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GRAMTICA INGLESA I

Jos Luis Martnez Snchez

GRAMTICA INGLESA
ndice
GRAMTICA INGLESA I..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
GRAMTICA INGLESA................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2
ndice.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2
Bibliografa:...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5
Ttulos
Autores
Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................................................5
The Heinemann Elementary English Grammar. Digby Beaumont. Heinemann...................................................................................................................................5
Password. Students book 1. Bill Bowler & Sue Parminter. Oxford University Press..........................................................................................................................5
Teenage English
S.M.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................5
UNIDAD 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6
PARTCULAS INTERROGATIVAS........................................................................................................................................................................................................6
PRESENT SIMPLE................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6
Ejemplos................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6
NOTAS PARA TRABAJAR CON LA ESTRUCTURA PREGUNTA RESPUESTA..................................................................................................................................7
Ejemplos................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7
THERE IS/THERE ARE.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................7
Ejemplos................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7
VERBS TO BE, TO HAVE GOT, CAN PRESENT SIMPLE................................................................................................................................................................8
Ejemplos................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES............................................................................................................................................................................................................9
DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS..........................................................................................................................................................................................................9
RESUMEN DE LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES Y DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS.................................................................................................................9
DETERMINANTES DEMOSTRATIVOS..............................................................................................................................................................................................10
PREPOSICIONES DE LUGAR ESTTICAS (LOS SERES O COSAS NO TIENEN MOVIMIENTO, ESTN PARADOS)................................................................11
PREPOSICIONES IN, ON, AT PARA LUGAR .................................................................................................................................................................................11
OTRAS PREPOSICIONES ESTTICAS DE LUGAR ....................................................................................................................................................................12
UNIDAD 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH VERBS TO BE AND TO HAVE GOT.......................................................................................................................................13
IMPERATIVE.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13
CAN/CANT..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
Afirmativa.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
Interrogativa.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
Negativa...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
Notas sobre las estructuras..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
PRESENT SIMPLE..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15
CASO POSESIVO...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16
GENITIVO SAJN (POSSESIVE CASE)........................................................................................................................................................................................16
Con caso posesivo...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................16
2

UNIDAD 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17
PRESENT CONTINUOUS = PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO..........................................................................................................................................17
Afirmativa.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17
Interrogativa.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17
Negativa...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18
DIFERENCIA DE USO ENTRE EL PRESENTE SIMPLE O HABITUAL Y EL PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO...............................................................18
PRESENTE HABITUAL ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................18
PRESENTE CONTINUO..................................................................................................................................................................................................................18
USO DE LOS VERBOS TO GO, TO PLAY Y TO DO PARA HABLAR DE DEPORTES Y ACTIVIDADES FSICAS...................................................................18
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18
VERBOS TO LIKE, TO LOVE Y TO HATE..........................................................................................................................................................................................19
SUGERENCIAS, OFRECIMIENTOS E INVITACIONES "HOW ABOUT ...?", "WOULD YOU LIKE ...?"...........................................................................................19
MAKING SUGGESTIONS................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
Estructura.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
OFFERING SOMETHING................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
Estructura.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
INVITING SOMEONE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
Estructura.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19
OBLIGACIN VERBO TO HAVE TO .................................................................................................................................................................................................19
ADJETIVOS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20
POSICIN EN LA FRASE................................................................................................................................................................................................................20
GRADOS DEL ADJETIVO: COMPARATIVO Y SUPERLATIVO..........................................................................................................................................................20
Estructuras.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20
COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDAD.............................................................................................................................................................................................20
Estructuras...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20
VERBO TO BE: PAST SIMPLE...........................................................................................................................................................................................................21
Afirmativa.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21
Interrogativa.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21
Negativa...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21
UNIDAD 4................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.....................................................................................................................................................................................22
DETERMINANTES "A" Y "AN" .......................................................................................................................................................................................................22
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
DETERMINANTES "SOME" Y "ANY..................................................................................................................................................................................................22
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
PAST SIMPLE (REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS).....................................................................................................................................................................23
Afirmativa.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Interrogativa.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Negativa...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
3

SHOULD / SHOULDN'T .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................24


PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS..........................................................................................................................................................................24
DIFERENCIA DE USO ENTRE EL PRESENTE SIMPLE O HABITUAL Y EL PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO...........................................................24
VERBO TO BE: PAST SIMPLE...........................................................................................................................................................................................................24
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24
PARA QU SIRVEN LAS COSAS?...................................................................................................................................................................................................24
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24
DESCRIPCIONES DE LUGARES Y COSAS......................................................................................................................................................................................24
UNIDAD 5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
PRESENT SIMPLE..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
PAST SIMPLE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
IMPERATIVES.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................................................................................25
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25
PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT (grficos)......................................................................................................................................................................................26
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................27
DETERMINANTES INDEFINIDOS A LOT OF, MORE, MUCH, MANY, A LITTLE, A FEW, FEWER, LESS,..................................................................................28
Estructuras.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
EjempIos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
Estructuras.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
Estructuras.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
Eiemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
Estructuras.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28
ADVERBIO DE CANTIDAD A LOT......................................................................................................................................................................................................28
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY ALWAYS, USUALLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES, HARDLY EVER, NEVER,.........................................................................................29
Con el verbo "to be".........................................................................................................................................................................................................................29
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29
Con cualquier otro verbo..................................................................................................................................................................................................................29
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29
UNIDAD 6................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30
PAST SIMPLE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES.............................................................................................................................................................................................................30
VERB PATTERNS.- Hay verbos que van seguidos de otro verbo.......................................................................................................................................................30
When are you catching the plane? I plan to catch it on Wednesday morning.
The robots in the north of the city want to kill us..................................30
HAVE GOT: PAST SIMPLE..................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Afirmativa.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Interrogativa.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Negativa...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Ejemplos..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
4

Bibliografa:
Ttulos
The Heinemann Elementary English Grammar.
Password. Students book 1.
Teenage English

Autores
Digby Beaumont.
Bill Bowler & Sue Parminter.

