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Ano ang HISTORY/ KASAYSAYAN? Chronological written record of the past 2 uri 1.

. Tradisyunal Nakasulat document-based Tungkol sa Politika lamang 2. Makabago Artifacts, fossils, etc Oral / local history I. PREHISTORY 1. LANDBRIDGE THEORY A land bridge is an isthmus or some other land-based connection between two otherwise disconnected islands or continents lupang lumitaw noong panahon ng Pleistocene o matinding paglamig

Hal: Berring Land bridge (sinasabing nag-ugnay sa Asia at America) SUNDA LAND Implikasyon sa Pilipinas ng Sundaland: Tayo ay sinasabing bahagi noon pa man ng mainland Asia Taiwan route Borneo route WALLACE LINE a deep sea channel in central Indonesia that separates the fauna of west Indonesia (which is more Asian) from east Indonesia (more Australian). From the east side of the Wallace Line, these people reached New Guinea and Australia, which were also connected by land bridges 2. VOLCANIC THEORY February 1976, Dr. Fritjof Voss, a German scientist who studied the geology of the Philippines, questioned the validity of this theory of land bridges. scientific studies done on the earths crust from 1964 to 1967 showed that the 35-kilometer-thick crust underneath China does not reach the Philippines. PACIFIC RING OF FIRE

MGA SINAUNANG TAO 1. TABON MAN Natagpuan sa Tabon cave, Palawan Homo sapiens 22-25.000 BP Malamang ay babae Palawan map TABON CAVE, PALAWAN 2. Homo Erectus Cagayan Valley No fossil but Paleolithic tools and Pleistocene fauna 750,000 years Stone tools 5000 - 2000 B.C. Mindanao island, Southern Philippines This piece is an excellent example of a highly retouched flake tool. Found only in the Guri Cave of Lipuun Point, Palawan, central Philippines, this piece is a transitory tool type that breached the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. Source: AUSTRONESIANS

Grupo ng mga taong sinasabing pinagmulan ng mga taong nag-populate sa mga lugar sa SEA, mga isla sa Pasipiko at isla ng Madagascar sa Aprika nagmula sa Indo-China Patunay ang pagkakahawig ng mga wika at kultura sa mga lugar na nabanggit sa itaas II. PRE-COLONIAL BARANGAY mula sa salitang BALANGHAY

BARANGAY Mula sa salitang balanghay o sasakyang pandagat Pinamumunuan ng isang lider na kung tawagin ay datu, rajah, lakan,atbp. Binubuo ng 30-100 pamilya I. PULITIKA DATU Pinuno na pinupili ayon sa mga ss na pamantayan: wisdom Katapangan Kayamanan Karisma namamana - Visayas

may tungkulin na pangalagaan ang kanyang nasasakupan Executive Legislative Judicial Privileges Services Agricultural produce Respect Staff: (based on Visayan society) Atubang sa Datu chief minister Paragahin collected and recorded tribute and crops Bilanggo sheriff or constable Paratawag town crier EKONOMIYA

Stages of Society Hunting and Gathering nomads Agriculture Horticulture, intensive agriculture Trade and Commerce domestic and Foreign Industry Urbanization Trade and Commerce Barter system Mediums of exchange: rice, salt and gold tahil Domestic Trade: inter-barangay, inter-island Staple food crops Thread, cloth and clothing International Trade: Atlantic to the Pacific Industry 1. Ironworking 2. Woodworking 3. Boatbuilding 4. Pottery 5. Gold working 6. Weaving SOCIO-CULTURAL TAGALOG SOCIETY 1. Maginoo and Datu 2. Timawa and Maharlika 3. Alipin Namamahay Sa gigilid VISAYAN SOCIETY

4. Datu 5. Timawa 6. Oripun 7. Maginoo / Datu Tagalog aristocracy or upper class who could claim noble descent Family of ruling class 8. Timawa Non-slave followers of datu Originally were the illegitimate offspring of datu/maginoo Maharlika technically less free than timawa Bontoc tattoo Bontoc Igorot chaklag, ca. 1900. His facial markings indicate his status as a warrior of the highest rank.

