew pickup and transport have been made. If the passengers are to be kept on board the aircraft, they shall remain the responsibility of the Captain, but if they are offloaded to the terminal they become the responsibility of the station staff. At all times the Captain shall liaise with the local station staff to ensure that any course of action decided upon does not infringe on any local regulations at that airport. 13.5 DIVERSIONS TO AIRFIELDS WITHOUT COMPANY SUPPORT: 13.5.1 GENERAL On arrival at the alternate aerodrome, the Captain should liaise with the contracting agent staff using the same

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guidelines as if they were PIA staff. He/she should make contact with Operations Control (situation Room) at Karachi. It is the responsibility of the Captain to arrange of the safe and efficient conduct of functions, which normally are performed by ground staff. These duties include: Safeguarding of the aircraft passengers and cargo Servicing of aircraft (including transit check). For requirements for aircraft technical servicing refer to the section earlier in this Chapter. Organization of ground duties such as: Passenger services e.g. meals, hotel accommodation, etc. Liaison with Operations Control or if not possible, with the nearest PIA station or Dispatch office Flight preparations, e.g. provision of CFP or OFP, ATC flight plan, metrological information, trim or load sheets etc. Handling of cargo and mail according to instruction from Operations Control.

Crewmembers may be delegated to perform various duties as required by the Captain. At least two Cabin members should escort the passengers to the terminal. The remaining Cabin Crew should check the cabin, collect any hand baggage left behind, and arrange storage of the sealed bar boxes. The Purser shall be responsible for ensuring that: In the case of a night stop, assistance is given to the passengers to complete customs and immigration formalities. In case of lost baggage, the handling agent is informed and appropriate actions taken. Unaccompanied children are never left alone, and that a message is sent to the stations of origin and destination in order to advise the childrens relatives of the diversion. Passengers wanting to send notification of the delay may be given this assistance at Company expense. An exact count of passengers is taken in

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order to avoid any misunderstanding about the total number. Assistance is given to any passenger wishing to transfer to another carrier. A proper record must be kept of all such transfers.

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13.6 CHARGES & ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES 13.6.1 LANDING FEES It should be noted that at some alternate aerodromes listed in the PIA Traffic Services Directory, the handling agents will neither pay nor guarantee the landing fees at that airport. In this case the Captain should try to negotiate temporary credit with the airport authorities, or if he / she is unable to do this he / she should contact Operations Control (Situation Room) in Karachi to arrange an acceptable method of payment. In the event of an in-flight diversion to an airfield where PIAC does not have station staff or a contract with a handling agent, the Captain should: Consider the feasibility of selfhandling if the stay at the diversion airfield only involves a brief refuelling stop. If this is considered practical, the Captain should make arrangements with the airport authorities for payment of any landing and parking fees. Handling charges at the

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diversion airfield can be settled in several ways: If the Handling Agent is an IATA carrier, a charge note can be signed by the Captain, and PIA will be invoiced through the IATA clearing house. The nearest PIA Station may be able to settle the account. Irrespective of length of the stopover, keep Operations Control in Karachi informed of the situation, and forward details of any agents at the diversion airfield who are willing to handle the flight and follow any subsequent arrangements. Approach a carrier or an agent with whom PIA has contracted agreements elsewhere for handling assistance if contact with Operation Control or another PIA station cannot be made. 13.6.2 FUEL PURCHASE When purchasing fuel at an outstation it is preferable to obtain the required quantity against a normal invoice from a supplier with whom contractual arrangements have already been

established. If the fuel supplier will not deliver fuel against a normal invoice, one of the carnets in the aircraft may be used. This should be considered more expensive than fuel delivered against a normal invoice. 13.6.3 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES A duplicate of the flight documents (load and trim sheets, the copy of the aircraft Technical Log page and the General Declaration) must be left with the handling agent or in his absence the airport authorities prior to departure. The following papers shall be kept in the trip folder for processing at the next PIA station or home base respectively: Passenger Manifest. Cargo Manifest. Mail Manifest. Flight coupons. Excess baggage slips. Air Waybill. The following details of the diversion should be annotated on the Debriefing Report for submission on return to Karachi. Name of the diversion aerodrome.

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Date and time of landing / take off. Name of ground handling agency, if applicable. Information regarding the services rendered (give details of any settlements made in connection with any service) such as: Ground Handling. Ground transportation of passenger and crew. Technical services. Other services (if possible furnish duplicates of Work Orders).

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CHAPTER 14: GENERAL FLIGHT DECK PROCEDURES


14.0 Crew Positions & Duty 14.0.1 Flight Deck Teamwork..... 14.0.2 Successions of Command .... 14.0.3 Crew Positions . 14.0.3.1 General Rules. 14.0.3.2 F/O Take Off and Landing Restrictions. 14.0.4 Allocation of Flight Crew Duties.. 14.0.5 Allocation of Flight Crew Duties with Multiple / double Crew 14.0.6 Allocation of Duties in an Emergency.. 14.0.7 Transition Training... 14.0.8 Special Airfield Authorization.. Admissions to the Flight Deck 14.1.1 Policy. 14.1.2 Travel on the Flight Deck. 14.1.3Locking of the Flight Deck Door. 14.1.4 Unlocking and opening of the Flight Deck Door 14.1.5 Flight Crew Compartment Exit/Entry Procedures (Airplane Without a Surveillance Camera) En route Inspections by C.A.A Inspectors 14.2.1 Background.. 14.2.2 Scope 14.2.3 Procedures 14.2.4 Delegation 14.2.5 Identification Use of Jumps Seats... 14.3.1 General. 14.3.2 Flight Deck Jump Seats 14.3.3 Reasons for Emergency Travel 14.3.4 Flight Deck Jump Seats. Nutrition and Health 14.4.1 Crew Meals... 14.4.1.1 Policy. 14.4.2 Meals on The Flight Deck. 14.4.3 Fluids on The Flight Deck 14.4.4 Smoking Rules.. 14.4.5 Eye Protection... 14.4.6 Ear Protection 2 2-3 3 3-4 4 4 5 5 5-6 6 6 6-7 7 7-8 8-9 9 9 9-10 1011 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15

14.1

14.2

14.3

14.4

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14.0

14.0.1 TEAMWORK Superior teamwork consists mainly of mutual initiative, assistance and continuous briefing. It is necessary therefore, for Flight Crew members to inform each other about their intentions and other important facts concerning the flight, such as a temporary disruption of lookout, a momentary break in listening watch on the normal communication frequencies, handing over of controls, use of the autopilot, handling of throttles, etc. Whenever a Flight Crew member observes or suspects an irregularity, deviation or anomaly in the operation of the aircraft or its system, he/she shall immediately advise the Captain before analyzing the situation further. Since crew compositions are constantly changing, it is necessary to standardize flight deck teamwork by adhering to relevant PIA Standard Operating Procedures at all times. It is recommended that the Captain make a brief check of

CREW POSITIONS & DUTY FLIGHT DECK

the cabin appearance on embarking and supervises, by means of spot checks, the preparatory work of the other crew members. Good teamwork between Flight and Cabin Crew is required in order to ensure that the cabin is prepared in time for takeoff and landing. 14.0.2 SUCCESSION OF COMMAND Should the Captain become incapable of holding command, then the First Offer will assume command unless there is a Relief Captain assigned as a crew on that flight. This succession continues, in emergency, throughout the Flight. The responsibility for assuming command passes normally to the next senior Pilot assigned as crew on that flight. If the Captain is taken ill or otherwise indisposed and cannot continue his command, the flight will not depart from the airfield where it has landed or, if occurring during flight, from the next airfield at which it lands. If the flight cannot be continued Operations Control (situation Room) must be notified immediately. Another

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Flight Crew member will be positioned, in order to allow the flight to be continued with the minimum delay. 14.0.3 CREW POSITIONS 14.0.3.1 GENERAL RULES It is a standard procedure that Pilots/Flight Engineer seats are occupied by appropriately qualified crew during all phases of flight. A crew may leave his seat temporarily during flight, with the Captains permission, e.g. when personal necessities or minor irregularities require it. The autopilot must be engaged in such cases. However, there will be no change or leaving of seats during climb or descent unless operationally required. Whenever a Pilot is replaced in his seat, this must be authorized by the Captain. The changeover must be done quickly and arranged so that only one of the pilot seats is empty at a time. The autopilot must be engaged during such a seat change. The Captain shall occupy the left hand seat except when he/she is endorsed to fly from the right hand seat and is doing so in training or checking role. When two Captains are flying

together and one is a Training Captain sitting in the right hand seat tasked to carry out the duties of a First Officer, the Training Captain is the designated Commander of the aircraft. When the Captain is not assigned in a training/check role, the Captain on the left hand seat is the Commander of the aircraft. Captains and First Officers should fly leg for leg in the roles of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM), as far as possible in order to ensure that both Recency and level of flying proficiency are maintained. However, this remains entirely at the discretion of the Captain who should carefully consider all relevant matters before allowing an inexperienced First Officer to fly the aircraft. The following are occasions on which the Captain is required to assume the duties of PF irrespective of prior allocations: During a rejected takeoff. During emergency and certain abnormal procedures. At any time he/she considers it necessary for safe conduct of flight.

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When the First Officer is acting as PF, the Captain shall perform the PM duties and not countermand the First Officers decisions, unless he/she considers that flight safety, regulations or PIA standard are being compromised. 14.0.3.2 F/O TAKE-OFF & LANDING RESTRICTIONS A Line Captain may allow a First Officer to carry out a takeoff or landing provided that: The runway is not contaminated (Slippery or Wet). The crosswind component does not exceed 15kts. For takeoff the RVR/visibility is 800meters or more Take of gross weight does not exceed 90% of allowed maximum take off gross weight. For landing, the cloud base is such that either the runway or its lighting is visible from not less than 1000 feet above the runway threshold for a non precision approach, and

not less than 500ft. for a precision approach. Note: Training Captains may allow First Officers to perform a takeoff or landing with weather conditions below the minima mentioned above. 14.0.4 ALLOCATION OF FLIGHT CREW DUTIES The general allocation of Flight Crew duties during takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, approach and landing is outlined in Chapters 16 and 17 of this Manual. The Pilot Flyings main duties are the control of the aircraft and its navigation. He/she shall monitor the aircrafts attitude and be ready to immediately take control manually. The Pilot Monitoring shall perform all non flying pilot duties, in addition to assisting the PF whenever possible in monitoring the flight instruments and with the general lookout. He/she shall always monitor the PF for signs of incapacitation, especially during the critical stages of flight, such as takeoff, approach or landing, and be prepared to take control at all times.

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14.0.5 ALLOCATION OF FLIGHT CREW DUTIES WITH MULTIPLE / DOUBLE CREW Multiple Crew Operations shall be conducted with two Captains and one First Officer in 2-man cockpit. In 3-man cockpit, multiple crews will consist of two Captains and one First Officer and two Flight Engineers. In case of 2-man cockpit, one seat will be reserved in the cabin, whereas in 3-man cockpit two seats will be reserved in the cabin in club class for crew rest for the multiple crew operations. In case of long range operations two sets of crew shall be detailed For multiple/double crew operations, the senior captain shall be the Pilot in command of the flight. When two Captains are flying together and one of them is a supervisory captain then the regulations in 14.0.3.1 apply. Operational command rests with the PIC when he is on the flight deck occupying a pilot seat. When he is resting, operational command will be passed to the next captain.

ALLOCATION OF IN AN EMERGENCY

DUTIES

Depending on the circumstances, the Captain shall allocate specific duties to his Flight and Cabin Crew. It should be understood that the PF shall be responsible for controlling and monitoring the flight progress, while other Flight Crew members are performing their allocated duties, e.g. technical handling of problems, communications, etc. Any handing over of flight controls shall be performed in a definite, unmistakable manner. For detailed procedures and allocation of duties refer to respective aircraft type FCOMs and FCTMs. 14.0.7 TRANSITION TRAINING Pilots undergoing command training will occupy the left hand seat under the supervision of a designated Training Captain for takeoff, approach and landing, subject to the discretion of the Training Captain who still remains Commander of the aircraft. Pilots undergoing First Officer training will occupy the Right

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Hand Seat under the supervision of a designated Training Captain for takeoff, approach and landing, subject to the discretion of the Training Captain. On any flight where a Training Captain is designated as Commander of the aircraft he/she shall occupy one of the Pilots seats unless conducting a check of type rated pilots and occupying observer seat. 14.0.8 SPECIAL AIRFIELD AUTHORISATION There are some airfields on the PIA network, which are considered to present special operational difficulties for Flight Crews. Before operating to any of these, which are classified as special category Airfields, a Pilot must undergo special training. For detailed information refer to Chapter 22 of this manual.

ADMISSION TO THE FLIGHT DECK POLICY

PIAC Flight Crew members should be allowed to perform their work with as little disturbance as possible. Normally therefore, no other person shall be on the flight deck during flight. For exceptions to this policy, see Use of Jump Seats in the next section. Travel on or visits to the flight deck shall not infringe upon the authority of the Captain of the aircraft. Notwithstanding any of the following, he/she shall at all times have the right to prohibit entry to, or expel from the flight deck any person whenever he/she feels that the safety of the aircraft so requires. His decision shall be final and binding in this respect. 14.1.2 14.1.2 TRAVEL ON THE FLIGHT DECK Travel on the flight deck means authorization to be on the flight deck during all phases of the flight, takeoff and landing included. No person shall travel on the flight deck of a PIA aircraft unless qualified to do so in

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accordance with Section 14.3 of this Chapter. In such a case the Captain shall be notified in advance of the presence of that person on board the aircraft. If he/she refuses admission to the flight deck, he/she should explain the reasons. In exceptional cases, DFO may authorize travel on the flight deck, in which case the Captain will be provided with the appropriate written notification. The Captains approval is required for all travel on the flight deck. A jump seat rider briefing card is displayed on entire PIA Fleet next to the jump seat. Crew should direct jump seat traveller to review the same. 14.1.3 LOCKING OF THE FLIGHT DECK DOOR The flight deck entry door shall remain locked in all phases of flight from the time the aircraft cabin doors are closed following passenger embarkation to the time these doors are opened for passenger disembarkation. It shall only be opened by crew members or those persons having the authority to do so. The door may be left open for extended periods only if operational conditions require

it and on the instructions of the Captain. The Purser is responsible for making sure that no passenger enters the cockpit without prior authority from the Captain and that the cockpit door remains locked. The Captain shall at all times retain the authority to lock the flight deck door and deny access to the flight deck. For services and to establish a means by which the cabin crew can discretely notify the flight crew in the event of suspicious activity or security breaches in the cabin the senior cabin crew member shall follow arrangements made prior to departure regarding use of interphone, discrete and entry code of the flight deck door. 14.1.4 UNLOCKING OPENING OF THE DECK DOOR.
AND

FLIGHT

It is the responsibility of PIC to ensure physical check to view the areas outside the cockpit to identify person (s) requesting entry and to detect suspicious behaviour or potential threat ( either through camera or cockpit peephole) prior to unlocking

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and opening the flight deck door and that it is safe to unlock and open the door. During normal course of operation such physical check is performed by the PNF. 14.1.5 FIGHT CREW COMPARTMENT EXIT / ENTRY PROCEDURES (ARIPALNE

flight crew compartment door is opened for entry or egress. Most of the contact between the flight and cabin crew shall be through the flight/cabin interphone system. In order to safeguard against any unauthorized person forcing his/her way into the compartment during flight, code words must be established between flight and cabin crew during briefing, prior to first flight of the day. This code shall always be used by cabin crew when making a false door opening request on interphone, in the event of a passenger forcing the cabin crew to get the door opened. Before opening the flight crew compartment door from inside, the following shall be the normal procedure: 1. Using intercom, confirm from the cabin crew that the lavatory adjacent to flight crew compartment door is/are not occupied by a passenger, and no passenger is in the safety critical area waiting for the lavatory to be vacated by another passenger. 2. Give a CLEAR THE AREA message to cabin crew. 3. On aircraft with a forward galley located adjacent to cockpit, the cabin crew shall position a meal cart to

WITHOUT A SURVEILLANCE CAMERA) The Flight crew compartment door shall remain locked for the entire duration of flight. To comply with International standards for security of the flight crew compartment, on aircraft that do not have a surveillance camera installed, the following procedure shall be followed by flight and cabin crew. Access to the flight crew compartment shall be limited, even to the cabin crew. The following procedure is considered effective and minimum to verify that a flight crew compartment entry request is genuine, and that no unauthorized person may take advantage of an open door to rush into the compartment. Cabin crew should always be vigilant and must actively monitor the surroundings whenever the

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physically block the lavatory access from the passengers end. 4. View through the door mounted spyglass to monitor the outside area. 5. Determine that the situation outside the door is safe for its opening. Flight crew shall not enter passenger cabin to assess a security issue, or to assist in resolving a security issue. That responsibility shall remain with the cabin crew, who should be qualified and prepared to handle all passenger related issues without flight crew intervention. The cabin crew shall keep the PIC fully updated with such developments, however: When the flight crew is ready to return to their compartment, he/she shall coordinate the door opening with the other crew by use of intercom. A cabin crew shall remain in the cockpit during the period one flight crew is outside (applicable to 2 crew airplanes only)

EN-ROUTE INSPECTIONS BY CAA INSPECTORS 14.2.1 BACKGROUND En-route inspections are one of the most important ways for an authority to fulfill the requirements of the International Convention on Civil Aviation in terms of continuing surveillance of operators. The objective(s) is to ensure that the standards required under an AOC are being maintained. 14.2.2 SCOPE Flight Standards Inspectors of PCAA that are type rated and current (as determined by the Director General) on the type of aircraft are hereby authorized to undertake examination or checks of an aircrafts crew including but not limited to a proficiency check or a check for the issuance of a type rating. Flight Inspectors with a valid license and with a rating on the type are authorized to conduct inspections of the operating procedures, the operation of an aircraft including but not limited to cockpit and cabin en route inspections or the aircraft equipment or of the ground organization of the air carrier.

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PCAA Inspectors are also authorized to perform any other required examinations/ Inspections/Checks and any additional checks that may be required by the Director General to fulfill the requirements of the International Convention on Civil Aviation and the Civil Aviation Rules 1994. The information in above CAR # 236 does not limit the emergency authority of the Captain to exclude any person from the flight deck in the interests of safety. However, when a Captain exercises that authority, he/she shall make an immediate report to the CAA in writing, outlining the situation and the reason(s) for such action. This report must be transmitted to CAA as soon as possible from the time of occurrence and at the latest within 24 hours.

14.2.3 PROCEDURES The following shall be the guidance for notification: CAA will continue to provide the operator with notification in as far in advance as possible. However, CAA shall be entitled to do a No Notice inspection at any time at any place as determined by the Director General. In such a case, the operators procedures must be placed in their operations manual and shall be sufficiently flexible to accommodate this No Notice requirement. PIA shall ensure that when such a notification is received that, in addition to the ticket and boarding card, that a flight deck jump seat and a headset or cabin seat if a cabin enroute is planned is made available for the Inspectors use during the performance of the surveillance activities. Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an Inspector presents his identification to the operator and/or Captain of an aircraft

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operated by a certificate holder, the Inspector must be given free and uninterrupted access to all facilities including but not limited to the pilots compartment of that aircraft. In the event that the operator has scheduled training for that particular flight that would require the forward seat, the Inspector would then utilize the second seat if available and in addition to the normal surveillance activities, also make relevant observations on the conduct of the training. In order to minimize disruptions to the operator, inspectors will evaluate situations where possible conflicts arise over the use of the jump seat(s). If, after evaluation, an Inspector determines that the use of the seat would cause the operator a disruption to a required activity such as a line check and the en route check could reasonably be rescheduled, he/she will so indicate. However, where the Inspector has a specific requirement to be performed on a particular

flight or a particular aircraft such as surveillance of a particular crew or airplane, the Inspector shall conduct the inspection. In case an aircraft is not equipped with a cockpit or flight deck jump seat, a cabin seat may be required for the conduct of a cockpit en route inspection. An effort will be made to inform the operator as soon as possible that a suitable cabin seat will be required to preclude interruption to the operations.

14.2.4 DELEGATION All CAA Officers possessing identification issued to them by the Director General identifying them as Flight Operations, Flight Engineer Inspectors or otherwise shall be deemed to be Authorized Persons within the meaning in Rule 5 of the CARs 1994 for the performance of duties and functions assigned to them under the authority of Rules 4 and 236 of CARs 1994. The Director General may also exercise himself the said powers available under the

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above mentioned rules, as and when deemed necessary. 14.2.5 IDENTIFICATION The Flight Inspectors, before conducting any inspections, checks and examinations, shall identify themselves with the CAA Flight Inspectors identity card. 14.3 USE OF JUMPS SEATS Company policy in respect of the use of jumps seats (flight deck and cabin) is as follows: 14.3.1 GENERAL The authority for the use of the jump seats ultimately rests with the Captain of the aircraft, according to the following rules, none of which limits the authority of the Captain to exclude any person from the flight Deck in the interest of safety. 14.3.2 CATEGORIES The following personnel on production of valid ID Cards or their written authority may occupy jumps seats, subject to the Captains approval: PIA Flight and Cabin Crew conducting Line Checks. CAA Pakistan Flight Standards inspectors in their official capacity.

Air Traffic Control personnel on official familiarization duties. Airframe and Engine Manufacturers Representatives on official observation duties and other officials specifically authorised by Flight Operations Management. PIA Flight Crew, Cabin Crew and dependants. Licensed Flight and Cabin Crew of other Airlines positioning. PIA Staff Employees on duty, leave or emergency travel. The use of any Jump Seat for takeoff or landing by a commercial passenger not listed above is prohibited. Under no circumstances any visitor to the Flight Deck is permitted to occupy any operating crew members seat or touch any of the controls. Any person travelling on jump seat shall be briefed on procedures to be followed in emergency in accordance with the Jump Seat Rider Briefing card carried on board. Occupants of Flight Deck Jump Seats should refrain from smoking. Flight Crew refers to Pilots and Flight Engineers. Staff refers to PIA Employees

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14.3.3 REASONS FOR EMERGENCY TRAVEL Death or imminent death of defined near relatives Catastrophe occurring to home of staff. 14.3.4 FLIGHT DECK JUMP SEATS At the discretion of the Captain, both Jump Seats may be occupied by Flight Crew, but only one Seat at a time may be occupied by nonFlight Crew if operationally required. The PIC may authorize the following to occupy one flight deck jump seat: Cabin Crew Aircraft Engineer Operations Engineer ATCO FOO Safety & Quality Auditor Before permitting use of the jump Seat by non-Flight Crew, Captains must take into account the nature of the flight to be undertaken, the age, mental and physical state of the passenger, especially one who will occupy a Jump Seat for take-off and landing. Occupants of Jump Seats must not be allowed to distract

the Flight Crew during critical phases of flight. 14.4 NUTRITION & HEALTH 14.4.1CREW MEALS 14.4.1.1 POLICY Preferably, crew meals should be taken on the ground. In flight, the crew meals shall normally be taken at the respective working stations. Both Flight and Cabin Crew shall have regular meals while on duty. It is recommended that light refreshments be taken between meals. No two members of the same Flight Crew are permitted to eat the same type of food when operating a flight. Every reasonable precaution should be taken to avoid eating the same food during meals taken within12 hours of the commencement of duty. 14.4.2 MEALS ON THE FLIGHT DECK If meals or refreshments are served on the flight deck, the following will apply: The Flight Crew members occupying the Pilots seats must not eat simultaneously.

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Food and drinks must be carefully handled on the flight deck and should not be placed on or around the controls due to the possibility of spillage with the associated risks for electrical and other equipment. Drinks will be called for from the cockpit when required and must be served with napkin and must not be passed over the centre pedestal. Details must be recorded in the aircraft Technical Log wherever spillage of liquid on any vulnerable area has occurred.

alcoholic drinks are being served to the flight crew. Bottled water may be carried on the flight deck provided it is stowed in a secure position. Crews are to ensure that all precautions are taken to avoid spills especially over the centre console. All bottles are to be removed at the end of each flight. 14.4.4 SMOKING RULES Smoking by passengers or crew members is prohibited on all PIA aircrafts, while on the ground and also during flight. 14.4.5 EYE PROTECTION Proper sunglasses may reduce eyestrain and fatigue, but can also reduce vision drastically and should therefore only be used when necessary. Antiglare sunglasses with maximum peripheral vision are recommended. These must not be polarized as they may cause blurred and reduced vision when used in aircraft with laminated windshields. In cases where corrective eyeglasses are a requirement as per the medical certificate for the license, Flight Crew members must wear the prescribed glasses whilst on flight duty, and have a spare

14.4.3 FLUIDS ON THE FLIGHT DECK For safety reasons glassware is prohibited on the flight deck. All liquid must be contained in shatter resistant cups. This restriction applies equally to any occupants of the flight deck jump seats. NO person shall bring any alcoholic beverage to the flight deck. In addition to the obvious safety implications, the impression might be given to Business Class Passengers that

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set of those glasses available for use on board. Use of bright lights should be restricted to assist eyes adaptation while operating at night or during hours of darkness. 14.4.6 EAR PROTECTION Flight Crew are advised to use suitable earplugs in any noisy environment, both whilst on duty (e.g. on the tarmac) and during private activities.

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CHAPTER 15: USE OF EQUIPMENT


15.0 General 15.0.1 Policy.... 15.0.2 Loose and Magnetic Objects on the Flight Deck.. 15.0.3 Portable Electric Devices...... 15.0.4 Personal Video Screens. Flight Guidance Systems (FGS) 15.1.1 Definition.. 15.1.2 Autopilot... 15.1.3 Flight Director (FD)...... 15.14 Auto-throttle System (ATS)... 15.1.5 Flight Path Vector (FPV).. Indicating and Recording Systems 15.2.1 Barometric Altimeter 15.2.2 Altimeter Settings. 15.2.3 Checking of Terrain Clearance. 15.2.4 Radio Altimeter.... 15.2.5 Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning Systems... 15.2.6 Altitude Pre-select/Alert System... 15.2.7 Airborne Weather Radar... 15.2.8 Recorders.. Lights 15.3.1Navigation Lights... 15.3.2 Anti Collision Lights. 15.3.3 High Intensity/Strobe Lights. 15.3.4 Taxi Lights 15.3.5 Landing/Flood Lights Navigation... 15.4.1 Navigation Aids- General. 15.4.2 Coverage of Navigation Aids.... 15.4.2.1 DME....... 15.4.2.2 ILS.. 15.4.2.2.1 System Limitations. 15.4.2.2.2 Ground Monitors. 15.4.2.2.3 ILS Front Beam.. 15.4.2.2.4 ILS Back Beam.. 15.4.3 Inertial Navigation, Area Navigation/ FMS/ GNSS Monitoring.... 15.4.4 .VASIS and PAPI.... 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6-7 7 7 7-8 8 8 9 10 10 10 10-11 11 11-12 12-13 13 13 13 13 13-14 14 14 14-15

15.1

15.2

15.3

15.4

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15.5

15.6

15.7

15.6.1. Protective Breathing Equipment - PBE Seat Belts 15.7.1 Use of Seat Belts. 15.7.1.1 Use of Seat Belts by Flight and Cabin Crew

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) 15.5.1 System General. 15.5.2 Modes of Operation.. 15.5.3 Operational Procedures. 15.5.4 Crew Action.. 15.5.4.1 Traffic Advisory (TA) 15.5.4.2 Resolution Advisory (RA) Action by PF... 15.5.5 ATC Procedures Oxygen, Seat Belts 15.6.1 Use of Oxygen in Flight.... 15.6.1.1 Use of Seat Belts.... 15.6.1.2 System Requirements

15 15-16 16 17 17 17 18
19 19 19 20

20 20

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15.0 GENERAL 15.0.1 POLICY Flight crew is responsible for the use of all equipment within the scope of the limitations, instructions in the FCOM and according to the standard operating procedures and recommended practices. It is important to monitor continuously the equipments performance and behavior during all phases of flight. It is PIA policy to make optimum use of all available equipment. The information in this chapter is of a general nature and some of it may not apply to some of the aircraft types operated by PIA. Specific operating information for particular equipment is contained in the FCOM of relevant aircraft type. 15.0.2 LOOSE AND MAGNETIC OBJECTS ON THE FLIGHT DECK Attention is drawn to the risk of having loose objects lying about the flight deck. Several incidents have occurred because such object have fallen down and blocked

controls, etc. if this occurs, every effort must made to find the object(s) and, if unsuccessful, an entry must be made in the aircraft technical log so that a thorough search can be carried out on the ground. As a rule, no loose objects that are not known to be absolutely non-magnetic must not be placed closer to the magnetic compass. 15.0.3 PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES ON BOARD To prevent any interference with aircraft electronic system by electromagnetic interference the following equipment must not be used on board the aircraft when doors closed: Any antenna operated equipment such as AM/FM/TV transmitters and or/ receivers, video walkmans, walkie-talkie, cellular phones, remote control toys, scanners, citizen band transceivers and wireless microphone Compact disc/DVD players

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Large and heavy electric power converters. Printers, carried as a separated device. Other electronic devices may be used but have to be switched off during the take off and landing phases while the seat belt sign is on. Medical equipment e.g. heart pace makers, hearing aids etc. may be used without restrictions. Electronic pocket calculators used on the flight deck shall not be placed in the vicinity of electronic equipment (e.g. the glare shield or pedestal etc) while switched on. Flight crew should be aware that electronic device may influence navigation and communication equipments. Any such occurrence shall be reported in the Captain De-Brief Report 15.0.4 PERSONAL VIDEO SCREENS The personal video system (P.V.S.) has been designed to operate safely and the certification authorities do not

limit or restrict P.V.S. operation to any phase of aircraft operations. Operation of the P.V.S. does not produce any sparks or high energy radiation and uses less electrical power than cabin lighting. P.V.S. may be used on the ground during transit whenever transit passengers are on board, including during refueling. 15.1 FLIGHT GUIDANCE SYSTEM (FGS) 15.1.1 DEFINITION Depending on the aircraft type the flight guidance system includes: Autopilot Flight Management System Flight Director Auto Throttle System Flight Path Vector Associated subsystems. Flight crew shall monitor, for appropriate aircraft response to crew inputs, the automated flight & its navigation systems through cross checking of all control panel inputs and the resultant guidance in aircraft response. Based on this monitoring the flight crew shall decide whether any manual inputs are

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required or if there is a need to change the level of automation following the sequence given in respective SOPs. 15.1.2 AUTOPILOT Crew should always use the highest available level of automation for the current phase of flight (IMC OR VMC). All autopilot modes, except control wheel steering where installed, shall be disconnected. On auto-land approaches after touchdown / roll-out. On coupled ILS approaches latest at 200 ft radio altitude. On other approaches latest when manual landing is assured. For other possible restrictions refer to the applicable FCOM. Control Wheel Steering (CWS), where installed may be used for approaches and landings. Its use is not recommended for landing during gusty weather conditions. Exceptionally, a flight may be operated without a serviceable autopilot at the Captains

discretion after careful consideration of factors such as general workload, crew fatigue, ATC environment weather conditions and MEL restrictions etc. (Refer to Chapter 14) of this Manual). Further limitations and specifications are stipulated in the FCOM. 15.1.3 FLIGHT DIRECTOR (FD) Use of the flight director is recommended for ILS approaches. Use of the FD for non-precision approaches will be as laid down in the FCOM/ SOPs. 15.1.4 AUTO-THROTTLE SYSTEM (ATS) When available and certified, the use of the ATS is recommended for all phases of flight, for manually flown approaches use of the ATS is at the PFs discretion. Refer to the FCOM for further guidance. 15.1.5 FLIGHT PATH VECTOR (FPV) The FPV may be used as laid down in the FCOM. Its use is recommended for visual and NonPrecision approaches.

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15.2

INDICATING & RECORDING SYSTEMS 15.2.1 BAROMETRIC ALTIMETER PIA aircraft shall be flown in according with the Standard Altimeter settings, (1013.2hPa), or the appropriate QNH value whichever is applicable. Refer to the instructions laid down in the Standard Operating Procedures and the Jeppesen Route Manual. Before takeoff the actual QNH must be set on all altimeters in use. Their indication must be compared with the elevation of the aircraft position. During flight, after each setting of the altimeters, the readings shall be compared. The altimeter of the Pilot Flying shall be the governing instrument for checking and maintaining flight level and altitude, unless it is found outside the tolerance limits. The flight crew shall use the appropriate tables, charts (provided by JEPPESSEN) to address potential errors due to extreme cold temperatures

15.2.2 ALTIMETER SETTINGS If QNH is included in the ATIS and not repeated by ATC, the PM shall verify the correct QNH prior to descent through the Transition level and commencement of the approach. For tolerance limits, refer to the FCOM. Phase of Alt 1 Stby Alt2 Flight (Left) Alt (Right) Take off Climb to a cleared altitude. Passing Transition Altitude on Climb Cruise Descent Briefing Decent to a cleared altitude Passing Transition Level on descent QNH QNH QNH QNH QNH QNH

STD STD STD QNH

STD STD QNH QNH

STD STD STD QNH

QNH

QNH

QNH

Note: 1 whenever altimeter subscale settings are changed,

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a cross check is mandatory to confirm agreements. Note: 2 Where the Metric Altimeter is available it will remain on 1013 and shall be adjusted whenever required. For other details Refer Chapter 9 of this manual. 15.2.3 CHECKING OF TERRAIN CLEARANCE. Whenever flying near MOCA/MORA or minimum drift-down altitude, the Flight Crew shall positively check that the cruising flight level is equal to or above MOCA/MORA. For operating in areas with metric altitude/flight level assignment, refer to the Jeppesen Airway Manual.

