Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)

www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645



www.ijmer.com 240 | Page


M. H. Gulzar
Department of Mathematics University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006

Abstract: In this paper we find an upper bound for the number of zeros of a polynomial inside the unit disk, when the
coefficients of the polynomial or their real and imaginary parts are restricted to certain conditions.

Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C10, 30C15

Key-words and phrases: Polynomial, Unit disk, Zero.

I. Introduction and Statement of Results
Regarding the number of zeros of a polynomial inside the unit disk, the following results were recently proved by
M. H. Gulzar [2]:
Theorem A: Let P (z) =

=
n
j
j
j
z a
0
be a polynomial of degree n such that for some 0 > ,

0 1 1
...... a a a a
n n
> > > > +

.
Then the number of zeros of P (z) in 1 0 ,
1
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
does not exceed

0
0 0
2
log
1
log
1
a
a a a a
n n
+ + +
o
,
Where
0 1
2 a a a M
n n
+ + = .
TheoremB: Let P (z) =

=
n
j
j
j
z a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with complex coefficients .If
,
Re
j j
a o = , ,..., 1 , 0 , Im n j a
j j
= = | and for some , 0 >

, ...
0 1 1
o o o o > > > > +
n n

then the number of zeros of P(z) in
, 1 0 ,
2
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
does not exceed
,
2 2
log
1
log
1
0
0
0 0
a
n
j
j n n
=
+ + + + | o o o o
o

Where

=
+ + + + =
n
j
j n n
M
1
0 0 2
2 2 | | o o o .
Theorem C: Let P(z)=

=
n
j
j
j
z a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with complex coefficients .If
,
Re
j j
a o = , ,..., 1 , 0 , Im n j a
j j
= = | and for some , 0 >

, ...
0 1 1
| | | | > > > > +
n n

then the number of zeros of P(z) in
, 1 0 ,
3
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
does not exceed
On The Number of Zeros of a Polynomial inside the Unit Disk
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 241 | Page
,
2 2
log
1
log
1
0
0
0 0
a
n
j
j n n
=
+ + + + o | | | |
o

Where

=
+ + + + =
n
j
j n n
M
1
0 0 3
2 2 o o | | | .
Theorem D. Let P (z) =

=
n
j
j
j
z a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with complex coefficients such that

, ,... 1 , 0 ,
2
arg n j a
j
= s s
t
o | for some real |
and

0 1 1
... a a a a
n n
> > > > +

,for some 0 > .
Then the number of zeros of P(z) in , 1 0 ,
4
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
does not exceed
,
sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos (
log
1
log
1
0
1
1
0
a
a a a
n
j
j n

=
+ + + + o o o o o
o


where

=
+ + + + =
1
1
0 4
sin 2 ) sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos (
n
j
j n
a a a M o o o o o

In this paper, we prove certain generalizations of the above results. In fact, we prove the following :
Theorem 1: Let

=
=
n
j
j
j
z a z P
0
) ( be a polynomial of degree n with
j j
a o = ) Re( and
j j
a | = ) Im( , j=0,1,2,,n. If
for some real numbers , 0 > , , 0 , 1 = s s
k n
n k o ,
1 k n k n
>o o

0 1 1 1 1
... ... o o o o o o o > > > > > > > +
+ k n k n k n n n
,
then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
5
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o
,
where

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
M
1
0 0 5
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 | | o o o o o ,
and if ,
1 +
>
k n k n
o o then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
6
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o
,
where

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
M
1
0 0 6
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 | | o o o o o .
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 242 | Page
Remark 1: Taking 1 = , Theorem 1 reduces to Theorem B.
Remark 2: If
j
a are real i.e. 0 =
j
| for all j , Theorem 1 gives the following result which reduces to Theorem A by
taking 1 = :
Theorem 2: Let

=
=
n
j
j
j
z a z P
0
) ( be a polynomial of degree n .If for some real numbers , 0 > ,
, 0 , 1 = s s
k n
a n k ,
1 k n k n
a a

>

0 1 1 1 1
... ... a a a a a a a
k n k n k n n n
> > > > > > > +
+
,
then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
7
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0 0
1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
a a a a a a
k n k n n n
+ + + + +


o
,
where
0 7
1 ) 1 ( 2 a a a a a M
k n k n n n
+ + + + =

,
and if ,
1 +
>
k n k n
a a then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
8
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0 0
1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
a a a a a a
k n k n n n
+ + + + +


o
,
where
0 8
1 ) 1 ( 2 a a a a a M
k n k n n n
+ + + + =

.
Applying Theorem 1 to the polynomial iP(z), we get the following result, which reduces to Theorem C by taking 1 = :
Theorem 3: Let