3. Alipin Namamahay Sa gigilid Namamana Nahuli sa digmaan Pagkakautang Parusa

RELIGION 1. Animism 2. Islam Bathala Diwata Anito Likha/Larawan

Babaylan/Katalonan Death and Burial Pag-uli Graveyards outside the village limits, near upstream rivers or seacoasts Caves Small islands Homonhon Afterlife Manunggul jar For adults Babies reincarnated 9 times Manunggul jar, found in Palawan Secondary Burial jar with cover 2200 B.C. to A.D. 1521 Salansang, South Cotabato, Philippines Pre-historic belief systems have influenced burial practices in pre-Hispanic Philippines when reverence given to the dead was of great importance. After a certain period of time, the remains of the deceased are exhumed, cleaned, and stored in such vessels. It was likely only the wealthy who could undergo secondary burials because the accompanying ceremonies were lavish.

In the absence of written records, these urns are valuable testimonies to how society functioned then--their hierarchy, what they valued as commodities, and what they traded, among other practices. While most burial jars found in the Philippines are made of fired clay, these urns are carved from limestone, which make these relatively rare specimens. GOLD ca. 10th - 13th century Surigao del Sur, Philippines During pre-Hispanic times, foreign merchants traded semi-precious stones in exchange for gold manufactured in Surigao province in the southern Philippines. This 22-carat bracelet inlaid with garnet and turquoise is an excellent specimen and bears witness to the trade networks that plied Island Southeast Asia. Source: www. Source: Boxer Codex

Gamelans traditional instrument Indonesian Embassy in Canberra Writings Petroglyph on the Western coast of Hawaii An ancient Austronesian manuscript known as Baybayin Islam sa Mindanao Muslim traders Missionaries Teachers Sulu: 1380, an Arab teacher, Mukdum, arrived in Sulu from the Malay peninsula to preach Islam. He built the first mosque in Simunul, Sulu. Around 1390, he was followed by Raja Baginda, a minor ruler of Menangkabaw, Sumatra. 1450, Abu Bakr, a Muslim scholar, came to Sulu and married Paramisuli, the daughter of Raja Baginda. After Baginda died, Abu Bakr established a sultanate form of government with himself as sultan. Islam then spread rapidly to all parts of Sulu. Serif Kabungsuan was responsible for the spread of Islam in Mindanao. He led a force of Muslim Samals from Jahore that conquered the natives of what is now Cotabato and converted them to Islam. He also married into an influential family and founded the first sultanate of Mindanao, with himself as head.

History of the Philippines Spanish Colonialism

Spanish Settlement and Rule (1565-1898) Early Spanish expeditions Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines In 1521. Parts of the Philippine Islands were known to Europeans before the 1521 Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who was not the first Europeans in the Philippines. Magellan landed on the island called Homonhon, claiming the islands he saw for Spain, and naming them Islas de San Lzaro. He established friendly relations with some of the local leaders especially with Rajah Humabon and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. In the Philippines, they explored many islands including the island of Mactan. However, Magellan was killed in a battle he led there against the ruling datu Lapu-Lapu. Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands. In 1543, Ruy Lpez de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name Las Islas Filipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. The name was extended to the entire archipelago in the twentieth century. Spanish settlement

Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel Lpez de Legazpi, arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, the Spanish occupied the kingdoms of Maynila and Tondo and established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. Spanish power was further consolidated after Miguel Lpez de Legazpi's conquest of the Confederation of Madya-as, his subjugation of Rajah Tupas the King of Cebu and Juan de Salcedo's ransacking of the Chinese warlord Limahong's pirate kingdom in Pangasinan. This grab for power eventually culminated with the mass murder and exile of the royal families of the Dynasty of Tondo and the Kingdom of Maynila when the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 failed in which a planned grand alliance with the Japanese admiral Gayo, Butuan's last rajah and Brunei's Sultan Bolkieh, would have restored the old aristocracy. Its failure resulted in the hanging of Agustn de Legazpi (great grandson of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the initiator of the plot) and the execution of Magat Salamat (the crown-prince of Tondo). In the following years, the colony was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, centered in Mexico, from 1565 to 1821 and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898. Subsequently, the Aztec and Mayan mercenaries Lpez de Legazpi brought with him eventually settled in Mexico, Pampanga where traces of Aztec and Mayan influence can still be proven by the many chico plantations in the area (chico is a fruit indigenous only to Mexico) and also by the name of the province itself. The fragmented nature of the islands made it easy for Spanish colonization. The Spanish then attempted to bring political unification to the Philippine archipelago via the conquest of the various states but they were unable to subjugate the sultanates of Mindanao and the tribes and highland plutocracy of the Ifugao of Northern Luzon. The Spanish introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law, western printing and the Gregorian calendar alongside new food resources such as maize, pineapple and chocolate from Latin America. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed from Mexico City via the Royal Audiencia of Manila, before it was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican revolution. The Manila Galleons which linked Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges, especially from the British, Chinese pirates, Dutch, and Portuguese. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, universities, and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced education, establishing public schooling in Spanish. In 1781, Governor-General Jos Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. The Philippines was administered from the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the grant of independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct rule from Spain of the Philippines from that year. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the Philippines including the ideals of the French and American Revolutions. In 1863, Queen Isabella of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system in Spanish, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. Both of these events prompted the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened class of Creoles and Indios, since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The country's population as of December 31, 1877 was recorded at 5,567,685 persons.

PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT Defect of Spanish Colonial Rule No stability in Philippine Government Frequent changes in the government of Spain brought also political instability in the Philippines From 1837-1897, the Philippines was ruled by 50 Spanish governor generals, each serving an average of 1 year and 3 months in office. Filipinos were not given a voice in their own government. Their previous representation in the Spanish Cortes (law making body in Spain) from 1810-1837, was not restored. Only minor government offices were opened to the Filipinos Ventura de los Reyes the only Filipino who became part of the Spanish Cortes in 1812. Defective administration of Justice Courts were really courts of injustice.

Spanish judges were ignorant and dishonest Judicial trials were slow and expensive No equality before the law Spaniards were given more rights and privilege that Filipinos Justice was for the rich and influential and not for the poor. Many Spanish officials were corrupt, abusive, and incompetent. Filipinos were maltreated and regarded as inferior beings. Rise of propaganda movement The Propaganda Movement was a peaceful crusade for reforms It is not a revolutionary movement. It began in 1872, after GOMBURZAs execution, and ended in 1892, when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. This movement was carried on by means of pen and tongue. AIMS OF THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law. Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain. Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes. Filipinization of the parishes Granting of individual liberties to Filipinos such as: Freedom of Speech Freedom of the press Freedom of assembly Freedom to petition for grievances Supporters of the propaganda movement Ferdinand Blumentritt Miguel Morayta Francisco Pi y Margall Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla Ferdinand Blumentritt Rizals best friend; professor in Ateneo de Leitmeritz, Austria Miguel Morayta Rizals professor in the Universidad Central de Madrid Francisco Pi y Margall former president of the First Spanish Republic Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla leader of the Republican Party of Spain Don Juan de Atayde Spanish writer The propagandists Marcelo H. Del Pilar Lawyer-journalist from Bulacan. He was considered as the best propagandist, even better than Rizal. Jose Protacio Rizal The Great Malayan A physician from Calamba, Laguna. Graciano Lopez-Jaena Orator of the propaganda movement A physician from Jaro, Iloilo Mariano Ponce A journalist and historical researcher A physician from Baliwag, Bulacan. Juan Luna The greatest Filipino painter from Badoc, Ilocos Norte Antonio Luna Pharmacist and essayist, A Manila born Ilocano and brother of Juan Luna. One of the greatest generals in Philippine history. Jose Ma. Panganiban A linguist and writer from Camarines Norte.