Editorial
Heinemann.
Oxford University Press.
S.M.

UNIDAD 1
PARTCULAS INTERROGATIVAS
What? = Qu?
When? = Cundo?
How much? = Cunto/a... ?
How long...? = Cunto tiempo?

Where? = Dnde?
Whose? = De quin?
How many ? = Cuntos/as... ?
How fast...? = A qu velocidad...?

Who? = Quin?
Which? = Cul?, Cules?
How often? = Cuntas veces?
How high...? = Qu altura...? (cosas)

How? = Cmo?
Why? = Por qu?
How far? = A qu distancia...?
How tall? = Qu altura? (seres)

PRESENT SIMPLE
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes), My mother
goes
to the supermarket every week
Sujeto
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
pronombre)
En infinitivo SIN TO Si el sujeto es 3 persona de singular se le aade S o -ES
Interrogativa
Where
does
she
study
English?
Partcula
Verbo auxiliar
Sujeto
Verbo principal
interrogativa
DOES Si el sujeto es
(Nombre o
(si la hay)
DO/DOES
3 persona de singular.
pronombre)
En infinitivo sin to. SIN NINGUNA TERMINACIN.
DO Con los dems sujetos
Negativa
(No), I
do
not
play
volleyball every week
Sujeto
Verbo auxiliar
Negacin verbal
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
DOES Si el sujeto es
pronombre)
DO/DOES
3 persona de singular.
NOT
En infinitivo sin to. SIN NINGUNA TERMINACIN.
DO Con los dems sujetos
dont / doesnt
USO
a). Se utiliza para hablar de cosas que ocurren repetidamente.
Ejemplos
I cycle to work every day.
My dogs name is Lady; I feed her twice a day.
Why do not you buy your brother a mouse?
They eat meat and fish.
When does the zoo open?
Bruces fish, Spot, lives in the sitting room.
He eats meat and biscuits, cereals and bones. I dont smoke.
I sometimes go windsurfing.
I usually play tennis at weekends.
Bruce changes Spots water every Saturday.
Josie likes people.
I often go swimming.
My cat does not drink water, only milk.
He chases cats and he eats our toys too.
She eats a lot.
He likes nuts and chocolates. Do you usually work on Saturdays?
She always listens to the news at 10 oclock.
He drinks water.
He does not like baths or cats. He sleeps on the sofa or outside in the sun.
My dog, Roger, lives in our house and garden. He loves children.
b). Se usa tambin para hablar sobre hechos que son verdaderos generalmente.
Ejemplos
Elephants live in Africa and India.
Where do alligators live?
Maria does not live in Milan. She lives in Rome.
Where do polar bears live?
Llamas dont live in grasslands.
They live in South America.
Indians use them as work animals.
They eat grass and plants.

NOTAS PARA TRABAJAR CON LA ESTRUCTURA PREGUNTA RESPUESTA


QUESTIONS
ANSWERS
a). Sin partcula interrogativa.
a). Empieza por YES o NO.
b). Con partcula interrogativa.
b). No comienza en YES ni NO.
c). Sujeto en 2 persona.
c). Sujeto en 1 persona.
d). Sujeto en 3 persona.
d). Sujeto en 3 persona.
e). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 1 persona.
e). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 2 persona.
f). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 2 persona.
f). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 1 persona.
g). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 3 persona.
g). Determinantes posesivos del sujeto o de los complementos en 3 persona.
Ejemplos
Whats your name?
My names Peter.
How old are you?
Im twenty years old.
How are you?
Im fine, thanks. And you?
What are you?
Im a doctor.
Where do you live?
I live in Paris.
Where does your sister live?
My sister lives in Oxford.
Where is she now?
She is at work.
How old is their mother?
Their mother is thirty years old
Whats the time?
Its three past seven.
Where were you yesterday?
We were at the restaurant.
When is your birthday?
My birthday is in January.
What is her name?
Her name is Mara.
Where are you from?
Im from Italy.
How often does she wash her hair.
She washes her hair twice a week.
Are you a teacher?
No, I am not. Im a student.
How many girls are there in our class?
There are twelve girls in your class.
Is your father at home?
Yes, My father is at home.
THERE IS/THERE ARE
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
Singular There is (Theres) + nombre en singular Plural There are + nombre en plural
Interrogativa
Singular Is there + nombre en singular?
Plural Are there + nombre en plural?
Negativa
Singular There is not (isnt) + nombre en singular Plural There are not (arent) + nombre en plural
USO
Se utilizan como formas impersonales (sin sujeto) del verbo haber. Equivalen al castellano HAY
Ejemplos
Theres a stereo in the car.
There are five rooms in the flat.
Is there a bank near here? No, there isnt.
Theres a computer in the car.
There are two phones.
There is a snack bar in the zoo.
There are lots of interesting animals in London Zoo.
There isnt a fax machine.
There is a video too.
How many kangaroos are there?
There are some people at the door.
There is a car outside.
There is a film on TV.
There are some stamps in my room.
Is there a TV? Yes, there is a TV.
7