Note: Winds deflected around mountains peaks or through valleys tend to increase speed, which results in local decrease in pressure. A pressure altimeter within such airflow is subject to an increased error in altitude indication. This error will be present till the airflow returns to normal speed some distance downwind of the mountain.

15.2.4 RADIO ALTIMETER The Radio altimeter shall be utilized for determining the decision height (DH) as indicated on the approach charts during the final approach and as a terrain proximity warning during climb, cruise, descent and intermediate approach. Due to its design, the radio altimeter will not indicate isolated obstacles (e.g. radio masts, single trees, etc.), but will warn of terrain and compact obstacles only. The radio altimeter shall be set to the applicable decision height (DH) as stated on the applicable Jeppesen Approach Charts. For all other approaches the radio altimeter will be set so as to avoid distractions and nuisance alerts. Specific setting procedures are stipulated in the FCOM. 15.2.5 ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (EGPWS) Depending on the type of aircraft, EGPWS can issue either hard warnings only, or

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hard and soft warnings. A hard warning is any warning containing Whoop, Whoop, Pull Up. A soft warning is any other warning. It also provides terrain information. In any case of EGPWS hard warnings and unexpected soft warnings in IMC or at night, a pull-up or go-around procedure is mandatory. Hard warnings in visual ground contact conditions during daylight do not require a pull up if the crew considers the continuation of the approach to be safe with respect to terrain clearance. 15.2.6 ALTITUDE PRE-SELECT / ALERT SYSTEM The use of these systems is compulsory until starting final approach. The PF is responsible for setting the cleared flight level or altitude while the autopilot is engaged. When the autopilot is disengaged the PM is responsible for these settings. For details on setting of altitude at lower level refer to aircraft type FCOMs.

15.2.7

AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR Normally airborne weather radar equipment is used as a means to avoid entering thunderstorms /heavy precipitation areas. Thus when such area is detected, it shall be circumnavigated in accordance with the guidelines laid down in Chapter 19 Adverse Weather". An aircraft may not be dispatched on any flight without a serviceable weather radar system when operating in areas where thunderstorms or other hazardous conditions forecasted. In the event of radar failure during flight where thunderstorm activity is exist or forecasted, the Captain must decide whether it is safer to continue or to turn back. Airborne radar is not intended for terrain avoidance. However, it may be utilized in the terrain mapping mode to establish the relative position of the aircraft to large bodies of water, high terrain and other dominant ground features.

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15.2.8 RECORDERS Recorders are primarily intended for incident/ accident investigation and shall be operated according to relevant instructions in the FCOM. Recorded data which the Captain decides may be valuable for the reconstruction of a special event can be safeguarded for a potential investigation as follows: Flight Data Recorder If the Captain wants to safeguard stored data in case of a serious incident an entry must be made in the aircraft Technical Log i.e. Remove Flight Data Recorder for investigation. Cockpit Voice Recorder Whenever it is intended to safeguard the CVR, its circuit breaker can be pulled out but an entry must be made in the aircraft Technical Log i.e. Remove Cockpit Voice Recorder for investigations.

NOTE: 1- The FDR shall not be intentionally switched off. 2- The CVR shall not be intentionally switched off, unless essential to preserve accident or serious incident-related data. 3- Entire PIA fleet is equipped with CVR capable of recording cockpit audio for at least last 30 minutes.

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15.3 LIGHTS 15.3.1 NAVIGATION LIGHTS Navigation lights must be on for all aircraft movements between sunset and sunrise. 15.3.2 ANTI COLLISION LIGHTS Anti Collision lights shall be turned on just prior to engine start and left on until after the engines are shut down. 15.3.3 HIGH INTENSITY / STROBE LIGHTS These lights shall be used during all phases of flight from takeoff to after landing, day and night, unless they become distracting due to meteorological conditions. If an Auto selection mode is available, this will be the normally selected position. Whenever maneuvering on an active runway for an extended period, it is recommended that strobe lights be switched on. 15.3.4 TAXI LIGHTS Taxi lights shall normally be switched on by day and night when maneuvering on the ground. They will be used in the air as instructed in the FCOM.

15.3.5

LANDING / FLOOD LIGHTS Landing lights and flood lights (i.e. wing and runway turn off lights) shall generally be used at night to enable pilots to distinguish objects and obstructions during takeoff and landing. They may also provide useful reflections from prominent runway markings and textures. Exceptions are justified when the effect of the lights impairs the visibility or provokes false impressions, e.g. in fog, blowing snow or LVP operations. For taxiing at night, the flood lights are to be used subject to the Captains discretion. Care should be taken not to blind ramp controllers and for this reason lights should not be switched on until the All Clear signal has been given. For takeoff in daylight, the landing and flood lights shall be switched on when cleared for takeoff in order to signal to other aircraft that takeoff is imminent. Landing and flood lights shall be used at all times when flying below 10,000 ft in order to make the aircraft more

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conspicuous to other aircraft and to the ATC, and to reduce the risk of bird collision. Findings indicate that aircraft direction and speed can best be interpreted by birds when aircraft show two light sources which are ideally separated by approximately 15 to 20 meters. The following external light display is therefore recommended whenever a high risk of bird collision is believed to exist: During daylight switch on only those lights which provide spacing i.e. wing or fuselage landing lights, and leave off all other lights along the centerline of the aircraft such as nose wheel lights, etc. At night display all lights.

15.4

NAVIGATION Aircraft position shall continually be confirmed with double checks using the most suitable combination of independent navigation aids. The Pilot Flying shall always give adequate notice to the Pilot Monitoring of the requirement to set and check any relevant navigation aids or equipment. Any changes shall only be made after instructions from or with the consent of the PF. NAVIGATION AIDS GENERAL Unless used in connection with RNAV, any navigation aid shall be positively identified by its aural identification signal before any use is made of it. Each pilot is required to confirm the identification of the ILS prior to its use for an approach. During an NDB approach the PM is to continuously monitor the aural identification of the beacon on aircraft where a failure of the airborne or ground equipment would not otherwise be annunciated by an indication such as the ADF

15.4.1

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needle swinging to the 3O Clock / 9 O Clock position. The Pilot setting /checking a navigation aid shall always announce its completion, and shall inform the other Pilot whenever the reliability of a selected navigation aid is in doubt. It is the PFs duty to verify the correct setting of navigation aids in use. Whenever an indication does not correspond with the estimated position, a recheck with other available means shall be made and the reliability of the navigation aid verified. A navigation aid shall not be used for navigation purposes if: It is reported to be on maintenance unreliable or on test. The proper identification is not received. A navigation aid reported ground checked only may be used for en route navigation but not as an approach aid. In such cases the respective navigation aid may only provide supplementary info.

Landing minima are based on the unrestricted availability of approach aids. 15.4.2 COVERAGE OF NAVIGATION AIDS The coverage area of en route navigation facilities such as NDBs and VORs varies depending on power output, location, altitude and disturbance. On airways defined by radio aids these en route navigation facilities are expected to provide reliable indication from at least half way between the navigation aids on the published route structure. Outside the coverage area of navigation aids, their signals are not necessarily reliable. They may be false or unsteady, although instrument indications may be normal and no warnings appear. Pilots should exercise caution when using Locators navigation beacons outside their rated coverage area. In TMAs normally provide proper guidance signals within 15 NM. The ILS localizer reliable coverage sector extends from

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the localizer antenna to distances of 17 NM (USA 15 NM) within +/-35; and 25NM (USA 18 NM) within +/-10 of the front course inbound track. These values may vary according to topographical features or operational requirements. The ILS glide slope transmitter is normally usable up to at least 10 NM within 8 degrees of the front course inbound track and transmit a glide path beam 1.4 degrees wide. 15.4.2.1 DME DME information on route documentation may be used for position fixing/terrain clearance requirements if the DME is combined with VOR/ILS it is required that: The DME is co-located with the VOR/ILS facility. The station is clearly identified and operating without restrictions. 15.4.2.2 ILS 15.4.2.2.1 SYSTEM LIMITATIONS ILS may suffer from false beams outside the coverage

sectors due to radiation characteristics and / or reflections from terrain and / or obstacles. For that reason ILS signals shall be considered unreliable outside these sectors, although a flag warning may not appear. ILS beams may be subject to fluctuations due to reflections from moving vehicles and aircraft in the vicinity of the transmitting antennas. Such fluctuations, even if within established tolerances, may adversely affect the aircraft system performance in the auto coupled mode. Whenever an ILS glide slope is used, a positive means to crosscheck the accuracy of the glide slope must be available (i.e. Marker Beacon or DME). 15.4.2.2.2 GROUND MONITORS ILS beams are automatically and continuously monitored to ensure radiation within prescribed tolerances. 15.4.2.2.3 ILS FRONT BEAM Since ILS sector coverage is limited, it is essential that navigation in the terminal area is carried out using available

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VOR. VOR/DME, NDB, RNAV or by radar vectoring until a position is established where unambiguous ILS signal are received. Autopilot and / or flight director systems should not be armed for ILS capture until such a position has been verified. 15.4.2.2.4 ILS BACK BEAM The same procedure as for front beam intercept shall be followed. 15.4.3 INERTIAL NAVIGATION, AREA NAVIGATION / FMS / GNSS MONITORING Prior to using any electronic navigation data system, including INS,FMS.GNSS or Area navigation. the crew shall verify the validity of the navigation database In order to prevent navigational errors it is important to verify relevant data before passing the originating waypoint of a new leg, e.g. waypoint co-ordinates track and distance of the new leg, NAV display etc. Proper coupling of the automatic flight guidance

system to the corresponding navigation system must be closely monitored. The FMS may be used for preflight planning purposes in case of the non-availability of a CFP. The FMS is also suitable and authorized for use in case of in-flight preplanning. All available means shall be used to cross check retrieved data. The detailed description of flight crew duties relating to ascertaining aircraft position and for monitoring navigation systems validity and accuracy is provided in the respective FCOM/ SOPs A continual accuracy check of the navigation systems shall be maintained during the entire flight and prior to approach. Refer to equipment SOPs/FCOM for details. Navigation system errors shall be recorded in the Flight log and if required, reported in the technical log at the termination of the flight. 15.4.4 VASIS & PAPIS The glide path defined by Visual Approach Slope

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Indicator (VASIS) and Precision Approach Path Indicators (PAPI) shall be closely followed. Due to system tolerances as well as difference in eye to wheel height of various aircraft types, deviation from the ideal glide path might occur close to the ground. Standard VASIS / PAPI shall therefore not be used below 200 ft AGL. When an ILS glide path is available, the VASIS / PAPIS should be disregarded as these two glide path information sources might not be compatible. Pilots should exercise caution when using VASIS / PAPIS under certain weather conditions (e.g. smog, haze, dust) as it is possible for the light beams to bend creating a false glide path indication.

15.5

TRAFFIC ALERT & COLLISION AVOIDANCES SYSTEM (TCAS).

15.5.1 SYSTEM GENERAL TCAS provides backup to the aircraft services by alerting the flight crew to the presence of aircraft that may represent collision hazards. However, the primary responsibility to avoid collision still rests with the crew and ATC. The flight crew shall maintain vigilance for conflicting traffic at all times and shall remain on the lookout visually. Information derived from TCAS display shall not be used in such a way as to interfere with the ATC task to provide continuous positive separation. 15.5.2 MODES OF OPERATION Traffic Advisory: If an intruder is detected within the protection Vol.ume a visual and aural traffic advisory warning is issued. This advisory aids the crew in visually detecting the intruder and prepares the crew for a possible Resolution Advisory.

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Resolution Advisory (RA): If an intruder is penetrating the inner protection Vol.ume and considered a threat, an aural and visual Resolution Advisory is issued. Depending on the situation the TCAS will generate an evasive action either a preventive, corrective or modified corrective advisory. A preventive advisory instructs the crew to maintain the flight path within prescribed parameters. A corrective advisory instructs the crew to change the flight path into a recommended range. Modified Corrective advisories are updates of earlier advisories in response to changing conditions after the original advisory was issued. 15.5.3 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Nothing shall prevent the Captain from exercising his best judgment and full authority in the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict.

It is PIA policy to operate TCAS in RA (Resolution Advisory mode). During visual approach to closely-spaced parallel runway (closer than 1200ft) or to converging or intersecting runway, use of TA only mode is recommended once the aircraft is established on final approach course, and glide path intercept has occurred. Continued operation in TA/RA mode may result in RAs for aircraft on approach for the adjacent runway, and may cause unnecessary goaround. When approaching airports along the final approach, use of TA only mode is recommended once the aircraft is established on final approach course and glide path intercept has occurred. Continued operation in TA/RA mode may result in RAs for aircraft that are on the airport surface with their transponders operating, and may cause unnecessary goaround.

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15.5.4 CREW ACTION On activation of any TCAS warning, Pilots are to take action as follows: 15.5.4.1 TRAFFIC ADVISORY (TA): Immediately attempt to establish visual contact with intruder aircraft. If visual contact established, ensure safe separation (PF). If no visual contact, take no avoiding action unless the TA changes to an RA (see below). Question ATC about traffic which is of concern and coordinate any action (time and frequency congestion permitting) (PM). Note: Be vigilant whenever a TA does not display relative altitude as TCAS will only give an RA for intruders which have altitude reporting capability (Mode C). 15.5.4.2 RESOLUTION ADVISORY (RA) ACTION BY PF Warning: comply with R/A if there is Conflict between R/A and Air Traffic Control Disengage the autopilot and apply positive and smooth

control inputs in the direction and magnitude demanded by the RA. Place the IVSI needle in the green arc. RAs do not require abrupt pitch changes. Advise ATC as follows if deviating from assigned clearance: (Name of ATC Unit), (Call Sign), TCAS Climb (or Descent) If an RA requires a CLIMB while the aircraft is in the landing configuration, a goaround shall be initiated and a missed approach procedure carried out. Pilots are reminded that required warnings differ greatly from the maneuver required in response to an EGPWS warning. TCAS RA warnings require positive but smooth and limited pitch change whereas EGPWS warnings require immediate control input with a large pitch change. Whenever a flight has experienced an RA warning, the Captain should submit an Air Safety Report outlining the pertinent details.

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15.5.5 ATC PROCEDURES Whenever ATC issues a clearance with which the pilot is unable to comply because of an RA, respond as follows: (Name of ATC Unit), (Call Sign). UNABLE TO COMPLY, TCAS RA The controller will either acknowledge or issue an alternative clearance. After TCAS has advised Clear of Conflict, return to the assigned level and clearance and report as follows: (Name of ATC Unit), (Call sign). TCAS CLIMB (or DESCENT) COMPLETED (assigned level or clearance) RESUMED. Note: Once an aircraft, in compliance with an RA, departs from an assigned ATC clearance the controller ceases to be responsible for providing separation. However circumstances permitting, the controller should endeavor to provide traffic information to all aircraft affected by the maneuver. The controllers responsibility resumes when:-

They acknowledge the report that the airplane has resumed its assigned clearance, or They acknowledge the report that the airplane is resuming its assigned clearance, and issues an alternative clearance which is acknowledged by the Pilot.

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OXYGEN 15.6.1 USE OF OXYGEN IN FLIGHT 15.6.1.1 POLICY At cabin pressure altitudes above 10,000 ft up to and including 12,000 ft, Oxygen must be provided for and used by each member of the flight crew on flight compartment duty and must be provided for other crew members for that part of the flight at those altitudes, that is more than 30 minutes duration. At cabin pressure altitudes above 12,000 ft, oxygen must be provided for and used by, each member of the flight crew on flight compartment duty, and must be provided for other crew members during the entire flight at those altitudes. When a flight crew member is required to use Oxygen, he/she must use it continuously except when necessary to remove the Oxygen mask or other dispenser in connection with his regular duties. 15.6.1.2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Prior to departure, the oxygen masks at crew stations which

will be occupied during the respective flight shall: Be connected to the oxygen system. Be adjusted to individual size (if necessary). Be checked for proper operations. A pressurized flight may be operated up to FL 250 if the crew oxygen system becomes inoperative or empty, provided portable oxygen bottles are readily available for each Flight Crew member on duty. Above FL250: the quick donning crew oxygen system must be fully serviceable. All Flight Crew members on duty shall have their oxygen masks available for use should the necessity arise. For the use of oxygen in case of emergencies such as fire or decompression, refer to the respective checklist in the FCOM. For passenger oxygen requirements refer to Chapter 11 of this manual.

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15.6.1.3 PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPMENT - PBE All aircraft in PIA fleet are equipped with PBE. Locations are mentioned in emergency equipment location charts for respective aircraft. PBE is capable of providing oxygen for a period of not less than 15 minutes, allows flight crew to communicate using aircraft radio equipment and also allows crew to communicate by interphone with other crew members.
15.7 SEAT BELTS 15.7.1 USE OF SEAT BELTS 15.7.1.1 USE OF SEAT BELTS BY FLIGHT & CABIN CREW

Flight Crew members occupying pilot seats shall always have their seat belts fastened unless duty requirements prevent this temporarily. The shoulder harness and crotch strap where fitted, must be worn for taxi,

takeoff, landing, up to/below 10,000ft and in turbulent conditions. All other crew members must occupy their seats with seat belts and shoulder harnesses fastened for take off and landing and in turbulent conditions unless the shoulder harness interfere with the performance of their duties, in which case only the seat belt must remain fastened. Any additional authorized personnel who are on the flight deck during takeoff and landing must have their seat belts and shoulder harness (where fitted) fastened for take off and landing. The Captain shall inform the Senior Flight Purser regarding the expected turbulence and the necessity for the Cabin Crew to be seated and use of seat belts. See Chapter 19 Adverse Weather.

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CHAPTER 16: NORMAL PROCEDURE


16.0 General
16.0.1 Flight Deck Duties ... 16.0.2 Checklist Procedures General.... 16.0.3 Initiation and Reading... 16.0.4 Response... 16.05 Open Items. 16.0.6 Completion of Checks.. 16.0.7 Standard Drills and Terminology. 16.0.8 Flight Log.. 16.0.9 Standard Drills and Procedures. 3 3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6-7 7 8 9 9 9 9 9-10 10 10 11 11-12 12-13 14 14 14 14-15 15 15 15

16.1

Documentation and Maintenance


16.1.1Document requirements... 16.1.2 Aircraft Acceptance.. 16.1.2.1 General.. Pre-Flight Preparations 16.2.1 Allocation of Duties.. 16.2.2 Exterior Inspection of Aircraft.. 16.2.3 Emergency Briefing. 16.2.4 Final Cockpit Preparation. 16.2.5 Calculation of Takeoff Data.. 16.2.6 Takeoff / Departure Briefing .... Flight Dispatch 16.3.1 Changes to Departure Times Pushback and Starting.. 16.4.1 Closing of Doors... 16.4.2 Pushback / Tow-out.. 16.4.3 Clocks .. 16.4.4 Departure from Parking Position . 16.4.5 Engines Starting 16.4.6 Prior to Taxi.. Taxiing ... 16.5.1 Procedures 16.5.2 Runway Changes Prior to Takeoff ..

16.2

16.3 16.4

16.5

16.6

Take off and Climb Procedures


16.6.1 Minima for Takeoff 16.6.2 Use of Auto-brake System .. 16.6.3 Take-off 16.6.3.1 Choice of runway. 16.6.3.2 Positive Runway Identification 16.6.3.3 Setting Takeoff Thrust.. 16.6.3.4 Takeoff Roll..

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16.7

16.8

16.9 16.10

16.11

16.12

16.6.4 Climb Phase.. 16.6.4.1Policy 16.6.4.2 Noise Abatement 16.6.4.3 Company Speed Restriction... 16.6.4.4 Procedures.. 16.6.4.5 Passing 10,000ft/FL 100 16.6.4.6 Passing Transition.. 16.6.4.7 Weather Radar Monitoring Cruise, Descent and Approach 16.7.1 Cruise ... 16.7.2 Flight Log. 16.7.3 Weather Monitoring. 16.7.4 Cruise Control... 16.7.5 Fuel Management.. 16.7.6 Flight Plan Amendments... 16.7.7 ATC Procedures 16.7.8 Descent Planning... 16.7.9 Transition.. 16.7.10 Passing 10,000ft / FL 100... Go-Arounds 16.8.1 General.. 16.8.2 Initiation 16.8.3 Go-Around During Visual Circling ........ HOLDING.. Diversions 16.10.1 Policy . 16.10.2 Alternate Weather Requirements .. 16.10.3 Contacting Ground Handling Agent... 16.10.4 Diversions to Another PIA Destinations 16.10.5 Diversions to an Airfield Where No Company Support May Be Expected. Landing 16.11.1 General... 16.11.1.1 Choice of Runway.. 16.11.2 Use of Auto Brake System. 16.11.3 Landing Sequence. 16.11.4 Procedures.. 16.11.5 Height Over the Threshold. 16.11.6 Touchdown. 16.11.7 Landing Roll After Landing, Parking and Leaving the Aircraft 16.12.1 Clearing the Runway After Landing .. 16.12.2 Parking 16.12.3 Automated Guide In System. 16.12.4 Leaving the Aircraft

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GENERAL 16.0.1 FLIGHT DECK DUTIES Throughout this Chapter and on the checklist the following assignment of duties applies: CM1 the crew member in the left seat CM2 the crew member in the right seat CM3 The crew member in F/E seat PF pilot flying PM pilot monitoring NOTE: In training situations the Captain may be a Training Captain operating in the right-hand seat. However in this chapter it is assumed the CM1 is the Captain. These titles are used to designate which crew member is responsible for responding to items on the checklist. 16.0.2 CHECKLIST PROCEDURES GENERAL Checklists are established for each type of aircraft for Normal, Abnormal and Emergency procedures. They must be adhered to during all phases of flight in accordance with the FCOM/ SOP. The following general rules apply

for the use of checklists on all Company aircraft: Use of the checklist is mandatory for all phases of flight. The appropriate checklist will be read from the paper checklist/ECL; reading of checklist from memory, except for the memory recall items, is not acceptable. If no procedure is available in the checklists or in the FCOM/ SOP, appropriate actions shall be accomplished at Captains discretion. Normal Checklists are of the Challenge/Response type. Standardized Scan items may be completed following the sequence. Normal procedures for each phase of flight are performed by recall (memory) following this the normal checklist is used to ascertain that all safety items have been accomplished. Strict adherence to the checklist must be observed at all times, and the crew member reading the checklist must not call the next item until the current item is checked and the appropriate response received.

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As far as possible, the crew member not carrying out an action will monitor and confirm that the actions called have been accomplished. 16.0.3 INITIATION & READING CM1 is PF for all ground operations and will call for required checklists on ground. PF will call for all checklists during flight. Normally the checks will be completed by scan from memory before the checklist is read. This will allow uninterrupted flow of the checklist with challenges and responses only, ensuring a double check of all actions when each challenge is acknowledged by the crew member concerned. 16.0.4 RESPONSE Certain items prefixed ALL require responses from all crew members. In these cases, the crew member responding to the checklist replies first, followed by an identical reply by the other crew member. Items with an open ______ require a response stating the actual switch/selector position

or, if applicable, appropriate quantity.

the

16.0.5 OPEN ITEMS The dotted line on some checklists defines a logical hold point to allow partial completion of the checklist until further action is appropriate. With these exceptions, any paper checklist which is interrupted before completion should be started again from the beginning rather than at the place where the interruption took place. 16.0.6 COMPLETION OF CHECKS As soon as required checklist is complete, the Flight Crew member reading it will call Checklist completed. 16.0.7 STANDARD DRILLS & TERMINOLOGY In order to avoid any misunderstanding on the flight deck or with ground personnel, the following policy applies: In all procedures including the use of Normal and Emergency checklists, and callouts, using proper terminology according to FCOM/ Standard Operating Procedures. English language

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shall be used which is the designated common language. For general briefings, e.g. takeoff briefing, approach briefing, etc., the English language will be used. In case of language difficulties with ground personnel, any suitable language may be used as long as all other flight crew members are kept aware of the progress. 16.0.8 FLIGHT LOG All entries in the flight log must be properly filled and signed. The PIC is responsible for ensuring that all entries in the flight log are properly filled before he signs it. 16.0.9 STANDARD DRILLS & PROCEDURES The operating procedures as outlined in the respective FCOM/SOP must be adhered to as far as practicable.

16.1 DOCUMENTATION & MAINTENANCE 16.1.1 DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS In addition to the publications listed in CHAPTER 2, no PIA aircraft shall commence a flight unless the following documents are on board: Certificate of Registration. Certificate of Airworthiness. Aircraft Radio Licence. Certificate of Compliance with noise emission standards. Operational Flight Plan. Certificate of Maintenance Review or the Maintenance Releases. Weight and Balance or Load/ Trim-sheet. Crewmember licenses. Aircraft Technical Log. German Operators Certificate (as applicable) De-/Anti-Icing Hold Over Time Table and guidelines (as applicable) An aircraft without valid documents can be considered as not being in conformity with international regulations

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and can therefore be grounded by any airfield authority. 16.1.2 AIRCRAFT ACCEPTANCE 16.1.2.1 GENERAL On arrival at the aircraft, carry out the Initial Inspection as per FCOM of the specific aircraft which includes external safety inspection, cockpit safety inspection and preliminary cockpit preparation. On entering the aircraft, obtain the Technical (Maintenance) Log, verify the Certificate of Maintenance and Daily Inspection (or similar) are up to date and signed off. Check the deferred or carried forward defects. If the refueling has already been performed check the uplift. The Captain is responsible for ensuring that the necessary preflight and post flight checks according to the FCOM and SOPs have been carried out. The information from the aircraft Tech Log and the result of the Flight Crew preflight check will enable the Captain to decide whether the minimum technical requirements for the safe

conduct of the intended flight are fulfilled. . The PIC has final authority to accept or reject an aircraft for flight if dissatisfied with any aspect of airworthiness and/ or maintenance status of the aircraft. Flight Crew should review the Aircraft Technical Log together to ensure that each pilot is aware of defects and MEL items. This review should include Notices to Crew, entries over recent flights, and Acceptable Carry Forward Defects. It is preferable but not always possible to review the Tech Log prior to commencing Exterior Inspection and Cockpit Preparation. . The PIC shall ensure that all defects affecting airworthiness of aircraft have been processed in accordance with the MEL or CDL prior to departure. Refer to CHAPTER 13 for requirements on the Technical Log.

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16.2 PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION 16.2.1 ALLOCATION OF DUTIES Allocation of duties will be as per FCOMs and SOPs of respective aircraft. 16.2.2 EXTERIOR SAFETY INSPECTION Prior to every flight an Exterior Safety Inspection shall be carried out as per procedures laid down in FCOMs. The responsibility for this inspection rests with the Captain. However at his direction he/she may delegate this duty to the other pilot. When conducting walkaround, Flight Crew shall always wear the ramp jackets provided to them. The exterior Safety Inspection is a visual check performed by the Flight Crew on each originating trip or crew change before entering the aero plane to ascertain no obviously unsafe condition exists. A further aspect of this inspection is to provide a general overview of the aircraft condition before it is moved and may cover further technical /operational aspects.

Note: Ensure parking breaks are set and exterior lights are ON before proceeding for the Exterior Safety Inspection. 16.2.3 EMERGENCY BRIEFING Before each departure in addition to standard takeoff briefing and departure briefing as per SOPs an emergency briefing must be given by the CM1 and must contain at least the following item: Actions in the event of a failure or malfunction affecting the safety or performance of the aircraft before V1. The following items are normally reviewed by the Captain; Allocation of PF and PM functions. Actions to be followed in the event of a failures occurring before and after V1 up to and including engine out acceleration altitude. Appropriate speeds for configurations to be maintained to provide obstacle clearance.

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Type of approach required if an immediate return to land is required. Intentions should a return to landing is unavailable due to weather at the departure airfield. Overweight landing considerations. On ground emergency evacuation.

16.2.4

FINAL COCKPIT PREPARATION Final Cockpit Preparation shall be conducted as per procedures laid down in the FCOM of relevant aircraft. As soon as refueling is complete, the CMI should select the SEAT BELTS switch ON. This will assist the Cabin Crew with final cabin preparation. The CM1/CM3 will check the total fuel, fuel uplift, and Tech Log when they are available, and ensure that defects in the tech Log have been cleared or carry forward. CALCULATION OF TAKEOFF DATA Prior to each takeoff the CMI shall ensure that the

appropriate takeoff calculations have been completed. After receipt of the load-sheet (refer CHAPTER 12 of this manual for information on the load-sheet) using the current surface conditions, the CM2/CM3 will calculate and prepare the T/O Data card. The CMI will then cross check the information referring to the Runway Analysis Book. Where applicable, the following information shall be determined. Departure airfield surface conditions. Runway regulated takeoff gross weight Flap setting Maximum takeoff EPR / N1 Setting. Go-around EPR / N1. Reduced EPR / N1. The VI, VR and V2 speeds. Flap/Slat retraction speed. Takeoff CG / Stabilizer trim setting. 16.2.6 TAKEOFF / DEPARTURE BRIEFING Takeoff/ Departure briefings shall be conducted as per

16.2.5

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procedures laid down in the SOPs of relevant aircraft. The most appropriate time is at the end of cockpit preparation and prior to engine start which needs to be done on the first sector of the day unless there is a change of crew member.

Intentionally Left Blank

16.3 FLIGHT DISPATCH 16.3.1 CHANGES TO DEPARTURE TIMES All crews should be aware of the differences between the terms re-scheduling and Delay. Changes in proposed departure times as notified to crew, can occur in two ways: Marketing/Central Control plans a change for a particular flight at least 48 hours in advance. Thus the flight is rescheduled for that day only and the STD is amended. Short notice changes in departure time due to AOG, late arrival of the inbound aircraft etc., are delays and STD is not amended. In either case Operations Control will enter the new ETD of the rescheduled or delayed departure time when requesting the CFP. The CFP will show this new ETD time in the usual way as STD, since this time is the basis for wind and route calculations. Therefore in the case of a

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delay crews should not copy the flight plan STDs onto the Voyage Report but should use the times given on the normal schedule as issued to them, converted to UTC time. When a flight is delayed or rescheduled, Operations Control has been instructed to show the STD/STA on the CFP under the Remarks heading.