Pedro Serrano Laktaw Teacher and lexicographer from Bulacan. Wrote the first Diccionario Tagalog-Espaol Pedro A. Paterno Lawyer and a man of letters from Manila. Jose Alejandrino An engineer and writer from Arayat, Pampanga. Marcelo H. Del Pilar Born in barrio Cupang, Bulacan on August 30, 1850. Master of both Tagalog and Spanish languages, he devoted his legal training and literary talent to fight Spanish misrule. He fled to Spain in 1888 to escape Spanish persecution at home. He became the leader of the Propagandists in Spain. Assumed editorship of the La Solidaridad, after Graciano Lopez Jaena. He studied in the College of Mr. Jose Flores and transferred in College of San Jose in Manila He finished Law in UST Marciana del Pilar Marcelos wife and second cousin. Diariong Tagalog first bilingual newspaper which he established. It publish observations and criticisms on how the Spanish government in the Philippines was misruled. Plaridel, Dolores, Manapat, Piping Dilat as pen names Died in Barcelona of tuberculosis and as a poor man at the age of 46 (July 4, 1896). GREATEST WORKS Las Filipinas se Pierden the Philippines is being lost Le Redencion de Filipinas the redemption of the Philippines Autocracia brutal brutal autocracy Del Pilar was much feared by the Spanish authorities because of his fiery editorials and satirical articles. AMAIN NAMIN Amain naming sumasakumbento ka, sumpain ang ngalan mo, malayo sa amin ang kasakiman mo, kitlin ang leeg mo dito sa lupa para ng sa langit. Saulan mo kami ngayon ng aming kaning iyong inaaraw-araw at patawanin mo kami gaya ng pagtawa mo kung kamiy nakukuwaltahan mo; at huwag mo kaming ipahintulot as iyong mapanukso at iadya mo kami sa masama mong dila. Amen ABA GINOONG BARYA aba ginoong barya, nakapupuno ka ng alkansya, and prayley sumasaiyo, bukod ka niyang pinagpalat pinahigit sa lahat, pinagpala naman ang iyong kaban. santa barya ina ng diretsos, ipanalangin mo kaming huwag anitan ngayon at kami ay ipapatay. Sya nalang. Sya nawa. amen TEN COMMANDMENTS 1.Thou shall worship and love the friars above all 2. Thou shall not cheat them of their stipends 3. Thou shall sanctify the friars, Sundays or holidays 4. Thou shall pawn thyself to pay for the burial of thy father or mother 5. Thou should not die if thou does not have the money to pay for the internment 6. Thou shall not covet his wife 7. Thou shall not steal with him 8. Thou shall not accuse him even if thou be called a liar 9. Thou shall not refuse him your wife 10. Thou shall not deny him of your property Graciano Lopez-Jaena Born on December 18, 1856 in Jaro, Iloilo. Prince of Filipino Orators. Studied at the Colegio Provincial of Jaro under the care of Father Francisco Jayme who raised him. He tried to take up medicine in UST but was rejected due to lack of the required Bachelor of Arts degree. He studied medicine at the University of Barcelona but did not finish it. Founder and editor of the La Solidaridad

Fray Butod a narrative where Jaena exposed the extreme greed, laziness, cruelty, and lust of the friars. Diego Laura assumed name of Jaena when he went back to the Philippines to solicit more aid for the Propaganda Movement. Died of Tuberculosis in Barcelona, Spain at the age of 40 (January 20, 1896) Jose Protacio Rizal Born in Calamba, Laguna on June 19, 1861. Studied elementary in Bian, under Maestro Justiniano Aquino-Cruz. He took up high school in Ateneo and his College in UST taking up Philosophy and Letters and Medicine but failed to finish. He continued his studies in Universidad Central de Madrid. Prolific writer of poems, essay, history, novels, satire, and drama. Sa Aking Mga Kabata first poem, written when he was eight years old, urging love of native language. Mi Primera Inspiraccion (My First Inspiration) written in Ateneo, dedicated to his mother. A La Juventud Filipina (To The Filipino Youth) won first prize, written at the age of 18 when he was in UST. Ultimo Adios (Last Farewell) written at his death cell in Fort Santiago on the eve of his execution. Novels of Rizal Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not ) , dedicated to the Motherland Published in Berlin, Germany in 1887. El Filibusterismo (Treason) dedicated to GOMBURZA Published in Ghent, Belgium in 1891. Makamisa 1891 unfinished Executed in Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896 at the age of 35 years old. La solidaridad La Solidaridad The well known newspaper of the propaganda. Graciano Lopez-Jaena- first editor Marcelo H. Del Pilar second editor En Filipinas founded by Eduardo de Lete in 1887; a newspaper that was envisioned to serve as the voice of the movement. Stopped publication due to lack of funds. LA SOLIDARIDAD Founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena in Barcelona on February 15, 1889. Aims: To work peacefully for reforms To portray the sad conditions of the Philippines so that Spain might remedy them. To promote liberal ideas and progress To champion Filipino aspirations for democracy and happiness. Contributors Mariano Ponce Naning, Kalipulako, Tikbalang Antonio Luna Taga-Ilog Jose Maria Panganiban Jomapa ,JMP Jose Rizal Dimas-Alang, Laong-Laan Dominador Gomez Ramiro Franco Freemasonry Graciano Lopez-Jaena established the first Filipino Masonic Lodge in Barcelona known as Revolucion. Marcelo H. Del Pilar established the Lodge Solidaridad which was recognized by the Grande Oriente Espaol Jose Rizal joined Lodge Acacia, his first Masonic Lodge. Pedro Serrano Laktaw founded the first Filipino Masonic Lodge in Manila called Lodge Nilad Associacion Hispano-Filipino Founded by Filipino Propagandists and their Spanish friends in Madrid on January 12, 1869. Officers include: Miguel Morayta President