VERBS TO BE, TO HAVE GOT, CAN PRESENT SIMPLE


ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes), I
am
English
Sujeto
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular
pronombre)
Be
IS Sujeto 3 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos
Interrogativa
When
are
your friends
at school?
Partcula
Verbo principal Sujeto
interrogativa
(Nombre o
(si la hay)
pronombre)
AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular
Be
IS Sujeto 3 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos
Negativa
(No), My brother
is
not
a football player
Sujeto
Verbo principal
Negacin verbal
(Nombre o
pronombre)
NOT
AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular
Be
IS Sujeto 3 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos
isnt
arent
Ejemplos
Lucy is a small, black dog.
My dogs name is Lady.
Hes very friendly.
Sonias got a cat.
Bats can fly in the dark.
They can carry heavy things.

How tall are black rhinos?


Hes 2 1/2 years old.
Hes also very noisy.
Sonia has got a dog.
Roger can jump high.
He (Roger) can run fast.

What is your favourite animal?


Hes brown and black.
Tom has got a pet snake called Josie.
Adult llamas arent two metres tall.
Llamas can survive up to two weeks without water.

Llamas are part of the camel family.


Roger is soft and cuddly.
My dog, Roger, has got light brown eyes.
They have got (theyve got) long hair.
They can climb mountains.

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES
Se utilizan en lugar de los nombres de las personas o cosas que intervienen en una conversacin.
Sustituyen al nombre de:
Quien habla 1 persona
Quien escucha 2 persona
UNO SOLO
Hombre o chico (Masculino)
(Singular)
Alguien de quien hablamos o algo de lo que hablamos 3persona
Mujer o chica (Femenino)
Animal o cosa (Neutro)
Quienes hablan 1 persona
MS DE UNO Quienes escuchan 2 persona
(Plural)
Algunos de quienes hablamos o varias cosas de las que hablamos 3persona
DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS
Indican a quien pertenece el nombre al que acompaan.
El nombre pertenece a:
Quien habla
Quien escucha
UNO SOLO
(Singular)
Alguien de quien hablamos o algo de lo que hablamos
MS DE UNO
(Plural)

Hombre o chico (Masculino)


Mujer o chica (Femenino)
Animal o cosa (Neutro)

Quienes hablan
Quienes escuchan
Algunos de quienes hablamos o varias cosas de las que hablamos

MY
YOUR
HIS
HER
ITS
OUR
YOUR
THEIR

Sujeto
I
YOU
HE
SHE
IT
WE
YOU
THEY

Complemento
ME
YOU
HIM
HER
IT
US
YOU
THEM

These are my books


Whats your name?
Alex has got his camera
Mary is with her father
This classroom has got its blackboard
This is our suitcase
Your (vuestro) friend is very clever
That man is their father (John and Mike)

RESUMEN DE LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES Y DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS


Nmero Persona Gnero
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES
DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS
Sujeto
Complemento
1
I
ME
MY
2
YOU
YOU
YOUR
Singular
Hombre o chico HE
HIM
HIS
3
Mujer o chica
SHE
HER
HER
Animal o cosa
IT
IT
ITS
Plural

1
2
3

WE
YOU
THEY

US
YOU
THEM
Nunca acompaan a un nombre

OUR
YOUR
THEIR
Siempre acompaan a un nombre

USO
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES
a). Detrs de preposicin, siempre se usa un pronombre complemento. NUNCA un pronombre sujeto.
Ejemplos
Give the book to me, please. I give a book to him.
Give it to me, please. Show the photos to us.
b). El pronombre complemento no se pone NUNCA delante del verbo.
Ejemplos
Take it to table number eight. I give him a book
Ill help her.
Indian use them as work animals.
DETERMINANTES POSESIVOS
a). Se colocan siempre delante del nombre.
Ejemplos
He eats our toys too.
Roger lives in our house and garden.
b). Es obligatorio usarlos delante de nombres que se refieren a partes del cuerpo o prendas de vestir.
Ejemplos
He has broken his leg.
Put on your coat.
DETERMINANTES DEMOSTRATIVOS
Indican la situacin o posicin del nombre.
Acompaan a nombres que estn:
Singular
Cerca de quien habla
THIS
Lejos de quien habla
THAT

Show us the photos.

I give it him.

Plural
THESE
THOSE

I can see this traffic light and that plane.

These armchairs and those clouds are grey

10

PREPOSICIONES DE LUGAR ESTTICAS (LOS SERES O COSAS NO TIENEN MOVIMIENTO, ESTN PARADOS)
PREPOSICIONES IN, ON, AT PARA LUGAR
IN EN (dentro de un lugar con tres dimensiones)
Ejemplos
Theres a shower in the bathroom.
My passport is in my suitcase.

Roger lives in our house and garden.

ON (sobre una superficie o sobre una lnea)


Ejemplos
Washington is on the Potomac River.
The newspaper is on the table. He sleeps on the sofa.
Sidney is on the south-east coast of Australia.

