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INTRODUCTION

HEAVILY CONGESTED REINFORCED MEMBERS DELAYS AND ADDITIONAL COST IN THE PROJECTS UNDER WATER CONCRETING LACK OF SKILLED LABOUR WHAT IS SCC

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) describes a concrete with the ability to compact itself only by means of its own weight without the requirement of vibration. Self-compacting concrete also known as Self-consolidating concrete or self lev

HISTORY OF SCC

FIRST DEVELOPED IN JAPAN IN LATE 1980S where the lack of uniform and complete compaction had been identified as the primary factor responsible for poor performance of concrete structures.

This led to the development of the first practicable SCC by researchers (Okamura, Ozawa et al.) at the University of Tokyo and the large Japanese contractors (e.g. Kajima, Maeda, Taisei etc.) quickly took up the idea. Self-compacting concrete has been successfully used in France, Denmark, the Netherlands, UK, USA, and Germany apart from Japan. elling concrete . MATERIALS The Materials used in SCC are the same as in conventional concrete except that an excess of fine material and chemical admixtures are used.

Fly ash, silica fume, lime stone powder, glass filler. A high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA) such as Acrylic Polymer based polycarboxylatethers (PCE) & polyacrlates. Viscosity-modifying agent (VMA) and ultra fine materials are used to reduce bleeding and segregation.

TEST METHODS FOR COMPACTIBILIT The various test equipment was fabricated for judging the following characteristics Selfcompactibility: The U-tube test gives an indication of the resistance of the mixture to flow round obstructions in a U-type mould, Fig 1. This test also detects the tendency of the coarse aggregate

particles to stay back or settle down, when the mixture flows through closely-spaced reinforceme

FIG 1: U-TUBE TEST APPARATUS

DEFORMABILITY: The slump flow test as specified by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) judges the ability of concrete to deform under its own weight against the friction of the base, Fig 2. This test, however, cannot evaluate whether the concrete will pass through the space between the reinforcement bars. This test is useful also as a routine control test, to detect the tendency for slurry to separate from the mixture. Viscosity:

Viscosity of the mortar phase is obtained by a V-funnel apparatus, Fig 3.This is useful for adjusting the powder content, water content and admixture

FIG 3 : V-FUNNEL TEST

Development of compressive strength with time:

After 28 days the reached compressive strength of SCC and normal vibrated concrete of similar composition does not differ significantly in the majority of the published test results. Isolated cases, however, showed that at the same water cement ratios slightly higher compressive strengths were reached for SCC. At the current time there is insufficient research to result in generalized conclusions with this fact. SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH

By evaluating the available database it could be shown, that most results of the measured splitting tensile strength values are in the range of valid regulations for normal vibrated concrete with the same compressive strength. However, in about 30% of all data points a higher splitting tensile strength was stated,Fig 5. Hence it appears the tendency of a higher splitting tensile strength of SCC. The reason for this fact is the better microstructure, especially the smaller total porosity and further on a denser cement matrix is present due to the higher content of ultra fines. Simple inclusion even in complicated formwork and tight reinforcement.

ADVANTAGES OF SCC Less skilled man power. Since no compaction work is necessary, it leads to reduced construction times, especially at large construction sites. Reduced noise pollution since vibrators are not necessary. Higher and more homogenous concrete quality across the entire concrete cross-section, especially around the reinforcement. Improved concrete surfaces. Typically higher early strength of the concrete so that formwork removal can be performed more quickly. Maintenance of concrete structure is negligible. Improved durability & good structural performance

DISADVANTAGES OF SCC Higher material costs & production expense. A lack of standards and regulations. General risks of a "new" technology. APPLICATION The two anchorages of Akashi-Kaikyo (Straits) Bridge opened in April 1998, a suspension bridge with the longest span in the world (1,991 meters) (Fig. 6). The volume of the cast concrete in the two anchorages amounted to 290,000 m3. The concrete was mixed at the batcher plant beside the site, and was the pumped out of the plant. It was transported 200 meters through pipes to the casting site, where the pipes were arranged in rows 3 to 5 meters apart. In the final analysis, the use of self-compacting concrete shortened the anchorage construction period by 20%, from 2.5 to 2 years and reduced the no. of workers.

Under water construction of a dry dock Concrete placed 40,000 m3

Tremie method to place self-compacting concrete under water

Congestion of reinforcements of a slab foundation where concrete is placed without vibration

Placement of SCC in a reinforced slab foundation of skyscraper. ( commercial center in New York)

Congested reinforced column

SCC Poured in Heavily Reinforced Wall

CONCLUSION

SCC is made from the ingredients, which are almost same used in producing in conventional concrete. Thorough understanding of role played by each of the ingredient of SCC is essential. Even though the initial cost of SCC is comparatively higher than the conventional concrete. Considering the long service of the structure, minimum maintenance, labour cost, cost due to the vibrators required, benefit cost ratio is very much in favour in case of SCC. Self Consolidating Concrete, as well as Conventional Slump Concrete, requires proper mix proportion to become a durable concrete. Self compacting concrete is ideal for concrete parts with complicated shapes and elements with high quality visible concrete. Subramanian,s. and CHATTOPADHAY,D., Experiments for mix proportioning of SCC, The Indian Concrete journal, January 2002,vol 75,no.1,pp 13-20.

REFERENCES: JAGADISH VENGELA, M.S.SUDARSHAN and R.V.RANGANATH., Experimental study for obtaining SCC,The Indian Concrete journal, Augest 2003,p.1261-1266. KLAUS HOLSCHMACHER,YVETTE KLUG.,A database for the evaluation of hardened properties of SCC A.GHAZAL and KAMAL H.KHAYAT., Optimising self-consolidating concrete with limestone filler by using statistical factorial design methods., ACI material journal ,may-june 2002,p.264-272. K.H.KHAYAT, optimising and performance of air-entrained, self-consolidating concrete,ACI material journal,september-october-2000,p.526-535. VAN K.BUI,YILMAZ AKKAYA, AND SURENDRA P. SHAH., Rheological model for selfconsolidating concrete, ACI material journal,November-December, 2000,p.549-559. Samir sulaker national seminar on construction chemicals, Build tech 2002, p.19-36. HAJIME OKAMURA and MASAHIRo OUCHI journal of advanced concrete technology, vol.no.1,p.5-15, April 2003.