16.4 PUSHBACK & START Pushback and Start procedures shall be conducted as laid down in the FCOMs/SOPs of relevant aircraft. During engine start and push back flight deck communication should be limited to the calls required for this phase of the operation. Standard calls and terminology are essential when communicating with Ground Engineers. 16.4.1 CLOSING OF DOORS After the load sheet has been completed and all ground staff has disembarked, the Senior Parser shall inform the Captain on interphone and ask for clearance to close the doors. Before closing doors, the Senior Purser shall ensure the following: All galleys are secured. All cabin baggage is securely stowed and hat racks are closed. All passengers are seated. The Purser will inform the flight deck through cabin readiness signal or interphone when all doors are closed and

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cabin is ready. The Captain will then confirm this information from the ECAM / EICAS or other door open/close indications in the cockpit. When ready for departure or pushback the flight crew will instruct the cabin staff to arm the door slides. For nonstandard situations such as a delay on stand with the jetty withdrawn, or a non-pushback departure, the Captain may at his discretion, order doors to be armed earlier, provided the ground equipment is clear of the aircraft and will not obstruct slide deployment. 16.4.2 PUSHBACK / TOW-OUT These operations shall be performed in accordance with local airfield procedures and the applicable requirements in the FCOM for the type of aircraft being operated. Proper communications and clearance from the airfield ground control and ground personnel outside the aircraft are essential for safety. It is the Company procedure to start engines during pushback, provided that communications

with the Ground Crew are maintained, airport procedures are adhere to, and subject to any other limitations. The CM1 should use standard phraseology while communicating with the Ground Engineer to avoid any misunderstanding. These will normally be by interphone, unless prior arrangements have been made for hand signals to be used. The Flight Crew shall closely monitor the entire maneuver in order to be ready to intervene if necessary for any reason. When advised by the Ground Engineer to set the brakes, the Captain must ensure the aircraft has stopped prior to setting the parking brake. 16.4.3 CLOCKS When commencing the pushback: The CM1 will start the elapsed timer. 16.4.4 DEPARTURE FROM PARKING POSITION The Captain is responsible when the aircraft is moving under its own power. During pushback or towing operations, this responsibility

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rests with the ground personnel (the Ground Engineer or the Handling Agent). The responsible ground personnel must ensure that all ground equipment has been removed from the aircraft and that the area is clear before giving the ALL CLEAR to pushback, towing or taxiing of aircraft. On flights without cabin crew, the First Officer (or the Flight Engineer) will check that all doors are properly closed and latched and galleys secured. 16.4.5 ENGINES STARTING Engine start procedures depicted in the Jeppesen airway manual for the relevant airfield shall be followed. Engine start is not permitted when a passenger or cargo door is open or while the aircraft is being refueled. It is the responsibility of the ground personnel to ensure that the danger areas around the aircraft are clear before giving clearance to start engines. Engines may be started either at the parking stand or during

pushback in co-ordination with the responsible ground personnel and ATC. Anti-collision lights shall be turned on prior to starting any engine as an additional warning to anyone near to, or approaching the aircraft. After ATC has given clearance to start, CM1 will monitor the interphone and may reduce the Vol.ume, of the VHF audio. The CM2 will advise CMI of any ATC instructions. On completion of the Start procedure, the CMI will carry out the After Start Actions. When the Ground Engineer advises, that the pushback has been completed and requests that the parking brake be set, the CMI will set the brakes and advice the Engineer. 16.4.6 PRIOR TO TAXI When the ground equipment is disconnected and the Ground Engineer departs from the aircraft, He/she shall confirm through thumbs up and pin display (if applicable). When the signal is observed the

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Pilot on the appropriate side will acknowledge with a Thumbs Up. Taxi after engine start must not be commenced unless an all clear signal from ground personnel has been received. This confirmation that the aircraft is clear will normally be signaled by the Ground Engineer displaying the steering by-pass pin with one hand and giving a Thumbsup signal with the other hand. If no Ground Engineer is present the crew must use any other means available to ensure that the aircraft is clear before taxiing. The Parking Brake is to remain set until: Note: In case of extreme exigency and or for retrieval of aircraft, where both APU and GPU are not available or serviceable, passengers, embarkation/disembarkation and loading/offloading of baggage/cargo may be accomplished with one engine running (for all aircraft except ATR Engine # 1 left, and aircraft for ATR Engine #2 Right). All necessary precautions must be adhered

to in coordination with all agencies/concerned personnel. After the All clear signal has been sighted AND Both Flight crew have cross checked that everything is clear and that the All clear has been given AND Taxi clearance has been received. For full description of communication procedures refer to Chapter 9 of this Manual. 16.5 TAXIING At all airfields, taxi instructions shall be obtained prior to moving the aircraft under its own power. For all ground maneuvering, the CM1 should carefully judge the situation ahead and behind the aircraft, handle the throttles with regard for blast damage and noise abatement, and adjust taxi speed to suit the prevailing conditions. Taxi guidelines and markings may vary from airfield to airfield and may not always ensure adequate obstacle clearance, especially in congested areas. Whenever

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doubt exists, the aircraft should be stopped and assistance from ATC or ground personnel should be requested. All Flight Crew members are expected to be vigilant when the aircraft is taxied in close proximity to other aircraft or obstructions. For taxing techniques and speed limitations refer to FCOMs/SOPs of the relevant aircraft.

16.5.1 PROCEDURES The Captain will taxi the aircraft in normal operations. Before commencing taxi the CM1 will select Nose Light to Taxi/ON and Runway Turn Off lights to ON. During taxi, no action or checklist should be initiated until the aircraft is clear of congested areas. When ATC confirms the runway to be used, both pilots will cross check that the takeoff data has been calculated for relevant runway, and the takeoff conditions have not become more limiting, and review any revisions. Required power to move the aircraft and during taxi will depend on the ambient conditions and weight of the aircraft. Symmetrical thrust should normally be used. Great care must be taken when taxiing on slippery surfaces. The wing mounted engines are close to the ground. Avoid placing engines over unprepared ground e.g. over the edge of taxiways. Avoid

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high thrust settings at low ground speeds due to the risk of ingestion (FOD). Notes A. Caution is necessary while turning the aircraft in congested areas on the ramp. If necessary, have ground personnel monitor wingtip clearance. Wingtip and horizontal stabilizer turning radii are greater than that of the nose. B. Good taxi technique requires an awareness of the proximity of obstacles and the effects of thrust causing damage to equipment or injury to personnel, as well as consideration of passenger comfort. C. Make all turns at a slow taxi speed with as large a turn radius turns as possible. Minimum radius turns result in heavy side loads and unnecessary scrubbing and heating of tires. D. Do not use reverse thrust to control taxi speed except in an emergency. E. During taxi, any time the aircraft is brought to a complete stop, the parking

brake should be set to prevent unmonitored movement of the aircraft. F. A specific characteristic of brakes is that relatively greater wear rates occur when they are subjected to frequent light braking inputs as compared to making less frequent but firm inputs. At light weights or downhill, the aircraft may accelerate to a higher speed than required. Do not ride the brakes to prevent high taxi speed. Allow the aircraft to accelerate, than brake smoothly to a slow taxi speed, release brakes smoothly and repeat the sequence. Intermittent brake usage provides a cooling period between brake applications. Use brake fans (if installed) as required before significant temperature buildup. G. Whenever maneuvering on an active runway for an extended period, it is recommended that the Strobe be selected On. At CM1 discretion, and when clear of congested areas, Before Take-Off Checklist will be completed.

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CM2 will obtain the ATC clearance (if not received earlier) and write the clearance on the master copy of the CFP. Both pilots will review the clearance and confirm: Correct runway and departure. Initial clearance altitude selected on FCU/MCP Required FCU/MCP modes selected and displayed on FMA as applicable. Correct transponder code set Navaids as required and course set. Situations may require altering RWY and /or SID in the FMS. In this case CM2 will enter the required data and re-select FCU/MCP modes and navaids as required. The CM1 will confirm all changes. Prior to take-off the Senior Purser shall advise the Captain through interphone or display signal confirming that the safety announcements have been completed. The Cabin Ready signal means that the Purser has confirmed the following:

All passengers, including infants, are seated with seatbelts fastened. All galleys and class divider curtains are opened and secured. All loose items are securely stowed. All galleys are secured, all carts and trolleys stowed and secured. All window curtains are open. All Cabin Crew, are seated with seatbelts and shoulder harnesses fastened. Thereafter Cabin Staff are to remain seated until the Seat belt sign goes out or called by the Captain. The Cabin crew at your stations for takeoff P.A. shall be made after the cabin safety announcements and prior to entering the runway for take-off. The CM2/ flight engineer shall make this announcement. 16.5.2 RUNWAY CHANGE PRIOR TO TAKEOFF Should a runway change occur after the commencement of taxi or prior to takeoff, the

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following items must be considered: T/O Data must be recalculated. If the takeoff is not performance limited and a reduced thrust takeoff can still be performed, it is recommended to use the same flap setting as for the originally planned takeoff since this will reduce the required actions and configuration changes in the cockpit. The change in departure or noise abatement procedures which might be required due to the change of runway. Any other special procedures or restrictions required due to runway change. Modify MCP/FCU and FMS settings accordingly. The necessary changes to the flap setting V speeds, stab trim setting, and preparation for the departure procedure will be made as required. If the new runway in use requires a lower allowable takeoff gross weight than the actual, the Captain shall: Request a runway for takeoff which can accommodate the

extra weight, if one is available, or Reduce the gross weight of the aircraft to comply with runway limitations. This may be done by unloading; first, extra fuel (when conditions permit); next, a part or all of the cargo and passenger baggage; and finally passengers, depending on Company preference.

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16.6 TAKE OFF & CLIMB PROCEDURES 16.6.1 MINIMA FOR TAKEOFF Takeoff minima are normally established with reference to visibility only and are expressed as visibility or RVR limits. In general no minima ceiling is required for takeoff. However, some specific airfields do have minimum ceiling requirements and these must be considered. When minimum ceiling requirements are stated on the Jeppesen Chart, they must be observed in addition to the usual visibility requirements. A takeoff shall only be made if the official report on actual visibility is at or above takeoff minima and the Pilot Flying has adequate visual guidance during Take Off. When no reported meteorological visibility or RVR is available, the Captain may determine that sufficient visual reference exists to permit a safe takeoff. When the reported visibility is below that required for takeoff and RVR is not reported, a takeoff may only be commenced if the

Captain can determine that the actual visibility along the takeoff runway is equal to or better than the required minimum. In making his assessment on adequate visibility the Captain should consider the number of runway lights visible based on a spacing of 60 meters between lights. For special State regulations, refer to the Jeppesen. For takeoff restrictions in special weather conditions, refer to CHAPTER 18. The Company minima for takeoff for all aircraft types are ceiling zero and RVR as per following table:

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Facilities Nil (day Only) Runway Edge Lighting and /or Runway Centre Line Marking Runway Edge Lighting and Runway Centre Line markings Runway Edge Lighting and Runway Centre Line marking Multiple RVR Information

RVR/Visibility (Note 3) 500M 250/300M (Note 1 & 2)

200/250M (Notes 1 & 4)

available. The takeoff run shall not be commenced unless it can be determined that the actual conditions satisfy the applicable minima. Note 4: The required RVR value must be achieved for all relevant RVR reporting points with the exception given in Note 3 above. Note 5: For takeoff alternate Refer Chapter 7, page 5, 7.1 16.6.2 USE OF AUTO-BRAKE SYSTEM For takeoff the auto-brake system shall be armed when technically available. For detail refer to the FCOM/OPERATIONS MANUAL. 16.6.3 TAKE-OFF 16.6.3.1 CHOICE OF RUNWAY Preferably, the runway offering the best safety margin under the prevailing weather and runway surface conditions shall be used. Due regard shall be paid to other factors such as ATC requirements, preferential runway system, noise abatement procedures and delays involved

150/200M (Notes 1 & 4)

Note 1: The higher values apply to Category D aircraft. Note 2: For night operations at least runway edge and stop end lights are required. Note 3: The required RVR/visibility value representative of the initial part of the takeoff run can be replaced by pilot assessment when no reported RVR or visibility is

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The full length of any runway should be used for take-off. However, there are runways at various airports where take-off from intersections can increase operational efficiency without compromising safety. Crews are authorized to perform intersection take- off on these runways provided the appropriate RTOW information is published and made available in the TOGW Charts. 16.6.3.2 POSITIVE RUNWAY IDENTIFICATION During darkness and reduced visibility at airfields with multiple runways or wide parallel taxiways, there is a risk of runway incursions, taking off from the wrong runway or the wrong takeoff point, or take off from a taxiway. It is vital that both Pilots be aware of the expected headings on taxiways or runways. These should be checked against the aircraft heading to verify the aircrafts actual position on the airfield. Both Pilots must verify before the commencement of the takeoff roll that the aircraft is

lined up at the correct position and check the aircraft heading after line-up. This is especially important during darkness and reduced visibility, as well as on airfields with complex runway systems. 16.6.3.3 SETTING TAKEOFF THRUST The CM1 will initiate T/O thrust by triggering the TOGA switches. CM2 ensures t/o power setting CM1 keeps his hands on the thrust lever till V1. In a 3 man cockpit setup, the Flight Engineer sets the take off engine power on CAPT.s command 16.6.3.4 TAKEOFF ROLL Line up shall be made as closely as possible to the runway centerline. If takeoff is delayed for any reason after reception of the takeoff clearance or if MET conditions impair visual control by the tower, it is advisable to announce Rolling on starting the takeoff roll. At the initiation of the Take Off run the CM2 will start the

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elapsed time function of his clock During the takeoff role the PM will monitor engine instruments and announce any abnormality. The decision whether to reject a takeoff in case of a malfunction or failure always rests with the Captain. Speed call-outs on takeoff are performed according to the fleet specific Standard Operating Procedures in the FCOMS/ OPERATIONS MANUALS. The VI and Rotate call-outs are mandatory in every case except where they are made by the auto callout, and in case of failure of auto call out. Continuous monitoring and cross-checking of the flight instruments during takeoff and climb outs is of the outmost importance. The PM shall restrict other work to a minimum during initial climbs.

16.6.4 CLIMB PHASE 16.6.4.1 POLICY In the interests of safety, due to the aircraft attitude, turns shall not normally be initiated below 500 feet AGL. At airfields where the standard instrument departures necessitate a turn at a lower altitude, turns may be smoothly started after passing an altitude of 200 ft. AGL After takeoff, the climb outs shall be performed in such a manner that maximum obstacle/terrain clearance is obtained as soon as possible and maintained during the entire climb. Aircraft surrounded by high terrain offer special problems regarding climb-outs. A thorough knowledge of existing navigational procedures is therefore essential. Navigation aids and equipment not required for departure shall be set for the expected approach or to the appropriate holding fix serving the aircraft of departure. This will reduce the workload in case of a turn-back.

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16.6.4.2 NOISE ABATEMENT Takeoff and climbs-outs shall be operated in compliance with the noise abatement procedures. At airfields which require a noise abatement takeoff and publish a specific procedure, that procedure shall be adhered to. In all other cases, PIA aircraft will follow the standard noise abatement profiles published for the aircraft type to be used. 16.6.4.3 COMPANY SPEED RESTRICTIONS It is recommended that the speed below FL 100 /10,000 ft shall not exceed 250 kts or recommenced clear maneuvering speed whichever is higher, in order to enable prompt traffic avoidance action as well as to assist smooth traffic flow. This speed limit may be exceeded at the request of ATC, or at the Pilots discretion after all due factors have been considered. Particular consideration should be given to the risk of bird strikes unmonitored VFR traffic and the ATC environment.

Many states publish speed restrictions applicable within the terminal area. These are promulgated in the Jeppesen Airways Manual. If the Jeppesen or the ATIS states that speed limits are in force, Pilot shall refrain from requesting higher speeds unless operational considerations necessitate. 16.6.4.4 PROCEDURES In busy terminal areas and/or in poor weather conditions it is recommended that an autopilot be engaged in CMD as soon as possible after liftoff to reduce cockpit workload. The PM will monitor aircraft flight path along the SID and alert the PF to any discrepancy. The PF will, if necessary revert to raw data modes. Normal acceleration altitude is 3,000 feet above airfield elevation in compliance with ICAO Noise Abatement Procedure A. If a lower altitude restriction is given by ATC, commence acceleration at that altitude. Below 10,000 ft the PF should fly the aircraft in a hands-on

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manner, irrespective of autopilot usage, guarding the operation of auto-throttle and control wheel. Above 10,000 ft the PF should fly handson during any AFS mode changes to gain tactile feedback from auto-throttle and /or autopilot inputs. Landing lights/runway turnoff lights remain ON below 10,000 ft for bird avoidance and to increase aircraft visibility as per FCOM/SOP. Non-essential tasks should be kept to a minimum during critical phases of flight none should be attempted below 10,000 ft. Delay all other non-essential tasks until established in the cruise. The Purser is cleared to release the cabin staff to commence service when the Seatbelt Sign goes off unless otherwise briefed by the Captain. However no galley equipment (such as carts) will be removed from their stowages until the Fasten seat belts signs are also switched off. With light aircraft and high cruise altitude monitor cabin

DIFF PRESS to ensure it does not reach maximum differential before the aircraft reaches cruise level. If necessary, reduce aircraft rateof-climb to prevent excessive cabin rates-of-climb. 16.6.4.5 PASSING 10,000 FT / FL 100 When passing 10,000ft / FL 100, the following will be selected: Landing Lights / OFF Rwy Turn off lights to Off for A-310 Seat Belts:Auto for B-777 (Conditions permitting)

16.6.4.6 PASSING TRANSITION Passing transition altitude, the PM will announce Transition Altitude. Both pilots shall set STD on the altimeter and crosscheck the altimeter readings.

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16.6.4.7 WEATHER RADER MONITORING Reduce radar tilt from takeoff setting and adjust range as desired. Range and tilt should be periodically adjusted to avoid over scanning any weather. Some ground return should be visible at near maximum indicated range.

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16.7 CRUISE, DESCENT & APPROACH 16.7.1 CRUISE The PF will concentrate on flying the aircraft. One pilot should monitor the aircraft at all times. Therefore, paperwork should not be undertaken at the same time by both pilots. Communication between the flight deck and cabin will assist in maintaining comfortable cabin temperatures. Before top of descent the purser will inform the Captain whether or not any defects have been entered in the Cabin Defects Log. He/she will pass on any request for wheel chair assistance and inquire about ground temperature information etc. Prior to starting decent, the Captain will call for all catering items to be removed from the flight deck. 16.7.2 FLIGHT LOG The PM will complete the relevant flight log entries during cruise phase (between top of climb and top of descent).

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16.7.3 WEATHER MONITORING The flight crew members shall continually keep themselves abreast with the current and forecast weather at the destination, the destination alternate and the applicable en route alternate airports. A record of these weather conditions shall be maintained by the PM on the CFP 16.7.4 CRUISE CONTROL This section is intended only as an explanation of the cruise and profiles laid out in the various PIA aircraft operating manuals. The procedures specific to the individual types of aircraft are laid down in these documents and operation of the aircraft should be based on them. The five basic cruise profiles for operating modern jet aircraft are: Optimum Economy Cruise Minimum Fuel Cruise. Minimum Time Cruise. Long Range Cruise. Fixed Mach cruise. The FMS preferred profile is Economy Cruise as this

optimizes the cost of operating any given flight. A basic cost index is calculated by assigning a weighting to each of the fixed operating costs according to its magnitude. The resultant value for the index is then process by the onboard flight management system together with the other relevant data inputs such as en route wind information and aircraft weight to provide a speed schedule giving optimum trip cost. In view of this, it is PIA policy that the economy flight profile (ECON) should be used on all aircraft fitted with FMS. For aircraft not equipped with or with an inoperative FMS, an economy profile may be approximated by adhering to the speeds given in the FCOM/SOP. Minimum Fuel cruise is generally used only if fuel becomes critical on a particular flight as this profile, while reducing the cruise speed towards a point that gives the optimum lift / drag ratio, also incurs significant time penalty.

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Minimum Time cruise may be adopted at the Captains direction whenever it is considered that the commercial consequence of a delayed arrival at destination outweigh the increased operational costs. All such occasions are to be reported in the Captains Debrief Report. Operations Control may sometimes request Minimum Time cruise for urgent operational reasons. It is nevertheless the responsibility of the Captain at all times to adopt a cruise strategy that maintains adequate fuel reserves. If is not possible to follow the economy profile due to equipment malfunction or ATC restrictions, the cruise technique to be adopted is at the discretion of the Captain. Provided that on-time performance is not prejudiced, it is recommended to use long range cruise, which will optimize fuel costs according to weight and flight level. Fixed Mach cruise is generally used when instructed by ATC in those areas where cruising

speed is regulated to maintain separation between aircraft. Cruise at a fixed Mach number or speed may also be used in turbulent flight conditions to give optimum stability to the aircraft. 16.7.5 FUEL MANAGEMENT Fuel checks should be carried out at regular intervals throughout each flight in order to establish that actual fuel consumption matches that planned. Such checks should be carried out over en route waypoints at intervals normally not exceeding 30 minutes. Comparison of actual fuel on board with the Minimum required as indicated on the CFP will enable early identification of higher than anticipated consumption. A comprehensive account of Companys In Flight Fuel Management techniques may be found in Chapter 7 Page 9 of this Manual. 16.7.6 FLIGHT PLAN AMENDMENTS The Captain may not change an original destination or an

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alternate airport that is specified in the original flight plan whilst the aircraft is en route unless: The airport is unsuitable for operation of the aircraft type. The fuel and route requirements cannot be complied with. Any amended flight plan details shall be recorded on the original CFP. Should it be necessary for any reason to amend a destination, Operations Control in Karachi must be advised of the proposed course of action at the earliest possible opportunity. 16.7.7 ATC PROCEDURES In addition to normal position reporting, ATC will be notified without request whenever the aircraft: Reaches a holding fix or a clearance limit. Leaves previously assigned altitude or flight level. Reaches a newly assigned altitude or flight level.

Leaves holding fix inbound on final approach. Executes a Go-Around procedure Encounters weather conditions which are either un-forecasted or hazardous. When ETA given by ATC for the next reporting point will be in error by more than three minutes, a revised ETA must be given. ATC must be advised whenever the true airspeed varies or is expected to vary from the true airspeed filed in the original flight plan by 5% or more, or by 0.01 Mach or more if a clearance was issued to maintain a specific Mach number. The Captain will comply fully with all ATC clearances unless: He/she obtains an amended clearance. An emergency exits which requires deviation from the clearance. The Captain deems that to adhere to the clearance would be hazardous under the existing conditions.

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It is the responsibility of the Captain to ensure the aircraft is flown in a way that ensures accurate compliance with all clearances issued. Should deviation from the assigned altitude or track be necessary due to weather or collision avoidance, an amended ATC clearance shall be obtained unless an emergency exists requiring immediate action. In the event of such a deviation being necessary, ATC will be informed of the deviation and the conditions requiring such action. 16.7.8 DESCENT PLANNING The PM will obtain the ATIS where available. Each pilot should consult relevant charts and arrival plates. The PF shall confirm the accuracy of the FMS computed TOD against the one calculated manually (except B-747/F-27). Prior to Top of Descent, the PF shall brief for the approach and landing. Refer OM

Chapter 17 - Page 7 for details of the approach briefing. On aircraft fitted with FMS, the computed descent profile should be followed wherever possible, as this gives the most economic profile. Just prior to TOD, The PF shall call for the Fasten Seat Belt sign to be cycled twice. This acts as a trigger for the Cabin Crew to prepare the cabin and passengers for landing RWY Turnoff lights on and there after maintain a sterile cockpit environment. 16.7.9 TRANSITION When descending through transition level, the PM will announce Transition Altitude. Both pilots shall check correct QNH has been set on primary altimeters and crosscheck altimeter readings. QNH shall be selected on standby altimeters. 16.7.10 PASSING 10,000 FT / FL100 Below 10,000 ft 250 kts is the recommended descent speed. The use of higher speeds by ATC request or approval is discretionary.

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At the lower of 10,000 ft or the setting of QNH, the PF will call for the Approach Checklist. After the required actions (Refer to SOP) have been completed the PM will read the checklist. Full use must be made of DME or FMS Distance to Go information during the descent. ATC shall be informed of the time or place at which the descent is to be initiated in sufficient time for co-ordination. Whenever possible, descent from the cruising in altitude shall be planned using the procedures and rates of descent prescribed in the FCOM/OPERATIONS MANUAL so as to: Ensure arrival at the destination or a radio fix serving as the destination in a configuration and at an altitude permitting an instrument or VMC approach procedure. (Abnormal maneuvers for the purpose of expediting decent and time consuming maneuvers such as early descent with consequent low

true airspeed should be avoided). Afford the greatest fuel economy. Allow sufficient time in the descent for satisfactory performance of the cabin pressurization system. Be performed smoothly, thus keeping maximum passenger comfort. It is normal procedure to make maximum use of the autoflight systems during descent. If the aircraft is flown manually, the FCOM/SOP rates of descent shall not normally be exceeded. To avoid overshooting the assigned altitude during descent, the rate of descent should be reduced to not more than 1000 fpm when passing through an altitude of 500 ft above the assigned altitude. At low heights above ground the flight crew shall remain aware of possible inadvertent terrain closure and shall restrict the airplane rate of decent to 1000 ft per minute or less. The airspeed appropriate to the particular Company approved descent schedule for

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the type of aircraft concerned shall be maintained during the descent unless: Turbulence is encountered, requiring a reduction in speed. Published ATC speed restrictions are in effect. ATC has requested a lower speed. It is necessary to change the airspeed in preparation for an Instrument or VMC approach.

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16.8 GO-AROUNDS 16.8.1 GENERAL The applicable missed approach procedure is published on the Jeppesen Approach Chart. The decision to initiate a goaround shall be clearly announced by PF. Refer to the SOP for the applicable call. Once such a decision has been made during final approach, no decision to abandon the goaround shall be taken. In the event of any missed approach due weather, it is PIAs policy that the number of missed approaches to any airport is limited to one (1) unless there is a significant improvement in the weather conditions and there is a good possibility of landing following a second approach. It is the Captains responsibility to decide whether a second approach is practicable after initiating a go-around from the first missed approach. If the second approach fails, the Captain should divert to the alternate airport or hold until the weather conditions improve sufficiently for a third attempt.

At all times reserve fuel requirements shall be maintained. 16.8.2 INITIATION A go-around shall be initiated for any of the following reasons: If the required visual reference has not been established upon reaching DH/DA/MDA The time check over the FAF serves as a back up in case of the nonavailability of the respective navigation aid/fix, or when no other means is available to define the MAP If the reported RVR overhead the outer marker or its equivalent is below the acceptable minimum or if a successful outcome of the approach becomes doubtful e.g. approach not stabilized or the localizer or glide-path tolerances are exceeded. If at any time after descent below DH/DA/MDA, visual reference to the ground or

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lights cannot be maintained. On instructions of the appropriate ATC unit. If any required element of the ground navigation system or airborne equipment becomes inoperative or is suspected to be malfunctioning while in IMC conditions.

16.9

16.8.3

GO-AROUND DURING VISUAL CIRCLING If visual contact with the ground is lost whilst circling, the missed approach specified for the instrument approach (if published) shall be followed. If this is not possible, since the circling maneuver may be accomplished in more than one direction, an initial climbing turn toward the landing runway shall be made in order to establish the aircraft on the prescribed missed approach course.

HOLDING Official IFR holding patterns and maneuvering procedures are given in the Jeppesen Airway Manual. Published instrument approach altitudes are minimum altitudes. Flying above these altitudes throughout the entire procedure is permitted, except if the given altitude figure is indicated as compulsory or as a maximum (e.g. due to traffic separation). Holding altitudes assigned by ATC are mandatory altitudes and must be maintained to comply with separation criteria and the ATC clearance. When instructions to hold have been received, the aircraft is considered to be in the holding pattern upon arrival over the respective fix or facility. Therefore, the airspeed at that time shall not be higher than the stipulated maximum holding airspeed. When a clearance specifies departing a holding fix at a particular time, the Pilot must adjust the flight path within the holding pattern limits so as

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to leave the fix at the time specified. After departing the holding fix, normal speed should be resumed, limited only by airspace speed restrictions, if any, or ATC constraints. Although it is preferable to hold in clean configuration, however aircraft configuration maybe constrained by holding speed requirement.

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Flight Procedure (Doc 8168) Table IV-1-1 Holding Speeds, ICAO Doc 8168, Vol.ume I, Fourth Edition Flight Procedure Levels (1) Normal Conditions Turbulence Conditions (2) Up to 4250m inclusive 425km/h (230 kt) 520 km/h (3) (280kt) (4) 14,000ft 315 km/h (170 kt) 315 km/h(4) (170kt) Above 4250m to 6100m inclusive 14,000ft to 445km/h(5) (240kt) 520 km/h (280kt) 20,000 ft Or 0.8 Mach, whichever Above 6100m to is less (3) (5) 10350m inclusive 490 km/h (265kt) 20,000 ft to 34,000ft Above 10,350m 0.83 Mach 0.83 Mach 34,000ft (1) The levels tabulated represent altitudes or corresponding flight levels depending upon the altimeter setting in use. (2) When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument approach procedure promulgated at a speed higher than 425km/h (230kt), the holding should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever possible. (3) The speed of 520km/h (280kt) (0.8Mach) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be used for holding only after prior clearance with ATC, unless the relevant publications indicate that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flying at these high holding speeds. (4) For holding limited to CAT A and B aircraft only. (5) Wherever possible, 520 km/h (280kt) should be used for holding procedure associated with the airway route structures. Attention is drawn to the fact that many holding patterns presently published have been calculated in accordance with the criteria specified in ICAO Doc 8168 Vol.ume II, Second Edition. Many holdings are calculated for lower speeds or other altitudes as shown in the following tables.

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Table IV-1-2 PANS-OPS Second Edition Holding Speeds Applicable to Many of the Presently Published Holdings Propeller Aircraft(2) 315km/h(170kt) 315km/h(170kt) 325 km/h (175kt) Jet Aircraft Normal Conditions 390km/h(210kt) 405km/h(220kt) 445km/h(240kt) Turbulence Conditions 520km/h (280kt) or 0.8 Mach whichever is less (3)

Levels(1) up to 1850m inclusive 6000 ft above 1850m to 4250m inclusive 6000ft to 14000ft Above 4250m 14000ft

(1) The levels tabulated represent altitudes or company or corresponding flight levels depending upon the altimeter setting in use. (2) When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument approach procedure promulgated at a speed higher than 425km/h (230kt), the holding should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever possible. (3) The speed of 520km/h (280kt) (0.8Mach) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be used for holding only after prior clearance with ATC, unless the relevant publications indicate that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flying at these high holding speeds. Note: Holdings calculated in accordance with the Second Edition criteria should not be flown at higher holding speeds as the lateral limits of the holding area are larger when the holding speed is higher. The obstacle clearance or separation may not be guaranteed when these holdings are flown at the new higher holding speeds. Note: Holdings calculated in accordance with the Second Edition criteria should not be flown at higher holding speeds as the lateral limits of the holding
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area are larger when the holding speed is higher. The obstacle clearance or separation may not be guaranteed when these holdings are flown at the new higher holding speeds.

Table IV-1-3: Holding Speeds per U.S.FAA Regulations Levels At 6,000ft or below Above 6,000ft to and including 14,000ft Above 14,000 ft All Aircraft 200kt 230kt 265kt

(1) Holding patterns from 6001ft to 14000ft may be restricted to a maximum airspeed of 210kt. This non-standard pattern will be deCapt.ted by an icon. (2) Holding patterns at all altitudes may be restricted to a maximum airspeed of 175kt. This non standard pattern will be deCapt.ted by an icon. (3) Holding patterns at USAF airfields only-310kt maximum, unless otherwise deCapt.ted. (4) Holding patterns at US Navy fields only-230kt maximum, unless otherwise stated.

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16.10 DIVERSIONS 16.10.1 POLICY If a flight cannot be operated to the planned destination for any reason, a diversion shall be made to the filed suitable alternate airport providing the best available operational and passenger handing services. Flights may be diverted due to: Operational or weather conditions, which prevent the completion of the planned operation. Technical problems requiring a landing at a more suitable airport or a passenger in need of immediate medical assistance. Weather conditions en route requiring an alteration to the intended routing. In case of expected problems that are apparent before departure, diversion priority should always be discussed with Operations Control. The responsibility to divert en route rests entirely with the Captain. However, the choice of alternate shall be governed as per alternate airfield policy which is part of fuel policy in Chapter 7. When a diversion is

anticipated, the following factors should be considered by the Captain regarding the suitability of the airport he/she should choose: Weather. Actual weather and TREND at the available alternates is of prime concern. Fuel. Both the availability of fuel at alternates and the time required for refueling should be taken into account. Ground Handling Facilities. If a large number of aircraft are diverting to the same airport, it will impose a considerable strain on both its handling facilities and the capacity of the airport terminals with the likelihood of having lesser handing efficiency. Apron Parking Space. The first choice alternate may be severely congested due to previous diversions, and in extreme cases unable to accept any more aircraft. Forewarning of this may be available through monitoring the pattern of diversions. The ATC frequencies at any

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proposed diversion will give an accurate Capture of the situation there, particularly with regard to airborne traffic congestion and the amount of holding time that may be expected. Where the latter is a factor, the minimum diversion fuel should be recalculated accordingly or another alternate chosen. The Captain or the Senior Purser shall inform the passengers via the PA system of the reasons for the diversion and give all available information regarding the continuation of the flight. Passengers shall be requested to take all their personal belongings with them. No hand baggage should be left behind on the aircraft. Contact Flight Control in Karachi by the most suitable means and providing details of the diversion.

16.10.2 ALTERNATE WEATHER REQUIREMENTS If deterioration occurs in the actual weather conditions at the nominated alternate, it may continue to be used provided that the latest available forecast (including TREND) indicates that the conditions at expected time of use will be above the applicable landing minima on to the Jeppesen approach chart. Should this not be the case, a new alternate should be selected which satisfies these requirements. Alternate fuel should be recalculated accordingly. Note: Once airborne, only the Jeppesen charted landing minima need be considered for choosing an Alternate. 16.10.3 CONTACTING GROUND HANDING AGENT For details of procedures to be followed once on the ground following a diversion, refer to CHAPTER 13. With regard to ground handling, in flight diversions fall into two categories; diversion to another PIA destination or to an airport

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where no Company support may be expected. 16.10.4 DIVERSION TO ANOTHER PIA DESTINATION When an in-flight diversion is planned to another PIA destination, the Captain shall ensure that as much prior notice as possible is given to that station by the best means available. If this cannot be achieved through company channels, then as a last resort ATC may be requested to relay a message to the airport authorities for onward passage to the PIA station staff. If time and workload permit, following details should be included: ETA at the airport Number of passengers on board. Expected duration at the alternate airport. Any maintenance requirements. Any medical assistance required.

