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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology Chair of Modelling and Simulation Ship dynamics in

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology Chair of Modelling and Simulation

Ship dynamics in waves

(Ship Theory II)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Nikolai Kornev

Rostock

2012

Contents

1 Ship motion in regular sea waves

 

11

1.1 Coupling of different ship oscillations

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11

1.2 Classification of forces

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13

1.3 Radiation force components

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17

1.3.1 Hydrodynamic damping

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18

1.3.2 Added mass component

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20

1.4 Hydrostatic component

 

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24

1.5 Wave exciting force

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24

1.6 Motion equations

 

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25

1.7 Haskind’s relation .

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25

1.8 Exercises .

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28

2 Free oscillations with small amplitudes

 

31

2.1 Introduction

 

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31

2.2 Exercise

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34

3 Ship oscillations in small transverse waves (beam see)

 

37

3.1 Hydrostatic forces and moments .

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38

3.2 Hydrodynamic Krylov - Froude force

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40

3.3 Full Krylov - Froude force and moment

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42

3.4 Force and moment acting on the ship frame in accelerated flow

42

3.5 Full wave induced force and moment

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43

3.6 Equations of ship heave and roll oscillations

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43

3.7 Analysis of the formula (3.27)

 

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45

3.8 Sway ship oscillations in beam sea

 

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48

3.9 Ship oscillations at finite beam to wave length ratio and draught

to length ratio .

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49

3.10 Effect of ship speed on rolling

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52

3

4 Ship oscillations in small head waves

55

4.1 Exciting forces and ship oscillations

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55

4.2 Estimations of slamming and deck flooding

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58

5 Seasickness caused by ship oscillations

 

61

6 Ship oscillations in irregular waves

 

65

6.1 Representation of irregular waves

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65

 

6.1.1 Wave ordinates as stochastic quantities

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66

6.1.2 Wave spectra

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68

6.2 Calculation of ship oscillations in irregular waves

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72

7 Experimental methods in ship seakeeping

 

75

7.1 Experiments with models

 

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75

7.2 Seakeeping tests with large scale ships

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82

8 Ship oscillation damping (stabilisation)

 

85

8.1

Damping of roll oscillations

 

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85

8.1.1 Passive means

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85

8.1.2 Active stabilizer

 

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88

8.1.3 Passive Schlingerkiel

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88

8.1.4 Active rudders

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89

8.1.5 Damping of pitch oscillations

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89

9 Parametric oscillations

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10 Principles of Rankine source method for calculation of sea-

keeping

101

10.1 Frequency domain simulations

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10.2 Time domain simulation

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. 106

 

4

List of Tables

2.1 Frequencies and periods of different oscillation types

33

2.2 Referred damping factors for different oscillation types

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5

List of Figures

1.1

Ship motion with 6 degree of freedom (from [1])

 

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12

1.2

Displacement of the center of effort due to change of the ship

 

draught (from [2])

 

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12

1.3

Illustration to derivation of damping coefficient

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19

1.4

Added mass and damping coefficient of the semi circle frame

 

at heave oscillations. Here A is the frame

 

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20

1.5

Added mass and damping coefficient of the box frame at heave

 

oscillations. Here A is the frame

 

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21

1.6

Added mass and damping coefficient of the semi circle frame

 

at sway oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

 

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21

1.7

Added mass and damping coefficient of the box frame at sway

 

oscillations. Here A is the frame

 

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21

1.8

Added mass and damping coefficient of the box frame at roll

 

(heel) oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

 

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22

1.9

Mirroring for the case ω 0

 

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23

1.10

Mirroring for the case ω → ∞

 

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23

3.1

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38

3.2

Illustration of hydrostatic force

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39

3.3

Illustration of hydrostatic moment .

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39

3.4

Ship as linear system

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45

3.5

Response function versus referred frequency

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46

3.6

Phase displacement versus referred frequency .

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47

3.7

Ship oscillations in resonance case

 

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47

3.8

Oscillation of a raft with a big metacentric height

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48

3.9

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48

3.10

3.11

Illustration of the frame in beam waves . .

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Reduction coefficient of the heave oscillations

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50

52

3.12

Sea classification

 

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53

4.1

Illustration of the ship in head waves

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55

4.2

Position of ship at different time instants in a head wave

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58

7

4.3

Curves y = ±z max and y = z(x)

 

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59

4.4

Sample for a real ship .

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60

5.1

Influence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness de-

 

pending on the oscillation period

 

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62

5.2

Influence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness de-

 

pending on the oscillation period

 

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63

5.3

Number of passengers suffering from seasickness on a cruise

liners depending on vertical accelerations

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63

5.4

Adaption to seasickness

 

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64

6.1

Irregular seawaves, 1- two dimensional, 2- three dimensional.

 

(Fig. from [3])

 

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65

6.2

Profile of an irregular wave. (Fig. from [3])

 

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66

6.3

Representation of irregular wave through the superposition of

regular waves. (Fig. from [3])

 

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67

6.4

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68

6.5

7.1

p.d.f. of the wave ordinate .

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Determination oft he inertia moment I zz

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71

77

7.2

Determination of I xx and z g

 

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78

7.3

Heel test

 

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79

7.4

Method of forced rolling

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80

7.5

Seakeeping test at MARIN ([4])

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81

7.6

Scetch of the MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4])

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82

7.7

Wave generator of MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4])

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82

7.8

Method of wave detection

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82

7.9

Ship motion during large scale tests

 

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83

8.1

U-tube stabilization system of Frahm of the second type

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8.2

Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume .

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8.3

Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume .

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8.4

Active stabilizer .

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88

8.5

Passive Schlingerkiel

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89

8.6

Active rudders

 

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89

8.7

Damping of pitch oscillations

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89

8.8

Damping of pitch oscillations

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90

8.9

[5]

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90

8.10

[5]

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91

8.11

[5]

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91

8.12

[5]

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92

8.13

[5]

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92

 

8

8.14

[5]

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93

8.15

[5]

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