Sei sulla pagina 1di 38

Handbookfor PerviousConcreteCertification inGreaterKansasCity

ThissupportmaterialispartoftheCPGPerviousConcreteCertificationProgram

TableofContents
Preface:TheCPGPerviousCertificationProgram 1. PerviousConcrete:Whatsitallabout?(Overview) 2. BriefHistoryofPerviousConcrete 3. DesignElementsforPerviousConcrete Hydrology,Drainage,Layout,SubgradeSoil,Subbase,Thickness,Jointing 4. BasicMixDesignInformationforPerviousConcrete Aggregates,Cement&SCMs,Water,Admixtures,Proportioning 5. TestingPerviousConcrete 6. PerviousPavementConstruction EquipmentandTools TestPanelPlacementandApproval PreConstructionMeeting Excavation,FilterFabric,Subgrade,Base,Jointing,Curing, Hot&ColdWeatherPractices 7. Maintenance 8. LEED Credits 9. DecorativePervious 10.SpecifiersGuideforPerviousConcreteforStormwaterMitigationinGreater KansasCity&PerviousConstructionChecklist,PreConstructionChecklist 11.Websites&Resources
2

Preface CPGPerviousCertificationProgram 4 Levels CPG Pervious Concrete Certification


Level 1: CPG Pervious Concrete Technician (Required for Contractors & Ready Mix Producers, optional and recommended for inspectors, designers, stormwater engineers, architects, civil engineers) Requirements: A) Pass the CPG Pervious Concrete Written Exam with a score of 80% or higher B) Complete the Performance Evaluation usually done the same day as the written exam, demonstrating subgrade prep, form placement, the proper use of tools, placement procedure, proper jointing, proper curing, etc. C) Pass an individual Performance Evaluation on the individuals 1st job or test site, set up by the individual. D) Valid for 5 years after receiving the certification. E) Re-certification is required within 90 days after the expiration date listed on the wallet card/certification certificate. F) Starting January 1, 2012, re-certification applications require 2 hours of continuing education credits on pervious concrete. These hours can be local, regional or national seminars, demos or workshops on pervious concrete. It is up to the individual to keep records of these continuing education hours to turn in with the recertification application. Level 2: CPG Pervious Concrete Installer Requirements: (Upgrade option for Contractors)

A) Have a current ACI Flatwork Finisher Technician Certificate. B) Have a current CPG Level 1 Pervious Concrete Technician Certificate. C) Project Experience with successful pervious construction in a minimum of 3 projects, with a total area exceeding 10,000 sq. ft. Level 3 CPG Pervious Concrete Craftsman Requirements: A) B) C) D) (Upgrade option for Contractors)

Have a current ACI Flatwork Finisher Technician Certificate Have a current CPG Level 1 Pervious Concrete Technician Certificate Have a CPG Level 2 Concrete Installer Certification. Document work experience constructing pervious pavements exceeding 1,500 hours (not including the 10,000 sq. ft. needed to qualify for the Installer)

Level 4 CPG Advanced Pervious Concrete Team Certification (Optional for Contractor and Ready Mix Team) Well above and beyond traditional concrete, successful pervious concrete placements require a dedicated team with an excellent relationship between the Ready Mixed Concrete Producer and the Concrete Contractor. The Concrete Promotional Group has assembled an advanced mixture design and construction review for contractor/producer teams looking to advance their pervious concrete construction knowledge. Certification will encompass one producer, one contractor, one pervious concrete mixture, and one placement technique. Upon completion of the process the producer will be provided with a performance and testing certification for the final mixture design. The contractor will be provided with certification of the in-place mixture properties and 3

performance. By completing the certification process a pervious concrete team will have documentation showing the unit weight, strength, and infiltration that will be achieved. Requirements: A) Have a current ACI Flatwork Finisher Technician Certificate B) Have a current CPG Level 1 Pervious Concrete Technician Certificate C) Complete the Team Review Process outlined below: Outline of the Review Process: The certification process involves an interactive day series of two test placements (at a location of the teams selection). A. Starting mixture provided by producer. The mix is proprietary so it is kept confidential. Only the ready mix producer and Dr. John Kevern will discuss these details. B. Contractor will place a 4 cy sample panel. Concrete will be held 45 minutes after batching to simulate field conditions. Inverse slump, ASTM C1688 unit weight, and timed discharge values will be recorded. C. The contractor, producer, and CPG representative will discuss consistency, workability, finishability, and discharge capacity. The mixture will then be modified to better meet the desired criteria. D. The contractor will then place a second 4 cy sample panel using the modified mixture. Inverse slump, ASTM C1688 unit weight, predicted unit weight, and timed discharge will be measured on the fresh concrete. Cylinders will be created for the compaction density curves for reporting voids, unit weight, permeability, 7 day compressive strength, and 28 day compressive strength for the selected mixture. E. The contractor and/or producer is responsible for obtaining at least (3) 4 diameter cores for hardened unit weight and permeability testing at UMKC. F. Field infiltration will be performed according to ASTM C1701 on at least five (5) locations. G. The performance and testing data will be used to create mixture certification documentation and individual field evaluation documentation. Deliverables: Deliverables will include a description and summary of the certification process including all testing data for reproduction and transmittal to any interested party.

All certified individuals and companies can be found listed on the CPG Website at www.concretepromotion.com .

Chapter1

PerviousConcrete:Whatsitallabout?
WhatisPerviousConcrete? PerviousConcreteisaspecialtyconcreteusedtoallowwatertointentionallypassthroughthesurfaceofapavementand allowstormwatertoeventuallyabsorbbackintothesurroundingsoilsorevaporate.Thiskeepsrunoffwaterfrom downstreamurbanfloodinganderosion.Italsobreaksthecycleofwatertreatmentplantsneedingtotreatstormwater wheremunicipalitieshavecombinedsewerandstormwatersystems.Perviousconcretepavementsarebestmanagement practices(BMPs)tocollect,cleanandcoolstormwater.Thisusuallyeliminatestheneedfordetention/retentionponds,thus reducingconstructionexpenses,safetyissues,andmaintenancecosts. WhyareweworriedaboutStormwater?TheEPANPDESPhaseIIrequirementsnowmandatemunicipalitiestoimplement stormwatermitigationpolicies.Newdevelopments,bothresidentialandcommercial,mustshowhowstormwaterleavingthe propertywillnotexceedpredevelopmentconditions.Thatincludesbothquantityandqualityofstormwater.Therearemany typesofstormwatermitigationtechniques.Perviousconcreteisoneofmanyoptionsavailable. WhychoosePerviousConcreteoverotherBMPMethods?PerviousConcretenotonlycollectsstormwaterbutitalsofilters andcoolsiteconomicallywithlocalmaterials.LowImpactDevelopments(LIDs)areencouragedtosavespace,savenatural resourcesandpromotesustainablecommunities.Whatdoesthismean?Developmentsareencouragedtobuilduprather than out. With a pervious concrete parking lot or pavement the detention pond could be eliminated completely, thus conservinggreenspace.

Figure1.1

PostDevelopmentLowImpactDevelopment

PreDevelopment

Whataboutfreeze/thawconcernsandclaysoilsinKansasCityMetroArea?PerviousConcreteisusuallymorefreeze/thaw durablethanconventionalconcrete.Perviousconcretepavementshavenotbeenlosttofreeze/thawconditions.Thevoids intheperviousconcreteallowforwater(whichexpands9%whenitturnsintoice)toexpandandcontractwithinthevoids whichkeepitfrombreakingupthepavement.Perviousconcreteinclaysoilmarketsbecomesasystem.Itisdesignedwith arockbaseunderthepreviouslayertotemporarilyholdstormwatersincetheclaysoilspreventfastrechargingofthesubsoil. Perviousconcretepavementstypicallylooseofaninchtoaninchofwateradaytoevaporation.Athreeinchrainwouldbe gonein4daysjusttoevaporation.Theclaysoilsusuallyallowaslowexfiltrationrateof.5to.05inthemarket.

Pervious

Rockstorage

Filterfabric

Groundsoils

Figure1.2

HowdoesPerviousConcretefitinwithSustainability&GreenBuildingIdeas? PerviousConcretePavements: Maximize Open Space (LEED SS 5.2), the temporary detention area is under the pavement rather than beside it, takingthesystemverticalratherthanhorizontal. StormwaterQuantityControl(LEEDSS6.1),perviousconcretecanintakehugeamountsofstormwater. StormwaterDesignQualityControl(LEEDSS6.2),filtersthestormwater&cleansit. Heat Island Effect (reduction) Nonroof (LEED SS 7.1), improved solar reflective index (SRI) reflects the suns light ratherthanabsorbitlikedarkorblackpavements. ConstructionWasteManagement(LEEDMR2),concreteisorderedasneededandcanberecycled. RecycledContent(LEEDMR4),thereispreconsumerrecycledcontentintheconcretemix. RegionalMaterials(LEEDMR5),perviousconcreteisdeliveredwithlocalmaterialsfromalocalcompany,typically within20milesofthejobsite. Water Efficient Landscaping (LEED WE 1), Eliminates using surface or subsurface water for irrigation, instead capturing rainwater or brown water for landscaping. Pervious can catch & contain rainwater and recycled for landscapinguse. Water Use Reduction (LEED WE 2), the intent is to lessen the burden on municipalities for water supply and wastewater. Pervious pavements can capture stormwater divert the water to cisterns, for brown water use, in flushingtoiletsandwateringlandscaping.

MoredetailedinformationonPerviousConcretesroleinqualifyingforLeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign(LEED) forSustainableBuildingandCommunitiesisavailablefromCPG.Seeourwebsiteatwww.concretepromotion.comandlook underthepervioustabontheleftsideofthefrontpage. Whatmaintenanceisneeded?Anoccasionalvacuumingorwet/vacisusuallysufficient,asdirt,leaves,orfinestypicallysitin thetopinchunderthesurface.Moremaintenanceinformationcanalsobefoundatwww.concretepromotion.com.