General Felipe de la Corte Vice-President Dr. Dominador Gomez - Secretary LA LIGA FILIPINA The Philippine League July 3, 1892 established by Rizal in a house at Ilaya St. Tondo, Manila Its constitution was written in Hongkong Ambrosio Salvador President Agustin de la Rosa Fiscal Bonifacio Arevalo Treasurer Deodato Arellano - Secretary Aims of the La Liga Filipina To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous and homogenous body Mutual protection in every want and necessity Defense against all violence and injustice Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce and Study and application of reforms Motto: Unus Instar Omnium (One Like All) The Constitution was written by Rizal in Hong Kong. This Constitution provided for the creation of a Provincial Council for every province, and a Popular Council for every town. Every Filipino who loves the Philippines is qualified to be a member. 3 days after its establishment, Gov. Gen. Eulogio Despujol ordered the arrest and exile of Rizal in Dapitan. Andres Bonifacio exerted efforts to organize chapters in various districts of Manila. Due to lack of funds and Rizals arrest, the La Liga split into two groups: Cuerpo de Compromisarios pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad Katipunan radicals headed by Bonifacio Some Reforms Granted by Spain Abolition of the tobacco monopoly in 1882. Abolition of the hated tribute in 1885. Creation of the office of civil governor for every regular province and making the alcalde mayor as judge of the court of first instance. Extension of the Spanish Penal Code to the Philippines in 1887. Establishment of city government in Cebu, Iloilo, Jaro, Batangas, Albay, Naga and Vigan.

PHILIPPINE SPANISH COLONIAL ERA Socio-Economic Life Social Classes Peninsulares - Full-blooded Spanish living in the Philippines and born in Spain. Insulares - Full-blooded Spanish living in the Philippines and born in the Philippines as well. Ilustrados(The Enlightened Ones) - Wealthy group of individuals born in the Philippines and were able to study abroad. Chinese/Spanish Mestizos - People with mixed racial origins and economically sufficient. Indio - Native/Full-blooded Filipinos. Sangley - Full-blooded Chinese living in the Philippines. Social Pyramid Roman Catholicism in the Philippines Magellan's Arrival to the islands of the Philippines mark the first attempt to convert the Filipinos to Christianity. This conversion was received by mixed responses. Most of the Filipinos received the conversion with open arms, and were happily converted to Christianity. Some did not like the conversion, such as Lapu-Lapu. He did not believe that the Filipinos needed to change, so he killed Magellan, making him the first ever Philippine hero.