=
=
n
j
j
j
z a z P
0
) ( be a polynomial of degree n with
j j
a o = ) Re( and
j j
a | = ) Im( , j=0,1,2,,n. If
for some real numbers , 0 > , , 0 , 1 = s s
k n
n k | ,
1 k n k n
> | |

0 1 1 1 1
... ... | | | | | | | > > > > > > > +
+ k n k n k n n n
,
then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
9
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + o | | | | | |
o
,
where

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
M
1
0 0 9
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 o o | | | | | ,
and if ,
1 +
>
k n k n
| | then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
10
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + o | | | | | |
o
,
where

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
M
1
0 0 10
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 o o | | | | | .

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 243 | Page
Theorem 4: Let

=
=
n
j
j
j
z a z P
0
) ( be a polynomial of degree n .If for some real numbers 0 > , 0 > ,
, 0 , 1 = s s
k n
a n k

0 1 1 1 1
... ... a a a a a a a
k n k n k n n n
> > > > > > > > +
+
,
and for some real | , n j a
j
,......, 1 , 0 ,
2
arg = s s
t
o | and
k n k n
a a

>
1
, i.e. 1 > ,then the number of zeros of
P(z) in 1 0 ,
11
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed
0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
log
1
log
1
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + +
o o o
o o o o o o
o


where ) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos (
11
+ + + + =

o o o o o o
k n n
a a M

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o
and if
1 +
>
k n k n
a a , i.e. 1 < , then the number of zeros of P(z) in 1 0 ,
12
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
log
1
log
1
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + + + + +
o o o
o o o o o o
o
Where
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos (
12
o o o o o o + + + + + + + =
k n n
a a M

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o .
Remark 4: Taking 1 = , Theorem 4 reduces to Theorem D.

II. Lemmas
For the proofs of the above results, we need the following results:
Lemma 1:. Let P(z)=

=
n
j
j
j
z a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with complex coefficients such that
for n j a
j
, ,... 1 , 0 ,
2
arg = s s
t
o | some real | ,then for some t>0,
| | | | . sin cos
1
1 1
o o

+ + s

j
a a t a a t a ta
j j j j j


The proof of lemma 1 follows from a lemma due to Govil and Rahman [1].
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 244 | Page
Lemma 2.If p(z) is regular ,p(0) = 0 and M z p s ) ( in , 1 s z then the number of zeros of p(z) in , 1 0 , < < s o o z does
not exceed
) 0 (
log
1
log
1
p
M
o
(see[4],p171).
III. Proofs of Theorems
Proof of Theorem 1: Consider the polynomial
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( z P z z F =

k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a
a z a z a z a z


+
+
+

+ + + + =
+ + + + =
) ( ) ( ...... ) (
) ...... )( 1 (
1
1
1 1
1
0 1
1
1


0 0 1
1
2 1
) ( ...... ) ( a z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
+ + + +




0
1
1
0 0 1
1
2 1 1
1
1 1
1
) (
) ( ...... ) ( ) (
) ( ...... ) ( ) (
| | |
o o o o o o o
o o o o | o
i z i
z z z
z z z i
n
j
j
j j
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n n
+ +
+ + + + +
+ + + + =


+
+
+

If ,
1 k n k n
>o o then

1
1 1
1
) ( ...... ) ( ) ( ) (
+
+
+
+ + + + + =
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n n
n n
z z z z i z F o o o o | o


. ) ( ) (
...... ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
0
1
1 0 0 1
1
2 1 1
| | | o o o
o o o o o
i z i z
z z z
n
j
j
j j
k n
k n k n
k n
k n
k n
k n k n
+ + + +
+ + +



For 1 s z ,
+ + + + + s

...... ) (
1 n n n
z F o o o
k n k n +
o o
1
+
k n k n k n
+ o o o 1
1

=

+ + + + +
n
j
j k n k n
0
0 0 1 2 1
2 ...... | o o o o o

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 | o o o o o o
Hence by Lemma 2, the number of zeros of F(z) in 1 0 , < < s o o z , does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o
.