TheConcretePromotionalGroup,9133415800,10707Barkley,SuiteA,OverlandPark,KS

Chapter2

BriefHistoryofPerviousConcrete
Pervious Concrete has been around for hundreds of years. The Europeans recognized the insulating properties in structural perviousconcretefortheirbuildings.EuropeanshavealsousedperviousconcreteforpavingincludingontheAutobahn.Stories passeddownthroughtheyearstellusthatoursoldiersdidntmindwalkingonperviousroadsduringWorldWarIIbecauseitmeant theirfeetwouldbedry! PerviouswasbroughttotheUnitedStatesafterWorldWarII.ItfirstshowedupinFloridaandothersoutherncoastalstates. Slowlyithasmigratedtotheotherstateswhereithasmetdifferentsuccesses.Aswithanynewproduct,ithashadtoproveitself. Manywellintendedreadymixproducershaveproducedtheproductandmanywellintendedcontractorshaveplacedtheproduct. Somedidwell,othersdidnot.Asitistruewithanymaterialandconstructiontechnique,thereisasciencetoitandabestwayto conducttheconstruction.Educationandexperiencearethekeytosuccess.Thecoastalstateshaveexperiencedperviousconcrete forover20years.ThehesitationtomoveintotheMidwestandNorthernStateswasmainlyduetofreeze/thawconcerns.Nowthat thoseconcernsarenolongerconsideredaproblem,theproducthasmovedquicklyacrosstheUnitedStates. Inthe1990stheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAdministration(EPA)cameoutwiththeCleanWaterAct(CWA),thatlaterledto otherphasesofimplementationtopreservethewaterwaysfromstormwaterbornepollutants.EPAidentifiesstormwaterrunoffis generatedwhenprecipitationfromrainandsnowmelteventsflowoverlandorimpervioussurfacesanddoesnotpercolateintothe ground.Astherunoffflowsoverthelandorimpervioussurfaces(pavedstreets,parkinglots,andbuildingrooftops),itaccumulates debris,chemicals,sedimentorotherpollutantsthatcouldadverselyaffectwaterqualityiftherunoffisdischargeduntreated.The primarymethodtocontrolstormwaterdischargesistheuseofbestmanagementpractices(BMPs).(EPA.gov).Perviousconcreteis oneofmanyBMPsrecognizedbytheEPAaswellasourlocalAmericanPublicWorksAssociation(APWA)andtheMidAmerica RegionalCouncil(MARC).ThelocalAPWA/MARCBestManagementPracticesforStormwaterMitigationManualcanbefoundat: http://www.marc.org/Environment/Water/bmp_manual.htm.Basically,itrequiresthedeveloper/ownertokeepasmuch stormwateronpropertyaspossible.Ifstormwaterleavesthepropertyitmustleavecleanerandcoolerthanbefore.Pervious concreteallowsforthefiltering/cleaninganddetainmentofstormwater. SincethemunicipalitieshavebeenrequiredtoenforcestormwatermitigationwiththeimplementationofEPANPDESPhaseII, manyBMPshavebeenplacedandtestedtofindoutwhichoneisgoingtoworkfortheirarea.BalancingBMPsbecomesanartof balancingplacementcosts,maintenancecosts,aestheticsandfunctionality.Budgetsaretightandskepticismishigh,becausethe BMPsarerelativelynewconceptsandsomeunproven. ThefirstperviousplacementintheKansasCityMetroAreawasinSugarCreek,MOinNovember2005.Sincethattimeabout30+ pavementshavebeenplacedandmanylessonslearnedaboutwhatmakesperviousconcretegood.Herein,arethecurrent guidelinesthathavebeenlearnedandadjusted.Therearesomebasicsweknowaboutplacingasuccessfulperviouspavement: 1) 2) 3) 4) Thedesignoftheperviouspavementhasahandinitssuccess. Themixdesigndeliveredbythereadymixproducerhasahandinitssuccess. Thecontractorplacingtheperviousconcretehasahandinitssuccess. Theownerhasaresponsibilityforpropermaintenancetokeepthesystemfunctional.

Chapter3 DesignElementsforPerviousConcrete Hydrology Thereasonperviousconcreteisbeingconsideredinthefirstplaceisbecauseofwater.Stormwaterrunoffisanegativeissue


affecting the quality of our urban and suburban areas, chasing pollutants down into the typically combined stormwater/sewer systems.Thisendsupdoingthreethings,1)sendingrainwatertothewatertreatmentplantsforcleaningthenbackouttopublicas freshcleanedwater.2)Sendingrainwaterintothestreams,creeksandwaterwayscreatingurbanflooding.3)Sendingpolluted rainwaterintothewaterwaysalteringthebalanceofnaturehurtingnativeplantsandwildlife.(InKansasCityweveseenthelatter two points in Indian Creek, Brush Creek, Tomahawk Creek and the Little Blue River.) We are all spending millions of dollars nationallycleaningrainwaterinourwatertreatmentsplants,whichisreallyunnecessary. Mostmunicipalitiesidentifyatypicalraineventtheyrequiretobemitigatedondevelopments.Nationallythemostcommonrain eventrequiredtobemitigatedisa25yearstormeventin24hours.Thenumbersvarybygeographicareadependingonthekindof rain events that frequent that area and the type of soils in the area. Obviously sandy soils let water percolate back into the surrounding soils faster than fat clay soils will. In the Greater Kansas City Areas APWA/MARC Stormwater Best Management PracticesManual,the100yearraineventin24hoursisrequiredtobemitigated.Dependingonwhichpartoftownyouarein,the numberissomewherebetween8or9inchesofrainin24hours.Ourlocalareahasamajorityofclaysoils/expansiveclaysoils.Rain waterwillnotpercolatethroughtheclayquickly,itseepsslowly.Regulationsallowsomewatertorunoffsite,butthatwatermust becleanerandcoolerthanwhenithitthesite.Inotherwordsitneedstobefilteredorcleaned. The Portland Cement Association (PCA), the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) and the American Concrete PavementAssociation(ACPA)havejointlyproducedCD#063.02,PerviousConcreteHydrologicalDesign&Resources,2007Edition, as a resource. It can be used as an aid in designing the thickness of pervious pavement systems depending on the hydrological needs.ThisCDisextremelyeasytouseandrecommendedforanyonedesigningperviouspavements.Itprovidesthecapabilitiesof printingseveralhelpfulchartsandgraphs. IntheGreaterKansasCityAreatheAPWA/MARCBMPManualrequiresaminimumofa12cleanrockbasebeneaththeporous pavementwhetheritbeporousasphalt,porouspaversorperviousconcrete.Sidewalksarenotheldtothesamestandards,thereis nominimumlistedforsidewalkapplications. Basically the hydrological calculations that need to be established are: 1) How much water needs to be mitigated (check municipalrequirements)?2)Howmuchwaterwill12ofcleanrockbasehold(typically40%voids)?3)Ismorebaserockneededor willthe12holditsatisfactorily?4)Adjustasneeded.Donotcalculatetheperviousconcretetoholdanyofthestormwater.That wayyouwillnothavewaterstandingonthesurface,thusprotectingitevenmorefromfreeze/thawexpansion.Extrabasemaybe neededifrooftopgutteringrunsintothepavementoradjacentareasdrainintotheperviousarea. Areoverflowpipingoradditionalwaterstoragecontainersneeded?Ifyourwatercalculationsarecorrectyoulikelywillnotneed additionalmeans.However,dependingontheamountofwateryouaremitigatingyoumaywanttoallowforanoverflow.See figure3.1foranexample.Overflowpipemaybeplacedatthetopofthecleanrockbase.ThispipecanberoutedtoanotherBMP suchasabioswaleortothestorm/sewersystemwithadelayedandcontrolledrelease.Somesustainableprojectshaveuseda sumppumptoreusethisbrownwaterindoortoflushtoiletsandoutdoorsforwateringlandscaping.



Figure3.1 NOTEapproximatelytoan1ofwaterwillevaporateaday.Thishasbeenprovenonanationallevelandonalocallevelin

PerviousConcrete

OverflowPipe

CleanRockBase

Leawood,KSinILanPark.Soevenintheworstclaysoilspossible,thewaterdoeseventuallygosomewhere.Afteratwoinchrain, therainwatercanbeexpectedtobegoneinabout23days. WhywouldadesignerorownerchooseperviousconcretepavementsinsteadofotheracceptableBMPs?Firstoffwhatarethe othertypesofacceptableBMPsandwhataretheirlimitations? RainGardens(forsmallerareas,moreresidential,needsalotofmaintenance,pullingweeds,etc.)

Figure3.2

RaingardenBioswale

BioSwales(forlargerareas,canlooklikeweedsgonewild,untilthepubliciseducatedontheapplication) DetentionPonds(mostcommonlyusedBMP,needsland,standingwaterformosquitoes,safetyhazardforchildren,needs maintenance,costlytoplaceinthefirstplace)

Figure3.3 FencedwetdetentionpondLakeLenexa,damandspillway

Ponds or small lakes turned into recreational areas as in Lenexa, KS (a huge investment of land and money from the municipality,wouldneedtobeturnedintoaParks&Rec.mainlinebudgetitem) Manydifferenttypesofproprietarysystemswhichcanincludespecialtree/plantwellsatstreetsideorcisternsorpiping belowthesurface(fairlycostlytoconstructandpurchase)

Figure3.4 ProprietaryplantwellssystemPorousasphalt

PorousAsphalt(Atthetimeofpublication,thereare2intheGreaterKCArea,oneinaparkinLenexa,KStheotherina churchparkinglotinsouthernKCMO.Thisisanoilbasedmaterial.Doyoureallywantyourwaterrunningthroughthis pickinguphydrocarbonsanddepositingthembackintothegroundsources?ThefirstoneinLenexa,KShasissuesofnot passingwaterthroughthesurface.Someinothermarketshavebirdbathswithtireimprintswherecarspark.) Porous Pavers (This is typically a 6 to 8 step installation process, building the base with rock, sand, etc. Maintenance is muchhigheronthistypeofpavingmaterialchoice;itismorelaborintensiveandtakesmoretimetoplacethantheother twopavingoptions.)

Figure3.5 VarioussystemsPorouspaversGrasscrete

Grasscreteproprietarysystemscombinesomekindofstructurebelowthesurfacetoholdaggregatesandsoilmediumsfor heartygrassesorplants.(Thesesystemstakeawhilefortheplantstoestablishandaremultistepconstructionprocesses toplace,andcantakealotofmaintenance.) PerviousConcrete(seebelow)

Figure3.6 GroundsParkparkinglotexpansionThermoFisherScientificparkinglotexpansion BlueSprings,MOLenexa,KS

Sowhychooseperviousconcreteparkinglotstosolveyourstormwatermitigationissue? IthelpsinachievingLowImpactDevelopments(LIDS),inotherwordsbuildingUP,insteadofOUT.Byplacingpervious concretethetemporarydetentionbasin(thecleanrockbase)isUNDERtheparkinglotsurface.Iteliminatestheneedfor additionallandtoplaceadetentionpondnexttothebuildingorparkinglot.Theperviousparkinglotbecomesboththe detentionpondandtheparkingsurfaceinone.Buildupnotout.Theownerssaveonlandcosttoo,astheydontneed additionallandforthedetentionpond. Perviousconcreteisgreenorsustainable.Perviousconcreteisplacedwithregionallyavailablematerials(anythingwithin 500milesofajobsitetocutdownonenergyfortransportationcosts). Perviousconcreteisrecyclable.Ifforsomereasonitneedstobereplacedsomedayinthefuture,itcanbeusedforbase rockorpossiblyforaggregateinconcrete.

