Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

+2242 Recommend this on Google
+2242
Recommend this on Google

New Member FAQ | Forums | Earn Revenue | Posting Guidelines | Help Topics | Admissions

Awards &

Gifts

Guidelines | Help Topics | Admissions Awards & Gifts Login Register Search Articles Practice Tests Ask
Login Register Search
Login
Register
Search

Articles

Practice Tests

Ask Experts

Question Papers

Jobs

Universities

 

Colleges

 

Courses

 

Schools

Training

 

Gift Shop

| Bookmarks | Reviews

| Learn English

| Social Hub

| New Posts

|

My India

|

Members

|

Polls

|

Join our online Google+ community for Bloggers, Content Writers and Webmasters

Ads by Google

The Supreme Court Court Law Petition for Free

Active Members

Today

Chintan (125)

R Pramod (113)

Pradeepraj R (104)

Last 7 Days

Pramod (1726)

R

K

Komal Sood (585)

Mohan (803)

more

Ads by Google

Court Motion

Bi Law

Court Can

See Your Ad On Google

www.Google.com/AdWords Advertise Your Business On Google. Get A Free Rs. 2,000 Trial Coupon!

Resources » Articles/Knowledge Sharing » General

Resources » Articles/Knowledge Sharing » General Online Members Chintan M.K.Dan Gypsy Urvashi

Online Members

Chintan

M.K.Dan

Gypsy

Urvashi

sudarmani

V.Kavitha

Aditya Naathireddy

Kamal Kishore

Anand

Venkiteswaran.

Bhagwana Ram

More

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

Posted Date: 01-Jul-2011

Category: General

Author: Nandana

Member Level: Gold

Points: 65 (Rs 55)

To ensure the 'rule of law' in all governmental activities, the judicial review of governmental actions called the writ jurisdiction exists. The following article explains the concept of writ jurisdiction, principles of exercise of writ jurisdiction, the writs of Habeas Corpus, Certiorari, Prohibition, Mandamus and Quo warranto, their grounds and conditions, eligibility to apply, procedures, powers and gives a conclusion by mentioning the points which a judicial review examines.

Jobs in Calicut

freeads.in/Jobs Looking for job in your city? Get Great Opportunities. Apply Now

freeads.in/Jobs Looking for job in your city? Get Great Opportunities. Apply Now

Grab Free Eyeglasses

www.lenskart.com/eyeglasses Use Code "FreeFrame" to claim your Free Eyeglasses worth Rs.999. Hurry

www.lenskart.com/eyeglasses Use Code "FreeFrame" to claim your Free Eyeglasses worth Rs.999. Hurry

Online Complaint Forum.

Consumer-Complaint-Forum.akosha.com File Your Complaint Here. Immediate Strong Action on Company.

Consumer-Complaint-Forum.akosha.com File Your Complaint Here. Immediate Strong Action on Company.

L'État sur Facebook

www.Facebook.com Suivez l'actualité gouvernementale avec Facebook. Créez un profil!

www.Facebook.com Suivez l'actualité gouvernementale avec Facebook. Créez un profil!

What is Writ jurisdiction?

avec Facebook. Créez un profil! What is Writ jurisdiction? In modern democratic countries, the administrative

In modern democratic countries, the administrative authorities are vested with vast discretionary powers. The exercise of those

powers often becomes subjective in the absence of specific guidelines etc. Hence the need for a control of the discretionary powers is

essential to ensure that 'rule of law' exist in all governmental actions. The judicial review of administrative actions in the form of writ jurisdiction is to ensure that the decisions taken by the authorities are legal, rational, proper, fair and reasonable.

Article 32 and 226 of the constitution of India has designed for the enforcement of fundamental rights and for a judicial review of administrative actions, in the form of writs. It is a constitutional remedy available to a person to bring his complaint or grievance against any administrative action to the notice of the court. Safeguard of fundamental rights and assurance of natural justice are the most important components of writ jurisdictions.