Thats not to say that Christianity should not have been spread to our country, because if not, the Philippines would mostly be a Muslim country After Magellan, the Spanish sent Miguel Lopez de Legaspi to the Philippines, and he conquered the Muslim settlement in Manila during 1570. The religion slowly spread throughout the Philippines, evident in present Filipinos, most of whom are Christians. Spread of Christianity in the Philippines Mass Baptism - Baptizing the Filipinos is very large groups at once. It is said that the Filipinos interpreted Baptism as healing, which relies on the presence of Holy Water. Reduccion Policy - Moving small groups of Filipino settlements into one, large town. This was to regulate the Filipinos, and teach them the basics of Christianity. Early Attitude of the Spanish Clergy - early on, the Spanish clergy was forced to learn the Filipinos' native language if they want to teach them. Without Spanish schools, the priests were forced to say Mass in the Filipinos' native languages. Adaptation of Christianity to the local culture - The Filipinos believed in spirits, which were responsible for the good, and bad. They had statues and altars, all of which were destroyed by the Spaniards. They replaced them with Christian adaptations of their early beliefs, and used theatrical presentations of Bible stories to appeal the Filipinos. Mercantilist System A economic theory and policy influential in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that called for government regulation of a nation's economy in order to increase its power at the expense of rival nations. Mercantilism's emphasis on the importance of gold and silver holdings as a sign of a nation's wealth and power led to policies designed to obtain precious metals through trade Taxation System Cedula Tax - A form of taxation implemented in 1884. This served as a paper which was used as proof that one was a colony of Spain and a legitimate member of a pueblo. Before, Filipinos and Chinese only had to pay tribute, but it was revised that all residents of the Philippines were obliged to pay the cedula. Bandala System A form of direct taxes that the Spaniards implemented in which the natives were coerced to sell their products to the government at very low prices. Kasama System Under this arrangement, the landowners supplied the seed and cash necessary to tide cultivators over during the planting season, whereas the cultivators provided tools and work animals and were responsible for one-half the expense of crop production. Usually, owner and sharecropper each took one-half of the harvest, although only after the former deducted a portion for expenses. Polo y Servicio A system of forced labor for 40 days for men ranging from 16 to 60 years of age who were obligated to give personal services to community projects. One could be exempted from polo by paying the falla (corruption of the Spanish Falta, meaning "absence") daily. Bahala Na- It comes from the words "Bathala Na" more or less meaning "Leave It To God' or "Come What May". It means that we are defeatist in our attitude to life and we are only willing to do as much as what is necessary. Padrino System- It is the value system where one gains favor, promotion or political appointment through family affiliation or friendship, as opposed to one's merit. Veneration Of Saints- It is the special act of honoring a saint. It is often shown outwardly by respectfully bowing or making a sign of the cross before a saint's icon relics or statues. It is practiced by Catholic Churches. Praying of the Rosary- It is the act of recalling in a prayerful manner, the life of Jesus in which it is categorized into several mysteries, whose names are according to the emotion during those periods of Christs life. Decline of the Spanish Rule The Rise of the Ilustrados In 1781, the Philippines was now administered directly from Spain. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the Philippines.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. This prompted the rise of the Ilustrados, an enlightened Filipino upper class, since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe. Enlightened by the Propaganda Movement to the injustices of the Spanish colonial government and the "frailocracy", the Ilustrados originally clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. Jos Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical Ilustrado of the era, wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, which greatly inspired the movement for independence. The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was implicated in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Propaganda Movement The Propaganda Movement (1872-1892) called for the assimilation of the Philippines as a province of Spain so that the same laws will be applied in the Philippines and that the inhabitants of the Philippines will experience the same civil liberties and rights as that of a Spanish citizen. Men like Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Jose Rizal bombarded both the Spanish and Filipino public with nationalist literature. Rizal's novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo became the bibles of Philippine nationalism. In February 15, 1889, the Filipino propagandists were able to get together behind a new publication in Barcelona which they called La Solidaridad, and which for its more than five years of its existence became the principal organ of the propaganda movement. It aimed mainly to advocate the Filipino cause at the Spanish parliament. As the movement was failing in Europe, Jose Rizal returned to the Philippines and created his La Liga Filipina in 1892. It also failed after his arrest a just few days after the creation of the group. The Katipunan On the night of July 7, 1892, when Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, Andrs Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina, founded the Katipunan in a house in Tondo, Manila. Bonifacio did establish the Katipunan when it was becoming apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities The men gathered around a flickering table lamp, performed the ancient blood compact, and signed their membership papers with their own blood. It was agreed to win more members to the society by means of the triangle method in which an original member would take in two new members who did not know each other, but knew only the original member who took them in. Thus, original member A, for instance, would take in new members B and C. Both B and C knew A, but B and C did not know each other. Declaration of Independence In the presence of a huge crowd, independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo some 30 kilometers South of Manila. The event saw the unfurling of the National Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herboza, and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the Nation's National Anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, which was composed by Julin Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band.