10


Perviouscanhaverecycledpreconsumermaterialsinit.TheslagorflyashfoundintheKCmarketisoftenintheconcrete mix.Byusingthesebeneficialsupplementarycementitiousmaterialsinconcretetheyhelpkeepthemoutoflandfills. Perviousconcreteislowmaintenance.Anoccasionalvacuumingorwet/vacwillpulldirt,sandanddebrisfromthesurface. Perviousconcretelikeregularconcreteislightreflective(especiallywhenslagisinthemix)andcooler.Thishelpsfightthe UrbanHeatIslandEffect.Coolerpavementsmeancoolerenvironmentsnearbuildingsandhomes,andthismeanslowerair conditioning bills in the summer. Research shows that by building with light reflective and heat reflective materials for roofs and pavements, and increasing green space (trees and plants) the ambient temperatures in urban areas can be reduced5Forsaveupto18%onairconditioningbills.

Figure3.7 Asphaltpavementatnight,Concretepavementatnight, verylittlelightreflectancemuchmorelightreflective

Thewatercollectedwithintheperviouspavementsystemcanbecollectedandrerouted(sumppumporothermeans)to useforirrigatinglandscapingorforflushingtoiletsinnearbybuildings.Thislessenstheburdenonmunicipalwatersupply andlowerstheneedforwastewatersystems.

Figure3.8 FinleyStadium,Chattanooga,TN,builtin1997,partialperviouspavement,collectsstormwater, recyclesthewatertowaterlandscapingaroundthestadiumandthefootballfield

Impervious pavements near or next to trees and bushes drain water away from trees. Everyone has seen concrete sidewalkstenting.Treerootsdriveupwardtofindairandwaterfornourishment.Perviousconcreteallowswaterandair gettothetreeroots.Nomoresidewalktenting.

Design&Layout Lessonslearnedindesignandlayouttomaximizepervioussuccessinregardstopermeabilityanddurability:

11


1. The bottom of the clean rock base should be as flat as possible. Gravity will feed water to the lowest point. If the pavementisonaslightgrademakeupthedifferencefrombottomtothegradeonthesurface,withthecleanrockbaseas itislesscostlythantheperviousconcrete.

Figure3.9

2.

Usetrenchesorcheckdamsorothermeansinstabilizingdownhillwaterflowwhenbuildingonagrade.

Figure3.10

3.

Useadualconcretedesignformaximumdurability.Pavethedrivelanesinregularconcrete(wheretherearemoreturning movements)andpavetheparkingstallsinperviousconcrete.Placethebasecleanrockunderallofit.Makesureboththe regularconcreteandtheperviouspavementarethesamethicknessforconstructionease.Thiswaythebaseunderthe entireparkinglotisusedefficientlyfortemporarystorage,whileutilizingregularconcretewherethemosttrafficandstress occursonthesurface.

Figure3.11 Dualconcretedesignwithperviousandconventionalconcrete

12


4. Payspecialattentiontotheouteredgeofthepavementwhereperviousmeetslandscapingorgrass.Alsointhemiddleof theparkingareawheretreesandlandscapingislandsarewithinthepervioussurface.Thisiswherethemaximumexposure tosoilsoccurs.Rainswillwashsoils,landscapingmulch,etc.intotheperviouspavement.Makesureplansareinplaceto immediately mitigate the surrounding soils with sod (or equal) to keep dirt and mulch in place and out of the pervious pavement.ThepicturesinFigure3.12showsoilsandmulchcarriedintoperviouspavementsafterrains.Theexposedsoils and mulch were not satisfactorily secured. Landscaping islands should be slightly depressed behind the curb. Erosion controlneedstobeinplaceuntilgrassorlandscapingplantsaremature.Thisisalsothereasonwhyperviousisusedfor parking lots more often than sidewalks/paths. Sidewalks have so much more linear exposure to the dirt/grass. Parking areascanlimittheexposuretosoilstotheouterperimeter.

Figure3.12

5.

When using green practices in design it is customary to place trees and shrubs within the parking lot matrix to provide shadeandevapotranspiration.However,forperviousparkinglots,itisbesttolimitthetreestotheouterperimeterofthe parkingarea,wheretheyaremoreeasilymaintained,andthedirt/mulchdoesntcontaminatethepervioussurfacewithin theparkingareaasinthepictureinfigure3.12.

Subgrade
The existing subgradeunder the stormwater detention area shall not be compactedor subject toexcessive construction equipmenttrafficpriortocoarseaggregatebedplacement.Thesubgrademaybescarifiedtoimproveinfiltrationrates. Cutsnecessarytoestablishpropersubgradelevelshallnotbecompactedorsubjecttoexcessiveconstructionequipment trafficpriortocoarseaggregatebedplacementandmaybescarifiedtoimproveinfiltrationrates. Whenfillisneededtomeetpropersubgradelevel,somecompactionmaybenecessary.Compactiontoapproximately92% proctorissufficient.

Base
Filterfabric,4oznonwovengeotextileshallbeplacedonthesubgrade/soilpriortoplacingthebasematerial. Thefilterfabricwillcontinueupthesidestothesurfacetokeepfinesfrommigratingintothestoragelayer. Itisadvisabletocontinuethefilterfabricupandoverthesurroundingsoilsapproximately2to3feet.Thiswillholdthe soilsunderthefabricactingaserosioncontroluntiltheprojectiscompleteandlandscapingisreadytosecurethesoilsnext totheperviouspavement.Thisisanoptionalsolutiontoerosioncontrol.Whenthesoilsaresecuredthefilterfabriccan becuttotheedgeoftheperviouspavement.Seefigure3.13.

13

Figure3.13

The coarse aggregate for the base or storage layer shall be a minimum of 12 in the Greater Kansas City Area. (APWA/MARCStormwaterBMPManual)Thishasbeenestablishedtomitigatethe100yearraineventin24hours.Atrue stormwater evaluation may be required for the specific site by a qualified stormwater engineer to meet municipal requirements.Thebasethicknessforaparkinglotcanvarydependingonthehydrologicalcalculations,discussedinthe beginningofChapter3. Sidewalksarenotheldtothesamestandard.Sidewalkstendtohave4to6ofcleanrockbase. ThematerialforthebaseshallconformtoASTMC33standardsandbecapableofhavingminimumvoidsof38%byweight measuredinaccordancewithASTMC29.Itshallbecleanwashedrockwithlessthan2%retainedonthe100sieve.The rockshallbeamaximumtopsizeof1.(Finesplugthesystem.) Thematerialshallbeplacedin6inchliftsandlightlycompactedwithequipment.Keepmovementoverthestoragebedas minimalaspossible.Installtotherequiredgrades. Placehaybalesorequivalentatthetoeofslopestopreventsedimentfromwashingintobedsduringsitedevelopment. Thebaseshallbemoistatthetimeofperviousconcreteplacementtoensurenowaterfromtheperviousisdrawndown intothebaselayer.Awatersourceshouldbeatthejobsitetospraythebaseimmediatelypriortoperviousplacement. The base may have a component installed to allow for moving the collected rainwater to be used for irrigation or for brownwateruseinnearbybuildings. Thebasematerialforperviouspavementisafunctionofthestormwaterdetention,notstructuralperformance.Insome areasofthecountrynobasematerialisneededasthesoilconditionsallowwatertomigratethroughinatimelymanner. In the Kansas City market weve already established the minimum standards require at least 12 of clean rock for stormwatertemporarydetention.

PerviousThickness
Experiencehasbeenthedrivingforceinmakingdecisionsdeterminingthethicknessforperviouspavements.6inchesis commonforparkingareasforautomobiletrafficandanoccasionaltruck.8inchesisusedforresidentialstreetsandmore traffickeddrivelanesinparkinglots.RefertoACI330RGuidefortheDesignandConstructionofConcreteParkingLotsfor suggestionswhendesigningconcreteparkingareas.Keepinmindperviousisnotmeantforheavy18wheelertrucktraffic atthistime. The thickness of the pervious layer is somewhat determined by the equipment used to place the concrete. The roller screedtendstobethemostcommonlyusedscreedintheKansasCityarea.Consolidationbythisequipmentdoesntreach furtherthan6to8inchesdownintotheconcrete.

14

Figure3.14 SideviewofperviousconcretethicknessCuttingajointalongastringlineCuttingajointinfreshperviousconcrete

Jointing
Jointingperviousconcreteshouldbetreatedmuchlikeconventionalconcrete.Usethesamerulesofthumb. Takethethicknessofthepavementmultiplyitby2toreachthemaximumspacinginfeet.Ex.6X2=12spacing.For pavementsthickerthan7inches,themaximumjointspacingis15. Isolationjointsshallbeusedwhenabuttingfixedstructuralstructuressuchascolumns,manholes,signposts,lightpoles, buildingsetc. Constructionjointsmaybeneededattheendofthedayspaving,orwhenthereisaprolongeddelayinthenextconcrete truckdelivery. Sawsshouldnotbeusedforjointing.Theproblemusingsawsforjointingisthatsawswouldrequireuncoveringthecuring pavement,exposingthefreshconcretetowind,sunandheat.Earlyentrysawsareoutofthequestioncompletely,asthe pavementhasbeenputtosleepwiththehydrationstabilizer.Againthepavementwouldbeuncoveredtoolongduring the sawing process. Regular concrete saws would adequately cut the pavement; however, waiting to saw after the pavement has cured properly for 7 days would be fruitless. The pavement would have already cracked by the 7th day. Sawingpriortothe7daysagain,leavesthepavementopentomoisturelossandpossibleravelingatthesurface.Theslurry fromsawingisproblematic,asitcouldclogpartofthesystem.Sawcutsarebeingdoneinothermarkets.Itispossiblethat saw cuts could be entertained in this market if the curing element could be conducted satisfactorily. Contractor would submitaplantotheowner/designerforapprovaltousesawcuts,andimplementtheplanintotheTestPanelPlacement foracceptance.(SeetestpanelplacementinChapter6,PerviousConstruction.)