Mary is in the zoo

Look, theres something on the floor.

AT EN (en un punto concreto de un lugar)


Ejemplos
Theres a phone box at the end of West Street.

Meet me at the airport.

USO
a). Con TO BE:
BE + AT WORK
BE + AT HOME
BE + AT SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY,
Ejemplos
Nick isnt at work today. Hes at home.
I was at home yesterday watching a football match.
Is Mike at school today?
Betty is a student at university.
b). Con edificios puede utilizarse AT o IN. Pero si nos referimos al propio edificio debe usarse IN.
Ejemplos
Diana sometimes stays in the Grand Hotel.
She sometimes stays at the Grand Hotel.
There are two hundreds rooms in the Grand Hotel.
c). Con direcciones se debe emplear: IN + CITY OR TOWN
IN + STREET, AVENUE, SQUARE, ROAD,
AT + HOUSE NUMBER
ON + FLOOR
Ejemplos
He lives in Brighton.
I was born in Madrid in 1976. My friends live in Portland Street.
We live at 42, Hill Street.
My flat is on the first floor.

11

OTRAS PREPOSICIONES ESTTICAS DE LUGAR


ON THE WARDROBE

IN THE WARDROBE

NEAR THE WARDROBE

BEHIND THE WARDROBE


NEXT TO THE WARDROBE

UNDER THE WARDROBE


IN FRONT OF THE WARDROBE
OPPOSITE THE WARDROBE

SUPERMARKET OPPOSITE THE HOTEL

CINEMA

HOTEL

CAFE

BETWEEN THE CINEMA


AND THE CAF

BANK
NEXT TO THE CAFE

12

UNIDAD 2
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH VERBS TO BE AND TO HAVE GOT
Ninguno de los dos llevan verbos auxiliares. En frases interrogativas hacen la inversin de sujeto con verbo.
QUESTIONS
Ejemplos
Are they your brothers?
Has he got curly hair?
Are you a Take That fan?
ANSWERS
Ejemplos
Ive got one brother.
He has got long, dark hair.
She is tall with long fair hair and blue eyes.
Hes got one sister and two brothers.
His names Mark.
Hes got long, fair hair.
She is really cute and intelligent too.
His favourite film star is Arnold Schwarzenegger.
She is British.
She is twenty years old.
Hes got three sisters and one brother.
My favourite pop star is Kim Kelly.
His eyes are blue.
His hair is straight.
Shes got two brothers.
He hasnt got a girlfriend.
This is my best friend. She is a brilliant dancer.
IMPERATIVE
USO
Se utiliza para:
a). Instrucciones Open your books
b). Avisos o advertencias Be careful. Dont drop it.
c). Invitaciones Come in.
d). Ofrecimientos Have some more coffee.
e). Consejos Stay in bed. Dont go to work today.
f). Peticiones Pass the salt, please.
NOTA
El imperativo en ingls se usa poco. En muchas ocasiones es ms correcto utilizar construcciones con los verbos CAN o MAY
Ejemplos
Can I have that postcard, please?
Can you pass me the salt, please?
Can you say that again, please?
ESTRUCTURAS
AFFIRMATIVE.- Sin sujeto, slo el verbo en infinitivo SIN TO.
Listen
to the tape
Verbo principal en infinitivo SIN TO
Complementos
NEGATIVE
Do
not
close
the door, please
Verbo auxiliar DO Negacin verbal NOT Verbo principal en infinitivo SIN TO Complementos
DONT

13

CAN/CANT
CAN es un verbo defectivo porque slo existe en presente CAN / CANT y en pasado simple COULD / COULDNT.
USO
Se utiliza para indicar:
Habilidad para hacer algo.
Capacidad para hacer algo.
En todos los casos se traduce al castellano con PODER
Posibilidad de hacer algo.
Permiso para hacer algo.
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes), she
can
speak
English
Sujeto
Verbo principal
Verbo en infinitivo sin TO
(Nombre o
pronombre)
Presente CAN
Pasado COULD
Interrogativa
When
can
your friends stay
at school?
Partcula
Verbo principal Sujeto
Verbo en infinitivo sin TO
interrogativa
(Nombre o
(si la hay)
pronombre)
Presente CAN
Pasado COULD
Negativa
(No), My brother
can
not
run
very fast
Sujeto
Verbo principal Negacin verbal Verbo en infinitivo sin TO
(Nombre o
pronombre)
NOT
Presente CAN
Pasado COULD
CANNOT / CANT / COULDNT
Notas sobre las estructuras
No aade -s a la tercera persona de singular del presente.
No se construye con los auxiliares DO, DOES ni DID en las formas interrogativas y negativas de presente ni de pasado.
En frases interrogativas hace la inversin de sujeto con verbo.
Siempre va seguido de un verbo en infinitivo sin TO.
Ejemplos
He can play the guitar.
Can they swim?
He cant sing.
Can he speak French?
She can play the piano and the violin.