16.10.5 DIVERSION TO AN AIRFIELD WHERE NO COMPANY SUPPORT MAY BE EXPECTED. When an in-flight diversion takes place to such an airport the name and details of the contractual handling agent should be obtained from the Flight Control. It is most important that a message be passed to that agent prior to the arrival of the aircraft. If for any reason, Company channels of communication are not available, ATC should be asked to forward a message. A telex or telephone contact number should be given if possible/available.

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16.11 LANDING 16.11.1 GENERAL 16.11.1.1 CHOICE OF RUNWAY The captain should always check which runway gives the best safety margin under the actual weather and runway conditions. In principle, runway selection should take into account all known safety, operational and environmental factors, e.g. ATC situation, preferential runway, noise abatement procedures, etc. The available runway length shall not be less than that required for the actual landing weight under the actual weather and runway conditions according to data provided in the FCOM / OPERATIONS MANUAL and runway performance charts. The actual landing weight shall not exceed the maximum weight allowed by runway limitations or maximum landing weight according to the FCOM / OPERATIONS MANUAL.

16.11.1.2 USE OF AUTO-BRAKE SYSTEM Use of the auto-brakes for landing is at the Captains discretion. Auto-brake has its advantages on wet and contaminated runways as well as in cases where minimum runway length is available. Low auto-brake setting is recommended for autolandings, low visibility approaches and crosswind landings. Medium auto-brake settings are recommended for the contaminated runways. 16.11.1.3 LANDING SEQUENCE For approach and landing, ATC provides a longitudinal separation of 3 to 5 nm depending on the wake category of aircraft in the approach sequence. 16.11.1.4 PROCEDURES On approaches where no glide path reference is available the PF shall aim for a 3 degree glide slope. 16.11.1.5 HEIGHT OVER THE THRESHOLD The landing threshold shall normally be crossed either on

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the electronic glide path or at 50 ft to 35 ft radio height. Auto land is authorized only if the wheel height clearance over the runway threshold is at least 20 ft radio height. Special Cases: Depending on the aircraft type some ILS installations provide only marginal wheel height clearance over the runway threshold. If a small height correction is made on short final to cross the runway threshold at normal wheel height, due consideration must be paid to the available runway length. In order to have the maximum runway length available, a displaced threshold may be crossed at a slightly lower height than normal if favorable conditions permit. i.e. good weather, no obstacles, no obvious noise problems. A landing before a displaced threshold must be strictly avoided. On an auto-land approach, a wheel height of less than 20 ft over a displaced threshold may be

accepted provided that the section of the runway between the runway threshold and the displaced threshold is usable for the respective aircraft type. If wind shear or turbulence is encountered during final approach, the height over the threshold should be slightly increased whenever the runway length available for landing will permit a touchdown slightly beyond the normal aiming point. 16.11.1.6 TOUCHDOWN The desired touchdown point is between 300 and 600 meters from the landing threshold. Corresponding runway markings, the position of VASI bars or lighted touchdown wing bars are of great assistance in determining the correct aiming point. If touchdown cannot be accomplished within the desired touchdown zone, a go around shall normally be initiated with due regard to the remaining runway length. Actual position with respect to the runway, spin- up of

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engines and aircraft speed must be carefully evaluated. Every effort shall be made to land on and remain on the runway centerline, as this provides the best margin for correction in case of alignment difficulties after touchdown. Unless the runway length or other factors dictate otherwise, only moderate braking should be applied after landing. The use of heavy braking for the purpose of making a runway turnoff shortly after touchdown should be avoided unless compelling operational considerations require it. 16.11.1.7 LANDING ROLL The Captain must decide whether immediate brake application is required for deceleration or whether the braking may be delayed having considered: The available runway length after touchdown. Touchdown speed. Aircraft gross weight Runway surface friction conditions. Wind component. The availability of reverse thrust.

For braking techniques and the calculation of landing distances, refer to the FCOM/ OPERATIONS MANUAL Reverse thrust shall be used on every landing. The amount of reveres thrust used is at the Captains discretion and is dictated by factors such as runway conditions, wind, runway length available local procedures etc. Since reverse thrust is most effective at high aircraft speed it should be applied as soon as possible after touchdown and shall be set symmetrically. Particular caution must be taken when only asymmetric reverse thrust is available. For details, refer to the relevant FCOM / OPERATIONS MANUAL.

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16.12

AFTER LANDING, PARKING & LEAVING THE AIRCRAFT 16.12.1 CLEARING THE RUNWAY AFTER LANDING Unless other instructions have been issued, the active runway should be cleared at the first opportunity after the aircraft speed has been reduced to normal taxi speed. Only authorized runway turnoff points shall be used. After clearing the runway, taxi instructions shall be obtained prior to taxiing to other points on the airfield. No clean-up actions will be undertaken until both pilots have confirmed the taxi route and instructions. 16.12.2 PARKING Both pilots will maintain a lookout while approaching the parking bay. First officer shall announce aircraft type on AGNIS (other system types) and relevant stop markings .If there is any doubt about clearance available, stop the aircraft and wait for marshalling assistance to arrive. 16.12.3 AUTOMATED GUIDE IN SYSTEMS For details and use, refer to the Jeppesen and Route Manuals.

16.12.4 LEAVING THE AIRCRAFT Each pilot should stow his Jeppesen charts and tidy up the cockpit. Retain required paperwork in the flight envelope. Switch off flight deck and instrument lights, zero the stopwatches and elapsed time. Reinstate aircraft headset (if a personal headset has been used).

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CHAPTER 17: APPROACHS


17.0 General and Definitions 17.0.1 Approach Maneuvering Procedures.....3 17.0.2 Arrival Routes..3 17.0.3 Circling Approach...3 17.0.4 Clearance Limit3 17.0.5 Decision Altitude/Height (DA/DH).3 17.0.6 Downgrading...3 17.0.7 Final Approach Fix (FAF)..3 17.0.8 Hold/Holding Procedure.4 17.0.9 IMC Approach....4 17.0.10 Intermediate Approach Segment..4 17.0.11 Initial Approach Segment....4 17.0.12 Minimum Descent Altitude/Height (MDA/H).4 17.0.13 Missed Approach Point (MAP)...5 17.0.14 Missed Approach Procedure....5 17.0.15 Precision Approach..5 17.0.16 Procedure Turn.5 17.0.17 Racetrack Procedures5 17.0.18 Reversal Procedure..5 17.0.19 Visual reference...5 Preparation for Approach 17.1.1 Principles.......6 17.1.2 Meteorological Information ..6 17.1.3 Landing Data .......... 7 17.1.4 Approach Briefing ...... 7 17.1.5 Identification of Airfields and Runways...8 17.1.6 Setting Navigation Aids.8 17.1.6.1 NDB Approach...8 17.1.6.2 VOR Approach...8 17.1.6.3 ILS Approach.8-9 17.1.6.4 Radar Approach..9 Approach Authorization & Terrain Clearance 17.2.1 General..10 17.2.2 Aerodrome Operating Minimum..10 17.2.3 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban). 17.2.4 Met Visibility/RVR Conversion10-11 Terrain Clearance 17.3.1 IMC-Descent/Approach ...11-12 17.3.2 Descent Under Radar Control .........12 Segments of the Instrument Approach 17.4.1 Initial Approach Fix.....13 17.4.2Intemediate Fix(IF).....13 Controlled Document- Do not copy without prior permission of Director Flight Operations

17.1

17.2

17.3

17.4

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17.5

17.6

17.7

17.8

17.4.3 Final Approach Fix or Point (FAF/FAP)...13 17.4.4 Missed Approach Point (MAP)...13 17.4.5 Initial and Intermediate Approach......13-14 17.4.6 Noise Abatement.....14 17.4.7 Aircraft Stabilization on Approach........14-15 17.4.8 Outer Marker Check ......15 17.4.9 Standard Callouts .......15 Minima 17.5.1 Determination of Minima ..16 17.5.2 Takeoff Minima..16 17.5.3 Circling Minima..16 17.5.4 Presentation of Minima 16 17.5.5 Takeoff Minima .16 17.5.6 Landing Minima.16-17 17.5.7 Conditions for Use of Minima...18 17.5.8 ILS..18 17.5.9 Secondary Power Supply...19 17.5.10 Visual Aids...19 17.5.11 Approach Lights...19 17.5.12 DA/DH & MDA.......19-20 17.5.13 Visual Segment of Instrument Final Approach ......20 17.5.14 Optical Illusions ...20-21 Approaches General 17.6.1 Work Distribution: 22 17.6.1.1 Pilot Flying (PF)..22 17.6.1.2 Pilot Monitoring (PM).22 Non-Precision & Circling Approaches 17.7.1 Non-Precision 23 17.7.2 DME ARC Procedure.23-24 17.7.3 Circling Approach..24 17.7.3.1 Approaches with Visual Reference to the Ground.24 17.7.3.2 Visual Contact Approach....24 17.7.3.3 Visual Circling....24 17.7.3.4 Circling requirements..25. 17.7.4 Company Circling Minimum Reported Weather...25-26 CAT -1 Approaches 17.8.1 CAT-1 Approach. Classification....26 17.8.2 Policy ..................26-27 17.8.3 Approach Path Deviations on Final Approach ....27 17.8.3.1 Localiser..27 17.8.3.2 Glide path27. 17.8.3.3 Auto land/Coupled Approach.27 17.8.3.4 Manual Approach .............28 17.8.3.5 Malfunctions.. 28 17.8.4 Deficiency Reporting of Ground Equipment..................................29 Controlled Document- Do not copy without prior permission of Director Flight Operations

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GENERAL AND DEFINITIONS 17.0.1 APPROACH MANEUVERING PROCEDURES Such procedures are part of the initial approach segment and are constructed in order to enter the intermediate approach either in level flight or while descending. These procedures may consist of: Reversal procedures or Racetrack procedures. Radar Vectors 17.0.2 ARRIVAL ROUTES Routes identified in an approach procedure by which an aircraft may proceed from the en-route phase of flight to an initial approach fix. 17.0.3 CIRCLING APPROACH An extension of an instrument approach procedure which provides for visual circling of the airfield prior to landing. 17.0.4 CLEARANCE LIMIT The point to which an aircraft has received an ATC clearance.

DECISION ALTITUDE/HEIGHT (DA/DH) The specified altitude or height in a precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. Decision Altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea level (MSL) and decision height (DH) is referenced to the threshold elevation.. Decision Altitude (DA) is measured on the barometric altimeter Decision Altitude (DA) is measured on the radio altimeter.

17.0.6 DOWNGRADING A change of procedure to a precision approach category with higher minima due to system malfunction or deficiency in the aircraft or ground equipment. 17.0.7 FINAL APPROACH FIX (FAF) The fix from which the final approach (IFR) to an airport is executed, and which identifies the beginning of the final approach segment.

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It is designated in the profile view of Jeppesen Terminal charts by the Maltese cross symbol for non-precision approaches and by glide slope/path intercept on precession approaches. 17.0.8 HOLD/HOLDING
PROCEDURE

A predetermined maneuver which keeps an aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from air traffic control. 17.0.9 IMC APPROACH A flight path by reference to flight instruments from the initial approach fix or, where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route (e.g. turning base leg when being radar vectored) to a point from which a landing can be made. 17.0.10 INTERMEDIATE
APPROACH SEGMENT

17.0.11 INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT. That segment of an instrument approach procedure between the initial approach fix and the intermediate approach fix or, the final approach fix point. 17.0.12 MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE / HEIGHT (MDA/H) A specified altitude or height in a non-precession approach or circling approach below which descent may not be made without visual reference. 17.0.13 MISSED APPROACH POINT (MAP) That point in an instrument approach procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not fringed. For a precision approach the MAP is the position where the glide slope and localizer intersect the DH/DA. For a non-precision approach at MDA, the MAP be charted as: A navigational facility. A fix. A specified distance from the FAF.

That segment of an instrument approach between either the intermediate approach fix and the final approach fix or point, or between the end of a reversal, racetrack or dead reckoning track procedure and the final approach fix.

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17.0.14 MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be continued further. 17.0.15 PRECISION APPROACH An instrument approach procedure utilizing azimuth and glide path information provided by ILS or PAR. 17.0.16 PROCEDURE TURN A maneuver in which a turn is made away from the designated track followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of the designated track. 17.0.17 RACETRACK PROCEDURE A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude during the initial approach segment and/or establish the aircraft inbound when the entry into a reversal procedure is not practical. 17.0.18 REVERSAL PROCEDURE A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reverse direction during the initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure.

The sequence may include procedure turn or base turn. 17.0.19 VISUAL REFERENCE Sufficient visible cues to be able to positively establish actual aircraft position relative to the desired flight path. The following are considered to be the minimum acceptable visual references at DH/DA/MDA. CAT 1. A minimum of 6 consecutive lights. These may be approach or runway lights, or a combination of both. Non-Precision Approach. A minimum of 7 consecutive approach lights if available. At least the threshold of the runway of intended landing if approach lights are not available. During the circling maneuver, visual contact with the surface and visual reference with the landing runway must be maintained. The altitude flown should be the highest consistent with visual contact and separation from the cloud ceiling.

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17.1

PREPARATION FOR APPROACH 17.1.1 PRINCIPLES Descent, approach and landing require the concentration and optimum co-operation of all crew members concerned. Therefore it is important that: The applicable approach procedures are strictly followed as long as the aircraft is flown under IMC. Any deviations from standard approach procedures must be fully briefed. Standard Operating and FCOM Procedures of the respective aircraft shall be strictly adhered to. All phases of approach shall be timely and thoroughly preplanned. Both pilots shall continuously monitor the approach progress and cross-check the flight instruments. The navigation aids and equipment providing the optimum approach guidance shall be used regardless of weather conditions and shall comply with the cleared approach and missed approach procedures.

In the context of this policy, the ADF receivers shall be set on the same frequency for instrument final approach in order to enable easy crosschecking and to avoid misinterpretation. (if applicable) The Captain is to decide whether or not an approach shall be commenced based on operational requirements, weather and the probability of a successful landing 17.1.2 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION The latest meteorological information shall be obtained and evaluated before commencing an approach. Due regard must also be given to the runway surface conditions, etc. full use shall be made of automatic terminal information service (ATIS) and reliable PIREPS (pilot reports) that update ceiling and visibility conditions. For landing, the latest wind information given by ATC Tower shall be considered in the context of the operational limitations or recommendations for the aircraft type. The wind

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information derived from other sources, e.g. IRS, FMS, etc, is for information purposes only. 17.1.3 LANDING DATA The landing weight shall be determined and speed bugs set according to the fleet specific FCOM. 17.1.4 APPROACH BRIEFING The detail of the briefing should reflect weather conditions and fuel state at the destination and should include appropriate items from the following: Weather, Fuel, Alternate, Holding Check aircraft system status. Descent, Arrival Approach, Go-Around Runway, Taxi, Parking A good approach begins with proper planning and briefing. Before commencing the descent, Pilot Flying (PF) shall brief all flight crew members on the intended procedure. This approach briefing should include appropriate items from the following: Descent point Weather conditions at destination and alternate.

o o o o

Holding capability at destination before diversion and diversion routing. Expected inbound routing or STAR including any speed or altitude restriction. Holding facilities and procedures. Setting/use of navigation aids/equipment. A review of the relevant Approach Chart for: Altitude restrictions and terrain considerations Planned altitude for visual or circling approach Speed restrictions and acceleration altitude for G/A If the FMS is to be used for G/A then the FMS procedure must be verified with Jeppesen chart. Communication failure procedures. Special considerations due to conditions (e.g. use of auto brake, windshield wipers etc). Runway condition Any un-serviceability of airfield equipment. Anticipated taxi route after landing.

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17.1.5

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRFIELDS AND RUNWAYS At certain airfields the proximity of adjacent airfields, multiple runways and even the proximity of highways to a runway can create confusion and result in a landing at the wrong airport or on the wrong runway, especially during darkness, all measures shall therefore be taken using all resources to ensure proper identification of the assigned runway. 17.1.6 SETTINGS OF NAVIGATION AIDS During an instrument approach it is suggested that the ADF and/or VHF NAV receivers shall be set as follows. 17.1.6.1 NDB APPROACH Two ADF selectors having one frequency selected on each control box will use the following guidelines: ADF No 1. set the primary NDB for the procedure. ADF No2. set to goaround NDB. If not available or applicable set the primary NDB.

If possible, the VOR Receivers should be tuned to facilities which can provide additional position information. For further details refer to fleet specific SOPs. 17.1.6.2 VOR APPROACH VOR of PF. Set the primary VOR and radial for the approach. VOR of PM. Set to any facility (VOR or DME) required for transition to the main VOR final approach. When radial or distance information is no longer required from this source, switch to the main VOR facility for the rest of the approach. ADF setup as for NDB approach. For further details refer to fleet specific SOPs. 17.1.6.3 ILS APPROACH The appropriate ILS frequency should be tuned on the appropriate selector. Both VORs should initially be set up in the optimum configuration for the initial approach procedure. Once established on the localizer the

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selections appropriate to the go-round procedure should be made. If, however, DME or radial information is required at a point after the initial approach fix, this selection should be delayed accordingly. If neither the initial approach nor goaround requires procedural use of VORs then any available field VOR should be selected. For further information see the FCOM. ADF setup as for NDB approaches. 17.1.6.4 RADAR APPROACH The navigation radios should be set up on facilities in the immediate vicinity of the airport which will supply the best available position information for secondary reference during the approach. Before commencing any instrument approach, the missed approach procedure should be reviewed. Any change to navigational radio frequencies required by this procedure should be fully anticipated in the event that a missed approach becomes necessary.

Should an actual missed approach be initiated, all navigational radios shall be tuned and identified as required by procedure.

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17.2

APPROACH AUTHORIZATION & TERRAIN CLEARANCE 17.2.1 GENERAL Before the commencement of any approach it is the responsibility of the Pilot in Command to determine that, on the basis of all available information the weather at the airfield concerned and the condition of the runway to be used should not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach having regard to the appropriate performance information. 17.2.2 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) State minimums are in correspondence with JAR-OPS 1. For additional details refer to Air Traffic Control Chapter of Jeppesen Airway Manual. 17.2.3 COMMENCEMENT &
CONTINUATION OF APPROACH (APPROACH BAN)

reported RVR/VIS is less than the applicable minimums. If, on a straight in approach, after passing the OM or equivalent position the reported RVR/VIS falls below the applicable minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA. Provided that the required visual reference has been established at the DA/(H) or MDA(H) and thereafter, the approach and subsequent landing may be completed. Where no OM or equivalent position exists, the Pilot-inCommand shall decide whether to continue or abort the approach before descending below a height of 1000ft above the aerodrome on the final approach segment. The approach may be continued below DA (H) or MDA (H) and a landing may be completed, provided that the required visual reference is established at DA (H) or MDA(H) and is maintained. 17.2.4 MET VISIBILITY / RVR
CONVERSION

An instrument approach may be commenced regardless of the reported RVR/VIS, but shall not be continued beyond the outer marker (OM), or equivalent position, if the

If only meteorological visibility is reported, the charted RVR can be substituted by reported

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Meteorological VIS for straight in instrument approaches as shown in table below. This table shall not be applied for calculating Take-off or Category II/III minimums or when RVR is available. Table for Conversion of reported Meteorological VIS to RVR. Lighting Elements in Operations HIALS & HIRL Any type of Lighting Installation other than above No Lighting Notes:

RVR = Reported Met VIS X Day Night 1.5 2.0

1.5

Not Applicable

RVR reported for a particular runway shall not be used for other runways. For a non-precision and CAT-1 ILS approach, only the RVR/VIS of touchdown zone need be considered.

17.3 TERRAIN CLEARANCE 17.3.1 IMC-DESCENT / APPROACH In order to ensure safe terrain clearance, the published minimum altitudes, flight levels and intermediate approach altitudes must be strictly adhered to at all times. Once a positive check against navigation aid (e.g. published VOR radial/DME position, etc.) indicates the correct position, further descent or continuation of the approach as stipulated on the approach chart may be made. In this context: A MEA, MOCA or MORA lower than the respective MSA may be flown only when it can clearly be established that the aircraft is within the defined sector /distance. Following an ILS / glide path on a direct approach using own navigation is only authorized when established on the localizer and if: o The ILS / glide path is intercepted within its coverage sector (approximately 10 nm out).i

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o The ILS / glide path is being intercepted from below. o The ILS / glide path vs. height can be checked against ILS / DME or other distance measuring means. 17.3.2 DESCENT UNDER RADAR CONTROL A clearance given by ATC, for a flight level or altitude below the applicable MOCA or MORA shall be accepted only if the aircraft if positively identified and vectored by approved radar. In this case the radar controller is responsible for ensuring adequate terrain clearance while vectoring the aircraft. However, when being vectored in this manner, the flight crew shall utilize all possible navaids to monitor the aircrafts position and height. Where doubts exist about positive identification, no descent below the applicable minimum flight level/altitude shall be made. When being radar vectored to the final approach course, pilots should not report

established or field in sight until it is absolutely certain that the approach can safely be completed without radar assistance.

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17.4 SEGMENTS OF THE INSTRUMENT APPROACH The procedure is normally divided into 5 segments: arrival, initial, intermediate, final and missed approach, where each segment may begin at a designated aid or fix. SEE APPROACH DIAGRAM IAF

17.4.1

INITIAL APPROACH FIX (IAF) IAF is defined as an aid/fix where the initial approach segment begins. 17.4.2 INTERMEDIATE FIX (IF) IF is defined as an intersection between the initial and the intermediate approach segments. 17.4.3 FINAL APPROACH FIX OR POINT (FAF/FAP) FAP is defined as the FIX or point of an instrument approach procedure where the Final Approach Segment commences. 17.4.4 MISSED APPROACH POINT (MAP) That point in an instrument approach procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed. 17.4.5 INITIAL AND INTERMEDIATE APPROACH Normally arrival routes are published from the en route phase to a fix or facility used

IF Intermediate Approach Segment FAP Segment FAF

Arrival Route

IAF

Final Approach

MAP

Approach Segment

Missed

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in the instrument approach procedure. This arrival route ends at the initial approach fix. If no such fix or facility is available, the instrument approach procedure is constructed with one of the following procedures: Reversal procedure, or Racetrack procedure. Care must be taken to remain within the stipulated maneuvering area. Time and speed control must be closely observed unless local speed restrictions are specified or ATC requests otherwise. 17.4.6 NOISE ABATEMENT The initial and intermediate approach shall be flown with the lowest possible drag, preferably in a clean configuration and arranged so as to join a 30 glide path not lower than 2000 ft AGL whenever possible. 17.4.7 AIRCRAFT STABILIZATION ON APPROACH The approach is stabilized when all of the following conditions are met. The aircraft is on the correct flight path.

Only small changes in heading/pitch are required to maintain the correct flight path. The aircraft speed is not more than VREF+20 Knots indicated airspeed and not less than VREF; or as adjusted by minimum ground speed techniques. The aircraft is in the correct landing configuration. Rate of decent is no greater than 1,000 feet per minute. If an approach requires a rate of decent greater than 1,000 feet per minute, a special briefing should be conducted. Power setting is appropriate for the aircraft configuration and is not below the minimum power for approach as defined by the aircraft operating manual.

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All briefings and checklists have been completed. Instrument Landing System (ILS) approaches must be flown within one dot of the glide slope and localizer. Unique approach procedures or abnormal conditions requiring a deviation from the above elements of a stabilized approach require a special briefing. To detect wind shear and the magnitude of winds aloft, all available aircraft equipment such as FMS, IRS, etc, shall be used. For the effects of wake turbulence, refer to Chapter 19- Section 19.3 A go-around is mandatory if the aircraft is not stabilized on approach as follows: In IMC by 1000 ft AGL In VMC by 500 ft AGL Where certain types of approaches (e.g. low visibility, circling, non-precision) necessitate turns for alignments purpose below 500 ft, it is essential that special attention be given to bank angle.

17.4.8 OUTER MARKER CHECK On all straight-in approaches the following shall be checked upon passing the OM or any substitute as published on the approach chart: Altitude. Time (for non-precision approaches where necessary). This check is initiated by the PM who will call Outer Marker and announce the correct crossing altitude. The PF will the cross-check the altitude and call Check. For a non-precision approach, stopwatches should be started as necessary. 17.4.9 STANDARD CALLOUTS Both pilots shall monitor the approach, and PM shall make the appropriate calls as specified in Chapter 9- Section 9.1

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17.5 MINIMA 17.5.1 DETERMINATION OF MINIMA Lowest applicable meteorological minima will be the higher of the CAA Pakistan approved minima or the published Jeppesen Minima. 17.5.2 TAKE-OFF MINIMA Take-off minima at all aerodromes shall be greater than, or equal to, the applicable landing minima unless an approved take-off alternate aerodrome is available for use; in no case, however, shall it be less than 500 m RVR, except as provided below in conjunction with the specified facilities; RVR / VISIBILITY FOR TAKEOFF RVR/Visibility Facilities (Note 3) Nil (day only) *500m Runway edge lighting & /or *250m/300m central line (Notes 1& 2) marking. Runway edge *200m/250m & centre line (Note 1) lighting Runway Edge & Center Line *150/200m Lighting and (Notes 1 & 4) Multiple RVR information

* or as published on Jeppesen Chart 10-9/10-9-A whichever is higher. Note 1: The higher values apply to category D aero planes. Note 2: For night operation, at least runway edge and runway end light are required. Note 3: The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replace by Pilot assessment Note 4: The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points with exception given in Note-3 above. 17.5.3 CIRCLING MINIMA PIAC ceiling and visibility requirements for a circling approach are as under:Aero plane MDH Visibility Category 400 ft A 1500m B C D 500ft 600 ft 700ft 1600m 2400m 3600m

Or as published on Jeppesen Charts whichever is higher


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Note: Circling is not authorized for B-747 aircraft. Authorized Approach


Aircraft Cat A,B,C,D A,B,C,D C,D Type of App NonPrecision CAT- I CAT-II

Instrument
Minima Ceiling RVR * ** 200 ft ** 100 ft * ** 550 m ** 350 m

* As published on Jeppesen Approach Chart ** Or as published on Jeppesen Approach charts, whichever is higher Category II Minima shall only be flown by a pilot duly authorized and current on B-747,B-777 and A-310 types of aeroplanes. 17.5.4 PRESENTATION OF MINIMA Minima in the Jeppesen approach charts are presented as follows: 17.5.5 TAKEOFF MINIMA Ceiling/vertical visibility and Visibility / runway visual range (RVR).

17.5.6 LANDING MINIMA Precision Approach: Decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH) and visibility (VIS) or runaway Visual range (RVR). Whenever the reported visibility is less than 800 meters RVR must be reported. Incase RVR is not being reported refer to table under 17.2.4 (met visibility/ RVR conversion) Non-precision Approach: Minimum decent altitude (MDA) and visibility (VIS) or RVR. Circling Approach: Minimum descent altitude (MDA) and visibility (VIS). Note: RVR values are only shown on the Jeppesen approach charts when the value is not the same as the metrological visibility value. Where a difference occurs, the RVR and metrological visibility values are prefixed RVR and VIS respectively. When there is no difference the minimum is shown only once and means either RVR or visibility. Note: In principle, minima for straight in NDB/VOR

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approaches will be published where the final approach course does not diverge more than 20 degrees from the centerline of the runway. 17.5.7 CONDITIONS FOR USE OF MINIMA During normal operation it is prohibited for PIA aircraft to land on runways, or makes approaches using navigational aids, for which there is no appropriate Jeppesen chart. Minimum values given on the Approach Chart for a specific type of approach may be considered applicable, if: The complete ground equipment shown on the respective chart for the intended procedure is fully operative. The required aircraft systems according to FCOM are fully operative. The crew is qualified accordingly. These applicable values shall be governing for the selection of destinations and alternates in connection with the preflight planning rules. For approach authorization, the actual conditions must be assessed and taken into

consideration with respect to the use of the minima. The Captain is authorized to apply extra increments to the minima for other reasons if, in his/her judgment, it is necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft e.g. the possibility of severe turbulence or wind shear, or if the physical condition (under fatigue) of any Flight Crew member so requires. 17.5.8 ILS ILS minima are based on the availability of a complete ILS installation, i.e. localizer, glide path and outer marker or substitute as published on the chart. For a precision approach, the middle marker may be disregarded. In case of un serviceability of the ILS glide path, a localizer approach may be flown if published. The minima are only valid when an outer marker or substitute, as published on the chart, permits a positive check of the prescribed altitude at this point. The middle marker normally serves as the missed approach point (MAP).

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17.5.9

SECONDARY POWER SUPPLY The non availability of a secondary power supply for ground navigational equipment does not affect the operation and minima unless the facility is officially downgraded.

minima of at least 1500 m (1sm/nm) On some airfields where local conditions do not allow or necessitate the installation of approach lights, corresponding minima are specifically constructed and published on the chart. This minimum may be used without increment. 17.5.12 DA/DH & MDA (Decision Height/Altitude (DH/DA) and Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) The barometric altimeter, adjusted to the current QNH for the appropriate airport shall be used to determine Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA), Decision Altitude (DA) and Circling Altitude. The altimeter bug shall be set at the MDA, DA or Circling minima as appropriate or as stated in the SOPs. Whenever it is apparent that the barometric altimeter indicator is in error and continuation of the descent would be unsafe, a go-around shall be made. Thereafter, the Captain shall determine a safe course of action considering the available information and conditions governing the approach and landing.

17.5.10 VISUAL AIDS If a partial failure of lighting is reported the following applies: Partial un serviceability of up to 50% e.g. every second or third light of any visual aid unserviceable: No effect. However, the complete failure of the first half of the runway lights has to be considered as total failure. Un serviceability in excess of 50%: the visual aid has to be considered as unserviceable. 17.5.11 APPROACH LIGHTS If high and low intensity approach lights are reported to be unserviceable, the applicable minimum visibility for planning purposes shall be increased by 900 m to a

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The radio altimeter, set in accordance with FCOM procedures, shall be used to determine Decision Height (DH). Upon reaching the MAP, the PF must decide whether: Adequate visual reference exists to complete the approach and landing or, A missed approach should be initiated. For precision approaches the decision to continue or perform a missed approach must be made latest at the Decision Altitude /Height. Descent below DH/DA/MDA is considered safe only, if: Adequate visual reference exists. The aircraft position relative to the runway is such that a landing may be accomplished without excessive maneuvering. 17.5.13 VISUAL SEGMENT OF INSTRUMENT FINAL APPROACH Visual ground cues will vary in extent and clarity with the type of approach, decision height (altitude) visibility and aircraft attitude. The perceived visual ground segment will

therefore comprise portions of the runway lighting system and markings. On runways equipped with PAPI or VASI, the visual glide slope shall be adhered to as closely as possible. VASI can and should be used during day as well as night operations. 17.5.14 OPTICAL ILLUSIONS Illusions occur particularly in conditions of reduced visibility and at night. Darkness provides excellent camouflage and the eye loses much of its perception. Pilots should be aware of the flowing optical illusions which can lead to critical situations:

Fascination occurs when a pilot does not succeed in perceiving clearly defined stimuli in an adequate way due to attention being too heavily focused on one object or task. Fatigue, stress or emotional disturbances will increase this tendency. The slope of the approach terrain can seriously affect the pilots perspective. If the terrain

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slopes upwards, the Pilot may perceive that his glide path is steeper than in reality and vice versa. The runway slope may also produce various illusions, as the pilot normally tries to follow the three degree glide path relative to the runway plane. Thus, for an uphill slope the tendency will be to approach too flat and vice versa. Rain and fog can affect both distance and approach angle judgment. Maximum caution is required in conditions of shallow fog, where the lighting is clearly visible from higher altitudes. On entering such a layer, visibility can suddenly be reduced to a very low value, giving the impression of a pitch up tendency. A subsequent nose down correction can lead to a dangerous situation. Additionally, a yellowish glow created by the lighting must be expected, which impairs the detection of visual cues necessary for adequate and timely

assessment of altitude and displacement. There is only one way to avoid the consequences of optical illusions, and that is to use and cross check all available flight and navigation instruments for the duration of the approach. Pilots should be aware of the intensity that the approach and runway lights are operating at, and of the likely intensity should dimming be requested.

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17.6 APPROACHES GENERAL 17.6.1 WORK DISTRIBUTION 17.6.1.1 PILOT FLYING (PF) The PF will normally take control at top of descent, but at the latest when leaving the final approach fix, or turning base leg when being radar vectored. He/ She will perform the approach according to the relevant procedures, and will fly on instruments until visual contact is established. The autopilot may be disconnected at the PFs discretion. When the PF has sufficient visual references and the flight path is satisfactory he/she will announce Landing upon reaching minimum. If sufficient visual reference is not acquired at minimum/MAP or if the flight path is not satisfactory, the PF must initiate and announce the go around. 17.6.1.2 PILOT MONITORING (PM) The PM will monitor flight progress until landing. He/she will scan inside and outside the cockpit to announce flight path deviations and announce Minimum upon reaching minimum. He/she must

continuously cross check all instruments and components, including the raw data information down to landing, even though visual conditions may exist. He/she will further call out One Thousand One Hundred Above and, on wide body aircraft without a serviceable automatic call-out feature, the radio heights normally called by the auto call out. Note: At any stage of the final approach, the PF may call Visual if he/she has the landing area clearly in view. Thereafter the PM need not call One Hundred Above or Minimum.