15

Chapter4 BasicMixDesignInformationforPerviousConcrete Cement&CementitiousMaterials


PortlandCementTypeI,IIorI/IIisreadilyavailableintheKansasCitymarketandusedforperviousconcreteproduction. (ASTMC150) Slag Cement (Ground Granulated BlastFurnace Slag, aka. GGBFS) is a cementitious material available in the market and usedinperviousconcreteproduction.(ASTMC989) FlyAshTypeCandTypeFarebothavailableinthemarketandusedinperviousconcreteproduction.(ASTMC618) Slagandflyasharesupplementarycementitiousmaterialsoftenusedtoreplacetheamountofcement.Bothproductsare industrialbyproducts.Usingtheminconcretekeepsthemoutoflandfillshelpingtogreenourenvironment.Theyboth offergoodbenefitstoconcreteandtheyofferstrengthgain.Whichmeanstheyadddurabilityinthelongrun.Bothrequire longercuringtimesfortheconcretetoinitiallysetandgainstrength.

Aggregates
Aggregatescanhaveadirectinfluenceinthepermeability,surfacetextureandtheappearanceoftheperviousslab. Auniformlargeaggregatesizeispreferableformaximumpermeability.Thisisoppositeoftheoptimizedgradationusually wantedinaregularconcretemix. AggregateslargeandsmallshallconformtoASTMD448andcomplywithASTMC33. Thesizeofthelargeaggregatewillhaveaneffectonaestheticsandthetopsizeoftheholesinthesurface. tolargeaggregatesarepreferred.MostoftheaggregatesusedintheKansasCitymarkethavebeen3/8or1/2. Thespecificgravityshallbe>2.5andtheabsorptionshallbe<2.5toaidindurabilityandperformance. Bothroundedaggregateslikepeagravelandangularaggregateslikegranite,quartziteandlimestonehavebeenusedinthe market. Experience tells us that the rounded aggregates can pack tight in the placement process, limiting some of the permeability.Theangularaggregateshavesomelimiteddrawbackstoo,suchasmakingitalittlehardertogetoutofthe trucksandincreasingwaterdemandslightly.Bothhavebenefitsandlimitations. For the most part, sand is excluded. However, in markets like Kansas City with severe freeze/thaw cycles, research has shownupto6%finesinthemixcanprovideaddeddurabilitywithoutlosingporosity. Thehardnessanddurabilityoftheaggregatecanalsohaveaneffectonthedurabilityoftheperviouspavement.Usesound freeze/thawdurableaggregates. Theaggregatesshouldbegoodqualitycleanaggregates.Dustanddebriscanaddtocloggingthewetperviousmatrix. The owner/contractor/designer ordering the pervious concrete may be limited to the aggregates available in the marketplace.Thatusuallymeansusingaggregatesalreadyavailableforconventionalconcrete. AggregateSaturatedSurfaceDryorSSDiscriticalinthebatching/mixingperviousmix.Howwetordrythelargeaggregates arecanmakeahugedifferenceintheconsistencyandslumpoftheconcrete.Thishasbeenoneofthebiggestimpactson theperviousmixaffectingtheplasticperviousproperties.Itmaybeadvantageousforthereadymixproducertosethis moisturereadingsmanuallytozero!

Water
Waterusedfortheperviousconcretemixshallbepotable,drinkablewaterandconformtoASTMC1602. Usinghotwaterinwinter(usedbyreadymixproducersforconventionalconcreteforColdWeatherpractices)shouldbe avoided at all costs! The hot water flash cooks the admixtures leaving them ineffective. Only extremely experienced pervious concrete contractors with experienced inspectors should attempt using the hot water in winter months. If

16


pervious must be placed in cold weather, use water diverted from the hot water system that is measured accurately. Otherwise,waituntiltheambienttemperatureshavewarmedup.

Figure4.1

Keepingaggregateswetandcoolinthehotsummer

Admixtures
AirentrainingadmixturesshallconformtoASTMC260.Doseasperthemanufacturerrecommendationforconventional concreteinseverefreeze/thawconditions.Dosagesusuallystartat2oz/cwt NOTEthereisnotanASTMtestmethodfortestingairinperviousconcrete.Theconventiontestforconcretewouldnot beabletodifferiatebetweenthevoidsinthematrixortheairentrainment. WaterreducingadmixturesshallconformtoASTMC494,typeA,BDorF.Dosagesforperviousconcretecanexceedthe ranges typically used for conventional concrete. Experience is the best teacher. A starting dosage rate of 6 oz/cwt is recommended. NOTEThepolycarboxylatetypeofwaterreducershavebeenproventoworkbestforperviousconcretemixdesigns.They aresometimesmorecostlythanothertypesofwaterreducers,whichiswhysomereadymixproducersavoidthemwhen designing their mix designs. Results have shown that polycarboxylates make significant strides in the discharge and placementprocesstomakeitworththeextracost!Dontunderestimatethelongtermsavingsinusingtheslightlymore expensiveproduct. Hydrationstabilizersalsoknownasextendedcontroladmixtures,shallconformtoASTMC494,typeBorD.Thisadmixture iscriticaltothesuccessofthemix. ExamplesofhydrationstabilizersareBASF/DelvoorGrace/Recover; allperviousmixdesignshallhavetheseproductsor anotherequalproduct. Hydrationstabilizersand/orwaterreducersshallbeavailableonthejobsiteforredosingasneeded.Placingperviousin hottemperaturesoftenrequiresmorehydrationstabilizers,whichincludetheabilitytoredoseonthejobsite. Viscosity modifying admixtures (VMAs) have been used successfully in other markets. They have met limited to poor successsofarintheKansasCityarea.Oneopinionisbecauseviscositymodifyingadmixturesmayneedmoremixwaterto getthemproperlydispersedthroughoutthemix.Perviousconcreteistypicallydesignedwitha.30w/cratio,suchlittle water may be limiting the ability for the admixture towork properly. VMAs can make the mix gummy or sticky. VMAsarecommonlyusedinselfconsolidatingconcretemixes. New admixtures for pervious are appearing every day. Recently admixture companies have bundled together water reducers,hydrationstabilizersandviscositymodifyingadmixturesinoneproducttomarketforperviousmixes.Thesehave beenmetwithmixedreviews.Beawareandopentotryingnewproductsasthetechnologyandeducationchangesfor pervious. It is recommended to use fibers polypropylene or cellulose, < 1.5 in. fibrillated or micro fiber type. Fibers have been included in all locally placed pervious projects. Other markets have used macro fibers in pervious concrete also. More researchneedstobedonetodiscovertheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthesefibers. Fiberdosageshallbeaminimum1.5lbs/yd. Fibersaresuggestedtoberemovedfromtheirbagsanddistributedin23gallonsofwaterbeforeadditiontothemixto preventballingmaterialsandpromotingevendistribution.

17


NOTEFiberbenefitsincludepreventingexcessraveling,preventingtoodryofamixandpreventingovercompactionfrom toowetmix.

ProportioningPerviousConcreteMixes
Themixdesignshallbesubmittedtothedesigner/ownerforreviewandapproval.Proportionsshallbeincompliancewith ASTMC1688.Trialmixturesmustbetestedtoestablishproperproportionsanddetermineexpectedbehavior. Concretereadymixproducersmayhavemixtureproportionsoptimizedforperformancewithlocalmaterials. Theperviousconcretemixturevoidcontentshouldrangebetween15to25%perASTM1701orthenewASTMstandard comingoutspring2011formeasuringvoidsinthehardenedstate. Thewater/cementratioshallbebetween.30and.34. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), either fly ash or slag shall not constitute more than 25% of the cement replacementindividually.Ifusedinternaryblendedcement,theSCMsshallnotexceed50%ofthemassofthePortland cement.

Yield,DensityandPermeability
Inconventionalconcrete,yieldiscloselyrelatedtothevolumeofconcreteplaced,asestablishedinASTMC94.Pervious concreteisdifferent;thevolumeofconcreteplacedcanvarydependingonthelevelofcompactionduringplacement. Alsonotethatthedensity(unitweight)forperviousconcretevariesfromthedensitymeasuredinaccordancewithASTM C1688andthedensityofthehardenedperviousconcrete.Sothecontractororderingtheperviousconcretewillneedto orderwithcareasperviouswillvarymorethanconventionalconcrete. Density of the installed pervious concrete affects the voids in the hardened state, thus affecting the permeability of the finalinplaceproduct. Density is also affected by the properties of the materials in the pervious mix design (aggregates, cement, water, admixturesetc.) InfiltrationofwaterthroughthevoidsinthehardenedperviouspavementcanbefieldtestedbyusingASTMC1701.

HelpfulInformationfortheReadyMixProducer
Theaveragetruckloadofperviousconcreteis6yards.Perviousismuchhardertogetoutofthetruckasitagesinthetruck becausetheadmixtureshavebeenusedupandlosttheireffectiveness.10yardsloadswilllikelyneedtoberedosedon sitewithadditionalwaterreducersand/ormorehydrationstabilizers.Itismucheasiertodoseattheplantthanitistotry andguesshowmuchconcreteisinthetruckhalfwaythroughunloadingthetruck.Plusitmeansstoppingdischargeand stopping the crew while the fix is being conducted on site. Experience has taught us shorter loads at 6 yards saves everyonetimeandmoneyinthelongrun,thana10yardload. Thereadymixtruckmusthavegoodqualitypavingfinstodischargefromthetruckproperly.Oldertruckswiththefins worndownortruckswithnopavingfinscanjeopardizegettingtheconcreteoutofthetruck.Thesetruckshaveslowed downjobssignificantly,turninga15minutedischargeintoaonehourdischarge!Weveestablishedthatperviousisvery perishable.Takingalongtimetogetthemixoutofthetruckjeopardizestheentireload. Every delivery of pervious should have the water reducer and/or the hydration stabilizer available at the jobsite for re dosingasneeded.ReviewtheAdmixturesectionaboveformoredetailsabouttheadmixtures. Thetruckdriversneedtobeeducatedaboutpervious,whatisit,howitlooks,etc.Jobsiteshavehaddriversjumpoutof thetruckandadd20+gallonstryingtofixtheloadbecausetheydidntknowwhatiswas.Truckdriversshouldbetrained ontherestrictionspertainingtoadditionofwateratthejobsiteforperviousandredosingadmixturesinthefield. Ambient temperatures affect pervious concrete even more that conventional concrete (because it is at a lower water cementratio).