14

PRESENT SIMPLE
NOTAS
a). En frases afirmativas con sujeto en tercera persona de singular, al verbo se le aade -S o -ES.
Ejemplos
My mother works in a factory and my father teaches French. He goes to the same school as me.
He sometimes helps me with my homework.
He does the cooking at home.
He practises the guitar for four hours every night.
He plays the guitar and loves all music.
Kim plays the electric guitar and sings.
She writes new songs in the afternoon.
Kim exercises for half an hour then practises all mornings.
She goes to or gives concerts in the evening.
b). En frases interrogativas y negativas hay que utilizar los auxiliares:
DOES Si el sujeto es tercera persona de singular.
DO Si el sujeto es cualquier otra persona distinta de la tercera de singular.
Ejemplos
Do his parents work in a shop?
He does not study in the morning.
Does she like Bob Marley?

He studies a lot every evening. He never watches TV.


He does the ironing at home.
He wears glasses.
She writes her own songs.
She works hard.
She lives in Manchester.
She plays the piano too.

We do not speak English.

15

CASO POSESIVO
En ingls la posesin de algo se indica con:
Los determinantes y pronombres posesivos. She has a book. It is her book. It belongs to hers.
La preposicin OF, cuando el poseedor no es una persona. The windows of this classroom are very small.
El genitivo sajn (Possesive case). His sisters names Julie and his brothers names are Paul and Alex.
GENITIVO SAJN (POSSESIVE CASE).
USO
Es obligatorio su uso cuando el poseedor o poseedores son personas, o animales que tenemos en casa.
ESTRUCTURA
Marys
family
is in the garden
Nombre del poseedor + s o slo ()
objeto posedo (SIN DETERMINANTES)
Ejemplos
Bruces fish, Spot, lives in the sitting room.
The horses legs are thin.
My dogs name is Roger.
NOTAS SOBRE SU ESTRUCTURA
a). Si el nombre del poseedor termina en S, slo se pone detrs el apstrofe () Those boys books were here.
NUNCA se ponen determinantes al objeto posedo.
Ejemplos
Bruce changes Spots water every Saturday.
Bettys father is a doctor.
My dogs name is Lady.
b). Si hay una lista de poseedores, slo el ltimo va en genitivo sajn. Peter and Janes friend is Tom.
c). Si el poseedor est definido por varias palabras, slo el ltimo nombre va en genitivo sajn. I like the Queen of Englands country house.
d). Se suelen omitir las palabras: SHOP, CHURCH, HOUSE, COLLEGE y HOSPITAL despus del genitivo sajn.
Ejemplos
Im going to the bakers.
We are coming to Peters.
Se usa el genitivo sajn sin el objeto posedo para evitar la repeticin. This is my car and that is Mrs. Browns.
NOTAS SOBRE SU USO
a). Se utiliza con pronombres indefinidos que se refieren a personas: SOMEBODY, SOMEONE, NOBODY, ... It must be somebodys book.
b). Se usa tambin con expresiones de tiempo, distancia, peso y valor. A weeks rest / A months holiday / Last years crop / An hours walk / A days journey.
c). Se emplea en personificaciones, en el lenguaje literario y en algunos modismos Britains glory / Nights dark mantle.
Ejemplos
Sin caso posesivo (Con nombres de cosas)
The corner of the room.
The end of the holiday.
The top of my head.
Con caso posesivo
Mikes camera is here.
Your friends mother is a nurse.
That is Mara Rossis bag.
Franks sister is a student.
Where is your friends house?
My parents coats are grey.
This isnt my camera. Its Mikes.
Those mens car is very fast. My brothers room is dirty.
My brothers room is very big.
Nicks sister has got a cat.
I like my friends holiday.
Your dogs head is white.

16

UNIDAD 3
PRESENT CONTINUOUS = PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes),

She
Sujeto
(Nombre o
pronombre)

is
Verbo auxiliar

Interrogativa

Negativa
(No),

AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular


IS Sujeto 3 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos

are
your friends
Verbo auxiliar Sujeto
(Nombre o
pronombre)
To be

at me

En gerundio Infinitivo sin TO + terminacin ING

To be

When
Partcula
interrogativa
(si la hay)

looking
Verbo principal

going
Verbo principal

to school?

En gerundio Infinitivo sin TO + terminacin ING

AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular


IS Sujeto 3 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos

I
am
not
writing
a letter
Sujeto Verbo auxiliar Negacin verbal
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
pronombre)
NOT
En gerundio Infinitivo sin TO + terminacin ING