Article 32 and 226

Writ jurisdiction is exercised by the Supreme Court and the High courts only. This power is conferred to Supreme Court by article 32 and to high courts by article 226.

•Article 32(1) guarantee a person the right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed by part

III of the constitution.

•Article 32(2) empowers the Supreme Court to issue direction or orders or writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Certiorari, Prohibition, mandamus and Quo-warranto for the enforcement of fundamental rights.

•Article 226 empowers the state high courts to issue directions, orders or writs as mentioned above for the enforcement of fundamental rights and for 'any other purpose'. i.e., High courts can exercise the power of writs not only for the enforcement of fundamental rights but also for a 'non fundamental right'.

Principles of exercise of writ jurisdiction.

The writ jurisdictions exercised by the Supreme Court under article 32 and by the high courts under article 226, for the enforcement of fundamental rights are mandatory and not discretionary. But the writ jurisdiction of high courts for 'any other purpose' is discretionary. In that sense the writ jurisdiction of high courts are of a very intrinsic nature. Hence high courts have the great responsibility of exercising this jurisdiction strictly in accordance with judicial considerations and well established principles.

Writs are meant as prerogative remedies. The five writs incorporated under articles 32 and 226 are known as prerogative writs in English law because they were originated in the king's prerogative power of superintendence over the due observance of law by his officers and tribunals. Such prerogative writs are extraordinary remedies. When ordinary legal remedies seem inadequate, in exceptional cases, writs are applied.

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

1.Habeas Corpus

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

The meaning of the Latin phrase Habeas Corpus is 'have the body'. According to article 21, "no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law". The writ of Habeas corpus is in the nature of an order directing a person who has detained another, to produce the latter before the court in order to examine the legality of the detention and to set him free if there is no legal justification for the detention. It is a process by which an individual who has been deprived of his personal liberty can test the validity of the act before a higher court.

The objective of the writ of habeas corpus is to provide for a speedy judicial review of alleged unlawful restraint on liberty. It aims not

at the punishment of the wrongdoer but to resume the release of the retinue. The writ of habeas corpus enables the immediate

determination of the right of the appellant's freedom.

Article 22 of the constitution requires an arrested person to be produced within 24 hours of his arrest and failure to do so would entitle the person arrested to be released. The grounds of his arrest should also be informed to him. Even when the arrest is valid, failure to inform the grounds within a reasonable time would make the detention unconstitutional. In such cases, the writ of Habeas corpus acts as a constitutional privilege. If the court finds that there was no legal ground for the imprisonment of a person, it will pass an order to release him forthwith. The question before the court is whether the detention is lawful. In the writs of habeas corpus, the merits of the case or the moral justification for the imprisonment or detention are irrelevant. Any person whether he is guilty or not,

is entitled to be set at liberty if his imprisonment is not as per law.

Who can apply?

A writ of habeas corpus is issued to the authority or person who has detained the person. The application for habeas corpus can be

made by the prisoner himself or by any interested person other than a total stranger .Even a letter to the court pointing out the

illegalities of imprisonment or unlawful detention will be admitted. If the court gets any information from anyone, it can act suo motu

in the interest of justice.

Procedure:

An application for a writ of habeas corpus has to be made along with an affidavit describing the nature and circumstances of the restraint. If the court finds that a prima facie case for granting the request is evident, then it will issue a rule 'nisi' calling upon the authority concerned to show cause , on a specified date, why the writ should not be issued. If the cause shown is found to be insufficient, the court will issue the writ for the immediate release of the detained person.

Habeas corpus and the emergency powers of the executive:

Various legislations have curtailed the power of this writ to a great extent. For example, the declaration of emergency and other national security laws etc. The executive has the power to detain a person on its discretion preventively. As per the existing national security laws, the grounds of arrest need not be revealed to the person arrested. In such instances, the judiciary has only very little scope for review.

Similarly, Article 359 of the constitution empowers the president of India to suspend the right to move any court for the enforcement

of any of the fundamental right, specified in his order.