18


AggregatestockpilesneedtobekeptatthetargetSSD.MoistureinaggregateshasaHUGEaffectonthemixdesign.Itis more noticeable in pervious concrete than with conventional concrete. Moisture readings may need to be set to zero manually to get the appropriate water in the mix. This depends on the quality control at the plant, moisture probe calibrations,etc. Spacingthetruckstothejobsitecanbetrickyuntilthecrewestablishesajobsiterhythm(usuallyafterthe2ndtruck).Send thefirsttruck,wait30minutes,andthensendtherestevery1520minutesdependingonthefeedbackfromthefield. Avoidstackingthetrucksatthejobsite,asperviousismoreperishablethanconventionalconcrete. Itispossibletounloadtwotrucksatatimeintoaconveyorbelthopper,IFthecontractorcanadequatelykeepupwiththe placementattheotherend. Themixdesignshouldbesubmittedforapprovaltothecontractoranddesigner. Itisadvisabletoplacemanytrialbatchesandtestpanelstoadjusttheplantmixdesignforpervious.Thisisunderutilized bymanyreadymixproducers. Ready mix quality control technicians and sales personnel should all be versed in ASTM 1688, ASTM 1701, the Inverted SlumpTestandanynewASTMteststhatarepublishedforperviousconcrete.

19

Chapter5 TestingPerviousConcrete
Therearecurrently2ASTMtestsdesignatedspecificallyforperviousconcrete(asofApril2011).ASTMC1688,Standard TestMethodforDensityandVoidContentofFreshlyMixedPerviousConcreteandASTMC1701,StandardTestMethodfor InfiltrationRateofInPlacePerviousConcrete Spring 2011 a new standard will be released to measure the voids in the hardened pervious concrete. As soon as it is releasedthisdocumentwillbeupdateswiththeinformation. ASTMandACIareworkingintandemtodevelopstandardizedtestsforotherperviousconcreteattributes,suchasflexural and compressive strengths, abrasion resistance, etc. Pervious is still relatively new so it will take some time for the standardstobedevelopedandpublished. NOTE The ASTM Standards for conventional concrete that we are accustomed to using for flexural and compressive strengthsDONOTapplytoperviousconcrete. ASTMC1688,StandardTestMethodforDensityandVoidContentofFreshlyMixedPerviousConcrete

Figure5.1 ASTMC1688Equipment&materialsneededAproctorhammerFirstliftcompacted

SecondliftcompactedStrikingoffthesurfaceWeighing&finalcalculations

ASTMC1701,StandardTestMethodforInfiltrationRateofInPlacePerviousConcrete

Figure5.2 ASTMC1701Equipment&MaterialsNeededCalibratedmarkingsintherimSecuretherimwithputty

20

1gallonofwaterintoapparatus(Step2ifneeded)5gallonsintoapparatusFinalcalculations

TheInvertedSlumpConeTest

InvertedSlumpTest Picturecredit:Kevern,Schaefer,Wang

Figure5.3 FillingtheinvertedslumpconeCheckingworkabilityWorkablemixOverworkedmix

UsingASTM1688andtheInvertedSlumpConcreteTestforjobsiteacceptance: Theworkabilityandconsistencyofperviousconcretemaybedeterminedforeachreadymixedtrucktoensurequality construction.Typicallyworkabilityisadjustedonsiteforthefirstloadandthenreadjustedduringbatchingforall subsequentloads. a) CheckBatchTicket:Uponarrivalatthejobsite.Checkforthecorrectmixtureandappropriatedeliveryandmixing time. b) CheckWorkability:Performaninverseslumpcheck.Ifworkabilityremediationisrequiredfirstadd0.5to1.0gallons ofwaterpercubicyard.Ifadditionalworkabilityremediationisrequired,addupto50%oftheoriginaldosageofwater reduceriftheweatherismileandupto50%ofthehydrationstabilizeriftheweatherishot. c) Adjustsubsequentloads:Radiobacktothebatchpersonnelandrelaywaterand/oradmixtureadjustments. d) DetermineConsistency:DetermineASTMC1688unitweightandcompareagainstrequiredvalues.Unitweightvalues greaterthan10pcfdifferentfromthedesiredvaluesmayindicatethatanincorrectmixturemayhavebeendelivered. Ifthemixturewascorrectlybatched,buttheunitweightishigh,holdthetruckwhileslowlymixingfor15minutes.If theunitweightislight,adjustworkability.Inmostsituationspoorflowthroughtheinverseslumpconewillindicate potentialforlowunitweightvalues.Adjustingforworkabilitywillimproveunitweight. e) Discharge Usingtestingforfinalacceptance UsethenewASTMstandard(spring2011)testingvoidsinhardenedconcreteonthetestpanelandcomparingittothefinal productcouldbeonemethodforacceptance,+5pcf.Assumingthetesthadbeenperformedonthetestpaneland establishedasagoalfortheproject.

21

Chapter6 PerviousConcreteConstruction Equipment&Tools


NOTEtheequipmentandtoolslistedhereinaremostfamiliarintheKansasCitymarket.Newperviousequipmentand toolsarebeingdevelopedconstantly.Newscreeds,curingmethods,newhandtools,forms,filterfabrics,etc.needtobe reviewedandtested.Ifacontractorcanshowalternatemethodsofplacementandcuringtoreachthedesireddurability andpermeability,acceptanceshouldbeconsidered.

Figure6.1 4oz.nonwovenfilterfabricRollerscreedCrossRollerCrossrolleronleft&jointrolleronright

SoybeancuringagentSecurelyanchor6mlpolyConveyorbeltplacementHandtampingedges

Thislisthereincontainsthemajorconstructionmaterialsandtoolsneededtosuccessfullyplaceperviousconcrete. o 4oz.(minimum)NonWovenGeotextileFilterFabric (checktomakesurewatercanpassthroughthefabric) o RollerScreed(mustbeabletobefilledwithwaterorsandforweight) o CrossRoller o FlangedRollerakaPizzaCuttertocutjointsinplasticperviousconcrete o SoyBeanOilCuringCompound(alsouseforbondbreakeronformsetc.), Coverage200to250sq.ft.pergallon(comesin5gallonbucket) o 6oz.(minimum)PolySheeting (Musttakethetimetopreparethepoly&prerollontotubestorollovertheformsbehindthescreed) o ConveyorBelt(Perviouscantbepumped,aconveyorexpeditestheconstructionprocesssignificantlyevenfor smalljobs) o Squaredendedshovel o Concreterakes o Comealongs o Handtampers o 2X4stoholdplasticsheetinginplace o Sandbagsorequaltohold2X4s o Watersourceandhose

TestPanelPlacement&Approval
Testpanelplacementandapprovalapproximatelyonemonthtotwoweeks,priortoperviousconstruction. SeetheSpecifierGuideforPerviousConcreteinKansasCityfordimensionsanddetails. Thecontractormustusetheequipment,toolsandcrewthatwillbeusedintheactualplacement.

22


NOTETheslabwillneedtocurefor7days.Thentheowner/designer,contractorandtestingcompanywillmeettoreview theslab,conducttestsandapprovetheslab.IFitisnotacceptable,itwillneedtoberepeateduntilapproved.Thiswill takeanother7days,etc.Timingofthetestslabcanaffecttheoverallstartdatefortheconstructionschedule. Overallacceptanceshouldbeonsurfaceappearance,jointdetails,thickness,porosityandcuringprocedures. Was the mix provided by the ready mix producer workable and acceptable? If not was it adjusted or modified until acceptableduringthetest? Wasthecontractorreadyandusingpropertools?Wastheplacementteamsizeappropriate?Curingpracticesinline?

PreConstructionMeeting
RefertothePreConstructionChecklistinthebackoftheSpecifiersGuideforPerviousConcreteinKansasCity. HastheTestPanelPlacement&Approvalbecompletedandapproved?Themixapproved? Conductthemeetingatleastoneweekpriortoplacement. GC, pervious contractor, ready mix supplier, excavation contractor, landscape contractor, architect, engineers, etc. in attendance. Reviewtheplans,specificationswithallparties. Discusstestingbeingconducted,testmethods,samples,frequencyoftests,testingcompanyfamiliarwithASTMstandards forperviousconcrete?,etc. Discuss weather, as it has a HUGE effect on pervious. Hot or cold weather practices? Curing? Authority to cancel and rescheduleifnecessary? Discussaccesstothesiteforreadymixtrucksandconveyorbeltforplacement. Review subgrade, filter fabric, base aggregate, base thickness, wetting the base prior to pervious placement, pervious thickness,jointing,curing,#oncrew,etc. Isthereawatersourceonsite(forwettingthebaserockimmediatelypriortoperviousplacement)? Discussthewidthofthescreed,pavinginstrips,constructabilityissues. Iseveryoneawarethatthepolysheetingstaysinplacefor7dayscureperiod,withoutanytrafficonit? Haserosioncontrolbeendiscussedtokeepsoilsoutofthepavementoncethepolyisremoved? Isthelandscaperawarethattheycannotusetheperviouspavementfortheirstagingareaformulch,plants,etc.?

Weather

Figure6.2 Resecuringpolyafter45mphwindsPreventbillowinginthepolysheetingfromthewind

Wind?Prepareforthewind.Severewindsinthe20to45+mphrangecanwreckhavoconperviousplacement. TheContractorshallnotplaceperviousconcretepavementlaterintheyearthanNovember1orearlierintheyearthan April1unlessotherwisepermittedinwritingbytheArchitect/Engineer. The Contractor shall not place pervious concrete pavement when the ambient temperature is predicted by the National Weather Service Point Forecast for the jobsite to rise above 90F (32.2C) during the seven days following placement, unlessotherwisepermittedinwritingbytheArchitect/Engineer.Thesehotdayscanbedetrimentaltogettingperviousout of the truck, exposed on conveyor belts, etc. There is an increased probability of raveling on the pervious surface in its

23


completed state and possible durability issues. Consider alternative placement times, i.e., 3 am to 6 am, or late night placementsduringcoolerhoursoftheday/night.Theowner/designerandcontractormayneedtodelayplacementinhot weather. ACI 305 Hot Weather Concrete can provide some very helpful information. But remember pervious is more sensitive to heatthatconventionalconcrete. Admixturesneedhigherdosageratesinhotweathertoworkproperly.Thereadymixproducerandcontractorneedtobe preparedtoredoseatthejobsite. Hotweathershortensthetimefrombatchingtheconcretetowhenitmustbeplacedonsite. The Contractor shall not place pervious concrete pavement when the ambient temperature is predicted by the National Weather Service Point Forecast for the jobsite to be 40F (4.4C) or lower during the seven days following placement, unless otherwise permitted in writing by the Architect/Engineer. ACI306 Cold Weather Concretecan also provide some veryhelpfulinformation,butpervioushassomeadditionalneedsincoldweather.40Fisusuallythemarkwhereready mix producers start using hot water. Pervious concrete should be avoided when the ready mix producer has moved to usinghotwaterforcoldweatherconventionalpractices.Thehotwaterflashcookstheadmixtures,disablingthemfrom workingproperly. Perviousconcretecannotbeplacedinrainorsnoworonafrozensubgradeorbase. Winter months tend to have dry or very low humidity. These conditions will dry the pervious out, so curing is extra important,andneededtobeconductedveryconservatively. Placementinsevereconditionsshouldbeavoided.