To be

AM Sujeto 1 persona de singular


IS Sujeto 1 persona de singular
ARE Resto de los sujetos
isnt

arent

17

USO
a). Se utiliza para acciones que estn ocurriendo en el momento de hablar.
Ejemplos
I'm leaving now. Goodbye.
Are you working at the moment?
Look at him, he is eating an apple.
Look! It is raining.
What are you doing now? Im writing a letter.
Listen! The man upstairs is playing the violin.
I cant go out today. I am studying for my exam. Where is Tom? He is doing some photocopying.
Its snowing now.
Gemma cant come out now, she is studying.
Who is Lali helping?
Im studying Spanish at school.
We're staying near the beach.
b). Tambin se usa para hablar sobre algo que est ocurriendo ahora, pero no necesariamente en el momento de hablar.
Ejemplos
I'm looking for a job at the moment. (But perhaps I'm not looking at the moment I speak).
Can you drive? No, but my father is teaching me.
c). Por ltimo, se usa el presente continuo con sentido de futuro, cuando hablamos de una accin futura con la que nos hemos comprometido ya anteriormente.
Ejemplos
David is going to the doctors next Wednesday (He has got an appointment with the doctor).
Im meeting a friend this evening (I have arranged to meet him).
What are your plans for next week? I am going on holiday next week.
What are you doing tomorrow?
When are you meeting Jane?
I'm going to Spain this summer to visit my penpal.
DIFERENCIA DE USO ENTRE EL PRESENTE SIMPLE O HABITUAL Y EL PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO
PRESENTE HABITUAL
PRESENTE CONTINUO
Acciones que ocurren normalmente pero no en el momento de hablar:
Acciones que ocurren mientras se est hablando sobre ellas:
I usually go by car,
but this week I am going by train;
it takes longer but it costs less.
You are writing English now.
John is a journalist. He writes for a newspaper.
John is repairing his car at the moment.
Michael is a mechanic. He repairs cars.
Michael is writing a letter at the moment.
What do you do? I work in a shoe shop.
What are you doing? I'm making some tea.
Paul has breakfast at 7.30 every morning.
It's 7.35. Paul is having breakfast.
Does Diana often play golf?
Where is Diana? Is she playing golf?
She always listens to the news at 10 o'clock.
It's 10 o'clock now. She is listening to the news.
Keenan studies two languages at school.
He is studying French now.
Keenan lives in Kaneohe.
Now he is going to school.
Keenan's dad works with animals.
He is going to work at the moment.
What do you do at the weekend?
USO DE LOS VERBOS TO GO, TO PLAY Y TO DO PARA HABLAR DE DEPORTES Y ACTIVIDADES FSICAS
TO GO + verbo en gerundio (-ING).
TO PLAY + nombre para deportes o juegos de mesa en los que se juega contra alguien.
TO DO + nombre para deportes o actividades fsicas en las que no se precisa jugar contra alguien.
Ejemplos
I go running at weekends.
How often do you go swimming?
I never play table tennis.
They play chess.
Do you do gymnastics?
Keenan likes doing watersports.
NOTA.- Los nombres de deportes o juegos que siguen a 'to play" y "to do", no llevan nunca el determinante artculo the.

What sports do you do?

18

VERBOS TO LIKE, TO LOVE Y TO HATE


Estos verbos pueden ir seguidos de un nombre o de otro verbo en gerundio. My brother loves playing with the computer. He's really into computer games.
ESTRUCTURAS
LIKE + nombre ... I like her music very much.
... LIKE + Verbo en gerundio (con terminacin -ING) I like walking to work.
What sports do you like?
I don't like playing computer games.
Does she like Tom Cruise?
I don't like playing chess.
Keenan likes doing Hawaiian dances.
Do you like watching TV?
What else do you like doing?
What are your hobbies? I like watching TV.
... LOVE + nombre ... I love tennis and horse riding. ... LOVE + Verbo en gerundio (con terminacin -ING) I really love watching football on TV. I'm a
Manchester United fan.
I love writing and getting letters.
I love swimming.
... HATE + nombre ... What does your father hate? ... HATE + Verbo en gerundio (con terminacin -ING) He hates driving.
He hates golf.
Mike hates going to the dentist.
SUGERENCIAS, OFRECIMIENTOS E INVITACIONES "HOW ABOUT ...?", "WOULD YOU LIKE ...?"
MAKING SUGGESTIONS
Estructura
How about + verbo en gerundio ? How about going to the cinema?
OFFERING SOMETHING
Estructura
Would you like + nombre ... ? Would you like a newspaper?
INVITING SOMEONE
Estructura
Would you like to + verbo en infinitivo ...?
Ejemplos
Would you like to go to a concert on Saturday?
Which museum would you like to visit tomorrow?
OBLIGACIN VERBO TO HAVE TO ...
La obligacin de hacer algo se expresa en ingls con "have to" (obligacin moral o eludible).
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
Interrogativa
Sujeto + HAVE / HAS + infinitivo con TO
DO / DOES + Sujeto + HAVE + infinitivo con TO ...?
Ejemplos
I have to go to bed at 10 o'clock.
Do you have to do your homework?
I have to telephone my friend Natalia.
Do you have to get up early?
I have to look after my little brother.
What do you have to do?

Would you like to come to a party tomorrow?

Negativa
Sujeto + DO / DOES + NOT + HAVE + infinitivo con TO...
She doesn't have to go to school today.