2.Certiorari

The writ of Certiorari is generally issued against authorities exercising quasi-judicial functions. The Latin word Certiorari means 'to certify'. Certiorari can be defined as a judicial order of the supreme court or by the high courts to an inferior court or to any other authority that exercise judicial, quasi-judicial or administrative functions, to transmit to the court the records of proceedings pending with them for scrutiny and to decide the legality and validity of the order passed by them.

Through this writ, the court quashes or declares invalid a decision taken by the concerned authority. Though it was meant as a supervisory jurisdiction over inferior courts originally, these remedy is extended to all authorities who issue similar functions. The concept of natural justice and the requirement of fairness in actions, the scope of certiorari have been extended even to administrative decisions. Whether the decision is judicial or quasi judicial is irrelevant nowadays.

Certiorari is corrective in nature. This writ can be issued to any constitutional, statutory or non statutory body or any person who exercise powers affecting the rights of citizens.

Grounds for Certiorari:

The following are the grounds for Certiorari:

1.Lack of jurisdiction

When the authority has no jurisdiction to take action, it is lack of jurisdiction. When an authority is improperly constituted or is incompetent to take action and if it acts under an invalid law, it will amount to lack of jurisdiction. Similarly when the authority acts without jurisdiction, fails to exercise the vested jurisdiction or acts in excess of the limits, there involves a defect of jurisdiction or power. The court can issue certiorari to quash such orders.

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

2.Abuse of jurisdiction:

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

If an authority abuses its jurisdiction, a certiorari can be issued. When the authority exercises its power for improper purposes it is

abuse of jurisdiction. Similarly if the authority acts in bad faith or ignores relevant points and facts or acts on some other considerations abuse of jurisdiction occurs and the writ of certiorari becomes applicable.

3.Jurisdictional facts:

A jurisdictional fact is that fact or facts upon which an authority's power to act depends. In the absence of jurisdiction for collateral

facts an authority cannot exercise jurisdiction over a dispute and decide it. If the authority takes a decision on the wrong assumption

of existence of jurisdictional facts, the order is liable to be quashed by the writ of certiorari.

4.Error of law apparent on the face of record:

A writ of certiorari can be issued to quash an order if there is an error of law apparent on the record. An error is apparent on the face

of record if it is self evident. i.e. if the error can be ascertained by a mere perusal of the record without a detailed argument or further evidence. An error of law apparent on the face of the record is treated as an insult to the legal system. Ignorance or neglect of law, wrong proposition of law, inconsistency between the facts, law and the decision etc amount to errors of law.

5.Violation of the principle of natural justice:

When there is a violation of the principle of natural justice, a writ of certiorari can be issued. An authority is bound to observe the principles of natural justice. Anyone who decides a case must adhere to the minimum standards of natural justice. Hence when there occurs an infraction of fundamental right, the writ of certiorari comes for restoration of that right.

3.Prohibition

The grounds for issuing the writs of certiorari and prohibition are generally the same. They have many common features too. The writ of prohibition is a judicial order issued to a constitutional, statutory or non statutory body or person if it exceeds its jurisdiction or it tries to exercise a jurisdiction not vested upon them. It is a general remedy for the control of judicial, quasi judicial and administrative decisions affecting the rights of persons.

Grounds:

The writs of prohibition and certiorari are issued more or less on similar grounds.

1.Absence or excess of jurisdiction :

The writ if Prohibition prohibits an authority from exercising a jurisdiction not vested on it. When there is absence of jurisdiction or total lack of jurisdiction an authority cannot act.

Violation of fundamental rights:

When an authority acts in violation or infringement of the fundamental rights of a person, a writ of prohibition can be invoked.

Violation of the principles of natural justice:

All authorities are to observe the principles of natural justice while exercising their powers. If an authority fails in this regard the decision of that authority is liable to be quashed through the writ of prohibition.

4.Statutes or laws against the constitution:

When an authority tries to act under a statute or a law which is unconstitutional, the writ of prohibition can be applied.