SitePreparation
Verifythatthesiteconditionsmatchtheplans. Reviewthespecifications. Verifygradestakes Removeorganicmaterialsandtrash. Verifylocationsfordrains,piping,undergroundcisterns,(ifapplicable)etc. Cutsnecessarytoestablishpropersubgradelevelshallnotbecompactedorsubjecttoexcessiveconstructionequipment trafficpriortocoarseaggregatebedplacementandmaybescarifiedtoimproveinfiltrationrates. Whenfillisneededtometpropersubgradelevel,somecompactionmaybenecessary.Compactiontoapproximately92% proctorissufficient.

FilterFabricInstallation

Figure6.3 Filterfabricoverlaps18inchesFilterFabricupsidesandoveredges

RefertoChapter3,DesignElementsforPerviousConcrete,forspecificsonthefilterfabricanddesigndetails. Filter fabric shall be 4 oz. nonwoven geotextile. This keeps the fines from coming up from the subgrade below and cloggingthebasearea.Italsoallowsforwatertomovethroughthefabricandcontinueintothesubgradeformovement intothesurroundingsoils. NOTEProducttechnologyischangingtoadapttoperviouspavementneeds.Keepabreastofnewproductsthatmaywork tohelpwaterexfiltrationintothesurroundingsoils,eveninclaysoils.

24


Runthefilterfabricupthesidesoftheperviouspavement. Overlapthefilterfabrictothemanufacturersrecommendations(usually18inches).

BaseConstruction

Figure6.4 PlacingcleanaggregatebasePlacingaperforatedpipeunderdrainPlacingcleanrockbaseoverfilterfabric

RefertoChapter3,DesignElementsforPerviousConcrete,forspecificsonthebasematerialsanddesigndetails. Itiscriticalthatthebaseaggregatebecleanwashedaggregatesthatallowthewatertomovefreelyinthebasesection. AB3 is NOT acceptable in the Kansas City market for pervious base rock; this aggregate has too many fines to work effectivelyandefficiently. Optionaldrainagesystemsmayberequiredbythedesigner,whichmayormaynottieintothepervioussystem.Review theplansandspecificationsclosely.Thiscouldbeconstructedwithcheckdams,pipingetc.Seefigure3.3. Thematerialshallbeplacedin6inchliftsandlightlycompactedwithequipment.Keepmovementoverthestoragebedas minimalaspossible.Installtotherequiredgrades. Thebaselayersurfaceshallbesprayedwithwaterimmediatelypriortoperviousconcreteplacement.Thiskeepsthebase from pulling water out of the pervious mix when it is placed. This will protect the plastic pervious concrete from being jeopardized;itscuringtheperviousfromthebottomup.

SettingForms

Figure6.5 FormssetreadytopaveFormsset&jointmarkedinblueConcretestripsplacedinadvanceforformsforpervious

Formsmustbestudyenoughtostanduptotheheavyrollerscreedandplacementoperations.Typicallywood,steelor aluminumformsareused. Makesurestakesare1/2lowerthanthetopoftheforms.Thiswillallowtherollerscreedtonotgethunguponastakeas placementprogresses. Theembeddedstakesmustbeanchoredwell.Theymustholduptothestressoftheequipmentandcrew.Theymaynot allowdeflectionduringplacement.

25

SizeoftheCrew

Figure6.6 Crewsize9approx.Crewsize14approx.Crewsize12approx.Crewsize12approx.

Atypicalcrewsizeforperviousconcreteplacementwitharollerscreedis7to14crewmen,dependingonthejobspecifics: o Onepersonconductingoversight,managingthearrivalofnewtrucks,coordinatingwithinspectorsandreadymix. o Oneinfront,keepingthebaserocksurfacewetteddownwithwaterimmediatelyinfrontofthescreed. o Oneontheendoftheconveyorbelt. o Twotofour,withsquaredshovels,concreterakesorcomealongstomovetheperviousinfrontofthescreed, thesepeoplealsofillinholes,consolidatetheedgesandkeepaheadofconcreteinfrontofthescreed. o Two,oneoneachendoftherollerscreed. o Two,oneoneachsideofthepavement,theycurewithboththesoybeanoilandrollthepolyoverthesurfaceand securetheplastictight. o Onetotwo,jointingwiththepizzacutterandcrossrollingthesurfaceoverthepoly. Everyteammemberhasajob,knowswhatitis,andknowswhoisbehindhimandinfrontofhimintheconstruction processtokeepincommunicationwith.

ConcreteArrivesforPlacement
BereadyBEFOREtheconcretetruckarrives.Thisproductisveryperishable.Thereisnotimetoaddwatertotheroller screedtoweighitdown,orplaceformsaftertheconcretetruckarrives. Istheconveyorbeltinplaceandready? Ifplacingtheperviousonsmalljobsdirectlyfromtheconcretetruck,thinkabouttheplacementdirectionaheadoftime.If thechutefromtheconcretetruckisrunninguphill,youaregoingtobethereaverylongtimegettingtheperviousoutof the truck! Pervious is placed with one chute down. Two and three chutes will delay the time and ability to move the pervious. Theconcretetruckwillneedeasyaccessibilitytothesitefortruckplacementtowork. Usingbuggystoplacepervioushasbeendonebefore,however,bepreparedasyouwilllosesomeofyourpermeability. Theperviousconsolidatesinthebuggygettingtotheactualsiteandthenisconsolidatedagainwiththerollerscreed.It alsophysicallytakestwiceaslonganditbecomeshardertoworkwithquickly.Thisisnotthebestmethodinthehighheat of summer months! Buggies may be the only method to get pervious in tight spots, where trucks and conveyors cant reach. Theconveyorbeltmethodworksthebestandisneededforthesmallestofjobs. Besurethepreapprovedmixhasbeenorderedandisdelivered.Checkthebatchticket. Conductaninvertedslumptest,toassesstheworkabilityofthepervious. Makeadjustments,ifnecessary,notifyplantofchangesmadeinthefield. Conduct ASTM 1688 to calculate the unit weight. Does it fall within the +5 from the test panel established mix design weight? Rememberperviousconcreteisnotthetypical140145pcfasinconventionalconcrete.

26

FinishingPerviousConcrete
TheBasicStepstofinishingperviousconcrete: o Spreadingtheplasticperviousconcrete o Consolidating/compacting/strikingofftheconcrete(mostoftenatsametime) o Jointing o Curing o CrossRolling o Extraefforttosecureplastic o Waitminimum7days o Removeplasticandforms

SpreadingPerviousConcrete

Figure6.7 FillingthescreedwithwaterforweightPlacingperviousconcreteConveyorplacement

Placeperviousasclosetothefinalrestingspotsaspossible. Thelessperviousisworked/touchedthebetteritis! Usesquaredshovels,concreterakesandcomealongstomoveitfrombelowthechuteorbelowtheconveyorplacement infrontofthescreed. Perviousisnotpumpable.Aconveyorbeltisthebestplacementmethod. Usearollerscreedthathasbeenweighteddownwitheitherwaterorsandintherollertube.Iftherollerisnotweighted downitwillfloatonthetopofthepervious.Itmustbeweighteddowntoproperlyconsolidatetheconcrete.Donotskip thisstep. Ifapprovedbytheowner/designerthecontractormayuseanalternatescreed.Thetestpanelwouldneedtobeconducted withthisscreed.Technologyisconstantlychangingaswellastheavailabilityofnewscreeds.Slipformpavershavebeen adaptedforperviousplacement.Trussscreedsdonotconsolidateperviouseffectively.Someotherstateshaveusedtruss screedswithshimsonthefirstpass,thentakingtheshimsoffforthesecondpass.Thisprocessstillhassomeconsolidation issuesandleavesthesurfaceexposedtoolong.Itinhibitsthepropercuremethodstogettheperviouscoveredbeforeit driesout.Laserscreedsdonotallowforquickefficientcuring. Extraconsolidationisneededattheheaderandalongthesideswheretheperviousmeetstheforms.Handtampers,new speciallydesignededgerollersorwalkingtheperviousin,nexttotheformsisneeded. Asplacementproceedsawayfromtheforms,crewwillwanttoAVOIDwalkingintheperviousconcrete.Walkinginitwill reducethepermeabilityinitsfinalstate. Keepingaconsistentheight(head)ofconcreteaheadofthescreedforproperconsolidationanduniformsurface. Placing pervious ahead of the screed should not get too far ahead of the strike off crew. This will keep the crew from walkinginthefreshpervious. Astartingguidelinetosetforpervioustruckspacingforanewjob:Thefirsttruck30minutesaheadofthesecondtruck. Thenspacingthem15to20minutesapartthereafter.Setupconstantfeedbackbetweenthecrewleadandthereadymix companytoadjustthespacingasneeded.TwotruckscandischargeintothehopperoftheconveyorbelttruckIFthecrew canplaceitattheotherendatthesamerate.Dischargerateswillvarywiththeequipment,ambienttemperature,mix designflowandtheexperienceofthecrew.

27


Compactionfromtherollerscreedisimportant.Toomuchcompactionwilltightenthematrixmakingitlesspermeable. Notenoughcompactionleavesthematrixtoolooseandnoteven.Thismakesforalessdurablepavementandmorelikely to surface delaminate. A balance must be achieved. Practice and familiarity with specific mix designs improves the contractorsabilitytoproduceaviableperviouspavement. The desirable finish is smooth with no roller marks and no major voids with an even texture. It allows for good water permeabilityandprovidingadurablesurfaceforcartraffic.