On the other hand, let
Q (z)=
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a


+
+
+
+ + + + ) ( ) ( ...... ) (
1
1
1 1
1

z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
) ( ...... ) (
0 1
1
2 1
+ + +



For 1 s z ,
k n k n k n k n k n n n n
z Q
+
+ + + + + + + s o o o o o o o o 1 ...... ) (
1 1 1

=

+ + + + +
n
j
j k n k
1
0 0 1 2 1
2 ...... | | o o o o

5
1
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 M
n
j
j k n n n
= + + + + + + =

=

| | o o o o .
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 245 | Page
Since Q(0)=0, we have, by Rouches theorem,
z M z Q
5
) ( s , for 1 s z .
Thus


) (
0
z Q a >
z M a
5 0
>
0 >
if
5
0
M
a
z < .
This shows that F(z) has no zero in
5
0
M
a
z < . Consequently it follows that the number of zeros of F(z) and hence P(z) in
1 0 ,
5
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o


If ,
1 +
>
k n k n
o o then

1
1 1
1
) ( ...... ) ( ) ( ) (
+
+
+
+ + + + + =
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n n
n n
z z z z i z F o o o o | o

. ) ( ) (
...... ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
0
1
1 0 0 1
1
2 1 1
| | | o o o
o o o o o
i z i z
z z z
n
j
j
j j
k n
k n k n
k n
k n
k n
k n k n
+ + + +
+ + +

=



+



For 1 s z ,
+ + + + + s

...... ) (
1 n n n
z F o o o
k n k n +
o o
1
+
k n k n k n
+ o o o 1
1

=

+ + + + +
n
j
j k n k n
0
0 0 1 2 1
2 ...... | o o o o o

=

+ + + + + + =
n
j
j k n k n n n
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 | o o o o o o
Hence by Lemma 2, the number of zeros of F(z) in 1 0 , < < s o o z , does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o
.
On the other hand, let
Q(z)=
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a


+
+
+
+ + + + ) ( ) ( ...... ) (
1
1
1 1
1

z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
) ( ...... ) (
0 1
1
2 1
+ + +



) ( ) (
0
z Q a z F + =
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 246 | Page

=



+


+
+
+
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + + =
n
j
j
j j
k n
k n k n
k n
k n
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n n
n n
z i z
z z a z
z z z z i
1
1 0 1
1
2 1
1
1
1
1 1
1
) ( ) (
...... ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) ( ...... ) ( ) (
| | o o
o o o o
o o o o | o

For 1 s z ,
k n k n k n k n k n n n n
z Q
+
+ + + + + + + s o o o o o o o o 1 ...... ) (
1 1 1

=

+ + + + +
n
j
j k n k
1
0 0 1 2 1
2 ...... | | o o o o

6
1
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2 M
n
j
j k n n n
= + + + + + + =

=

| | o o o o .
Since Q(0)=0, we have, by Rouches theorem,
z M z Q s ) ( , for 1 s z .
Thus


) (
0
z Q a >
z M a
6 0
>
0 >
if
6
0
M
a
z < .
This shows that F(z) has no zero in
6
0
M
a
z < . Consequently it follows that the number of zeros of F(z) and hence P(z) in
1 0 ,
6
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed

0
0
0 0
2 1 ) 1 ( 2
log
1
log
1
a
n
j
j k n k n n n
=

+ + + + + + | o o o o o o
o
.
That proves Theorem 1.

Proof of Theorem 4: Consider the polynomial
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( z P z z F =

k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a
a z a z a z a z


+
+
+

+ + + + =
+ + + + =
) ( ) ( ...... ) (
) ...... )( 1 (
1
1
1 1
1
0 1
1
1


0 0 1
1
2 1
) ( ...... ) ( a z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
+ + + +



If
k n k n
a a

>
1
, i.e. 1 > , then

1
1 1
1
) ( ...... ) ( ) (
+
+
+
+ + + + =
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n n
n
z a a z a a z z a z F
...... ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
1
2 1 1
+ + +


k n
k n k n
k n
k n
k n
k n k n
z a a z a z a a

0 0 1
) ( a z a a + +
so that for 1 s z , we have by using Lemma 1,
1 1 1
...... ) (
+
+ + + + + + s
k n k n k n k n n n n
a a a a a a a z F
) ( ) (
0
z Q a z F + =
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 247 | Page

0 0 1 2 1
...... 1 a a a a a a
k n k n k n
+ + + + +



...... sin ) ( cos ) (
1 1
+ + + + + + + s

o o
n n n n n
a a a a a

0 0 1 0 1
2 1 2 1
1 1
1 1
sin ) ( cos ) (
...... sin ) ( cos ) (
sin ) ( cos ) (
) 1 ( sin ) ( cos ) (
a a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a a
k n k n k n k n
k n k n k n k n
k n k n k n k n k n
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + + +