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17.7 NON PRECISION & CIRCLING APPROACHES 17.7.1 NON-PRECISION Descent to the next lower altitude /MDA shall be commenced or continued only if the aircraft bearing is within +/-50 of the published final approach track or within one dot deflection for an ILS localizer or back beam approach, and after having passed the respective FAF for the procedure. The descent should be planned and flown at a constant but slightly higher rate of descent than that corresponding to the approach angle for the procedure. Under no circumstances shall a rate of descent of 1000 fpm be exceeded. On approaches where no glide path reference is available the PF shall aim for a 3 degree glide slope. Approach and Landing Accident Reduction Program (ALARP) recommends Constant Angle Non- Precision Approach (CANPA) profile instead of traditional Dive & Drive descent profile. It is PIA

policy to conduct non precision approaches using the CANPA profile. Where VDP is not published then it may be derived by distance/ time method as follows: Distance (nm) from VDP to threshold equals Height above Touchdown (HAT) divided by 300.E.g. if HAT is 400ft then Distance from VDP to threshold is 400 300 = 1.3 nm. Time (sec) from locator / outer marker to VDP equals Published time to MAP minus 10% of HAT. e.g. if published time to MAP is 1 min 40 sec and HAT is 400 ft then Time from Locator / Outer Marker to
VDP equals 60 sec.

17.7.2 DME ARC PROCEDURE Arrival and departure procedures utilizing a DME arc are used at some airfields. The procedures can be flown using the autopilot, e.g. turn knob mode, heading-select mode, etc. A DME arc interception of approximately 900 may be required on a radial either inbound or outbound. At clean maneuvering speeds a lead of approximately 1-2

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NM is required. Maintaining a DME arc is simplified by reference to the RMI in a 900 or 2700 off bearing. Correct the heading approximately 10 degrees towards the inside of the arc for every mile offset outside the arc. Correct the heading approximately 5 degrees towards the outside of the arc for every mile offset inside the arc. 17.7.3 CIRCLING APPROACH 17.7.3.1 APPROACHES WITH VISUAL REFERENCE TO THE GROUND In general, such approaches may only be performed when the position of the aircraft can be precisely determined by means of visual ground cues. Cross-checks with all available means shall nevertheless be made. 17.7.3.2 VISUAL CONTACT APPROACH This type of approach may be performed, e.g. to shorten an instrument approach. The following conditions must be fulfilled: The airport and landing runway can be continuously kept in sight. The appropriate ATC clearance is obtained.

Proper terrain clearance can be maintained throughout the visual part of the approach.

17.7.3.3 VISUAL CIRCLING A circling approach may be carried out when the aircraft cannot be flown on a straight course from the approach aid to the runway in use and visual guidance must be used to position the aircraft for final approach. The circling area may be limited to specific sectors. After initial ground contact, the PF must proceed at an altitude not below the applicable circling minimum. This altitude must be held, maintaining visual ground contact, until the normal glide slope of approximately 30 has been intercepted on base leg or final. During descent a normal safe glide slope shall be followed, taking into account the spot elevations in the approach path. A left downwind /base leg shall normally be flown unless cleared otherwise or when stipulated in the approach chart. The PF is primarily looking out in order to remain within the safe area and to

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prepare for a proper line-up for final approach. The PM should cross-check flight and navigation instruments as well as assisting with the lookout. 17.7.3.4 CIRCLING REQUIREMENTS Circling Approaches at destination or alternate may be employed for planning and/or operating a flight with the intention of carrying out a visual approach and landing, when the following requirements are met: An Air Traffic Control or Airfield Flight Information Service, including a facility for the reporting of metrological conditions is available. VHF R/T communications are available At least one of the following radio navigation aids, either at the airfield or elsewhere, which will enable location of the airfield, is available: NDB, VOR, and RADAR.

COMPANY CIRCLING MINIMUM REPORTED WEATHER Circling MDA (H) Obtain the circling MDA from the Jeppesen Instrument approach charts and set that altitude on both altimeter bugs. The briefing for the applicable instrument approach should include the Missed Approach Procedure and how this procedure would be regained following loss of visual reference during the circling maneuver. Approach Ban The instrument approach (to circle) should only be commenced if meteorological conditions are reported to as being above the required minima. Having commenced the approach, descent may be continued to the circling MDA (H). Visual Contact Established If visual contact with the surface is established and maintained, flight may continue towards the Missed Approach Point, at the highest altitude

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which is clear of cloud, but not below MDA (H). Once visual contact with the airport is established and maintained, the circling maneuver may be continued towards the landing runway, otherwise initiate a goaround at the Missed Approach Point. During the circling maneuver, visual contact with the surface and visual reference with the landing runway must be maintained. The altitude flown should be the highest consistent with visual contact and separation from the cloud ceiling. Descent below the MDA (H) is not permitted until established on a 30 approach slope. Configuration Maintain Flap 20 degrees/ gears down, then select final flap when ready for landing. For flight patterns, refer to the applicable FCOM.

17.8 CAT-I APPROACHES 17.8.1 CAT-1 APPROACH CLASSIFICATION Precision approach with a specified minima not lower than: 200 ft DH/DA 550m MET VIS or RVR. 17.8.2 POLICY It is the Company policy to use the most suitable equipment in the aircraft as well as on the ground and the most suitable procedure to perform approaches in low visibility conditions. As a general rule the types of precision approaches flown by PIA aircraft may be divided depending on aircraft type into auto land, coupled, and manual. Manual approaches may only be flown down to landing when the weather is at or above CAT 1 minima. Either Captain or First Officer may be PF. The Pilot flying the approach will make the landing unless weather conditions are below limits for First Officers (Refer to Chapter 14 Section 14.1 Page 3.

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Coupled approaches may be flown at any time down to CAT 1 limits, but should be flown if actual weather is in doubt or close to minima. Coupled approaches generally increase the probability of a successful landing. Detailed descriptions; duty assignments, call outs, system checks of each individual approach procedure are to be found in the FCOM for the particular aircraft type. To assess autopilot and auto throttle performance, each auto land shall be recorded according to current instructions as laid down for the respective type of aircraft. A downgrading, including a change of approach procedure, is authorized if actual MET condition permit, However, the new approach must be established and stabilized in every respect, including revise approach briefing, new DH/DA, systems status, etc at the latest when passing 1000 ft AGL. Conditions for downgrading below 1000ft, where applicable, are listed in the FCOM.

APPROACH PATH DEVIATIONS ON FINAL APPROACH 17.8.3.1 LOCALIZER Descent for final approach shall not be initiated as long as the localizer shows full scale deflection. After becoming established, descent must not be continued if the localizer deflection is more than one dot as shown on the PFD/Instrument Panel. After passing the OM every effort shall be made to follow the localizer as closely as possible. Note: A deviation of 1/3 dot is on the localizer between 100 ft and 50 ft AGL corresponds to approximately 19meter of runway centerline. 17.8.3.2 GLIDE PATH After intercept, the glide path deviation shall not exceed one dot as shown on the PFD/Instrument Panel. The glide path shall however be flown as accurately as possible and the deviation must be close to zero at DH/DA. Note: A deviation of dot on the glide path between 100 ft and 50 ft AGL corresponding to approximately 5 ft of aircraft height.

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17.8.3.3 AUTO LAND / COUPLED APPROACH For ILS approaches to runways that do not have CAT II or CAT III certified equipment, either Pilot may fly a coupled approach, but the autopilot must be disconnected by 200 ft AGL/minimums, at the latest and the aircraft be manually landed. Where coupled approaches are made to CAT II minima, All Weather Operating Procedures shall be used. Auto land approaches may only be carried out to runways that have ILS equipment certified for CAT II or III approaches. The Captain will always perform the duties of PF and the First Officer those of PM irrespective of actual weather conditions, all auto land approaches will be performed according to All Weather Operating Procedure, No reversal of task is permitted. Approach briefing for auto land approaches will always be given by the Captain. 17.8.3.4 MANUAL APPROACH It is PIA normal practice to use all automatics (autopilot; auto throttle etc.) for every

approach to avoid increasing the workload of the PM. Manual approaches may be practiced any time the reported weather is better than scattered at 2500 feet and 5 km visibility. Where the intention is to carry out a manual landing the autopilot must be disconnected by minimums at the latest. Should malfunctions require a manual flown approach then CAT 1 minima shall apply. 17.8.3.5 MALFUNCTIONS Continuation of any approach below 1000 ft AGL in the event of any aircraft or ground system malfunction is normally permitted only when adequate visual reference can be maintained until touchdown. In the event of an aircraft or ground system malfunction occurring in IMC below 1000ft AGL that requires corrective action by the flight Crew, the approach shall be discontinued. A new approach may only be commenced if: Technical handling of the malfunction is completed, and

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Existing conditions (technical status of the aircraft/ ground equipment, metrological situation) fulfill the respective approach requirements. If a malfunction occurs below decision height it is the Captains decision whether to discontinue the approach or not, depending on the actual situation. 17.8.4 DEFICIENCY REPORTING OF GROUND EQUIPMENT Normally, ATC will ensure that Flight Crews are informed of changes to the performance category of the ILS glide path and localizer, as well as the status of airport lighting and RVR equipment before the aircraft passes the outer marker. After passing the OM information given to Flight Crew is limited to total failure of airport lighting facilities e.g. approach lights, Center line lights etc., and any change to the performance category of ILS glide path or localizer. The Captain must decide whether the approach can be continued or a missed approach must be flown

according to the minimum requirements for the use of ground aids.

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CHAPTER 18: ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS


18.0 General & Definitions 18.0.1 General 18.0.1.1 All Weather Operations (AWO).. 18.0.1.2 Low Visibility Procedures (LVP). 18.0.1.3 CAT II Approaches (CAT II APP).. 18.0.1.4 Basic Requirements. 18.0.1.5 Flight Crew Qualifications... 18.0.1.6 Use of Auto Modes.. 18.0.2 Definitions... 18.0.2.1 Alert Height.. 18.0.2.2 ILS Critical Areas. 18.0.2.3 ILS Sensitive Area... 18.0.2.4 Minimum Approach Brake-off Height (MABH). 18.0.2.5 Runway Visual range (RVR).. 18.0.2.6 Specified Minima 18.0.2.7 Automatic Landing System. 18.0.2.8 Fail Operational Automatic Landing System... 18.0.2.9 Fail Passive Auto Landing System.. 3 3 3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4 4-5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7-8 8 8-9 10 10 11 12 12-13 14 14-16

18.1

Taxi & Takeoff.


18.1.1 Low Visibility Takeoff (LVTO).. 18.1.1.1 Limitation. 18.1.1.2 Flight Crew Qualification

18.2

Airfield Equipment and ATC Procedures.


18.2.1 Considerations. 18.2.2 Terrain Profile.. 18.2.3 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces... 18.2.4 Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ)... 18.2.5 Visual Aids.. 18.2.6 ILS Critical Areas 18.2.7 ILS Sensitive Areas. 18.2.8 ILS Standby Power. 18.2.9 RVR and Weather 18.2.10 Air Traffic Control. 18.2.11 Low Visibility Procedures. 18.2.12 Airfield Ground Equipments.

18.3

AWO Procedures
18.3.1 PIA CAT II ILS .. 18.3.1.1 ILS Classification (CAT II Approach). 18.3.1.2 Philosophy and Policy.. 18.3.1.3 Approach Briefing.................... 18.3.1.4 Use of APU... 18.3.1.5 Task Sharing.. 18.3.1.6 Failures and Associated Actions... 17 17 17 17 17-18 18

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18.3.1.7 The Decision Process................ 18.3.1.8 Visual Reference Requirements 18.3.1.9 Visual Reference for CAT II.... 18.3.1.10 Loss of Visual Reference.... 18.3.1.11 Incapacitation. 18.3.1.12 Approach Minima.. 18.3.1.13 Table of Approach Minima (CAT I/II)..

18 18-19 19 19 19 19 20-21

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18.0 GENERAL & DEFINITIONS 18.0.1 GENERAL The main objective of this Chapter is to provide a compact reference for AWO and to highlight the difference in terminology not normally covered in other operations. It should be read in conjunction with, respective aircraft SOP and FCOM. 18.0.1.1 ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS (AWO) Refers to CAT II/III operation and takeoff in weather conditions below CAT I landing Minimums. 18.0.1.2 LOW VISIBILITY PROCEDURES (LVP) CAT II/III operations requires special procedures for air traffic and flight crew, and are referred as Low visibility Procedures. 18.0.1.3 CAT II APPROACHES (CAT II APP) An authorized instrument approach procedure which provide approaches to a height of less than 200ft but not less than 100ft above the threshold or touchdown zone and minimum RVR of 350M.

18.0.1.4 BASIC REQUIREMENTS PIA approved limits for CAT II approaches are: Decision height not less than 100ft Lowest authorized RVR 350M. Authorized aircraft Authorized runway at the airport. CAT II qualified crew, current on the equipment. Or As published in Jeppesen Airway Manual Approach Charts (whichever is higher). 18.0.1.5 FLIGHT CREW QUALIFICATION Complete the CAT II Simulator Training. Successfully demonstrate CAT II Simulator evaluation Demonstrate at least 3 ILS approaches in line operations. (To a training or check airman) using Cat-II procedure. On completion of the above requirements the pilot will be certified to carry out Cat-II operation with restricted minima of 150. And RVR (as depicted on the approach chart).The flight crew

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members will be issued a Certifications of Competency Low Visibility Operations Card by CP Crew Training to be carried by the respective crew. The pilot will be released to operate down to CAT-II minima of 100 ft. after completion of at least 150 hours for captain and 50 hours for first officer. Category II minima shall only be flown by pilots duly authorized on the B-747, B777 and A-310 types of aero planes. 18.0.1.6 USE OF AUTO MODES In CAT II weather all approaches must be automatic and must be flown by the captain, Instructor Pilot or check airman. 18.0.2 DEFINITIONS 18.0.2.1 ALERT HEIGHT. The height of the wheels above the ground, read on a radio altimeter, above which a go- around would be initiated if a failure occurred in one part of the aircrafts failoperational system. Below this height the probability of failure is such that if a part of the system fails the operation can still be continued by the remaining part while complying with the safety

criteria (i.e. double extremely improbable).

failure

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18.0.2.2 ILS CRITICAL AREAS Areas of defined dimensions around the localizer and glide path transmitter antenna in which environmental changes, including the presence of vehicles and aircraft will cause disturbances to the ILS signals which will probably be unacceptable to aircraft using the signals. 18.0.2.3 ILS SENSITIVE AREA An area extending beyond the Critical Area where the parking and or movement of vehicles and aircraft will affect ILS signals and may be unacceptable to aircraft using these signals for automatic landing or roll-out guidance. 18.0.2.4 MINIMUM APPROACH BREAK-OFF HEIGHT (MABH) The lowest height of the wheels above the ground where if a goaround is initiated without external visual references in normal operation; the aircraft does not touch the ground during the procedure. With critical engine failure during the go-around, it can be demonstrated that taking account of this failure probability; an accident is extremely improbable.

18.0.2.5 RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of a runway can see the runway surface markings or lights delineating the runway or identifying its centerline. 18.0.2.6 SPECIFIED MINIMA Specified in relation to takeoff and approach minima means details of operating minima as specified in the Airfield Operating Minima charts. 18.0.2.7 AUTOMATIC LANDING SYSTEM The airborne equipment which provides automatic control of the aircraft during the approach and landing. 18.0.2.8 FAIL OPERATIONAL AUTOMATIC LANDING SYSTEM Upon the failure of a component or part of the system; the operation may be continued on the remainder of the system. 18.0.2.9 FAIL PASSIVE AUTO LANDING SYSTEM A system is fail passive if in the event of a failure it disengages without any significant deviation of trim, flight path or attitude.

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18.1 TAXI & TAKEOFF Refer to Chapter 16 of this Manual for visibility limits for take-off. In low visibility, a Pilot can expect to see bright lights at ranges similar to the reported RVR value, but aircraft and other objects may only be visible at half those ranges. It is therefore essential that safe slow taxi speeds are maintained and the position of other aircraft checked with ATC if required. The taxi charts should be used to assess the aircrafts position and anticipate bends and holding points. Taxiway lights have the spacing reduced from 30 meters to 15 to 7 meters on bends. CAT II/III holding point markings and lightings are shown in the Jeppesen Airway Manual. Pilot in command must ensure that the aircraft does not cross the CAT II/III holding points. At take-off, it should be confirmed that the aircraft is aligned on the runway centerline lights and not the edge lights. The number of visible centerline / edge lights

should be cross-checked against the RVR. As a general rule the take-off should be discontinued if visual reference is lost below 100 kts. At higher speeds the take-off should be continued making use of centerline guidance (yaw bar). If it necessary to reject the take-off, directional control with reference to the centerline lights becomes more difficult as the speed reduces. Full / maximum thrust settings are recommended to be used when Low Visibility Procedures are in force. 18.1.1 LOW VISIBILITY TAKEOFF (LVTO) A takeoff on a runway where the RVR is less then 400M and low visibility procedures are enforced. 18.1.1.1 LIMITATION RVR not less than 150M for CAT A,B and C and 200M for CAT D aircraft Or As published in Jeppesen Airway Manual approach charts. (Whichever is higher). Authorized aircraft

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Authorized runway at airport Crew qualification on equipment.

18.1.1.2 FLIGHT CREW QUALIFICATION Flight crew shall be required to demonstrate one complete takeoff and one rejected takeoff at RVR 150M for CAT A, B and C and 200M for CAT D aircraft. 18.2 AIR FIELD EQUIPMENT ATC PROCEDURES When operating under Low Visibility procedures, both the aircraft and the airfield are required to be equipped with specific equipment. Details of aircraft requirements are provided in the relevant FCOMs and FCTMs. Following are the details of CAT II airfield equipment: 18.2.1 CONSIDERATIONS The following are the relevant considerations for assessing the suitability of any airfield for CAT II operations: The physical characteristics of the runway and environment including approach and departure terrain.

Obstacle clearance including Obstacle Free Zone. Visual aids, their standard and reliability. ILS installation ensuring conformity with ICAO standards and recommended practices. Meteorological services and assessment and dissemination of RVR information. Air traffic control and ground movement control. The full considerations and/or requirements on each of these items are fully specified in ICAO Document 9365-ANO 910019 (Manual of All Weather Operations). Following are some of the more significant items: 18.2.2 TERRAIN PROFILE The terrain profile under the approach path should be free of excessive up or down slopes and discontinuities since the radio altimeters provide an input signal to the auto-pilot for gain programming during a coupled approach form 1000 ft, and also for pitch control during the flare from about 50 ft.

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Before a runway is approved for CAT II/III operations, the terrain profile as well as the runway is investigated for its suitability in accordance with established criteria. Similarly, the runway profile must be within specified limits. 18.2.3 OBSTACLE LIMITATION SURFACES For any precision approach runway, the obstacle clearance must be considered in the determination of Decision Height (DH). Obstacle limitation surfaces and requirements should be applied wherever possible. In the case of an ILS, this clearance is 500 ft at the Outer Marker, reducing to 100 ft within a strip 2000 ft wide, symmetrical about the runway centreline and extending from the outer edge of the approach lights to the upwind end of the runway. Thereafter an aircraft going round has 100 ft clearance provided its climb gradient exceeds 2.5%. See Figure 18.1 on next page.

OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (OFZ) There is an additional set of surfaces comprising the Obstacle Free Zone for airfields with CAT II/III facilities. The purpose of the OFZ is to protect and aircraft after a missed approach from, at or below DH. Within the zone, exceptions are made for essential visual and electronic guidance equipment. The precise entry of an aircraft into to OFZ is assured by the accuracy of the ILS guidance. See Figure 18.2 on next page.

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18.2.5 VISUAL AIDS Full approach lighting is not necessarily required for CAT II/III operations. Complex calculations for each aircraft type are required to establish the visual segment, but the general result allows the following table to be used: Minimum Approach Lighting required to be operative.(as measured from the threshold to approaching aircraft) Minimum Approach Lighting DH Meters of (ft) Approach Light CAT II 100 Last 450 meters

spaced at 30 meters for CAT II and at 15, or 7.5 meters for CAT III. Secondary power source for runway lighting. Taxiway lighting and marking should be provided to the requirements of ICAO specifications. Clearly defined holding positions should be installed at entry points to the runway. Further details may be found in the Jeppesen Airway Manual. 18.2.6 ILS CRITICAL AREAS To ensure that ILS signal integrity is maintained during an approach by an aircraft all vehicles and aircraft on the ground must remain outside the ILS Critical Area. If a vehicle or aircraft is within the critical area, it will cause reflection and/or disturbance to the guidance signals on the approach path. It follows therefore when a Captain is maneuvering his aircraft on an airfield where Low Visibility Procedures are in force, that he/she must pay particular attention to ensuring that no part of his aircraft is positioned beyond the markers that indicate the boundary of the critical area, until given clearance by ATC.

Runway lighting and markings should include: White painted centerlineline. Touch down zone marking. Distance marks including distance codes. Runway threshold lights. High intensity runway edge lights. Centre-line lights extending over the full length of the runway. Centre-line lighting

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See Figure 18.3 for ILS Critical Areas and respectively on the following pages. 18.2.7 ILS SENSITIVE AREA Similarly an aircraft overflying a localizer at close range may cause interference, particularly if it is large. This interference could jeopardise a CAT II/III approach. To create the necessary protection, a sensitive area is established which may vary from one installation to another, according to the regulatory authority. Figure No. 18.4 on the following page shows the typical ILS Sensitive Areas Sensitive areas away from the ground surface are protected by ensuring that aricraft and vehicles operating near the localiser or glide slope transmitters are clear before approaching or departing aircraft can be affected by deviated signals. To minimise the risk, ICAO. requires that an aircraft passing over a localiser must be past it before an aircraft carrying out a CAT II/III approach has descended to a

height of 200 ft above the runway. Again, when an aircraft has landed, it must clear the runway and be beyond the markers showing the limits of CAT II/III prtection before the succeding aircraft has passed a height of 200 ft above the ruway. ATC are responsible for spacing the aricraft so as to provide this protection. For these reasons the speed controls must be strictly adhered to. Having successfully completed a CAT II/III approach, safe but expeditious runway clearance will give the succeding aircraft a better chance of also completing its approach. Caution: The accuracy of localizer and glide slope is often less than full CAT II/III standards when Low Visibility Procedures are not in use due to beam deflections by other aircraft, ground vehicles or signal quality of the ground installation. In view of these permissible fluctuations, pilots are cautioned that temporary deviations in aircraft track or descent profiles may occur.

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REIFFER LINE

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18.2.8 ILS STANDBY POWER Airfield secondary power supplies must be available. 18.2.9 RVR AND WEATHER For All Weather Operations both the touchdown zone and mid zone RVR are to be considered. As a general rule the mid zone value must be at least one half of the published minimum for the approach. RVR measuring devices are an essential part of an airfields CAT II/III capability. Such measurements are displayed and available so that ATC can pass changed readings to the aircraft within 15 seconds. RVR trans-missometers are installed at the Touch-Down (TD) and Mid Point (MP) of the runway for CAT II and in addition at the stop end (or Roll-out) for CAT III. TDZ RVR, which is the governing value, should always be passed but other RVR may not necessarily be passed. In most States the requirement is for the other RVR to be passed when either or both values are:

Less than TDZ and less than 800 meters, or Less than 400 meters. When the available runway length indicates that the aircraft will require the RollOut zone for the landing the corresponding RVR (RO) should not be below 75 meters. As well as receiving TD RVR the captain should call for MP and RO values, if he/she has any doubts as to the suitability of the runway visibility for the approach and landing. Equipment capable of measuring wind speed and direction should be installed, and the information displayed should be available for transmission to an aircraft carrying out an approach.

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18.2.10 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL ATC will announce when LVP are in operation (ATIS). Early notice of aircraft/ crew landing capability to ATC, (i.e. CAT II/IIIA/IIIB) may result in preference being given over other aircraft. Clearance to carry out a CAT II/III approach must be obtained from Approach Control, who will check the status of the ILS and lighting and protect the sensitive areas from incursion by vehicles. An approach during LVP may not be undertaken until the clearance has been received. Before 1000 ft, (OM if required) RVR values for TD, MP and RO where available, will be obtained and compared with values in FCOM. When practicing CAT II/III procedures in weather conditions of CAT I or better, it will not be feasible to expect ATC to provide LVP protection. Captains should be alert to the possibilities of beam deflection by aircraft and vehicles on the ground and preceding traffic and notify ATC that they will be doing a practice approach.

It must be appreciated that separations of up to 10 nm between aircraft on the approach may be necessary and that the resulting effect on landing delays must be allowed for. ATC requirements and special RT calls particular to the airfield or State should be included in the approach briefing. 18.2.11 LOW VISIBILITY PROCEDURES In general, Low Visibility Procedures are put into force at airfields authorized for CAT II/III operations when the RVR falls below 400 meters and/ or the cloud base falls below 200 ft. 18.2.12 AIRFIELD GROUND EQUIPMENT The effect on landing minima caused by temporary ground equipment failures is illustrated in the following table:-

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Ground Equipment Requirements for Cat II Approaches and Landings Decision Height 15 15/50 100 (Feet) Runway Visual 125 200/250 350 Range (Meters) Authorized Status CAT Authorized Authorized Not III Not Authorized Authorized Authorized CAT II Not Standby Required Required required Capability ILS OM if Alternate means of determining promulgated Associated with Approach Last 210 Last 450 Approach Not required meters meters Lighting System available available Runway Edge * Required Required minimum spacing 15 or 7.5 meters as per visual aids Required Required Required *Required Minimum spacing 30 meters Required Required Required **Required * Minimum spacing of 30 meters Required Required Required

RW L

Centre line

RV R

Touchdown Secondary Power Touchdown zone*** Mid Point Zone and Stop End Zone

If both Installed and one unit fails this does not prohibit CAT II/III operations.

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Notes * May be unavailable by day (CAT II by day operation with failure of TDL and/or CLL acceptable) ** May be unavailable by day with good contrast between RWY markings and surface. *** Touchdown Zone: State may allow valuation to derive TDZ from MPZ Pilots will be notified. CAT III: A few centerline lights Ground Facilities for Landing and 1or 2 barrettes of the Following an Instruments touchdown zone lights. Approach. The standard color coding of the runway centerline and edge The lighting and markings of lights gives useful information each runway are shown on the regarding available runway Jeppesen approach chart. Under length remaining under conditions of reduced visibility conditions of reduced visibility: it is essential that these are thoroughly reviewed. Pilots CAT II / III Runway End must also be familiar with Lighting taxiway lighting and markings. Distance In case of actual CAT II and to Runway Color of Lights CAT III landings the typical End ground segments that may be Centerline alternate 900 Meters expected to be seen at DH/DA red and white are as follows: Edge lights change 600 Meters CAT II: At least 1 crossbar and to yellow about 4 lights / barrettes in row Centerline lights 300 Meters on the centerline. changes to all red

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18.3 AWO PROCEDURES 18.3.1 PIA CAT- II ILS 18.3.1.1 CLASSIFICATION (CAT II APPROACH) Precision approach with a specified minimum below CAT -I but not lower than: 100 ft DH 350 m RVR 18.3.1.2 PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY Both Flight Crew members must have full authority for the approach to be initiated to CAT-II minima. If one Flight Crew member has only a limited authorization than that will define the limits for that approach. Refer to Chapter 3 of this manual for AWO Authorization requirements. 18.3.1.3 APPROACH BRIEFING In addition those listed in Chapter 17 of this manual, the following items should be covered: Confirmation that the crew is CAT II qualified. Check of aircraft systems status and any en route deficiencies. Review and set applicable DH for CAT II and

downgraded CAT I DA on barometric altimeter. Review distribution of tasks and procedures in case of a malfunction. Review procedures for downgrading CAT II-I. Review approach ban, ATC calls required and LVP runway exits. Check seat positions and flight deck lighting. APU, auto brake as required.

18.3.1.4 USE OF APU (RECOMMENDED) The APU, if available should be started prior to commencing a CAT II approach in actual conditions. This will give readily available backup following failure of Engine Generator. 18.3.1.5 TASK SHARING For All Weather Operations CM-1 is the Pilot Flying (PF), controlling the aircraft by means of the AFS. The workload is distributed in such a way that the PFs primary tasks are supervising and decision making. The primary task of CM-2, the PM is monitoring the operation of the AFS. For more details of

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task sharing see receptive FCOM/FCTM. Note: For CAT II approaches it is a must requirement to be stabilized, no later than 1500ft AGL. 18.3.1.6 FAILURES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS In general there are three possible responses to the failure of any system, instrument or element of the AFS during the approach which causes capability reduction: REVERT to a higher minima and proceed to a new DH, provided it has been included in the landing briefing GO-AROUND and reassess the capability. LAND if the required visual reference has been attained. The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine which response is appropriate. A detailed summary of failure cases and associated actions is given in the respective FCOMs.

18.3.1.7 THE DECISION PROCESS It should be stressed that the DH is the lower limit of the decision zone during which in limiting conditions, the CM-1 will be assessing the visual references. He/she should come to this zone prepared for a go-around but with no preestablished judgment. He/she should make his decision according to the quality of the approach and the way the visual references develop as the DH is approached. For CAT II approaches DH shall be determined from the radio altimeter. In CAT II operations, at DH the approach may be continued provided that the visual reference is adequate and the flight path is acceptable. If both these conditions are not satisfied a go -around is mandatory. 18.3.1.8 VISUAL REFERENCE REQUIREMENTS For take-off, the visual guidance derived from runway lights and /or markings should be sufficient to ensure adequate take-off alignment and directional control for take-off, and stopping after an emergency. Although

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additional instruments, such as the localizer commended yaw bar may enhance the safety of the operation, reference to visual aids is the primary requirement, whilst still available. 18.3.1.9 VISUAL REFERENCE FOR CAT II. An approach may not be continued below the CAT II decision height unless visual reference containing a segment of at least three consecutive lights being: The centerline of the approach lights, or The touchdown zone light, or The runway centerline lights, or The runway edge lights or A combination of these is attained and can be maintained. The visual references must include a lateral element of the ground pattern i.e. a cross bar of the approach lights, the landing threshold or a barrette of the touch down zone lighting.

18.3.1.10 LOSS OF VISUAL REFERENCE Before touchdown Go-around After touchdown continue the landing. 18.3.1.11 INCAPACITATION Full details of incapacitation are given in Chapter 21 of this Manual. However, in AWO conditions due consideration should be given to the question of whether it would be safer for the remaining crew member(s) to continue the automatic approach and landing or to execute a go-around and divert to an airfield that is having CAT I or better weather conditions. 18.3.1.12 APPROACH MINIMA PIA approved approach minima for CAT II Operations is given in section 18.1 of this chapter. The associated JEPPESEN CAT II charts for the runway should be used for all reference. The RVR Required for Take off displayed are those authorized for a crew which is qualified and current for AWO. These minima are

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applicable when HIRL (high intensity runway lighting) and CL (centre line lighting) are available and RVR reported. 18.3.1.13 TABLE OF APPROACH MINIMA (CAT I/II) The table indicates the required DH and RVR for various types of CAT 1 and CATII approaches. In some cases the minima authorized by a particular State may be more restrictive than those below. In such cases the appropriate minima will be reflected on the Aerodrome Operating Minima chart within the Jeppesen Route Manual. Intentionally Left Blank

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TABLE OF APPROACH MINIMA Decision Height (ft) CAT I CAT II Full Authority Auto to 50 ft or below 200 Met. Visibility (meters) 800 RVR Touchdown (meters) 550 RVR Midpoint (meters) 200 RVR Stop End (meters) *Captains Discretion

100

-----

350

175

*Captains Discretion

*Note: Not below 75 meters when Stop End of runway required by landing distance.

Approaches and Landing on Contaminated Runways For specific details regarding CAT II approaches and landings on wet and contaminated runways please see the respective FCOMs.