Common features of prohibition and certiorari:

•Issued against any authority having judicial, quasi judicial or administrative jurisdiction.

•Certiorari is issued to quash a decision already taken whereas prohibition is issued when the matter is still pending before the authority. But even if the authority has taken a decision, the writ of prohibition can be issued to stop the authority from enforcing the decision.

•Certiorari can be applied for both prevention and cure whereas prohibition is mainly for prevention.

4.Mandamus

The writ of mandamus is a judicial remedy in the form of an order from the supreme court or high courts to any inferior court, government or any other public authority to carry out a 'public duty' entrusted upon them either by statute or by common law or to

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

refrain from doing a specific act which that authority is bound to refrain from doing under the law. For the grant of the writ of mandamus there must be a public duty. The superior courts command an authority to perform a public duty or to non perform an act which is against the law. The word meaning in Latin is 'we command'.

The writ of mandamus is issued to any authority which enjoys judicial, quasi judicial or administrative power. The main objective of this writ is to keep the public authorities within the purview of their jurisdiction while performing public duties.

Conditions required for mandamus

•The petitioner must have the right to compel the performance of the duty. This writ cannot be invoked if the person complaining has no legal right.

•There must be public duty. That duty must be mandatory and not discretionary. But at the same time when a discretionary power is abused or improperly exercised, that would be treated as non exercise of discretion and the court can command the authority to exercise the discretion in accordance with law.

•The petitioner must have made a specific demand for the performance of the duty and the authority must have made a refusal to perform. Then only a writ of Mandamus can be sought.

•A civil liability arising under a contract cannot be enforced through mandamus. The grant of mandamus is discretionary. If there is unreasonable delay in filing the petition or if there is an adequate alternate remedy mandamus may be refused by the court.

Grounds:

The grounds for the writ of mandamus are similar to those of certiorari and prohibition.

1.Lack of jurisdiction.

2.Error of jurisdiction.

3.Excess jurisdiction.

4.Abuse of jurisdiction.

5.Violation of the principles of natural justice.

6.Error of law apparent on the face of the record etc.

In the modern age, administrative agencies enjoy vast discretionary powers. Judicial review of the administrative actions often becomes necessary. The judicial review of administrative functions also comes under the scope of mandamus. When an administrative authority who has the power of discretion fails to act bonafide or if it abuses or exceeds the jurisdiction and if it does not apply 'mind' in solving issues the writ of mandamus acts as an extraordinary remedy.

Who can apply?

Generally the affected person has the right to seek this remedy. Exceptions are:

1.The writ of mandamus cannot be issued against the president or the governors of states. They cannot be insisted to exercise powers and to perform duties.

2.The writ of mandamus cannot be issued against the state legislature to prevent it from the execution of a law alleged to be violative of the provisions of the constitution.

3.The writ of mandamus cannot be issued to an officer who acts on the orders of his superior.

Grounds for refusal of mandamus:

Mandamus is a public law remedy and hence it cannot be used to enforce a civil liberty arising under contracts.If there is unreasonable delay in filing the petition and if there is another adequate alternate remedy, the writ of mandamus cannot be issued.

In fact the writ of mandamus is more purposeful than certiorari or prohibition It combnes the aspecs of both the writs to make an effective and better solution.

5.Quo Warranto

The word meaning of 'Quo warranto' is 'by what authority'. It is a judicial order against a person who occupies a substantive public office without any legal authority. The person is asked to show by what authority he occupies the position or office. This writ is meant to oust persons, who are not legally qualified, fro substantive public posts.

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

The writ of Quo warranto is to confirm the right of citizens to hold public offices. In this writ the court or the judiciary reviews the action of the executive with regard to appointments made against statutory provisions, to public offices .It also aims to protect those persons who are deprived of their right to hold a public office.

Conditions:

The following conditions are to be present if the writ of quo warranto is to be issued.