Jointing

Figure6.8 CuttinginajointinduringconstructionUsingapizzacuttertorollinajointJointinthehardenedperviousconcrete

Jointsareplacedinspecificplacestohelpencouragethepavementtocrackwherewetellittoinordertoavoiduglyand unsightlyrandomcracks. Sometimesthepavementwillstillcrackwhereitwantstoandnotwherewevetoldittocrack. Jointsaretypicallyspacedtwicethethicknessofthepavementinfeet.Inotherwordsasixinchpavementwouldnthave jointsspacedfurtheroutthan12feet(6X2=12). Jointsshouldneverbefurtherthan15apart. Isolation joints are needed at manholes, sign posts, columns, buildings, etc. Anywhere the pavement meets up with somethingfixedthatwilltendtoexpandandcontractatadifferentlevelthantheperviouspavement. Jointingisconductedwithaflangedroller,akapizzacutterintheplasticperviousconcrete. Jointsmustbepremarkedwherethejointswillbemadebeforepavingstarts. Astringlinecanbeusedtomarkthepathoftherolledjoint. RolltheflangedrollerONEWAYoverthepavement.Throwthehandleoftheflangedrollertoacrewmanontheotherside andtakethecutteroutontheoppositeside.Onepathinonedirection. NOTEDonotrollthejointrollerbacktotheoriginalentryside.Itwidensthejointtoowideandoftencutsasecondcut. Alljointingmusttakeplaceimmediatelybehindthescreedandpriortocuring. Preplaced joints/preformed joint materials can be used if the contractor is familiar with its placement. The contractor would need to demonstrate the ability to place the materials in the test panel. It is up to the owner/designer to accept/declinethemethodafterreview. SawshavebeenmentionedbeforeinChapter3,DesignElementsforPerviousConcrete.Thecontractorwouldhavetobe abletodemonstratetheabilitytoplacesawcutseffectivelywhileproperlycuringtheperviousconcrete.Thecontractor wouldneedtoconducttheprocedureonthetestpanelforapproval.

Edging
EdginghasbeenconsideredoptionalintheKansasCitymarket. Ifproperconsolidationhasbeenconductedagainstformsitmayormaynotbenecessary. Edgingcleansuptheedgebytheformorabuttingcurborabuttingpavement. Itcanalsoleaveasmallspacewherevehiclesrolloverputtingtensionontheedge,potentiallycausingdelaminationatthat deadspace.Somefeelitisimportanttomakesurethesurfaceistighterattheedgetonotleaveanysmalldeadspaceto eliminatetheedgebreakoff.

28

Curing

Figure6.9 SprayingwateronbasepriortopavingSprayingsoybeancureTapingpolyoverlap2x4sanchorsidesofpolydown

Ifitdries,itdies.Mostconcreteindustrypersonnelhaveheardthisquoteonceortwice.Neverwasittruerthanwhen workingwithperviousconcrete. Curingcannotbeemphasizedenough. Ifperviousconcreteisnotcureditwillfail,100%guarantee! Curingmustbeexecutedwithin3to5minutesbehindthescreed. Pervious concrete is placedwith a typical water/cement ratio of .30. That means low or no slump concrete. It has just enoughwaterinittohydratethecementparticlesandaidinmixingthematerials.Curingisdonetoallowthewaterinthe mix to properly hydrate the cement, before the water has a chance to evaporate. If the pavement is not covered up completely,itwillbeexposedtotheweatherelementssuchaswindandheat. Perviousconcreteiscuredinatwostepprocess. Thefirststepistospraythesurfacewithsoybeanoilfrombothsidesofthepavement.Thesoybeanoilcanalsobeused asabondbreakerontheforms,asalubricantontherollerscreeds,jointrolleretc. Researchhasshownthatsoybeanoildoesamuchbetterjobatcovingthesurfacehillsandvalleysthanthetypicalcuring agentsusedonconventionalconcrete.Itisalsobiodegradableandagreenconstructionproduct. Thesecondstepistocoverthepavementcompletewithminimum6mlpolysheeting.Thesheetingshouldbeprerolled ontolongtubesthatarewideenoughtorideontheformsdirectlybehindtherollerscreed.Thisisastepthecontractor hastoplanandhavereadypriortothestartofpaving. Thepolysheetingcanleaveamottledaestheticlookonthesurfaceiftheplasticisnotpulledtaught.Thebunchingupof theplasticcancausethesestripestobeleftonthesurfacewhentheplasticisremoved.Sincetheplastichasbeenpre rolledontubespriortoplacement,ithelpstoeliminatesomeofthemottlingleftwithwrinklesintheplastic. MottlingmarksleftbytheplasticinthecuringstageareNOTstructuralblemishes.Theyareacceptableandscarsofgood practicesbeenbeingused.Thecontractorcanhelphimselfineliminatingasmanyofthesescarsbycommunicatingwithhis crewtokeeptheplasticsheetingpulledtighttokeepthewrinklesoutasplacementisoccurring. Foggershavebeenimplementedsuccessfullytoincreasethehumiditydirectlyabovetheperviouspavement.Becareful, sprayingwaterfromahoseovertheperviousisnotrecommended,asitwillwashthemortaroffthetopaggregateor jeopardizethewater/cementratioatthesurface.Notallcontractorshavefoggingequipment. 2X4splacedendtoendoverthepolysheetingontheformworkisbesttoholddowntheplastic.Thenplacesandbags every5to6overthe2X4stoholdtheminplace.Anoccasionmudclumporbrickhereorthereisnotsufficienttohold theplasticinthepotentialwindsandcuriousonlookers. Theperviousconcreteshallbecuredforaminimumof7days.Alltrafficwillbekeptofftheplasticduringthe7days. Technologyischangingcuringmethodsforperviousconcrete.Beawareofnewproductsenteringthemarkettobetter curetheperviouspavements.Beopentotheseproducts,researchthem,andusethemintestpoursandexperimentsto provetoyourselfandothersthattheydoworkornot.

29

CrossRolling

Figure6.10 CrossrollingoverpolyCrossrollperpendiculartoscreedSpraywateroverpolypriortocrossrolling

Crossrollingisdonetoworkoutthebumpsandlinesleftintheplasticperviousconcreteaftertherollerscreedhaspassed overit. Spraywateroverthepolysheetingthencrossroll.Thewaterholdstheplasticdownandmakesiteasiertoroll. Crossrollingisdoneoverthepolysheeting.Thisensurestheperviousiscoveredupandcuredquicklyandproperly. Crossrollingisdoneinthedirectionperpendiculartothedirectiontherollerscreed.Iftherollerscreedismovingina north/southdirection,thecrossrollingisdoneintheeast/westdirection. Italsogivesthesurfaceitslastconsolidation. Rollingoverthejointedareaisnotaproblem.Ifanyaggregatesweredislodgedinthejointingprocess,thecrossrollerwill pushthembackintoplace. Thecrossrollerisnotmeanttoclosethesurface.Ifthishappens,stop.Reevaluatewhythesurfaceissealing.Dealwithit immediately.

Reevaluatethepolysheeting
Isthepolysheetingsecurelyanchored? Willwind,overthenext7days,potentiallybillowundertheplastic? Fixproblemsheetingspotsbeforeleaving. Havearepresentativecheckthepolyeverydayoverthe7daysandfixanyproblemsthatmightarise.

Wait7days Removeplasticsheetingandforms
30

Chapter7 Maintenance CleaningDebrisOut

Figure7.1 Thereareallkindsofvacuumsonthemarkets,walkbehinds,drivebehinds,somewithwaterandsomewithout.

Figure7.2 PervioussurfacepriortovacuumingPervioussurfaceaftervacuuming

Vacuumingisthemostsuccessfulwayofcleaningperviousconcrete.Thefinesthataccumulateusuallystaywithinthetop 1inchorsoofthesurface.Sopullingthemoutthetopiseasierthanpushingthemfurtherintothepavement. Wet/Vacisacombinationofwettingthesurfacetoloosenthedebrisandvacuumingatthesametimeandhasbeenvery successful. Powerwashingcanbehelpfultoloosenpackedinclayandmassivedebris.AhighpsiisNOTrecommendedatitcanloosen theaggregateonthesurface.Alowpsiwilldislodgethepackedinmaterial.Athoroughvacuumingwillneedtofollow.

PreventiveMaintenance
Preventingclogginginthefirstplaceisbetterthandealingwithitonceithasoccurred! Collectleaves/pineconesetc.aftertheyhavefallen.Thiskeepsthemfromdecomposingintothesurface. Vacuumingthepavementonceortwiceayearwillpreventbuildupbelowthesurfacethatisnotvisibletotheeye. Managetheimmediatelandscapingbefore,duringandafterperviouspavingtopreventsoilsandmulchfrom contaminatingtheperviouspavementafterarainstorm. MakesurethelandscapingcontractorknowstoNOTusetheperviouspavementasastagingareafortheirmulch,dirt, plantsetc. Designersneedtobeawareofadjacentareastothepavement.Directfuturerainwaterfromcarryingdirtanddebrisinto thepavement.Createberms,bioswalesetc.toprotectthepavement.

31

SnowRemoval

Figure7.3 NorefreezingofmeltedsnowonsurfaceSnowdisappearsbelowthesurfaceLessthan3inchesofsnow,noplowingneeded

SnowRemovalshouldbeaccomplishedusingarotarybroom.Ifuseofarotarybroomisnotpossible,snowshouldbe clearedusingaplowwithaloweredgemadeofplasticorrubber.Metalplowsshouldbeavoided;theirbladestendtocatch stones(particularlyatjoints)andcauseraveling. Snowlessthan3inchesdisappearquicklyoncetheyhavebeenwalkedonordrivenon.Thesnowandmeltgoesbelowthe surfaceandoutofsight. Thereisnoreasontousedeicerssincethereisnostandingwateronthesurface. Thereisnorefreezingofmeltedsnowatnightsincethewaterhasmoveddownbelowintothebase. Thebaselayerisusually8to10degreeswarmerthanthesurface.Theairvoidsaregreatinsulators.