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19.0

19.1

19.2

Adverse Runway Conditions 19.0.1 General.. 19.0.2 Definitions..... 19.0.3 Major Effects on Aircraft Performance and Operation .... 19.0.4 Nature and Forms of Aquaplaning 19.0.5 Viscount Aquaplaning... 19.0.6 Dynamic Aquaplaning... 19.0.7 Reverted Rubber Aquaplaning... 19.0.8 Reporting of Braking Conditions... 19.0.9 Reporting of Runway Contamination ... 19.0.10 Performance Corrections . 10.0.11 Operational Limitations... 19.0.12 Wind Component Limitations. 19.0.13 Captains Considerations Operations in Icing Conditions 19.1.1 General .. 19.1.1.1 Operational Guidelines... 19.1.2 Definitions ..... 19.1.2.1 Clear or Glaze Ice... 19.1.2.2 Rime Ice.. 19.1.2.3 Hoar Frost... 19.1.3 Icing Regions..... 19.1.3.1 Warm fronts ... 19.1.3.2 Occluded Fronts. 19.1.4 Policy. 19.1.5 Ground De-Icing 19.1.6 Pre Flight 19.1.7 Starting... 19.1.8 Taxi 19.1.9 Engine Icing (Ground)... 19.1.10 Takeoff. 19.1.11 In Flight 19.1.12 Approach and Landing. Operation in Turbulence and Wind Shear 19.2.1 Definitions ................................. 19.2.1.1 Turbulence ..................... 19.2.1.2 Wind Shear.. 19.2.2 Classification of Turbulence.. 19.2.2.1 Convective Turbulence... 19.2.2.2 Orographic Turbulence... 19.2.2.3 Clear Air Turbulence.. 19.2.2.4 Wake Turbulence 19.2.3 Classification of Wind shear ..... 19.2.3.1 Thunderstorms 19.2.3.2 Downbursts.

3 3 3-4 4 4-5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7-8 8 8 8 8 8-9 9 9 9 9-10 10 10 10-11 11 11 11 12-13 13 14-16 16-17 17 17 18 18 18 18-19 19 19 19

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19 19 19 20 20 20 20-22 23-24 24 24-25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27-28 28 28 28 28-31 31 31 32 32 33

19.3

19.2.3.3 Frontal Shear... 19.2.3.4 Lee Wave, Rotor Shear... 19.2.3.5 Temperature Inversions.. 19.2.3.6 Ground Effects 19.2.3.7 Policy...... 19.2.3.8 General Guidelines.. 19.2.3.9 Pilot Responsibility. 19.2.4 Takeoff and Climb-out ................................. 19.2.5 Cruise................................. 19.2.5.1 Avoidance... 19.2.6 Preparation. 19.2.7 Altitude.. 19.2.8 Stabilizer Trim... 19.2.9 Recovery ... Operation in Areas Contaminated by Volcanic Ash 19.3.1 General... 19.3.2 Ground Operation.. 19.3.2.1 Parking.... 19.3.2.2 Taxi. 19.3.2.3 Takeoff.... 19.3.3 Flight Operations... 19.3.4 Ash Cloud.. 19.3.4.1 Reporting. 19.3.4.2 Approach and Landing 19.3.4.3 Taxi and Parking ... 19.3.4.4 Maintenance Action

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19.0ADVERSE RUNWAY CONDITIONS 19.0.1 GENERAL Contaminated runway conditions with all their adverse effects require special consideration and limitations. The type specific information and instructions are contained in the FCOM. 19.0.2 DEFINITIONS A distinction is made between a damp/wet and a contaminated runway state. A runway is considered as contaminated whenever its surface is affected by any deposit exceeding the state of or wet, the latter being defined as a water depth of up to 3 mm. A runway covered with ice or a wet surface in connection with dust or sand should always be considered as contaminated irrespective of the extent of converge. Aquaplaning is possible whenever a runway is covered with a fluid deposit exceeding 3 mm depth.

19.0.3

MAJOR EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATION There are risks to aircraft operations whenever ice, snow or slush is adhering to or impinging upon the aircraft such as: Blocking of flight controls and trim devices. Disturbance of the airflow over wings, stabilizer and fuselage causing loss of lift and increase of drag. Damage to engine compressors or fans by the ice detaching from the airframe. The aircraft take off and landing performance is degraded to a degree dependent on the type and extend of the deposit as follows: Slower acceleration on runway covered by the standing water and slush or snow as a result of dynamic drag acting on the landing gear wheels and of spray impingement drag on the airframe. Reduced tyre /surface friction which degrade

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aircraft braking action and directional control. Extreme slipperiness in the form of viscous aquaplaning can occur at the onset of the first rainfall on runway exposed to long period of dry weather in particular in arid zones due to dust or sand. Considerable slipperiness must be anticipated within that part of a runway covered with rubber deposit whenever the surface is damp or wet or otherwise covered with a fluid deposit. Proper operation of the anti-skid braking system may not be provided on slippery runway surface due to inadequate wheel spin up on touchdown. Positive touchdown and immediate deployment of spoilers may facilitate wheel spin up. The use of reverse thrust requires caution in crosswind condition or in asymmetric modes, because directional control may be lost due to

the changed thrust vector or yawing moments. Reduced visibility and optical illusions during precipitation, e.g. blowing snow, heavy rain demand caution. 19.0.4 NATURE AND FORMS OF AQUAPLANING Aquaplaning occurs when direct contact between tyre and runway surface is partially or completely lost due to fluid pressure equal to or exceeding tyre inflation pressure. This is the reason why aquaplaning (viscous and dynamic combined) must be expected at high speeds on standing water, slush and wet snow with a measured depth of more than 3 mm. The factors and conditions which can cause high water pressure in the tyre footprint area are manifold. Three forms of aquaplaning can be distinguished.

19.0.5 VISCOUS AQUAPLANING The viscosity of water or a lubricant mixture of water with a contaminant (dust, fine sand, etc) is of such magnitude that penetration of even thin films requires contact pressures well in excess of the tyre inflation

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pressure. Accordingly, direct contact between tread and runway surface can only be established through local peak pressure developed at sharp corners of the surface texture. Therefore, runways with smooth surfaces which lack adequate sharpness will generally be prone to viscous aquaplaning under contaminated conditions. Viscous aquaplaning once onset can persist to very low speeds. Aircraft braking ability on runway covered with compacted snow or ice may drop significantly as the speed reduces during landing. This phenomenon is attributed to the melting of ice, induced by tyre contact pressure, causing viscous aquaplaning. 19.0.6 DYNAMIC AQUAPLANING The inertia of a measurable depth of standing water, slush or wet snow causes increasing resistance to displacement with increasing speed. As a result water pressure develops progressively and, at a critical rolling speed reaches a magnitude sufficient to lift the tyre off the surface. 19.0.7 REVERTED RUBBER AQUA-PLANNING Wherever a tyre is sliding for prolonged period of time (i.e. no wheel spin up), considerable heat

is generated in the footprint area. As a result, the outermost layer of the tyre tread melts, thereby sealing the footprint. The entrapped water is converted to high-pressure steam causing complete loss of contact between the tyre and surface. Once commenced this kind of aquaplaning can persist down to taxi speeds. 19.0.8 REPORTING OF BRAKING CONDITIONS The accurate reporting of braking conditions and the depth of contamination are both important, since conditions can vary considerably along the runway and change within a short period of time. They various methods used for determining braking conditions are not uniform. The measurement of friction coefficient is only representative and reliable for compact snow and ice formations. Whereas it is generally too low in cases of dry loose snow on an otherwise bare runway. In case of standing water, slush or wet snow, friction measurements are highly

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speed dependent due to aquaplaning effects, and may not reflect the braking conditions actually experienced. Special caution is required with wet snow because it can gradually turns into slush with significant performance deterioration due to: OAT rising above O oC. Initial pavement temperatures above O oC. Solar radiation. Most state and airfield authorities do not promulgate friction coefficient of braking action under such conditions, but report the actual state in terms of the type of contamination and measured depth instead. Pilot reports from comparable aircraft types are to be used as guidance only. The braking conditions are given either as Friction Coefficients (FC) or in the form of a descriptive Braking Action. (BA) terms (Good, Medium, Poor) for each third or the total length of the runway. If Friction Coefficients and Braking Actions are issued, the Friction Coefficient reflects

the more accurate value for assessment of the actual conditions and shall be applied in the first place. 19.0.9 REPORTING OF RUNWAY CONTAMINATION Existing contamination of dry or wet snow, slush, standing water or ice is reported for each third or the total length of the runway and will be published in the SNOWTAM and MOTNE runway report. The extent of contamination in the respective areas (thirds or total length) will be expressed as percentage coverage in steps of 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%.

19.0.10 PERFORMANCE CORRECTIONS Corrections must be applied for performance loss considering the kind and depth of deposit and braking conditions. When variable braking conditions are reported along a runway, the lowest value shall be used for takeoff and landing weight calculations.

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19.0.11 OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS Operational limitations shall be applied in accordance with the instructions given in the respective FCOM. In addition the following requirements have to considered: For determination of the maximum acceptable crosswind, the lowest reported Friction Coefficient of Braking Action (FC/BA) value along the runway length shall be used. The maximum crosswind limitation stipulated in the FCOM must be adhered to. On runways covered with a deposit of less than 25%, the application of these limits is at the discretion of the Captain. If the cleared or treated runway width is less than 40 m, the Captain should carefully evaluate the maximum acceptable crosswind. The available runway width shall not be less than 30 m/100 ft and the appropriate FC/BA requirements must be met.

19.0.12 WIND COMPONENT LIMITATIONS The crosswind and tailwind component values for takeoff, approach and landing shall be limited to the manufacturers demonstrated / recommended values as given in the respective FCOM and FCTM. These include situations such as runway contamination, degraded stopping capability, use of autopilot or any other relevant operational factor. Snow banks adjacent to the cleared width of runways and taxiways and the edges of aprons must be limited to such height that adequate protection is provided against engine ingestion, damage to engine pods or extended flaps or slats with the aircraft manoeuvring on the edge of the cleared area. Follow taxiway and runway centrelines as closely as possible and request guidance from the airfield authority in case of doubt. 19.0.13 CAPTAINS CONSIDERATIONS The following criteria shall be considered for decision making when using the lowest acceptable values:

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Surface wind / crosswind. The relationship between required available runway lengths (After application of all FCOM corrections). Available runway width and presence of snow banks along runway edges. Runway surface grooved or un-grooved. The visibility or RVR. Clarity of threshold, centreline lights and runway edges. Risk of optical illusions (e.g. blowing or drifting snow). Reliability of reported runway conditions. Aircraft well established on short final, i.e. no wind shear, no excess speed, etc. Pilot reports from a comparable aircraft type (to be used as guidance only).

19.1 OPERATIONS IN ICING CONDITIONS 19.1.1 GENERAL 19.1.1.1 OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES The following information may assist crews with their decision to either bypass, or prepare for and negotiate areas of severe or hazardous weather. It is, however, general in nature and should not be used as a substitute for approved FCOM procedures. Operating aircraft in cold weather conditions presents no major problems. Additional procedures and precautions are required during ground operations to ensure safety of flight. All normal operational checks shall be performed. 19.1.2 DEFINITIONS 19.1.2.1 CLEAR OR GLAZE ICE This is the most serious type of icing encountered by aircraft and is capable of very rapid accumulation on the airframe. In many instances the water droplets from which it originates do not freeze immediately upon impact and in consequence may cause airfoil deformation as they run back along the wings.

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19.1.2.2 RIME ICE. Stratiform clouds and stable weather conditions normally produce rime ice. This type of cloud usually precipitates fine droplets of water which freeze upon impact and accumulate more slowly than clear ice. Rime ice will create a rough surface and cause more drag than clear ice, however it is more easily removed. 19.1.2.3 HOAR FROST Frost will form on the airframe while aircraft is stationary and the temperature is below O oC. In flight, clear moist air can cause hoar frost when it comes in contact with a colder surface. 19.1.3 ICING REGIONS 19.1.3.1 WARM FRONTS The entire region of the cloud system associated with a warm front presents potential icing conditions, and can vary from light to severe. Cold fronts, squall lines and air mass type thunderstorms will usually produce clear ice due to the presence of the stronger updrafts necessary to allow the formation of large water droplets. 19.1.3.2 OCCLUDED FRONTS Icing conditions are similar to those in a warm front, but the

extensive cloud cover may necessitate considerable flying time in the clouds with intermittent type formation and severity of icing conditions. 19.1.4 POLICY The authority to decide whether de- icing or anti-icing of the aircraft is necessary lies generally with the Captain however it is the responsibility of ground staff to ensure that the aircraft is cleaned and deiced according to relevant instructions. Close contact shall however be maintained between Flight Crew and ground staff concerning the procedures applied, fluids used, hold over times. For details of de-icing/anti-icing fluids and hold over times refer to Holdover Time Guidelines booklet available in Technical Library on board the aircraft. In all cases where the formation of ice frost on wings and control surfaces may be expected e.g. cold wings, temperature just above freezing and high moisture content of the air; the Captain should personally inspect those parts of the airframe

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where ice may be expected to form (Wing surfaces, stabilizers, upper fuselage etc.). Within PIA route network all stations which can reasonably be expected to require ground de-icing shall have the required facilities/ personnel to carry out such functions. The de-icing/anti-icing procedures must always be done by trained and qualified personnel. Outsourced service providers carrying out such functions must be trained and qualified as per local regulations. 19.1.5 GROUND DE-ICING As a guide, snow, ice or frost on any part of the aircraft, which may adversely affect its performance, shall be removed before takeoff. Exceptions for thin ice layers may be stated in the FCOMs i.e. ice formation on fuel tanks and thin layers of hoar frost on the fuselage. Dry snow shall not be left to blow off during the takeoff run. The time interval between deicing the aircraft and the takeoff shall be as short as possible. In order to facilitate this, de-icing will be carried

out wherever possible with passengers aboard, doors closed and the aircraft ready for departure. For the local deicing procedures /holdover time limits, comply with the Local De-icing Agents rules. It is recommended that the Captain should personally check the aircraft condition whenever he/she has doubts concerning the efficiency of the de-icing operation, or during prolonged taxi in heavy precipitation. 19.1.6 PRE-FLIGHT Check that the ice and snow removal procedures have been completed. Upper surfaces must be clean and clear. Limited deposits of frost may be permitted on undersides of the wings (See FCOM). All control surfaces must be clear of snow and ice. Ensure that the upper portion of the fuselage is clean. Operating portions of the gear doors should be clear of ice. Water rundown from snow removal may refreeze in front of the static ports and cause an ice build-up which can give an erroneous static reading even

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if the static ports themselves are clear. Chocks should not be placed on ice. They should also be positioned to allow small clearance from the tyre. A chock frozen to the ground or tyre can cause delay. All operational checks are the same as for normal checks. Modifications, where necessary will be indicated in the FCOM. Flight control checks will be carried out only when control surfaces are properly cleared of ice and snow. Flight Controls should be operated through their full range of travel, particularly when the aircraft has been standing overnight. The APU may be used to operate the airconditioning system and heat the interior of the aircraft before flight. 19.1.7 STARTING Allowing an engine to cool in subfreezing temperature after exposure to snow flurries or freezing rain may result in ice accumulation around the fan compressor blades unless a blank is used to keep such precipitation out. Keeping the engines blanked, periodically checking inlet drains,

and not starting an engine until it can be determined that fan compressor is rotating freely, are the best means of avoiding delays due to starting problems. Be prepared for possible manual start due to icing of the starter valve solenoid. 19.1.8 TAXI Maximum caution shall be exercised and low speed maintained when taxiing on slippery surfaces. Pilots should be aware that tarmac and taxiway conditions might be worse than the reported runway conditions. Avoid taxiing in deep snow or slush, as brakes and wheels may freeze up after takeoff. During Taxi, caution should be used to avoid getting too close to other aircraft with running engines, the jet blast from which may blow snow or slush into the air intake or onto the airframe. Attempting to achieve de-icing by using the jet blast of preceding aircraft is not permitted. Snow and slush throw up by main gear tyres can accumulate in the gap between the aft and mid flap segments on extended inboard flaps

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during taxi. During retraction, the gap between the flap segments closes, and any snow or slush that has accumulated is compacted. To reduce snow and slush in this area, delay extending the slats or flaps during ground operation until takeoff is imminent. Taxi with slats and flaps retracted until just prior to taxiing into the runway. Use the lowest flap setting for takeoff unless restricted by runway length. Whenever flaps are retracted during ground operations following exposure to snow and slush, monitor the flap position indicator to ensure flap movement. If flap movement stops, promptly place the flap lever in the FCOM-recommended position. Determine prior to entering the runway for takeoff that the wing flaps have been extended to their proper position. There is no minimum engine oil temperature. However with only a short taxi, a warm-up period may be required to clear the oil clog indications or exceeding the maximum oil pressure limits.

Use of engine anti-icing while taxiing on contaminated taxiways is recommended even if it is not required for takeoff. 19.1.9 ENGINE ICING (GROUND) During prolonged ground operations, periodic engine run-ups may be necessary to ensure that the engines stay clear of ice. Specific details will be found in the respective FCOM, although as a general rule, such run-ups should be made at intervals not greater than thirty minutes and should last at least thirty seconds. Caution should be taken to ensure that the resultant jet blast does not blow snow or ice on another aircraft. Ice protection must be used as stipulated in the FCOM. 19.1.10 TAKE OFF Takeoff from a contaminated runway incurs considerable performance penalties. The appropriate correction, as specified in the FCOM must be applied. Takeoff is not authorised in freezing rain, during heavy falls of wet snow (temperatures around O

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degrees C), or if snow, ice or frost has accumulated on the aircraft during taxi. Takeoff must not be attempted if the risk of icing during initial climb is forecast or reported to be such that the anti-icing equipment may not be able to cope with the expected ice accretion. For takeoff, use of the longest runway available is recommended (of course all other factors such as braking action, deposit etc. are also to be considered). ATC requests to take off from an intersection, (e.g. for noise abatement reasons) should be refused. Before starting the takeoff, all control surfaces should be checked for full and free movement. Takeoff should be abandoned immediately if the aircraft does not seem to accelerate properly. After takeoff in slush it may be advisable to delay gear retraction since the slipstream and vibrations caused by the rotating wheels may help to remove slush. Aerodynamic heating of the aircraft caused by high

airspeed may be an effective means of removing any ice or frozen snow which may have accreted during takeoff or initial climb. 19.1.11 IN FLIGHT Whenever flying in areas where icing may be expected, the anti-icing system should be used in anticipation of icing conditions rather than waiting for actual icing to occur. Known areas of severe icing shall be avoided. When severe icing is encountered, every effort shall be made to find an altitude or an area where icing is less (e.g. if encountered in the descent, keep the ROD high in order to cut down the exposure time). Because of inlet pressure changes. The total air temperature indicator is not 100% accurate in determining the possibility of engine icing. However, the total air temperature indicator and the presence of visible moisture remain the two best sources of guidance available in the cockpit. Engine inlet duct icing can occur independently of general icing on other aircraft

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surfaces. When jet aircraft fly at speeds below approximately 250 kts and at high power settings as in a climb, the intake air is drawn into the engine rather than being rammed in. This suction reduces static air pressure, causing incoming air to expand in the engine inlet. Under these conditions, air at an ambient temperature well above freezing may be reduced to sub-freezing temperature as it enters the engine. Free moisture in the air may become super cooled and could cause engine icing while no external surface icing would be evident. The maximum temperature drop occurs at high rpm on the ground and decreases with decreasing engine rpm and increasing airspeed. Prior to the use of engine antiicing, continuous ignition should be selected, to preclude the possibility of an engine flameout due to inlet ice ingestion. Unusual thrust indications may be a warning that ice is forming in the engine inlet. Pilots should be aware of the effect of engine probe icing on the engine

indications of their particular aircraft type. Since ice formation on the wing leading edges cannot generally be seen from the flight deck, windshield wipers, or any visible external protrusions should be monitored for ice build-up. Such accretion may be expected even when the ambient temperature is well below zero. Super cooled water droplets have been recorded at temperatures below 20C in cumuliform clouds, therefore, use of engine and wing anti-icing is recommended whenever operating at speeds less than 280 Kts. (indicated) in clouds other than cirrus type. Operation of the wing antiicing system is not necessary and not recommended in clouds composed exclusively of ice crystals. In general, operate all ice protection systems whenever ice is encountered or before entering an area in which ice is expected. Plan descents to pass through known icing zones as quickly as possible. For an increased rate of

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descent, use speed brakes. See the FCOM for details of the correct thrust setting/limits associated with use of antiicing systems. 19.1.12 APPROACH & LANDING The effect of ice accumulation on the aircraft is to increase the stalling speed considerably. It is recommended therefore, in such conditions, to increase the minimum pattern speeds, particularly the approach speed. All other related factors should be taken into account when considering this option, in particular the available runway length and runway state. If there is ice on the wing leading edges, use wing antiicing before extending slats. During approach and landing in icing conditions, all antiicing systems should be used continuously. Extended periods of flight with slats or flaps extended should be avoided. Make wide turns with less bank angle than normal if ice is suspected on the aircraft. If

possible, a straight-in landing shall be made. If freezing rain is reported at the airfield special attention should be paid to potential ice accumulation on the aircraft, braking conditions and the subsequent takeoff. (Note: Refer to Take-off on previous page for restrictions for subsequent take-off). Caution must be exercised when reverting from instrument to visual flying, especially in whirling snow, when partial loss of orientation (altitude, direction of aircraft) may occur. In fog or in falling or blowing snow, landing lights should be used with caution as the reflected light may actually reduce the effective visibility and even cause a false impression of drift during flare and rollout. Blowing snow can considerably reduce visibility particularly when using reverse thrust after touchdown. Snow cover on an airfield can markedly reduce the visual cues available for accurate assessment of the position and orientation of the runway

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position. Care is advised in such conditions to ensure that touchdown is at the correct depth into the runway and on the centreline. Special attention shall be paid to the following points: Perform a long, straight final approach. Land on the centreline. Aim for a firm touchdown. In case of directional problems during landing, especially in crosswind conditions on a wet and rubber-contaminated runway, the following guidelines shall be considered. a. The partial crab landing technique offers some advantage over a sideslip landing, during which an important initial lateral displacement may take place if the cornering friction coefficient is poor over an extended length of the runway. b. Use idle reverse thrust as soon as possible after touchdown. Full reverse may be used once it has been established that there are no directional

c.

control problems during the landing roll. Wheel braking should be applied once all wheels are firmly on the ground. Modulated braking should not be used since it increases the stopping distance. Use of auto braking, when available is recommended on the contaminated runways.

19.2 OPERATION IN TURBULENCE AND WINDSHEAR 19.2.1 DEFINITIONS 19.2.1.1 TURBULENCE Turbulence is defined as a disturbed flow of air with embedded irregular whirls, Eddies or waves. An aircraft in turbulent flow is subjected to irregular and random motion while more or less maintaining its intended flight path. Intensity specifications for turbulence reporting have been defined as follows: Light. Slight discomfort, Light oscillations. Moderate. Moderate changes in aircraft attitude or altitude

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accompanied by small variations in airspeed. Walking is difficult. Loose objects move around. Strong intermittent jolts. Severe. Abrupt changes in aircraft attitude or altitude. Aircraft may be out of control for short periods accompanied by large variations in airspeed. Occupants are forced violently against seat belts. Loose objects are tossed around. Aircraft handling is affected.

Winds shear, with or without turbulence, alters the lift forces acting on an aircraft resulting in a significant sinking or rising motion. It is thus categorised as: Increased performance shear caused by increasing headwind or decreasing tailwind component or vertical updrafts. Decreased performance shear caused by decreasing headwind or increasing tailwind component or vertical downdrafts. 19.2.2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF TURBULENCE 19.2.2.1 CONVECTIVE TURBULENCE This type of turbulence is caused by thermal instability and is met in association with the development and activity of thunderstorms. It can cause extreme air motion up and downdrafts speeds of up to 6000 ft/min. Most encounters with severe turbulence are experienced in connections with thunderstorm activity.

19.2.1.2 WIND SHEAR Wind shear is meteorologically defined as the local variation of wind velocity in a given (but changeable) direction. Wind shear in aviation equates to the rate of change of wind velocity along the path of an aircraft. The factors that determine the resultant effect on aircraft are the kind of wind system, its development and the aircrafts flight path and speed relative to the system.

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19.2.2.2 OROGRAPHIC TURBULENCE Under certain conditions of atmospheric stability and wind speed, the airflow over a mountain ridge creates a standing wave pattern on the lee side. In its larger form this is known as a Mountain Wave which may cause severe turbulence. Typical tell-tale signs are lenticular and rotor clouds, and also clouds with waterfall appearance. The strongest turbulence maybe expected in the rotor clouds. 19.2.2.3 CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE Where large wind shear is present, turbulence may be expected. This clear air turbulence (CAT) is of special significance, since its presence cannot be detected before it is encountered. Areas where CAT may be expected to occur are: Along the borders of jet streams. On the upper side of a sloping tropopause. In the transition zone between cold and warm air masses.

19.2.2.4 WAKE TURBULENCE Wake turbulence is produced by the vortices trailing from the wing tips of an aircraft. These vortices are a consequence of the differential pressure between the top and bottom surfaces of liftproducing wings. Vortices have a contra rotating flow, the direction of which is from under the wing where the pressure is high, around the wing tip to the top of the wing where the pressure is low. The vortices, if generated at altitude tend to sink with a rate of between 300-700 feet per minute as they dissipate. If produced near the ground they sink to a height of 100-200 ft and spread out laterally at about 5kts. A slight crosswind may keep the windward vortex on the runway for more than 2 minutes. The intensity of the vortices increases with the weight of the generating aircraft, the wind loading and the configuration. Strong wake turbulence may be expected from heavy aircraft, i.e. aircraft with weights above 136 ton. The effect on a following aircraft depends on

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the separation and relative wingspan. The most violent wake turbulence is encountered about 3 miles behind a heavy aircraft. Turbulence might also be expected where parallel runways less than 2500 ft apart are being used. The turbulence risk is greatly increased if the following aircraft is approaching the downwind runway in crosswind conditions. The three basic effects of wake turbulence on a following aircraft are imposed roll, loss of height or rate of climb, and possible structural stress. The greatest danger is the imposed roll on the penetrating aircraft to a degree exceeding its counter-control capability. 19.2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF WIND SHEAR 19.2.3.1 THUNDERSTORMS The flow of air beneath thunderstorm cell is rather complex. Strong downdrafts in the centre of the cell transport cooled air downward, which then spreads outward over the surface of the terrain. Warm air flows up and into the cell around the periphery in a

counter-flow. The distance from the cell to the leading edge of a shear may be up to 15 nm. Shears may exist simultaneously on several sides of a thunderstorm cell. 19.2.3.2 DOWNBURSTS The term downburst describes a severe downward rush of air and its outburst of damaging winds on or near the ground. Downbursts may be classified as either macrobursts or microbursts according to magnitude. Macrobursts and microbursts are downbursts of different sizes with a radial outflow at the earths surface lasting between 3 to 20 minutes. The meteorological parameters of micro-bursts are relatively complicated and predictions based on upper air and surface observations have not been very promising. Microburst as downbursts of less than 4 km in diameter, originate and descend from the base of parent clouds (AC, CU, and CB). They sometimes occur under virga conditions, which is down flow precipitation evaporating before reaching the ground.

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The air rushes down towards the earths surface at high speeds. High total pressure at the centre then accelerates the air outwards, in the course of which the velocity reaches values of up to 35-40 kts. confined often to within 100 ft above the ground. At the outer boundary air moves up again in a rotational movement and forms a vortex ring. The time period over which wind speeds exceed half the peak value may last from 1 to 8 minutes. Depending on the movement and the height of the base of the parent cloud, microbursts may occur as stationary or moving phenomena, either on the surface or in mid-air. 19.2.3.3 FRONTAL SHEAR Frontal wind shear is present in both cold and warm fronts, but exists in a different relative location in each type of front. Because the cold front boundary slopes back behind the frontal surface, the wind shear line also slopes back. However with the warm front, the frontal boundary slopes upward ahead of the

surface front, so the wind shear does likewise. Significant wind shears can be expected if a big surface temperature difference (> 6 Degrees C) exists across the front and if the front is moving rapidly (>30 kts). 19.2.3.4 LEE WAVE, ROTOR SHEAR. This type of wind shear is associated with mountain wave systems which produce strong vertical and horizontal wind shears. Frequently, a second rotor will form up to 100 nm from the lee side of the mountain. Depending on the moisture content of the air, lenticular clouds may be produced. 19.2.3.5 TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS Strong inversions may be associated with wind shear near the ground. They occur most markedly during winter, at around sunrise. The main negative performance factor is caused by the decrease in engine power resulting from the temperature rise. 19.2.3.6 GROUND EFFECTS Terrain irregularities or buildings which interrupt the wind flow can

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produce significant wind shears close to the ground. 19.2.3.7 POLICY Flight through areas with known or forecast thunderstorms, severe turbulence or wind shear should be avoided whenever possible due to the various hazards involved e.g., hail, lighting strikes, gusts, up and downdrafts with subsequent altitude or attitude changes and high g loads, etc. Do not take off during heavy thunderstorm activity at the departure airfield. Delay the approach or divert to an alternate airfield rather than penetrate a severe thunderstorm in the approach area. Strong winds may reach a magnitude where ground handling and operation, including taxi, will become unsafe or even impossible. If surface mean wind speeds of 60 kt or above are reported, takeoff or landing is not authorised and the airfield must be considered closed. 19.2.3.8 GENERAL GUIDELINES Mutual information on development and position of

thunderstorms by Pilots and ATC, as well as a careful weather watch is of great importance for the early and adequate avoidance of severe weather areas. With thunderstorms in the vicinity of the airfield, request radar vectoring through thunderstorm-free areas and arrange for the climb-out or descent to route a safe distance away from active CB clouds. Use all available information such as airborne weather radar, Pilot reports, etc. It should be noted that ATC cannot always issue detours in congested areas due to other traffic and also technical limitations of the ground radar. Turbulence and wind shear present a potential hazard during takeoff and climb-out, and approach and landing. With strong shears, aircraft can experience large fluctuations of airspeed and lift in very short periods. Pilots should be cautious whenever wind shear can be expected. Immediate corrective action to avoid high sink rates close to the ground is of vital importance.

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Pilots are encouraged to improve their own standards of Judgment based on visual cues. They should also be aware of the extreme limitations of weather radar in producing a reliable picture regarding the existence, location and intensity of wind shear. Radar can only paint weather, whereas wind shear may occur some considerable distance from any such visible weather. At some airfields low level wind shear alert systems attempt to provide warning in the event of horizontal changes in wind direction and velocity exceeding certain values, and rapid surface pressure changes, which help to detect cold front passages and thunderstorm gust fronts. In the case of wind shear along the approach path Pilot reports still represent the main source of information. For takeoff, approach and landing ATS provides a longitudinal separation depending on wake vortex category (Heavy / Medium). The recommended minimum separation is at least:

Recommended Wake Separation Two minutes behind Take Off heavy aircraft 3nm medium behind medium 4nm heavy behind Approach heavy 5nm medium behind heavy The table above shows the recommended turbulence avoidance procedures for various situations. 19.2.3.9 PILOT RESPONSIBILITY Wake turbulence may be encountered by aircraft in flight as well as when operating on the airfield movement area. When accepting any traffic information from ATC with regard to instructions to follow an aircraft or visual approach clearance, Pilots are reminded that they must maintain a safe distance in relation to other aircraft. Acceptance of a visual approach clearance is an acknowledgement that the Pilot will ensure safe takeoff and landing intervals and accepts the responsibility of providing his own wake turbulence separation.

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Recommended Wake Turbulence Avoidance Procedures Landing behind a large aircraft on the same runway: Landing behind a large aircraft when a parallel runway is closer than 2500 ft: Landing behind a large aircraft on a crossing runway: Landing behind a departing large aircraft on the same runway: Stay at or above the large aircrafts final approach flight path. Consider possible drift to your runway. Stay at or above the large aircrafts final approach flight path. Note its touchdown point. Cross above the large aircrafts flight path. Note the large aircrafts rotation point. Land well before the rotation point. Note the large aircrafts rotation point. If past the intersection, continue the approach and land prior to the intersection. If the large aircraft rotates prior to the intersection, avoid flight below the large aircrafts flight path. Abandon the approach unless a landing is assured well before reaching the intersection. Note the large aircrafts rotation point. Rotate prior to large aircrafts rotation point and continue climb above and stay upwind of the large aircrafts climb path until turning clear of his wake. Avoid subsequent headings which will cross below and behind a large aircraft. Be alert for any critical takeoff situation which could lead to a wake turbulence encounter. Be alert to adjacent large aircraft operations, particularly upwind of your runway. If intersection takeoff clearance is received. Avoid subsequent headings which will cross below a large aircrafts path. Because vortices settle and move laterally near the ground, the vortex hazard may exits along the runway and in your flight path after a large aircraft has excluded a low missed approach or a touch-and-go landing, particularly in light quartering wind conditions. Ensure that an interval of at least two minutes has elapsed before taking off or landing.