•The office must be a 'public office'. All offices established by statutes or as per the provisions of the constitution and which carry out public duties are public offices.

•It must be substantive in nature. A substantive office is independent and permanent. It must be held by an independent officer.

•The holder must be in actual possession of the office.

•The person must have actual possession of the office. A person who has been elected or appointed to a particular post cannot be sued upon unless he has not accepted the post.

•The holding of the post must be in contravention of law. The appointment of a person to a public office must be a clear violation of law. Irregularities in procedures etc cannot be taken as violation.

Who can apply?

Any member of the public can seek the remedy of quo warranto even if he is not personally aggrieved or interested in the matter.

Conclusion:

In our country the judiciary or law is supreme. Writ jurisdictions are judicial reviews of administrative actions. Judiciaries always stand to ensure that all administrative actions are confined to the limits of the law. A judicial review examines

•Whether the authority has exercised its powers.

•Whether the authority has abused its powers.

•Whether the authority has committed an error of law.

•Whether the authority has violated the principles of natural justice.

•Whether the authority has infringed the fundamental rights of persons etc.

Thus, the writ jurisdictions act as judicial restraints of policy decisions which are unreasonable, unfair and against public interests.

See Your Ad On Google

www.Google.com/AdWords Advertise Your Business On Google. Get A Free Rs. 2,000 Trial Coupon!

Read related articles: Writ jurisdictions

Trial Coupon! Read related articles: Writ jurisdictions Did you like this resource? Share it with your

Did you like this resource? Share it with your friends and show your love!

1
1

ShareShare

Tweet 1 Like
Tweet
1
Like

5 people like this. Be the first of your

friends.

We're on

We're on +9,448
We're on +9,448

+9,448We're on

IndiaStudyChannel Like 29,619
IndiaStudyChannel
Like
29,619

Responses to "Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts"

Writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and high courts

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/142486-Writ-jurisdiction-S

No responses found. Be the first to respond

Post Comment:

Feedbacks

found. Be the first to respond Post Comment: Feedbacks Notify me by email when others post
found. Be the first to respond Post Comment: Feedbacks Notify me by email when others post

Notify me by email when others post comments to this article. Do not include your name, "with regards" etc in the comment. Write detailed comment, relevant Do not include your name, "with regards" etc in the comment. Write detailed comment, relevant to the topic. No HTML formatting and links to other web sites are allowed. This is a strictly moderated site. Absolutely no spam allowed.

Name:

Email:

moderated site. Absolutely no spam allowed. Name: Email: Sign In to fill automatically. (Will not be
moderated site. Absolutely no spam allowed. Name: Email: Sign In to fill automatically. (Will not be
moderated site. Absolutely no spam allowed. Name: Email: Sign In to fill automatically. (Will not be

Sign In to fill automatically.

(Will not be published, but

required to validate comment)

(Will not be published, but required to validate comment) Type the numbers and letters shown on

Type the numbers and letters shown on the left.

Next Resource: Career options and possibilities in sound engineering

Previous Resource: How to increase the mileage of your car?

Return to Resources

Post New Resource

Category: General

Post resources and earn money!

More Resources

Accrual accounting in Idia

What is the level of maturity of thought in women?

About Aerobics dance, its types, procedures and benefits

Five simple steps to earn cash and points from this site (India Study Channel)

Science and our life

The new Decision Review System (DRS) in cricket

Popular Tags

Tag posting guidelines

Search Tags

Writ jurisdictions . Habeas corpus . Prohibition . Quo warranto . Mandamus .

About Us

See Your Ad On Google

www.Google.com/AdWords Advertise Your Business On Google. Get A Free Rs. 2,000 Trial Coupon!

Contact Us

Copyright

Privacy Policy

Terms Of Use

AdSense Revenue Sharing sites

Privacy Policy Terms Of Use AdSense Revenue Sharing sites Advertise Talk to Tony John ISC Technologies,

Advertise

Talk to Tony John

ISC Technologies, Kochi - India. Copyright © All Rights Reserved.