19

ADJETIVOS
Se utilizan para describir (decir cmo son) las personas, los animales o las cosas.
Son invariables, es decir, tienen la misma forma en singular, plural, masculino o femenino.
AN OLD MAN
AN OLD WOMAN
AN OLD HOUSE
TWO OLD MEN
TWO OLD WOMEN
TWO OLD HOUSES
POSICIN EN LA FRASE
En una oracin, el adjetivo puede ir:
Delante de un nombre Adjetivo + nombre
I've got some new shoes.
Hula is a difficult kind of dancing.
Mara has got lovely hair.
There's a great museum in Honolulu.
He is a tall man.
Detrs de verbos "to be", "to look", "to feel", to seem"
Here I am in London! its fantastic and very different to Madrid That man is tall These shoes are new
Two cultures are important in Hawaii
Hawaii is very popular with tourist
Mara's hair looks lovely
This room feels cold. I'm bored
GRADOS DEL ADJETIVO: COMPARATIVO Y SUPERLATIVO
GRADO COMPARATIVO. Se utiliza para comparar dos cosas, dos animales o dos personas.
COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDAD. Sirve para decir que dos seres o dos cosas son iguales o no lo son.
Estructuras
AS + Adjetivo + AS
The buildings are as old as in Madrid. I'm as intelligent as you are
NOT AS + adjetivo + AS
England is not as big as Spain.
You are not as pretty as Mary
COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDAD
Estructuras
Adjetivos cortos.
Una sola slaba
... adjetivo + terminacin ER + THAN ... The streets are wider and cleaner than in Madrid.
England is smaller than Spain
Today is hotter than yesterday.
Dos slabas en adjetivos que acaban en consonante ms "y"
... adjetivo - letra Y + terminacin IER + THAN Frank looks happier than George.
Adjetivos largos.
La mayora de los de dos slabas y todos los de tres o ms slabas ... MORE + adjetivo + THAN ... I thought London is more dangerous than Madrid, but
I haven't had any problems.
This car is more expensive than that one.
GRADO SUPERLATIVO. Se usa para comparar tres o ms personas, animales o cosas.
Estructuras
Adjetivos cortos.
Una sola slaba
THE + adjetivo + terminacin EST (IN / OF) He is the youngest in his family.
This is the oldest car of the three.
Oahu is the second biggest island in Hawaii.
Dos slabas en adjetivos que acaban en consonante ms "y"
THE + adjetivo - letra Y + terminacin IEST (IN/OF) George is the heaviest in this classroom

20

Adjetivos largos.
La mayora de los de dos slabas y todos los de tres o ms slabas

... THE MOST + adjetivo (IN)... This flat is the most expensive of the three.
You are the most intelligent person I know.
Its the most interesting museum in London!
The "Mona Lisa" is the most expensive painting in the world

NOTAS
a). Algunos adjetivos tienen las formas de comparativo y superlativo irregulares:
Adjetivo
Comparativo
Superlativo
GOOD
BETTER THAN
THE BEST My shoes are better than yours. Ronaldo is the best footballer there.
BAD
WORSE THAN
THE WORST My book is worse than yours.
b). Despus de "than" y "as", se utiliza generalmente un pronombre complemento en el lenguaje corriente o familiar. En un lenguaje ms formal o ms culto, se usa un
pronombre sujeto con un verbo.
Ejemplos
My sister is taller than me
My sister is taller than I am
I'm not as thin as her
I'm not as thin as she is
VERBO TO BE: PAST SIMPLE
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes), She
was
at home yesterday
Sujeto
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
pronombre)
Be
WAS Sujeto 1 y 3 persona de singular
WERE Resto de los sujetos
Interrogativa
When
were
your friends
there?
Partcula
Verbo principal Sujeto
interrogativa
(Nombre o
(si la hay)
pronombre)
Be
Negativa
(No), I
Sujeto
(Nombre o
pronombre)

WAS Sujeto 1 y 3 persona de singular


WERE Resto de los sujetos
was
Verbo principal

not
Negacin verbal

a teacher in 1980

NOT
Be

Ejemplos
He was a very famous writer.

WAS Sujeto 1 y 3 persona de singular


WERE Resto de los sujetos
wasnt
werent
Where were you yesterday evening?

When were you at the beach?

Where was she at six oclock?

21

UNIDAD 4
COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
CONTABLES son los nombres de cosas, personas o animales que podemos contar.
Los nombres contables tienen una forma de singular y otra de plural.
Los nombres contables, cuando hacen de sujeto en una oracin, pueden ir con un verbo en singular o en plural.
Delante de nombres contables en singular, en ingls se usan normalmente los determinates "a" o "an". NUNCA "some" ni "any".
INCONTABLES son nombres de cosas que no podemos contar.
Los nombres incontables slo se usan en singular.
Los nombres incontables, cuando hacen de sujeto en una oracin, llevan siempre el verbo en singular.
Delante de nombres incontables y de nombres contables en plural, en ingls se ponen los determinantes "some", "any" o ningn determinante. NUNCA "a" ni "an".
Algunos nombres incontables ingleses: advice, bread, fumiture, hair, information, money, news, weather, spaghetti, rice, flour, petrol, snow,
DETERMINANTES "A" Y "AN"
Se utilizan delante de nombres contables en singular. NUNCA con nombres contables en plural, NI con nombres incontables.
Ejemplos
Have you got a bicycle?
Weve got an umbrella.
She has got a suitcase.
Id like an English-Portuguese dictionary, please.
I'd like a tin of dog food, please.
Es obligatorio usarlos delante de nombres de profesin, dedicacin u oficio EN SINGULAR.
Ejemplos
Mara Rossi is a journalist.
Tom Cruise is an actor,
A Se usa delante de palabras que empiezan con sonido consonntico.
This is a recipe for a Spanish omelette
AN Se utiliza delante de palabras que empiezan con sonido voclico.
I have got an onion.
NOTA.
ONE Slo se usa para hablar sobre nmeros.
Ive only got one suitcase. My sister has got two.
DETERMINANTES "SOME" Y "ANY
Se utilizan delante de nombres contables en plural para hablar de una cantidad no definida.
Ejemplos
There are some birds in the tree.
There aren't any cats under the car.
Are there any pencils in this drawer?
We've got some green jeans.
Tambin se usan delante de nombres no contables.
Ejemplos
We've got some milk, but we haven't got any coffee. You don't need any bread.
SOME Se usa normalmente en oraciones afirmativas, en peticiones y en ofrecimientos.
ANY Se utiliza en preguntas y en oraciones negativas.
Ejemplos
We've got some oil but we haven't got any eggs.
Are there any cups in the cupboard.
There isn't any soap in the bathroom.
Could I have some water, please?
Would you like some tea?
We haven't got any Spanish oranges.
Have you got any AA batteries?.