Landing behind a departing large aircraft on a crossing runway:

Departing behind a large aircraft:

Intersection takeoffs on the same runway:

Departing or landing after a large aircraft has executed a low missed approach or touch-and-go landing:

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19.2.4 TAKEOFF & CLIMB-OUT Pilots must be alert to the possibility of wind shear during departure when studying weather information indicating: Thunderstorm cells are in the vicinity of the airfield at a distance of 15 mm or less. Frontal speeds exceeding 30 kts are evident. The presence of high base convective clouds with high surface temperatures and large dew point spread. Strong temperature inversions. All these are indicators of the existence of wind shear. If wind shear is expected after takeoff, the following precautions should be considered. Use of maximum takeoff thrust. Use of higher climb out speed. Use of recommended flap setting. Normally this is the lowest flap setting. Delayed takeoff. Make optimum use of any installed wind shear guidance system. If such a system is not

consider

the

Do Not Chase Airspeed Avoid pitch down when airspeed decreases unexpectedly and hold pitch until reaching V2. If the descent is unavoidable and risk of ground contact exists, use full thrust by moving the throttles to the mechanical limits. Instead, increase pitch attitude smoothly and progressively until reaching stick shaker actuation. Release attitude slightly to stay just below stick shaker. Do not trim the aircraft for recovery. Loss of lift is not only caused by loss of airspeed but also by a decrease of angle of attack which in turn reduces lift. This means that lowering the pitch attitude to gain airspeed in a tail wind or down-flow wind shear could result in a loss of lift and a subsequent heavy sink rate. Reduce attitude as soon as a positive rate of climb is evident. Watch for the return of normal conditions, do not over correct when flying out of the wind shear zone. Radio

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altimeter, GPWS and flight path vector are the best indicators for climb and descent in these conditions. 19.2.5 CRUISE 19.2.5.1 AVOIDANCE Thunderstorms shall be avoided: Visually by staying well clear of cumulonimbus clouds. By using the airborne weather radar to find the most suitable corridor. By requesting radar vectors from ATC. Whenever possible avoid: Flight in cirrus clouds if thunderstorm activity is reported along the route, as they may be hiding anvil tops and reduce the effectiveness of the airborne weather radar. Flight at or near the freezing level where the heaviest icing and hail must be expected. Altitudes between 10,000 ft and 25,000 ft, as they will provide the roughest ride even outside active storm centres. Flying below the overhang of CB clouds.

This is the area where heavy hail can be expected. Strong echoes shall be avoided by 10nm or more. This is most important at 20,000 ft and above and for circumnavigation of echoes which have prominent scallops or other protrusions. 19.2.6 PREPARATION If flying through a thunderstorm or severe turbulence area is anticipated or unavoidable, following preparations shall be made: Monitor airborne weather radar carefully Advise cabin crew about the presence of adverse weather conditions and the need to secure passengers and galleys. Food and drink service shall be minimized or even stopped depending on the expected degree of turbulence. To preclude injuries to passengers, no hot liquids shall be served in moderate to severe turbulence. When severe turbulence is expected, flight attendants shall be instructed to sit down and

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fasten their seat belts. The Captain may advice the cabin crew directly via the following PA announcement Cabin Crew and Passenger remain seated Secure all loose items in the cockpit. Fasten the shoulder harness. Switch on cockpit lighting to high intensity to avoid being dazzled by lighting in the thunderstorm. Fly at the recommended turbulence penetration speed. Switch on engine ignition and anti-icing equipment. ALTITUDE

19.2.7

Do Not Chase Altitude Ensure Autopilot is engaged. At maximum cruise altitude, the margin between low speed and high-speed buffet is small and any increase of g loads whether caused by manoeuvring or by turbulence, may lead to serious difficulties. This shall be considered when trying to climb over a turbulent region.

Avoid altitudes approaching maximum cruise altitude. Allow altitude to vary. Large altitude variations are possible in severe turbulence. Sacrifice altitude in order to maintain the desired attitude and airspeed. Vertical speed mode is the best mode to maintain altitude. Maintain the recommended turbulence speed as target speed. Set thrust as required and then do not change it unless required by large or persistent airspeed or altitude variations. The aircrafts real airspeed will remain within reasonable limits as long as thrust is set properly. Avoid large and rapid throttle. If caught unawares by turbulence, do not slow the aircraft down rapidly. Wait until a positive trend has been identified. Maintain Constant Attitude Maintaining a level flight attitude is most important. This is achieved by the autopilot. Should it be necessary for any reason to fly the aircraft manually, control pitch attitude with smooth

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control inputs to the elevator. Closely monitor in the ADI/PFD, as it may be the only correct indication. All pressure instruments may be seriously erratic. 19.2.8 STABILIZER TRIM

Do Not Chase Stabiliser Trim Trimming in severe turbulence can lead to Stabiliser settings, which can cause serious control problems, especially during recovery. Use of Autopilot and Flight Director. Since the autopilot will not be subject to false attitude interpretations or difficulties with erratic instruments. Its use in the appropriate mode (one that maintains constant attitude) is strongly recommended. That flight director can effectively reduce work load and is therefore recommended for use in turbulence. It provides a good reference for controls about all axis and will give a reliable Indication for proper control inputs if forced to fly manually.

19.2.9 Recovery Should control be partially lost due to severe turbulence, resulting in a steep dive, the following recommendations may be helpful for a successful recovery: Use speed brakes to prevent a rapid speed at a reasonable value. Do not retract speed brakes until recovery is affected. Keep one hand on the speed brake lever until retraction. Elevator forces can become very heavy as speed increase, creating safeguard against excessive g loads. If Stabiliser trim is used for recovery, use it with utmost caution so as to avoid heavy loads and a possible over trim, which could result in a renewed loss of control. If strong elevator forces are applied. The trim motors might become ineffective (stalled). Reducing the elevator forces will allow the trim motors to drive the stabilizer in the desired direction.

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19.3 OPERATION IN AREAS CONTAMINATED BY VOLCANIC ASH 19.3.1 GENERAL The following material provides operational recommendations and procedures for aircraft operation into areas of known or potential volcanic activity. Considering the potential adverse effects, operation from or to airports contaminated with volcanic ash should be avoided, if possible. 19.3.2 GROUND OPERATION 19.3.2.1 PARKING Aircraft exposed surfaces should be cleared of the ash layer which may contaminate the lubricated parts, penetrate the seals or enter the engines gas path, air conditioning system and other aircraft orifices. During preflight, insure that the inlet and exhaust areas have been cleared of Volcanic ash as much as possible. This ash may be removed by using brooms and vacuum cleaners. Inspect and clean away (as far as practical) any Volcanic ash

within 25 feet of the engine inlets. Prior to starting, dry motor the engine at maximum motoring speed for two minutes prior to turning the fuel on. This will help to blow out any ash that may have entered the booster area. Do not use windshield wipers for ash dust removal. Do not use APU for air conditioning and electrical power supply. Restrict ground use of APU to engine starts, as required. 19.3.2.2 TAXI Following brakes release, advance the throttles in a smooth, deliberate manner to the minimum thrust level required for breakaway. Return the throttles to ground idle when rolling. Maintain the BLEED VALVES closed. On airports areas where drifting contaminant is present, avoid sharp or highspeed turns. Following a backtrack on the runway, allow ash and dust to settle prior to initiating the take-off roll.

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Avoid taxing aircraft in contaminated areas wherever possible by the use of tugs to tow to clean or cleaner areas for engine start and preparation for TAKOFF. On LANDING, again limit taxi to an area where tugs can be used to move around the airport. 19.3.2.3 TAKE-OFF Make optimum use of the rolling take-off technique. Enter runway while rolling and slowly but without hesitation, advance the throttles to take-off power setting. Note: If ATS is used for take-off, slightly delay triggering GO levers to prevent engine spool-up while the aircraft is still at low speed. 19.3.3 FLIGHT OPERATION Flight into areas of known volcanic activity must be avoided. This is particularly important during hours of darkness or in meteorological conditions when volcanic dust may not be visible. Avoidance is the only effective protection. Active NOTAMs, SIGMETs and recent information from meteorological broadcasting

stations or ATC should be carefully considered by flight crews. Note: Volcanic ash is composed of very small and dry particles and therefore do not provide any weather radar return. 19.3.4 ASH CLOUD Flying through an ash cloud is an extreme hazard for engines and aircraft and must therefore be avoided by all means. The flight crew can be exposed to an accumulation of serious abnormal conditions, which may lead to critical emergency situation. Volcanic ash may extend for several hundred miles, and eruptions may send ash plumes up to 40,000 ft. However neither ash cloud nor volcanic dust can be detected by the WX-radar. If the aircraft enters an ash cloud expect smoke, dust or acrid odors similar to electric sparks in the cockpit and at dark heavy static discharges around the windshield. Beside a multiple engine failure, engine surge or overheat, airspeed may become unreliable. Furthermore pressurization and electrical

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systems may be affected. If for any reason ash cloud encounter occurs it is recommended: Not climb in order to overfly the ash cloud. To reduce power to idle to provide additional stall to escape the ash cloud by descending and flying a 180 turn (if terrain permits). To closely monitor attitude versus airspeed To keep as many engines running as possible. If an engine has to be shut down due to EGT exceedance, restart the engine using the published procedures. If an engine fails to restart, repeated attempts should be made immediately to avoid solidification of molten ash on the turbine blades. To use as much air bleed as possible to increase engine. Once the aircraft has successfully escaped the ash cloud land at nearest suitable airport; consider a runway with auto land capability, if

visibility through the windshields is impaired. If a Volcanic eruption is reported while in flight, the flight should remain well clear of the affected area and, if possible stay on the upwind side of the volcanic dust (typically 20NM upwind of the erupting Volcano). Volcanic ash cloud encounter may be suspected, should one or several of the following indications be observed : Smoke or dust appearing in the cockpit. Acrid odor similar to electrical smoke. At night, St. Elmo fire/static discharges appearing around the windshield. Bright white/orange glow appearing in the engine inlets. Landing lights casting sharp, distinct, shadows. Multiple engine malfunctions, such as increasing EGT, power loss, stall or flame out. Should a Volcanic ash cloud be encountered accomplish the following while initiating a 180o turn (so as to exit the

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Volcanic ash cloud in the supposedly shortest time): ATCNOTIFY CREW..OXYGEN MASKS.ON / 100% As smoke, dust or acrid odor similar to electrical smoke may be present / appear in the cockpit. PASSENGERS OXYGENAS RQRD Depending on contamination. A/THR.DISCONNECT This will prevent the auto throttle from generating throttles activity. THRUST (conditions permitting) .DECREASE So as to reduce ash ingestion, limit the EGT rise and, thus, limit the build-up of molten ash on turbine vanes. This will assist in maintaining the engine surge margin. Damage to rotating parts, due to erosion, will be also minimized. IGNITION..CONT RELIGHT Selecting the continuous ignition will enhance the flameout protection and maximize the rapid relight

capability in the event of a roll-back or flame-out. ENG ANTI ICE..ON WING ANTI ICE.ON AIR CON.....NORM FLOW Increasing the bleed air extraction significantly increases the engine surge margin but also slightly decreases the engine acceleration capability. APU..START If available, the APU may be started in readiness for a starter assisted relight in the event of an engine flameout and to provide electrical power in case of main engine power loss. ENGINE PARAMETERS. ........................MONITOR EGT should be particularly monitored for any exceedance tendency. To prevent exceeding EGT limits it may become necessary to consider a precautionary engine shutdown and ENG RESTART IN-FLIGHT.

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Notes: - For engine restart, switch off ENG ANTI ICE and WING ANTI ICE to optimize engine-starting capability. If first engine restart attempt is unsuccessful, repeated successive attempt should be made immediately. A successful engine restart may not be possible until the aircraft has existed the volcanic ash cloud. Upon restart, the engine acceleration may be very slow and should not be misinterpreted as a failure to start or an engine malfunction. When clear of the volcanic ash cloud, and if engines have been restarted, avoid thrust lever movement if possible. If compressor and or turbine blades have been eroded, an increase in fuel flow and EGT may be noticed. AIRSPEED INDICATIONS ....MONITOR If unreliable or loss of airspeed indication is observed, establish the appropriate pitch attitude (and/or angle of attack) and thrust level (as required), as

per the procedures for SPEED CONTROL WITH UNRELIABLE AIRSPEED INDICATION. 19.3.4.1 Reporting Whenever operating in areas affected by Volcanic activity, flight crews should be aware of Volcanic activity reporting procedures and familiar with the use of the ICAO Special Air-Report of Volcanic Activity (Model VAR) Should a Volcanic ash cloud be encountered, flight conditions and crew duties permitting, the ATC should be notified, providing information concerning the location, altitude and drift direction of the ash cloud. 19.3.4.2 Approach and Landing Communication difficulties may be experienced due to electrostatic conditions. Because of the abrasive effect of the Volcanic ash on windshields and landing lights, the visibility for approach and landing may be significantly reduced. During landing, limit the use of reverse thrust as much as

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possible, as reverse flow may impair visibility. If use of maximum reverse thrust is anticipated, then apply reverse thrust upon main landing gear touchdown. At 80 Kts IAS or IAS fluctuations, return reverse levers to the reverse idle position. Set reverse levers to the stowed position when engines reach idle level (approximately at 60 Kts IAS), unless use of reverse thrust down to low speed is required for safe aircraft breaking. Braking efficiency may be degraded by the layer of ash on the runway. Landing performance data for wet runway (dry ash) or slush (wet ash) should be considered. 19.3.4.3 Taxi & Parking For taxi, limit engine operation to ground idle level, as much as practical. Whenever an aircraft is planned to stay over at an airport contaminated with volcanic ash, engine inlet covers as well as other protective covers and plugs should be installed.

19.3.4.4 Maintenance Action In order to assure that the technical inspection for damage is carried out when the aircraft structure has been exposed to abnormal stresses, e.g. severe turbulence, lighting strikes, etc., the flight recorder EVENT button shall be pressed and an entry shall be made in the Technical Log, also stating gear position in case of turbulence. An exceedance of the engine power limitation has to be noted in the Technical Log as well.

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CHAPTER 20: ETOPS / REMOTE DESTINATIONS


20.0 Remote Destination Flight Preparation and Planning
20.0.1 General ... 20.0.2 Weather... 20.0.3 Holding Reserve.. 20.0.4 Airfields . 20.0.5 Equal Time Point ... 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5-6 6 6

20.1

ETOPS Flight Preparation and Planning


20.1.1General .... 20.1.2 Aircraft Serviceability..... 20.1.3 Use of Departure or Destination Airports as ETOPS Alternates 20.1.4 ETOPS Initial & Recurrent Training Requirements .. 20.1.5 MEL/CDL Considerations.. 20.1.6 ETOPS Orientation Charts ..... 20.1.7 ETOPS Suitable Alternate Selection ..

20.2

En route
20.2.1 Systems Monitoring ... 20.2.2 Weather Monitoring ... 20.2.3 Alternate Airport Suitability...

20.3

Computerized Flight Plan (CFP)...

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20.0

REMOTE DESTINATION FLIGHT PREPARATION & PLANNING. 20.0.1 GENERAL This chapter covers additional requirements for flight to a Remote Destination and ETOPS flights. For general flight planning requirements Refer to Chapter 8. For flights dispatched to a Remote Airfield a fuel check must be carried out at the last ETP. At this point the fuel expected to remain overhead the intended destination should not be less than the Holding Reserve fuel. Before reaching this ETP crew should obtain, if possible, and updated forecast and latest actual weather for the intended destination. This procedure may be applied if the destination airfield is geographically isolated and has no suitable alternate airfield within a reasonable range. It will be used only when authorized by CAA and involves substituting a Holding

Reserve in place of the Alternate and Final Reserve Fuel. The following conditions must be satisfied: 20.0.2 WEATHER The weather forecast must indicate that for a period of time from ETA at destination to ETA plus two hours, the weather must be at least a circling minima plus 300ft./1.0 km. 20.0.3 HOLDING RESERVE The Holding Reserve will not be less than the fuel required to cruise for two hours at the last flight planned cruising level using Long Range Cruise consumption calculated at the weight and temperature applicable to arrival overhead the destination. 20.0.4 AIRFIELDS Airfields designated as Remote will be listed in the Route Manual. 20.0.5 EQUAL TIME POINT An equal time Point will be calculated between the destination and the last suitable en route alternate airfield, and this ETP will be indicated on the CFP.

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20.1 ETOPS FLIGHT PREPARATION & PLANNING 20.1.1 GENERAL This chapter covers additional requirements for ETOPS flights and flights to a remote destination. Refer to Chapter 8 for general flight planning requirements. ETOPS operations are those which enable the operation of twin engine aircraft on routes which exceed 60 minutes single engine flying time from an adequate airfield for which authorization has been given by CAA to conduct a flight under ETOPS rules and it is defined by the approved maximum diversion time/distance for the specific aircraft type. An ETOPS flight is processed as normal flight with additional restrictions relating to extended range operations. PIA Operations Control dispatchers will liaise with Engineering if there are any technical restrictions affecting the aircraft, and provide the flight crew with all relevant information to conduct the flight safely.

ETOPS Area of Operation 20.1.2 AIRCRAFT SERVICEABILITY Additional pre-departure checks are carried out by Engineering, and the flight crew must check that the aircraft Technical Log contains the entry Cleared for ETOPS An ETOPS service check will be carried out ex-station for all ETOPS flight departures. However, should the service include an intermediate stop prior to the final destination, and as long as no ETOPS sensitive failures have occurred, the initial departure point ETOPS service check will be considered valid for the intermediate stop departure. 20.1.3 USE OF DEPARTURE OR DESTINATION AIRPORTS AS ETOPS ALTERNATES. For PIA ETOPS operations, the dispatcher will check that the above conditions apply at the selected airports and load these for use on the CFP. The flight crew will confirm these selections are suitable during their pre-flight planning.

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20.1.4

ETOPS INITIAL &


RECURRENT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

Refer Chapter 3 of this manual and Training Policy. 20.1.5 MEL / CDL
CONSIDERATIONS

Any systems deficiencies that may have an impact on the dispatch of the aircraft under ETOPS are notified to Operations prior to dispatch. These items are reviewed by the flight crew to assess what affect they may have in terms of additional dispatch requirements and / or limitations (i.e. additional fuel requirements). 20.1.6 ETOPS ORIENTATION CHARTS The ETOPS Orientation chart depicts the airway for the selected ETOPS route. The purpose of the orientation chart is to permit crews to confirm that the planned route is within the 120 minutes arcs for ETOPS, or if non ETOPS, that the route is within the 60 minutes arcs. 20.1.7 ETOPS SUITABLE ALTERNATE SELECTION One of the distinguishing features of ETOPS is the

concept of a Suitable airport. An en route adequate airport is defined as being suitable when: The forecast during a period of 1 hour before the earliest and 1 hour after the latest time of possible landing is equal to or exceeds the applicable ETOPS planning minima. The applicable planning minima are predicated in ETOPS Guides of respective aircraft types (B-777 and A-310).

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20.2 ENROUTE 20.2.1 SYSTEMS MONITORING The aircraft systems status should be monitored throughout the flight and reviewed prior to entering the ETOPS segment. Should any failure occur which renders the aircraft unserviceable for ETOPS prior to entering the ETOPS segment, the flight must not proceed, and a return to the departure point or re-routing on a non ETOPS route is necessary. If the failure occurs in the ETOPS segment, the flight may continue or divert at the commanders discretion. 20.2.2 WEATHER MONITORING During the flight planning stage, forecasts must indicate that the weather at the en route ETOPS alternates will be at or above alternate limits in order to nominate them as suitable. Once the aircraft has been dispatched, the forecast need only indicate that the weather at the en route alternates will remain at or above the landing minima. Should the weather at a selected alternate deteriorate

below landing minima prior to entering the ETOPS segment, or whilst in the ETOPS segment, another alternate must be nominated that does satisfy the weather requirements. If this is not possible, the flight must not enter the ETOPS segment. If already in the ETOPS segment, the Captain will decide whether to continue or to re-route. PIA Operations Control maintains a flight watch for ETOPS flights. The flight watch personnel monitor. Weather forecast and reports for ETOPS enroute alternates, En route weather forecasts and sigmets. Any alteration to the status of en route alternate facilities. Should any factor render an en route alternate unsuitable, they will contact the flight and assist with any replanning that may be required (i.e. selection of different en route alternates, fuel requirements, re-routing etc.). Communications

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between the aircraft and Flight Operations will normally be through HF with the flight crew using SATCOM if necessary/available 20.2.3 ALTERNATE AIRPORT UNSUITABILITY The loss of required facilities, or the deterioration of weather conditions below landing minima at the alternate render it unsuitable. If this situation occurs prior to entering the ETOPS segment, and no other suitable alternates can be used to continue under ETOPS, then a return to the departure point is required (unless fuel on board permit re-routing on a non-ETOPS route). If this situation occurs after entering the ETOPS segment, then the commander must make an operational decision as to whether to continue or to divert, given the prevailing conditions.

20.3 COMPUTERIZED FLIGHT PLANS (CFPS) The CFP is the master reference document for ETOPS flight planning. In addition to the normal information provided on the CFP, specific ETOPS information is also included on the last page of the CFP, although the ETPs are also included in the main body of the flight plan. NOTE: For details on ETOPS operation, refer the B 777 & A 310 ETOPS guide. These documents are duly approved by PCAA.

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CHAPTER 21: ABNORMALS


21.0 Technical Malfunctions and Emergencies 21.0.1 Definition...3 21.0.1.1 Non-Routine Operation..3 21.0.1.2 Malfunctions..3 21.0.1.3 Emergency.....3 21.0.2 General..3 21.0.3 Safety Aspects...4 21.0.4 Choice of Airspace....4 21.0.5 Throttle and Fuel Level.4-5 Crew Management 21.1.1 Emergency In-flight Crew Management...5 21.1.1.1 Command....5 21.1.1.2 Emergency Procedures.. 5 21.1.1.3 Emergency Authority of the Captain..5 21.1.1.4 Communication...5-6 21.1.1.5 Recognizing the Emergency...6 21.1.1.6 Crew Co-Ordination....6-7 21.1.1.7 Identifying the Emergency..7 21.1.1.8 Evacuation Assignments.7 21.1.1.9 Checklist Memory Items.7 21.1.1.10 Use of Checklists..7-8 21.1.1.11 Execution of Abnormal/Emergency Procedure8 21.1.1.12 Reviewing and Planning...8 21.1.1.13 Reset of Circuit Breakers .8 21.1.1.14 Coordination with ground fire fighting agency9 Evacuation 21.2.1 General...10 21.2.2 Assessment of Need for Evacuation..10 21.2.3 Communication with Cabin...10-11 21.2.4 Evacuation Procedure11-12 21.2.5 Conduct of Following Evacuation.12-13 Starting & Taxi 21.3.1 Starting..13 Rejected Take-off 21.4.1 General..13 21.4.2 Policy.13 21.4.2.1 Control of Aircraft..13-14 21.4.2.2 Decision Factors.....14-15 21.4.2.3 Take-off Speed (VI) ..15-16 21.4.2.4 Decision Management Below 80/100 Kts..16 21.4.2.5 Above 80/100 Kts & Below VI..16 21.4.2.6 Action in the Event of Fire on the Ground.16-17

21.1

21.2

21.3 21.4

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21.5

21.6

21.7

21.8

21.9

21.10 21.11

Take-off & Climb 21.5.1 Engine Failure after V1....17 21.5.2 Engine Fire Warning....17-18 21.5.3 Over limit.18 21.5.4 Tire and Brake Problems..18-19 21.5.5 Inability to Retract the Landing Gear ..19 Cruise, Descent and Approach 21.6.1 Engine/ Systems Failures.19 21.6.2 Four Engine Aircraft20 21.6.3 Explosive Decompression/Emergency Descent.......20-21 21.6.4 Interception of Aircraft.21 21.6.5 Political/Military Orders for Unscheduled Landing.21 Engine-out Approaches and Missed Approaches 21.7.1 Single Engine Approach.......22 21.7.2 Single Engine Missed Approach..22 21-7.3 Terrain Avoidance maneuver.. 22-23 Landing 21.8.1Emergency Landings.....23-24 21.8.2 Announcements....24 21.8.3 Hard Landings..24 21.8.4 Overweight .Landings......25 21.8.5 Landing Gear Problems...25 21.8.5.1 Landing Gear Not Locked Down..25-26 21.8.6 Foam Carpets...26 21.8.7 Communication with Airport Fire Services.....26 Ditching 21.9.1 General.27 21.9.2 Determining the Ditching Heading......27 21.9.3 Sea State...28 21.9.4 Technique.....28 21.9.5 Evacuation Following Ditching...28-29 Loss of Communication Procedure.........30-31 Incapacitation of Flight Crew Members 21.11.1 Types of Incapacitation..32 21.11.2 Action in the Event of Pilot Incapacitation........33 21.11.3 Care of the Incapacitated Flight Crew Member........33-34 21.11.4 Standard Commands..35

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21.0

TECHNICAL MALFUNCTIONS & EMERGENCIES 21.0.1 DEFINITIONS 21.0.1.1 NON-ROUTINE OPERATION It is an operation that has to cope with a difficult or unusual situation or condition calling for increased or immediate attention by the flight Crew and the concerned Operations Control Officer. 21.0.1.2 MALFUNCTION It is a condition which might create or contribute to an irregular operation of a flight not directly endangering flight safety. Typical malfunctions are covered by regulations in the relevant Company instructions and the respective FCOM. 21.0.1.3 EMERGENCY It is a condition which affects safety in such a way that continuation of a flight is seriously endangered. Emergencies shall be handled according to the policies and procedures in this subsection, subject to the demands of the situation. 21.0.2 GENERAL Additional information and procedures are published in

the relevant Company instructions and the respective FCOM. It must be understood that it is impractical to establish rules governing every possible situation. All personnel concerned are therefore expected to act according to their best judgment in each individual case. During commercial operations the Flight Crew members are prohibited from simulating any emergencies. Efficient management of nonnormal situations require concerted crew coordination. Adherence to the PF/PM/FE specific actions and duties as spelled out in the SOP,FCOM and the Training and Standards Bulletins, crosschecking of others actions, and in the prioritization of normal, non-normal or multiple non-normal procedures. Depending upon the circumstances, the Captain should consider all or only part of the following. It is up to his good judgment to set the priorities necessary to terminate a flight safely.

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21.0.3 SAFETY ASPECTS The general safety of the flight shall be considered first: Technical condition of the aircraft, actual gross weight and remaining fuel on board. Terrain clearance requirements. En route and terminal weather (wind, temperature, icing, thunderstorms, etc.) Route and airfield facilities. 21.0.4 CHOICE OF AIRFIELDS In the following cases, a landing must be effected at the nearest practicable airfield: Any fire on board an aircraft, including engines, if fire fighting is not possible or not effective. Failure of an engine on a two engine aircraft. One main source of electrical power remaining. Smoke of unknown origin. Dual hydraulic failure. Second engine failure on an aircraft with three or more engines. Structural damage.

Positive bomb threat. (Red Threat) Practicable Airfield in this context means an airfield where a safe landing for the respective aircraft type in the actual configuration can be made, considering runway and weather conditions, but disregarding repair facilities, commercial passenger handling facilities, etc. if two or more possibilities exist, the nearest airfield in terms of flight time should normally be selected. Incase of malfunctions (other than those emergency cases listed above), the Captain must decide whether a landing shall be made at the nearest suitable airfield or whether the flight can safely proceed.

21.0.5

THROTTLE & FUEL LEVER HANDLING When the aircraft is on the ground the Fuel Levers will always be operated by the Captain. For any engine abnormality in the air, the PF will retard the affected throttle lever. Auto-throttle should be disengaged on the affected engine prior to calling

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or any action requiring throttle lever movement (i.e. Engine Fire, Fail, Stall over limit etc.). The PM should guard the unaffected throttle. When a drill required the Fuel lever off, the PF will guard the unaffected fuel lever and the PM will select the appropriate lever to off only after confirmation from the PF. 21.1 CREW MANAGEMENT 21.1.1 EMERGENCY IN FLIGHT CREW MANAGEMENT 21.1.1.1 COMMAND In all flight operations, the Captain is the legal commander of the aircraft, regardless of which seat he/she is occupying or who is handling the flight controls. The sole exception to this rule is where the Captain has suffered incapacitation, in which case the sequence of command is described under Section 21.12 21.1.1.2 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES The FCOM incorporates aircraft emergency procedures. This section of the FOM contains general information applicable to all Company aircraft and to certain situations not expressly covered in the FCOM.

21.1.1.3 EMERGENCY AUTHORITY OF THE CAPTAIN The Captain is permitted to deviate from prescribed rules, minima, regulations and procedures as required for flight safety consideration during emergencies. An aircraft in distress has the right of-way over other air traffic. ATC should be kept informed of deviations from clearance or flight plans and will give priority to an aircraft that has declared an emergency. 21.1.1.4 COMMUNICATION The Captain must ensure that Flight and Cabin Crew, passengers, ATC and the Company are promptly notified of essential information. There should be no reluctance to declare an emergency. Assistance can be alerted immediately and cancelled later if appropriate. Communication between flight crew and cabin crew during normal, abnormal or emergency situations shall use standard terminologies, signals or commands as specified in the OM or SEP or the specific SOP. As a minimum these situations include emergency evacuation, severe

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turbulence, cabin depressurization, forced/ emergency landing, ditching, crew incapacitation and cabin security breach. MAYDAY and PAN calls are internationally recognized emergency transmissions that initiate ICAO prescribed procedures and offer decided advantages to the pilot in difficulties. The radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY and the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN shall be used at the commencement of the first distress or urgency communication. 21.1.1.5 RECOGNIZING AN EMERGENCY Generally, the earlier an emergency is recognized and dealt with, the less hazard exits. Nearly all emergencies are dealt with more easily when they are recognized early. Each crew member shall be alert to unusual conditions and report them to the Captain. Such reports are essential in dealing effectively with a potential or actual emergency. Cabin Crew is to be encouraged in this regard. They are to report promptly any unusual sound, smell, appearance, or vibration of the aircraft. Should such a report concern an item that proves to be of little or no consequence, a Flight Crew

member should, nonetheless, give a full explanation to the Cabin Crew member making the report. 21.1.1.6 CREW CO-ORDINATION As in normal operation, effective action during an emergency depends on the crew members functioning as a team. The unexpected and critical nature of emergencies requires good command discipline and management skills. Discipline is the basis of effective crew action during an emergency. The Captain must ensure that the crew is provided with clear directions. Without directions the crew members will act on their own in an effort to cope with the situation. Such efforts can lead to confusion and ineffective action. When an emergency occurs, the Captain is to instruct the crew on their actions. Crew action should be deliberate and coordinated. In an emergency it is important to establish communication without delay between the Flight and Cabin Crew members. All crew

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members should be kept as aware of the problem and the plan that follows as time and good judgment permits. When an emergency occurs, the following items must be considered in sequence: Aircraft Control One pilot must fly the aircraft. Usually this is the Pilot flying at the time, but the Captain may elect either to fly the aircraft himself or to instruct the First Officer to fly it. Assuming control of the aircraft does not relieve the Captain of the responsibility for directing crew action. 21.1.1.7 IDENTIFYING THE EMERGENCY The crew member who first recognizes the emergency should announce it in a firm, clear voice, for example. Engine failure or Engine fire. Any aural warning should be silenced promptly without command. The Captain should confirm the condition and then direct the required crew action.

21.1.1.8 EVACUATION ASSIGNMENTS Crew member duties specified in the Evacuation Drills are to be accomplished when ordered by the Captain. The evacuation assignments are in the emergency chapter of the FCOM and in Cabin Crew Emergency Manual (SEP). Each Crew member must be able to accomplish from memory the duties specified in the evacuation assignments, for his or her station, and also be familiar with assignments of other crew members. 21.1.1.9 CHECKLIST MEMORY ITEMS When applicable, boxed or recall/memory items are to be accomplished as called for by the Captain and as described in the emergency chapter of the FCOM. Each Flight Crew member must have all boxed or recall/memory items committed to memory and must be able to accomplish from memory all of those items applicable to his station. These items are highlighted on the emergency checklist for the applicable procedure.

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21.1.1.10 USE OF CHECKLISTS After accomplishing any recall items or, if there are none, after identifying the emergency, the PF should call for the appropriate checklist. Using the checklist, the Pilot Monitoring should confirm the completion of all recall/memory items and then declare that they have been completed. If a recall/memory item has not been accomplished, he/she is to call out that item. Following the recall/memory items, he/she should read the challenge and response for each subsequent item. The Flight Crew member accomplishing the required action should repeat the response. On aircraft fitted with ECAM/EICAS systems the checklist items and responses are to be read out and dealt with in accordance with the FCOM procedure.