+ +
o o
o o
o o
o o

) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos ( + + + + s

o o o o o o
k n n
a a

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o
Hence, by Lemma 2, the number of zeros of F(z) in 1 0 , < < s o o z , does not exceed
0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
log
1
log
1
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + +
o o o
o o o o o o
o
On the other hand,
let
Q(z)=
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a


+
+
+
+ + + + ) ( ) ( ...... ) (
1
1
1 1
1

z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
) ( ...... ) (
0 1
1
2 1
+ + +



For 1 s z ,
s ) (z Q ) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos ( + + + +

o o o o o o
k n n
a a

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o

11
M = .
Since Q(0)=0 , we have , by Rouches Theorem,
, ) (
11
z M z Q s for 1 s z .
Thus, for 1 s z ,
) ( ) (
0
z Q a z F + =
) (
0
z Q a >
z M a
11 0
>
0 >
if .
11
0
M
a
z <
This shows that F(z) has all its zeros z with 1 s z in .
11
0
M
a
z >
Thus, the number of zeros of F(z) and hence P(z) in 1 0 ,
11
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 248 | Page
0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
log
1
log
1
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + +
o o o
o o o o o o
o

If
1 +
>
k n k n
a a , i.e. 1 < , then

1
1 1
1
) ( ...... ) ( ) (
+
+
+
+ + + + =
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n n
n
z a a z a a z z a z F
...... ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
1
2 1
1
1
+ + +


+


k n
k n k n
k n
k n
k n
k n k n
z a a z a z a a

0 0 1
) ( a z a a + +
so that for 1 s z , we have by Lemma 1,
1 1 1
...... ) (
+
+ + + + + + s
k n k n k n k n n n n
a a a a a a a z F

0 0 1 2 1
...... 1 a a a a a a
k n k n k n
+ + + + +



...... sin ) ( cos ) (
1 1
+ + + + + + + s

o o
n n n n n
a a a a a

0 0 1 0 1
2 1 2 1
1 1
1 1
sin ) ( cos ) (
...... sin ) ( cos ) (
sin ) ( cos ) (
1 sin ) ( cos ) (
a a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a a
k n k n k n k n
k n k n k n k n
k n k n k n k n k n
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + + +


+ +
o o
o o
o o
o o

) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos ( o o o o o o + + + + + + + s
k n n
a a

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o
Hence , by Lemma 2, the number of zeros of F(z) in 1 0 , < < s o o z , does not exceed
log
1
log
1
o
0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + + + + +
o o o
o o o o o o

On the other hand, let
Q(z)=
k n
k n k n
k n
k n k n
n
n n
n
n
z a a z a a z a a z a


+
+
+
+ + + + ) ( ) ( ...... ) (
1
1
1 1
1

z a a z a a
k n
k n k n
) ( ...... ) (
0 1
1
2 1
+ + +



For 1 s z , by using Lemma 1,
s ) (z Q ) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin )(cos ( o o o o o o + + + + + + +
k n n
a a

= =
+
1
, 1
0
sin 2 ) sin (cos
n
k n j j
j
a a o o o

12
M = .
Since Q(0)=0 , we have , by Rouches Theorem,
, ) (
12
z M z Q s for 1 s z .
Thus, for 1 s z ,
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-240-249 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 249 | Page
) ( ) (
0
z Q a z F + =
) (
0
z Q a >
z M a
12 0
>
0 >
if .
12
0
M
a
z <
This shows that F(z) has all its zeros z with 1 s z in .
12
0
M
a
z >
Thus, the number of zeros of F(z) and hence P(z) in 1 0 ,
12
0
< < s s o o z
M
a
, does not exceed
log
1
log
1
o
0
1
, 1
0
] sin 2 ) 1 sin (cos
) 1 sin cos sin (cos ) 1 sin (cos [(
a
a a
a a
n
k n j j
j
k n n

= =

+
+ + + + + + +
o o o
o o o o o o
.
That proves Theorem 4.

References
[1] N.K.Govil and Q.I.Rahman, On the Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem, Tohoku Math.J.20 (1968), 126-136.
[2] M. H. Gulzar, on the number of Zeros of a polynomial in a prescribed Region, Research Journal of Pure Algebra-2(2), 2012, 1-11.
[3] E C. Titchmarsh, The Theory of Functions, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, London, 1939.