32

Chapter8 LEED Credits


PerviousConcretecancontributetoLEED2009NCinseveralways:
SSCredit5.2:SiteDevelopmentMaximizeOpenSpace Itispossible,forexample,foraperviousconcreteparkinglottohelpeliminatetheneedforadetentionpondand allowingthatrealestatetobepartofthevegetatedopenspaceareaadjacenttothebuildingorparkinglot. SSCredit6.1:StormwaterDesignQuantityControl Option#1SiteswithExistingImperviousness50%orless Option#2SiteswithExistingImperviousnessGreaterthan50% PerviousConcretecanhelpbothconditionscollect,cleanandcoolstormwaterandinmanycaseseliminatepost developmentrunoffandcertainlyreducepredevelopmentrunoffbymorethan25%(2year24hrdesignstorm). SSCredit6.2:StormwaterDesignQualityControl PerviousConcreteisoneofmanycommonlyacceptableBestManagementPractices(BMPs)usedtocollect,clean andcoolstormwater.Capableofremoving80%oftheaverageannualpostdevelopmenttotalsuspendedsolids (TSS).PerviousconcreteislistedandrecognizedbyKCMetroMARC/APWASection5600. SSCredit7.1:HeatIslandEffectNonroof Reduceheatislandeffect. Option#1:50%ofthesitehardscapewillconsistofpavingmaterialswithasolarreflectiveIndex(SRI)ofatleast29. WhileregularnewconcretedoesmeettheLEEDSRIminimumrequirementofSRI29,perviousconcretepavements mayormaynot.PerviouspavementscanbedesignedtomeettheSRI29requirement.Perviousconcrete pavementsmustbetestedforSRItolisttestingdataintheLEEDtemplateforreporting.SeeLEEDdefaultchartfor SRIinfobelow: Material Emissivity Reflectance NewGrayConcrete 0.9 0.35 WeatheredGrayConcrete 0.9 0.20 TypicalWhiteConcrete 0.9 0.7 NewAsphalt 0.9 0.05 WeatheredAsphalt 0.9 0.10 PerviousConcrete Needstobetested Needstobetested (TestinaccordancewithASTME903,ASTME1918orASTMC1549) SRI 3852 1932 86100 0 6 Testresultshere

MRCredit2:ConstructionWasteManagement Itisnotpossibleforperviousconcretetosinglehandedlyfulfillthiscategory.Sinceconcreteisbatchedforeach specificjobthereisverylittlewasteoroverage(whichisinitselfgreen).Itispossiblethatleftoverpervious concretecouldpotentiallyberecycledbackatthereadymixconcreteplantwith100%ofthewaterandaggregate forreuseinconcrete,thuskeepingitfromthelandfills.Thisissomethingwewillseemoreofinthefuture.The calculationsfortheentirejobsiteswastemanagementforallconstructionmaterialsfigureintothisnumber. MRCredit4:RecycledContent Itisnotlikelyperviousconcretewillfulfillthiscategorybyitself.However,perviousconcretecanhelpattainthis point(s).Pointsareawardedfor10%(1pt)or20%(2pts)ofrecycledcontentbasedoncostofthetotalvalueofthe materialsintheproject.Perviousconcretewilllikelyhaveflyashorslaginthemakeupofthemixdesign.Bothfly ashandslagarepreconsumerrecycledmaterials.Thereadymixproducerwillprovidealetterwiththeappropriate informationabouttherecycledmaterialintheconcretemixtotheLEEDAPorprojectcoordinator. MRCredit5:RegionalMaterials Buildingmaterialsorproductsthathavebeenextracted,harvestedorrecovered,aswellasmanufacturedwithin

33


500milesoftheprojectsiteforaminimumof10%or20%basedoncost,ofthetotalmaterialsvaluewillearn1pt or2ptsrespectively.IntheKansasCitymetroarea,itislikelythatthecement,largeaggregates,sand,water,flyash andevenrecycledaggregatesareallwithin500milesofourlocaljobsites.Thereadymixproducerwillprovidea letterwiththeappropriateinformationtotheLEEDAPorprojectcoordinator. IDCredit1:InnovationinDesign Uptofouradditionalcreditscanbeattainedinthiscategory.Thisleavesthedooropentoinnovationandcreativity. Itispossiblefortechnologyorsustainableideastobeappliedheretoreachnewlevels.Thesemustbesubmittedfor considerationandapproval. IDCredit2:LEEDAccreditedProfessional AtleastoneprincipalparticipantoftheprojectteamshallbeaLEEDAP.Whileitisnotlikelythepervious contractororperviousreadymixsupplierwillbeaprincipalparticipantontheprojectteam;itislikelyiftheproject isaLEEDprojecttherewillbeaLEEDAPalreadyontheprojectteam.Thereareconcreteindustrypersonnelthatare LEEDAPandtheyareusuallyavailableforconsultation. RPCredit1:RegionalPriority Toprovideanincentivefortheachievementofcreditsthataddressgeographicallyspecificenvironmental priorities.Upto4creditscanbeearnedhere.Thisisuptothedecisionmakersineachregion.Goto www.usgbc.orgtofindalistofregionalprioritycredits. AstheLEEDsystemupdatesandchangesthesecategoriesandpointswillreflectthosechanges.Foruptodate informationonLEEDgotowww.usgbc.org.TheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC)isa501(c)(3)nonprofitthat developedtheLEED(LeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign)GreenBuildingRatingSystem.

34

Chapter9 DecorativePervious
Alldecorativeprocessesneedtobetestedinapreplacementsituationforapproval.

Figure91

TrailheadwithdecorativeperviousColoredperviouscourtyardStampedandcoloredperviousconcrete

IntegralColored
Perviousconcretecanbeattainedbyaddingpowderedcolororliquidcolortothemixinthebatchingprocessintheready mixtruckorcentralmixunit.Keepinmindthisprocessneedstobetestedandadjustedforeachindividualjob.The water/cementratioisverylowinperviousconcrete.Whenaddingpowderedcolortothemix,itwilluseupmoreofthe waterinthemix.Morewatermaybeneededinthedecorativeperviousmixthaninperviouswithoutcolor.

SurfaceColor
Colorcanbeappliedtoperviousconcretewithasurfaceapplication..Therearecoloringagentsthatcanbeappliedtothe surface.Colorcanbesprayedonthesurfaceinthecuringstagealongwiththesoybeanoilandreappliedasneededfor colorintensityormaintenance.Ordoneasastain/dyeprocess.Keepinmindperviousisusuallybeingdonetoachieve greenbuildingpractices,soapplyingastainthatrequiresrinsingmaynotbethegreenestpractice.Besurecoloringagents areUVstable.

Stamping
Stampingperviousconcretehasbeendoneandcanbedone.Itisnotassimpleaswithconventionalconcrete.The perviousconcretehasalowtonoslump,whichmeansitisverystiff.Theoldermetalstampstendtobeusedinsteadofthe softerneoprene/rubbermatstocreateanimpression. Keepinmindthatstampingtakestime,whichleavestheperviousexposedtothewindandsun.Itwouldbedifficulttocure perviousintherequired3to5minutesbehindthescreedwhenstamping. Anexperiencedcrewwouldneedtoworkveryquicklytostampthesurfaceandgetitcovered(cured).

35

Chapter10 SpecifiersGuidetoPerviousConcretePavementsintheGreaterKansasCityArea v1.2.11


Gotowww.concretepromotion.comtofindthecurrentguide. Itisavailableonthefrontpageofthewebsiteand/orunderthepervioustab. ThePerviousConstructionChecklistisfoundinthebackoftheSpecifiersGuide ThePreConstructionConferenceChecklistisalsofoundinthebackoftheSpecifiersGuide

36

Chapter10 WebsitesandResources
Websites: CPGwebsitewww.concretepromotion.com NationalReadyMixedConcreteAssociations(NRMCA)websitewww.nrmca.org NRMCAsPerviouswebsitewww.perviouspavement.org PortlandCementAssociation(PCA)websitewww.cement.org PCAsPerviousPagehttp://www.cement.org/tech/cct_con_design_pervious.asp ConcreteThinkingforaSustainableWorldwebsitewww.concretethinker.com NRMCAsPerviousConcreteContractorCertificationProgram http://nrmca.org/Education/Certifications/Pervious_Contractor.htm AmericanSocietyforTestingMaterials(ASTM)www.astm.org AmericanConcreteInstitute(ACI)www.concrete.org NationalPerviousConcretePavementAssociation(NPCPA)www.pervious.comorwww.npcpa.org

Resources: StormWaterPhaseIIFinalRule:AnOverview,EPA833F00001,FactSheet1.0,USEnvironmentalProtectionAgency, OfficeofWater,January2000,4pages Freeze/ThawResistanceofPerviousConcrete,NRMCA,May2004,SilverSpring,Maryland,17pages MixDesignDevelopmentforPerviousConcreteinColdWeatherConcrete,IowaStateUniversity,NationalConcrete PavementTechnologyCenter,February2006 PerviousConcrete:WhenitRainsitDrains,NRMCA CIP#38PerviousConcrete,NRMCA,ConcreteinPracticeSeries StormWaterTechnologyFactSheet:PorousPavement,UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,EPA832F99023, September1999.www.epa.gov/npdes PerviousConcretePromoFlipBook,NRMCA,#2PPCPB1, PerviousConcretePavements,PCA,Tennis,P.D.,Leming,M.L.,andAkers,D.J.,Skokie,Illinois&NRMCA,SilverSpring, Maryland,EB302,25pgs PerviousHydrologicalSoftwareResourceCDROM,NRMCA,CD063.02 ConstructionandMaintenanceAssessmentofPerviousConcretePavements,RMCFoundation,January2007,www.rmc foundation.org HydraulicPerformanceAssessmentofPerviousConcretePavementsforStormwaterManagementCredit,RMCFoundation, January2007,www.rmcfoundation.org PortlandCementPerviousConcretePavement:FieldPerformanceInvestigationonParkingLotandRoadwayPavements, RMCFoundation,December2007,www.rmcfoundation.org PerviousConcreteResearchCompilation:Past,PresentandFuture,RMCFoundation,UpdatedJune2008&November2008, www.rmcfoundation.org MixDesignDevelopmentforPortlandCementPerviousConcreteinColdWeatherClimates,Kevern,JohnT.,MastersThesis, IowaStateUniversity,Ames,Iowa,2006,155pages TheEffectofCoarseAggregateontheFreezeThawDurabilityofPerviousConcrete,Kevern,JohnT.;Wang,Kejin,and Schaefer,VernonR.,SN3063,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,Illinois,USA,2008,29pages ASTMC1688,StandardTestMethodforDensityandVoidContentofFreshlyMixedPerviousConcrete http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1688.htm

37


ASTMC1701,StandardTestMethodforInfiltrationRateofInPlacePerviousConcrete, http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1701.htm ACI522.108SpecificationforPerviousConcretePavement,ACI2008,FarmingtonHills,MI,7pages ACI522R10ReportonPerviousConcrete,ACI2010,FarmingtonHills,MI,38pages

38