21.1.1.11 EXECUTION OF ABNORMAL /


EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

To ensure cross check and verbal confirmation by two flight crew members before the action of any below mentioned aircraft system controls, refer to fleet specific FCOM/FCTM: Engine thrust levers Fuel master and control switches Engine fire handles or switches Engine fire extinguisher switches IDG/CSD disconnect switches 21.1.1.12 REVIEWING & PLANNING If time permits, applicable procedures and information should be reviewed. These are in the FCOM and in other parts of this chapter. A plan for subsequent action should be prepared and thoroughly understood by each crew member concerned. Should an aircraft be evacuated for any reason, and is subsequently available for boarding by persons other than the Flight or Cabin Crew,

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precautions should be taken to safeguard any valuables left on board by the passengers at the time of the evacuation. If possible all personal belongings of the passengers should be placed in bags and labeled with the number of the seat at which they were found. 21.1.1.13 RESET OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS Flight Crew reset of tripped fuel pump and fuel pump control circuit breakers are prohibited. Reset of any other tripped circuit breaker is not recommended, unless in the judgment of the captain, the situation resulting from the circuit breaker trip has a significant adverse effect on safety. These other tripped circuit breakers may be reset once, after a short cooling period (approximately 2 minutes). A ground reset of a tripped circuit breaker by the Flight Crew should be done in Co-ordination with engineering personnel. 21.1.1.14 COORDINATION WITH GROUND FIRE FIGHTING AGENCY Under certain situations flight crew may be required to coordinate fire fighting

procedure with a ground agency. Under such circumstances crew should confirm the VHF frequency of the ground fire fighting agency from the control tower and establish direct communication with them for optimum coordination.

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21.2 EVACUATION 21.2.1 GENERAL For specific crew assignments during an evacuation, refer to FCOM. The need for most emergency evacuations comes about with little or no warning. As a result, such an evacuation is conducted without the benefit of specific briefing. This means that its success depends on each crew members knowledge of evacuation assignments and related considerations. 21.2.2 ASSESSMENT OF NEED FOR EVACUATION An emergency evacuation shall always be initiated whenever a situation with risk of fire occurs in connection with takeoff, landing, taxiing or even with the aircraft parked on the tarmac. The Captain shall give clear orders if and when he/she wants an evacuation to be started. However, if no order is received from the flight deck due Pilots being incapacitated and the necessity of an immediate evacuation is evident, the Purser may initiate evacuation immediately.

If the Captain decides that evacuation is not required, he/she shall advise the Cabin Crew by PA announcement. Every evacuation shall be carried out as quickly as possible. The passengers shall be instructed to leave the aircraft without their belongings and directed to a position which is a safe distance away. 21.2.3 COMMUNICATION WITH THE CABIN Whether an evacuation is planned or unplanned, early advise to the cabin occupants is essential. f the need for an evacuation cannot be determined immediately, the Captain should announce Cabin Crew at Stations If the Captain determines that the possibility of an evacuation no longer is exist, he/she should announce Cabin Crew passengers remain seats Any abnormal occurrence on the ground that does not require an evacuation but that

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Could be of concern to cabin occupants, such as a very sudden stop or an unusual sound, should be explained promptly to prevent any undesirable reaction on the part of Cabin Crew or passengers. After such an occurrence and before continuing, the Captain should check the door warning lights for assurance that an evacuation has not begun. If no Flight Crew member has provided the necessary direction, the Purser should attempt to contact the flight deck, either by interphone or in person to obtain instructions. An evacuation must not be initiated while the aircraft is moving. 21.2.4 EVACUATION PROCEDURE The Standard aircraft evacuation announcement is made by the Captain or designated crew member as follows:Evacuate Evacuate (LH/RH/FWD/REAR/ALL AVAILBLE) exits. Additional instructions should be included as conditions warrant.

When the command to evacuate is given, the evacuation must be conducted aggressively. The hazard to passengers and crew may increase as time passes. Variations from standard procedures should be avoided unless a specific condition clearly indicates a nonstandard course of action. The suitability of an exit should be evaluated before it is used. Some considerations are: height above the ground, its proximity to a fire, or its relationship to waves or the water line. If an exit is not safe to use, passengers should be directed to another exit. As each passenger reaches an exit, he/she must be urged to move rapidly through it and onto the slide or, in the event of ditching, into the life raft or the water. If the evacuation is conducted on land, passengers should be instructed to clear the bottom of the slide, move without delay as far away as possible, and remain assembled in a group. Passengers evacuating ahead of the wing should be directed beyond the nose of the aircraft. Passengers evacuating behind the wing

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should be directed beyond the tail. This is intended to reduce the exposure of persons to a wheel or fuel explosion. 21.2.5 CONDUCT FOLLOWING EVACUATION As soon as the evacuation has been completed the Captain should direct activities as necessary to ensure the general welfare of the passengers and crew. Injured persons should be given all available aid and comfort. If there is a physician or trained nurse among the passengers, he/she or she should be asked to assist. While the primary object of an aircraft evacuation is to offload all occupants promptly, consideration should also be given to removing emergency equipment that could be of use following the evacuation, such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits, flashlights, megaphones and the emergency radio. This consideration is particularly important if the evacuation is accomplished away from an airport, in a remote area, or in extremes of temperature. On land, if the aircraft is not hazardous, it may be re-

boarded to remove items that could improve the passengers comfort, such as first aid kits, life rafts, beverages, food, shoes, coats, and blankets. All crew members should mix with the passengers and reassure them that arrangements for their welfare are underway. Crew members should not group together or disassociate themselves from the passengers. Survivors should remain in the vicinity of the aircraft unless there is definite reason to believe that search and rescue efforts will not locate it. First aid instructions are in each first aid kit. Survival instructions are in a survival booklet which, together with a first aid kit, is in the accessory kit attached to each life raft. When all that is possible has been done concerning the welfare of the passengers and crew, the Captain should take whatever precautions he/she can to safeguard the aircraft and its contents. When rescue assistant arrives, the Captain should oversee the orderly transfer of responsibility for the care of passengers from his own and

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his crews jurisdiction. Until this is accomplished, the primary responsibility of the Captain and his crew is the welfare of the passengers. This must have priority over all other duties and responsibilities. Following an accident, it is important to enlist the cooperation of airport officials and the police to ensure that vital evidence is not lost by interference with the wreckage before the arrival of the official investigating team. 21.3 STARTING & TAXI 21.3.1 STARTING Engine/tailpipe fires developing during start up shall be brought under control by Flight Crew action as per the appropriate checklist. The Fire Department must be called to assist as soon as possible. Note: The fire extinguishers used by Ground Crew are of limited value for such types of fires for reasons of accessibility of engines, type of agent, etc.

21.4 REJECTED TAKE-OFF 21.4.1 GENERAL The occurrence of a malfunction during takeoff calls for the full co-operation of all Flight Crew members as well as for sound and quick decisions by the Captain. To be properly prepared for such situations, a good takeoff briefing is essential. 21.4.2 POLICY 21.4.2.1 CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT The decision to continue the takeoff or to reject rests solely with the Captain. The stop action shall be made by CM1. CM1 keeps his hand on the throttles until V1 is reached whether he/she is the PF or PM. If he/she decides to reject the takeoff, he/she shall announce his intention by calling out STOP. At the same time, he/she shall initiate the reject procedures listed in the respective FCOM for the particular type of aircraft. If the First Officer is making the takeoff, the Captain shall keep his hand on the thrust levers until V1. Should a rejected take-off be necessary,

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the Captain will make the decision and initiate it. By calling STOP the Captain automatically takes control of the aircraft and the First Officer will assume the actions of the PM. 21.4.2.2 DECISION FACTORS It is impossible to list all the factors which could lead to the decision to reject the take-off, but in order the help in the decision process, the ECAM (A-310) / EICAS (B-777) / Master Warning inhibits the warnings which are not paramount during specific phases of takeoff as stated in the FCOM. The probability of a system malfunction should always be considered prior to each takeoff to minimize the possibility of a hasty or erroneous decision during the actual takeoff run. The decision on whether to reject a takeoff is influenced by several factors, including: Nature of the failure or malfunction. Actual speed at time of failure or malfunction. Actual takeoff weight in relation to the maximum possible value.

Runway length and surface conditions. Obstacles in the climb out path. Meteorological conditions, etc. Accordingly, the following policy shall generally apply: Serious failures or malfunctions such as engine or aircraft fire, structural damage, flight control failure, unsafe takeoff warnings, etc. before VI shall in principle be handled according to the basic policy below. Minor malfunctions may justify a continued takeoff, especially in marginal conditions and at a speed close to VI. Note: A lack of any response to a malfunction should be considered a subtle incapacitation. There shall be no attempt to troubleshoot or rectify a fault during the takeoff roll. Certified performance data is normally based on a smooth, dry, hard surfaced runway unless otherwise specified. When the speed is above 80/100 kts, a takeoff should be discontinued only if a serious malfunction affecting safety

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occurs, such as sudden loss of thrust, engine fire, explosion, or serious malfunction of the flight controls. Therefore, the basic policy is to be go-minded, but if the stopping actions can be initiated prior to V1, reject the take-off. Additionally, only those malfunctions which have a direct bearing on the decision to abort should be called out during the take off roll. The call should be made in clear and concise terms by the crew member who first notices the malfunction. If a rejected take-off is initiated at or near VI during a runway limited takeoff it is essential that the manufactures recommended procedure be followed to achieve maximum stopping capability. Standard calls must be adhered to unless the safety or performance of the aircraft is considered to be affected. 21.4.2.3 TAKE-OFF SPEED (VI) A Rejected Takeoff is a demanding maneuver, especially when speeds approach VI.

In case of a rejected takeoff before VI, the basic VI concept provides protection to reject a takeoff safely within the required runway length, provided that: The decision to stop has been made before VI and the first action of retardation has been initiated by VI. The runway is dry. Full braking is applied. Note: Use of reverse thrust additionally decelerates the aircraft although the effect of reverse thrust is not considered in the calculation of the stopping distance on a dry runway. With an engine failure near VI on a marginal, wet runway, the associated wet runway performance corrections might not entirely compensate for the increased stopping distance actually required. The ability to stop in the remaining runway can be affected by any of the following factors: Delay in initiating stopping procedures. Tires damaged.

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Brakes worn or not working correctly, initial temperature higher than normal. Brakes not fully applied. Runway friction coefficient reduced. Error in gross weight determination. Runway line up not considered.

21.4.2.4 DECISION MANAGEMENT BELOW 80 / 100 KTS. Although we cannot list all the causes, discontinuing the takeoff should be seriously considered if any. ECAM/EICAS/Master Warning comes on. If the aircraft is dispatched with a known defect which may activate ECAM / EICAS / Master Warning but which in itself does not warrant a stop call, the Captain may wish to ignore such ECAM / EICAS warnings. Note: The speed of 80/100 kts is not critical and is chosen in order to help the captain make his decision and avoid unnecessary stops from high speed.

21.4.2.5 ABOVE 80 / 100 KTS & BELOW VI Rejecting the take-off is a more serious matter, particularly on slippery runways and could lead to a hazardous situation when the speed is close to VI. The decision to reject the take-off should only be taken for a very few causes the main ones being: Fire warning or severe damage Sudden loss of engine thrust Conditions or malfunctions where there are unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly safely ECAM/EICAS/Master Warning (which are not inhibited above 70 kts) Any fire on board. Engine failure T.O. Configuration Warning Note 1: Nose gear vibration should not lead to an RTO above 80/100 kts. Note 2: In case of a tyre failure in the VI minus 20 to VI range: unless debris from the tires have caused serious engine anomalies it is far better to get airborne, reduce the fuel load

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and land with a full runway length available. Note 3: Flight control jamming will most likely be detected at the 80/100 kts check or at rotation. When felt at 80/100kts the takeoff should be rejected, while after VI the takeoff must be continued, using PM assistance if necessary. Note 4: The call VI has precedence over any other call. 21.4.2.6 ACTION IN THE EVENT OF FIRE ON THE GROUND As soon as such an emergency becomes apparent, e.g. fire risk, fire or structural failure, etc. the Flight Crew shall perform the On-Ground Emergency checklist. The aircraft should be stopped, straight ahead on the runway centerline. If the aircraft is brought to a halt on the runway, the Captain must ensure that the emergency is under full control before attempting to taxi the aircraft clear. Emergency vehicles can approach the aircraft more easily when it is on a runway rather than on a taxiway

21.5 TAKE-OFF & CLIMB 21.5.1 ENGINE FAILURE AFTER VI The PF shall establish a safe climb out and plan for a landing at a suitable airfield as stated in the preflight briefing. One of the following solutions should be considered: Climb to the appropriate engine out acceleration altitude. Level off, accelerate and configure the aircraft for maneuvering. Climb to MSA or the altitude advised by ATC at maneuvering speed. Proceed towards a convenient holding site or as advised by ATC. Follow the special engine out procedure if published in the Jeppesen Route Manual as it provides safe obstruction clearance in case of engine failure. Follow the normal SID or part of it as contained in the ATC clearance if aircraft gross weight and climb performance permit and obstruction clearance in not in doubt. Follow any route over known obstruction free

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areas at the Captains discretion. Should an engine fail during climb to cruising altitude, a landing at the airfield of departure shall normally be made. ATC shall be notified and advised of the Captains intentions as soon as possible following an engine failure. 21.5.2 ENGINE FIRE WARNING An engine fire warning during takeoff has to be handled operationally in the same way as an engine failure on takeoff. It is the Captains responsibility to decide at what moment the engine has to be shut down. The first priority must be the complete control of the aircraft until it is safely stopped or safely airborne. 21.5.3 OVER LIMIT Whenever an over limit warning occurs while an inversion is forecast or reported, or in the Captains view an inversion was a contributory factor, record the fact in the Tech Log. If possible, record the OAT increase through any inversion. Monitoring of the aircrafts performance and flight path

takes precedence recording of any data. 21.5.4

over

TIRES AND BRAKE PROBLEMS Experience has shown that blown tires or structural failures of the landing gear during takeoff may cause severe damage to other parts of the aircraft such as wings, flaps, fuselage, engines, hydraulic and electrical systems. In cases of suspected or reported failures of this type it is therefore recommended: To leave the landing gear extended, performance permitting in order to avoid further complications such as jammed gear, wheel well fire or an explosion. To ask via ATC for an inspection of the takeoff area in order to check for evidence of possible damage and to avoid hazards caused by debris on the runway. Note: While ATC may be requested to visually examine the aircraft for external damage during the course of normal maneuvers, low passes over the control tower should not normally be made. For

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more information refer to Landing Gear Problems in section 21.8. Low landing weights are more favorable for a landing with damaged landing gear, but dumping of fuel, where possible, is not advisable if a risk or susCapt.ion of fire exist. It will depend on the situation whether an emergency evacuation shall be prepared and performed. Additional precautionary measures may be advisable depending on the situation. The critical area around the landing gear should be avoided as far as possible for at least 20 minutes after landing. Captains should be reluctant to continue the flight as damage may not show up immediately, but the aircrafts condition may deteriorate during continued Flight. 21.5.5 INABILITY TO RETRACT THE LANDING GEAR If the landing gear cannot be retracted after takeoff, the flight may, at the Captains discretion, land at the nearest suitable airfield or continue to the planned destination. If the decision is made to continue

the flights, consideration shall be given to: Weather en route. Terrain en route. Aircraft performance (including the possibility of subsequent engine failure). Trip length. Increased fuel consumption. Any further restrictions stipulated in the FCOM. 21.6 CRUISE, DESCENT & APPROACH 21.6.1 ENGINE / SYSTEM FAILURES In case of an engine failure enroute, a landing shall be made at the nearest practicable airport. Captains shall exercise their good judgment over the selection made. In the event of system failure the recommendations of the FCOM should be followed. In all cases re planning must be carried out and it must be ensured that the flight proceeds at or above the MOCA/MORA. Drift down procedures as contained in FCOM must be used. Note: On ETOPS sectors, the ETOPS segment shall not be entered unless all the requirements

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relating to equipment serviceability are met 21.6.2 FOUR ENGINE AIRCRAFT In case of an engine failure the PIC must, depending on the circumstances (e.g. technical condition of aircraft, terrain, weather, etc) decide whether a precautionary landing at a practical airfield has to be made, or whether it is safe to continue to the destination. If the PIC decides to continue the following shall apply: A practical airfield shall be available within 2 hour at 2-engine-out cruise speed at all times, on the planned route. The 2-engine-out drift down altitude shall be above MOCA/MORA on the planned rout. For a possible 2-engineout diversion to an emergency airfield, fuel dumping is authorized to the extent that landing is made with minimum of 5500kg (B747) of fuel. 5500kg (B747) as minimum fuel for landing criteria shall also apply for calculating fuel requirement for 3-engine flight to the destination 21.6.3

and diversion to designated alternate.

the

EXPLOSIVE DECOMPRESSION/ EMERGENCY DESCENT During flight at high altitudes, all Fight Crew members must be prepared for an explosive decompression of the cabin. In case of such an event, an emergency descent must be initiated immediately to protect passengers due to the limited availability of emergency oxygen. Be aware that an emergency descent as such exposes the aircraft, its occupants and other aircraft in the area to further hazards (The oxygen requirements on routes involving high terrain are calculated by Operations Engineering and charts are inserted in Jeppesen Route Manual, where required). If an emergency descent has to be made, the aim must be to bring the aircraft down rapidly to an altitude where the passengers can breathe normally. Ensure that there is no serious damage to the aircraft structure before commencing a high speed descent.

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Do not make a steeper descent than the situation warrants. Recommended initial level off altitude is the higher of 10,000 or MORA. For detailed guidance relating to flight crew actions, functions and task sharing refer to aircraft specific FCOM. Once the aircraft has leveled off, the captain must announce on the PA Purser to cockpit. This is an indication to the cabin crew that it is now safe to move about in the cabin. 21.6.4 INTERCEPTION OF AIRCRAFT In case of a PIA aircraft being intercepted by a military aircraft the Captain shall, whenever possible, comply with the interceptors signals /demands in the interest of flight safety. For a detailed explanation of signals and procedures refer to the Jeppesen Route Manual. 21.6.5 POLITICAL / MILITARY ORDERS FOR UNSCHEDULED LANDING Political or military order via ATC for an unscheduled

landing are only compulsory if the given reason is legal. The Captain is normally not in a position to judge this legality at the time. In order to avoid repercussions, the Captain is advised to comply with such imperative requests: As long as the aircraft proceeds over the territory of the requiring state, and If the safety of the operation permits (weight, navigation facilities, runway and airport conditions). PIA will initiate the necessary diplomatic steps if the landing request was illegal and thus caused embarrassment to passengers or the Company.

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21.7

ENGINE-OUT APPROACHES & MISSED APPROACHES 21.7.1 SINGLE ENGINE APPROACH The lowest possible oneengine out minima depend on the certification of the particular aircraft type. It is PIA policy that engine-out approaches shall not be made to minima below CAT1 unless there is no other option. It is the Captains prerogative, taking into consideration such factors as weather, runway conditions, additional technical problems actual weight, etc. to select a higher minima than that published for the approach. If possible an airport should be selected with weather conditions of at least circling minima, and a runway where glide path assistance is provided. 21.7.2 SINGLE ENGINE MISSED APPROACH. The missed approach procedure published on the approach chart is normally based on a climb gradient of 2.5%.

If obstacles exist around the airport and an even higher climb gradient may be required. This will be published on the applicable Jeppesen missed approach procedure. For such critical airfields engine-out minima may additionally be published in the Jeppesen Route Manual based on climb performance, maximum landing weight and standard conditions for temperature and pressure. The acceleration altitude for all engine and engine out missed approaches will be the Jeppesen published missed approach altitude. Generally a 2.5% gradient will, in almost all cases, be exceeded during an all-engines missed approach. However, Captains should make an adjustment to the minima for an approach if they consider that the required missed approach gradient will not be met under conditions of degraded aircraft performance. e.g. engine, flap, landing gear malfunction etc. 21.7.3 Terrain Avoidance Maneuver

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A GPWS/EGPWS activated Terrain Alert shall require an aggressive pitch-up maneuver by recall by the flight crew to extract maximum performance from the airplane. The exception to this need shall only be when flight crew is visual with ground / terrain and a threat. Aircraft specific FCOM/SOP crew actions and task sharing shall be adheres to until the imminent thereat is removed. 21.8 LANDING 21.8.1 EMERGENCY LANDING The amount of preparation that can be made for an emergency landing or ditching depends on the time available before landing. In case of an anticipated emergency landing the Captain shall summon the Purser to the Cockpit by announcing: Purser to Cockpit immediately Preparations must be as thorough as time permits. The following should be accomplished: For a ditching, complete the preceding

Announcements, as outlined. Review the general evacuation plan, including the operation of the seat belts, doors, slides, emergency exits, life vests, and life rafts. Designate able bodied and willing passengers to primary and alternate exits with briefing. Assign competent people to aid children and handicapped passengers. Place hand baggage, loose items that cannot be stowed securely, and potentially dangerous personal articles in lavatories and lock the doors from the outside. Turn off the galley power. Secure the galley and class divider curtains open. Whether on land or water an emergency landing can result in sudden and violent forces acting on the aircraft before it comes to a complete stop. Seat belts must not be unfastened until the aircraft has come to a complete stop

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If time permits prior to an emergency landing that may require an aircraft evacuation, the Purser shall brief the passengers on the exits to be used. Consideration should be given to the type of emergency in progress, and passengers must be instructed not to use certain exits if they are liable to be hazardous. For an emergency landing on land, two adult males should be assigned to precede other passengers down each slide and instructed to hold the slide in position and assist other passengers. This is important in strong or gusty winds. 21.8.2 ANNOUNCEMENTS The following announcements are provided for use as conditions indicate. When an emergency landing or ditching is imminent, the Captain (or his delegate) shall announce two minutes prior to touchdown: Cabin crew take positions for Landing Cabin crew take positions for Ditching 30 seconds before touchdown, Captain or designated Crew member shall announce;

Brace for impact Once the Captain has decided to evacuate the aircraft: Evacuate ,Evacuate (LH/ RH/ REAR ALL AVAIBALE exits. The cabin attendants will direct the passengers to the available evacuation exits by shouting: Open Seat Belt Leave Everything This Way 21.8.3 HARD LANDINGS Normal sink rates during touchdown are between 120 to 180 feet per minute. Touchdowns with sink rates of 360 to 420 feet per minute, while less comfortable and are often mistakenly called Hard Landings. It should be understood that the expression Hard Landing in the technical sense refers only to a landing with a sink rate of 600 feet per minute or higher. During certification, FAA regulations require the demonstration of landings with such a sink at maximum certificated landing weight. Hard landings in the sense of the technical definition must be reported in the aircraft Technical Log.

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21.8.4 OVERWEIGHT LANDING Overweight landings are authorized under abnormal conditions, e.g. in case of a technical malfunction or due to safety reasons, which make an unforeseen landing necessary. The Captain should ensure that the actual touchdown is made with the minimum rate of descent commensurate with safety. Up to maximum certified takeoff weight landings with sink rates of 360 feet per minute or less usually do not require an overweight landing inspection. Refer to the applicable FCOM for further information. In the event of a declared emergency the Captain may take any action deemed necessary, including disregarding any landing weight limitation. An overweight landing must be recorded in the Aircraft Technical Log mentioning the aircraft weight and rate of descent at touchdown (if possible). Overweight landings should never be planned. Where enroute fuel consumption has been less than expected and an overweight landing is a

possibility, Pilots should review the overweight landing check list prior to the approach. In this case overweight landings are authorized but must be entered in the aircraft Technical Log as outlined above. 21.8.5 LANDING GEARS PROBLEMS 21.8.5.1 LANDING GEAR NOT LOOKED DOWN. If one or more wheels fails to lock down, the landing should be made on the remaining wheel (s), even if only on one leg, in preference to an attempted belly landing. No attempt should be made to lock down any part of the landing gear by a brush landing. Research indicates that any part of the landing gear even a leg without wheels than can be used to keep the aircraft from rubbing along ground considerably lessens the risk of fire. Such a landing, or one with the landing gear retracted, should always be made on a paved surface rather than on grass or other soft surfaces. Access for fire and rescue services is easier,

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and it has been shown that there is less likelihood of component or structural damage. The fire hazard from sparks caused by sliding contact between the fuselage and a paved surface is considerably less that from broken fuel lines if engine nacelles etc, are ripped off after digging into a soft surface, or striking underlying obstructions. It is unlikely that a low fly past of the control tower will add much to information derived from the flight deck indications. A low fly-past should only be undertaken when there is good reason to believe that knowledge of the state of the landing gear can be improved from such a maneuver. Note: For further information see Tire and Brake Problems Section 21.6 21.8.6 FOAM CARPETS It is company policy not to request a foam carpet for an emergency landing with a defective landing gear. There is little evidence that this practice has any advantage for large commercial aircraft. Preplanning and special equipment are necessary. The operation may

take one hour or more and may severely deplete the crash facilities and manpower available for any subsequent fire emergency. A foam blanket does not reduce the ignition potential of titanium sparks, and its efficiency is affected by weather conditions. Friction reduction is negligible. If, however, the service is available and is offered without delay by ATC the Captain may elect to use it. 21.8.7 COMMUNICATION WITH AIRPORT FIRE SERVICES At a number of airfields, direct R/T contact is available between and aircraft which has completed a declared emergency landing and the officer in charge of the Airport Fire Services. A captain who wishes to use this service should inform ATC, who will advise the appropriate frequency and call sign. It must not be used until the aircraft has landed and stopped, and in no way invalidates other existing emergency landing procedures.

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21.9 DITCHING 21.9.1 GENERAL Before a ditching, all available time should be used to remind the passenger of evacuation equipment and procedures. For a ditching, at least two adult males should be assigned to each exit. Evacuating passengers from the airplane, if needed. Exits should not be opened until the aircraft has come to a complete stop. Operation of slides is prescribes in the FCOM. The bracing position is to be assumed on the command: Brace for impact Initial contact can be expected to occur in approximately 30 seconds. Survival after ditching depends to a great extent on how rapidly rescue is affected. Therefore, it is important that ground stations be advised as soon as possible of any occurrence that could result in a ditching. Ditch near surface vessels if possible. The captain should also consider requesting any other aircraft to remain in the area as an escort, as it could be helpful in directing rescuers to ditched aircraft. The captain

should determine the full assistance potential from any sources. 21.9.2 DETERMINING THE DITCHING HEADING The Recommended direction of ditching is dependent on wind direction and velocity as well as sea state. Weather and sea conditions should be determined from whatever sources are available. If independent information is not available wind and sea state any be assessed as follow: Wind Direction: Waves move and break downwind. Spray from wave tops moves downwind and is a reliable indicator of wind direction. Wind Speed The following conditions can be used as a guide: 1. A few white crest -8-17 kts. 2. Many white crest -1726 kts. 3. Streaks of foam on water -23-35 kts. 4. Spray from waves 3543 kts.

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21.9.3 SEA STATE Primary swells can best be identified from altitudes of 10,000 12,000 ft. Surface conditions can best be assessed at approximately 500 ft. When there is no swell. Ditching should be made into wind. When surface wind is greater than 35 kts ditching should be made into wind regardless of the direction of the swell. Ditching into the upslope of swell should be avoided. When the surface wind is less than 35 kts ditching should be parallel to the swell and as nearly into wind as possible. 21.9.4 TECHNIQUE If possible, the ditching should be accomplished while engine power is available to permit maneuvering to a favorable touchdown area. During a ditching at night, the landing lights should be used to illuminate the surface of the sea. The final approach and landing should be made with the gear up and full flaps, using V Ref. as target speed.

The landing gear warning should be silenced. Touchdown should be made with the slowest forward speed and lowest descent rate consistent with adequate control. The pitch attitude should be about 10 degrees nose up. This provides optimum planning action and load distribution over the bottom of the fuselage. The wings should be level with the surface of the sea, not with the horizon. See the FCOM for specific aircraft type procedures. The aircraft should not be allowed to fall through to touchdown from a stall. This would result in a severe impact, which could collapse the bottom of the fuselage, followed by an abrupt deceleration caused by the nose burying itself in the sea. 21.9.5 EVACUATION FOLLOWING DITCHING. After the aircraft has come to a stop, the slide raft shall be deployed from the available exit. Immediately following inflation, the raft should be: Attached to a secure part of the aircraft structure using the mooring line.

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Boarded by at least two adults. If possible, person should be transferred directly from the aircraft into the life rafts. The importance of doing so depends on the sea state, the weather, and the extent of personal injuries. If unable to board the rafts directly from the aircraft, passengers should be instructed to inflate their life vest as they leave the aircraft. Person on the wing should hold on-to wing life line. Those in the water should hold onto a life raft heaving line to avoid drifting or being washed away. The first crew member to board the raft should ensure raft inflation, assistant in the boarding of other persons and hold the raft away from damage aircraft structure. Person in the raft should assist other person aboard, preferably at the boarding station. It may be quite difficult for a person to board the raft from the water without help. Person in the raft should sit with their backs against the rail and their feet towards the center. No one should be allowed to stand. Sharp objects, including shoes, that could damage the raft

should have been removed or otherwise disposed off. Personal movement should be restricted. When all persons are on board the raft, the lanyard should be cut. The sea anchor should be deployed promptly. All loose equipment should be secured when it is not in use so that is not lost or washed overboard. Rafts should be tied together only in a very calm sea. This will provide a larger target for search and reuse unit and permit optimum distribution of rations and equipment. If there is any appreciable wave motion raft should be separated to avoid the hazards of collision and upset.

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21.10 LOSS OF COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES When radio communication fails on an assigned frequency, the Pilot shall attempt to make contact on another set if available. If unable he/she shall then try to contact on any appropriate radio frequency or 121.5 MHZ. A relay through other stations (including another aircraft) with which communication can be established should be attempted. If radio communication fails on the ground, the flight will not depart until rectified. If radio communication fails during flight, follow the specific instruction for the country which is being over flow, or use the ICAO general procedure as follows: Transponder: select code 7600 Listen out on VOR frequencies: In some areas ATC can transmit on these and do so when communication failure is recognized. Routing should be in accordance with whichever is applicable as follows:

a. Route assigned in the last ATC clearance received. b. On Radar vector, via the direct path to the fix or airway specified in the vector clearance. c. With no assigned route or no route advised by ATC via the path filed in the flight plan. Altitude: the altitude / flight level is the highest of the following: a. Altitude or flight level last assigned. b. Altitude / flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance. c. The minimum altitude for the route being flown. d. A change of altitude / flight level should be considered at turning points where a level change is required in accordance with ICAO regulation and originally filed. Holding: If holding is required at a fix to be used, holding and descent to the initial approach altitude should be made within the holding pattern and in accordance with the procedure published. Leaving the fix and descent:

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Leaving the fix and descent should be in accordance with ICAO regulation or are as specifically prescribed by each state and published in the emergency section of the Jeppesen Route Manual. Receiver failure: If the receiver fails, pilots should transmit appropriate message and, if in VMC, expect light signals as per the following table from the control tower landing and taxi instructions. Light Signal Steady Green Flashing Green Steady red Flashing red Flashing White Alternate Red / Green On Ground Cleared for T/O Cleared for taxi Stop Clear the runaway Return to Ramp Exercise Extreme Caution In flight Cleared to land Return for landing Give way to other traffic Airport unsafe - do not land -

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21.11 INCAPACITATION OF FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS 21.11.1 TYPES OF


INCAPACITATION

Regular medical examination should ensure that crew members are physically and mentally able to do their job. Experience shows however that Incapacitation of Flight Crew members is not an uncommon cause of incidents and can occur in all age groups and all phases of flight. Incapacitation can be divided into two categories: Obvious incapacitation means total functional failure and loss of capabilities. In general it will be easily detectable and of prolonged occurrence. Among possible causes are heart disorders, severe brain disorders, internal bleeding, food poisoning, etc. Subtle incapacitation is considered a more significant operational hazard, because it is difficult to detect and the effects can range from partial loss of function to

complete unconsciousness. Among the possible causes might be minor brain seizures, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), other medical disorders, extreme fatigue or preoccupation with personal problems. Because a Flight Crew member may not be aware of or capable of rationally evaluating his/her situation this type of incapacitation is the more dangerous one. The most important preventives measure is to maintain a high standard of alertness. Routine adherence to Standard Operating Procedures and flight deck discipline is stressed because a procedural deviation might provide the first indication of arising problems. A good means of detection is to follow the two-communication rule i.e. any time a Flight Crew member does not respond appropriately to two verbal communications, or any time a Flight Crew member does not respond to any verbal communication associated with a significant deviation from the intended flight path,

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an incapacitation suspected.

21.11.2 ACTION IN THE EVENT OF PILOT INCAPACITATION Whenever Pilot incapacitation may be suspected or is obvious, the following steps shall be taken by the other Pilot: Declare Emergency Assure a safe condition of flight Take over the controls immediately. Engage the autopilot. Summon a Cabin Crew member immediately for assistance. Remove the incapacitated Pilot from the controls. Analyze flight operational aspects: The condition of the incapacitated Flight Crew member. The remaining flight time of the planned flight leg. The suitability and knowledge of en route airfields for an emergency landing. Should incapacitation occur during an approach to land, the remaining pilot may continue the

planned approach if he considers that the approach and landing can be completed safely. In general, the aircraft must land, after declaring an emergency, as soon as practicable. 21.11.3 CARE OF THE INCAPACITATED FLIGHT CREW MEMBER Arrange for medical assistance in flight and after landing. Prepare the flight deck for landing. Request whenever possible a long, straight in approach. Perform the approach checks earlier than normal. Request radar vectoring whenever possible. Fly the aircraft from yo