22

PAST SIMPLE (REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS)


ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
(Yes), I
went
to the theatre yesterday
Sujeto
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
Verbos regulares Infinitivo sin to + ED
pronombre)
En pasado
Verbos irregulares Forma especial de pasado
Interrogativa
Where
did
she
study
English?
Partcula
Verbo auxiliar Sujeto
Verbo principal
interrogativa
(Nombre o
(si la hay)
DID
pronombre)
En infinitivo sin to (SIN ED)
Negativa
(No),
she
Sujeto
(Nombre o
pronombre)

did
Verbo auxiliar
DID

not
Negacin verbal
NOT

play
Verbo principal

volleyball last week

En infinitivo sin to (SIN ED)

didnt
USO
Se utiliza para acciones acabadas en el pasado en una fecha determinada, que normalmente figura en la frase.
Ejemplos
Did George draw a picture last year? Yes, he drew a picture in 1997.
When did Europeans drink chocolate for the first time?
Reinhold Berger designed a smaller thermos flask.
The Norwegians put up a seven metre high statue in 1989
What did people wear in the 1970s?
She rode on a bike last Sunday.
For 36 years a British man, Joseph Hanway (1712-1786) carried an umbrella

Men wore hats in the 1930s


I bought "Match" magazine last week.
He invented the first thermos flask.
Jeans became popular in the 1950s and 60s
He invented the paperclip in 1900.
every time he went outside.

23

SHOULD / SHOULDN'T
Para decir lo que pensamos que es bueno o correcto hacer, se usa "should", y para lo que consideramos que no es adecuado realizar, se utiliza "shouIdn't".
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
Negativa
YOU SHOULD + infinitivo SIN "TO"
YOU SHOULDN'T + infinitivo SIN "TO"
Ejemplos
Ejemplos
I feel tired all the time.
You should have a holiday.
You shouldn't work so hard.
You should go soon.
You shouIdn't spend the time.
You should re-use old envelopes and recycle paper.
You shouldn't drop litter in the street.
PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
DIFERENCIA DE USO ENTRE EL PRESENTE SIMPLE O HABITUAL Y EL PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO
PRESENTE HABITUAL
PRESENTE CONTINUO
Acciones que ocurren normalmente, pero no en el momento de hablar:
Acciones que ocurren mientras se est hablando sobre ellas:
Ejemplos
Ejemplos
Every day my sister says my clothes are gross.
In this photo she is wearing jeans.
He does his homework every night.
They're dancing in this picture.
VERBO TO BE: PAST SIMPLE
Ejemplos
Johan Vaaler was Norwegian. Sir James Dewar was British. The first thermos flask was not popular with ordinary people.
PARA QU SIRVEN LAS COSAS?
Una de las formas de decir en ingls para qu sirven las cosas es con la siguiente
ESTRUCTURA
Verbo TO BE + FOR + verbo en gerundio (-ING) ...
Ejemplos
its stuff for putting on shoes. They're things for fixing bits of wood together. The first thermos flasks were not for keeping hot drinks in.
DESCRIPCIONES DE LUGARES Y COSAS
Para describir lugares y cosas se utilizan las siguientes
ESTRUCTURAS
...verbo TO BE + adjetivos
...verbo TO BE + preposiciones de lugar
THERE IS / ARE
Ejemplos
Ejemplos
Ejemplos
Elderton is a small town.
It is in the North of England.
There's a newsagent's in Elderton.
its famous for its fish.
Its on the coast.
There are six fish shops in the town.
lt's old and quiet.
lt's opposite the church in North Road, near the park.
There's a flower shop next to the church.
The people in Elderton are very friendly.
Three of them are in Elderton High Street,
There's a snack bar in North Road.
Two are in Church Road, and one is in North Road.
verbo TO BE + nombre
lt's between the flower shop and the fish shop.
THERE IS / ARE NOT
EjempIos
EjempIos
The
main streets in Elderton are Elderton High
There isn't a cinema in Elderton, and there aren't any
Street, North Road and Church Road.
video shops in the town.

24

UNIDAD 5
PRESENT SIMPLE
Ejemplos
We've got Maths last thing on Friday morning. When does Diwali take place? It takes place in October or November. Which town is Ravi from? He lives in Bombay.
Do Hindus sing Diwali songs? No, they don't. I don't mind geography and maths.
Do Hindus give Diwali presents? Yes, they do.
Where do they put lights? In all the windows. Who do they welcome home? Prince Rama and his wife.
What is the Ramayana? An old Hindu poem.
What do Hindu families do before Diwali? They clean their houses from top to bottom.
PAST SIMPLE
Ejemplos
Uncle Andrew, what kind of primary school did you go to? Well, it was a state primary school, not a private school.
What was it called? It was called Saint Andrew's School. That's because it was next to Saint Andrew's Church.
Was it a single sex school? For boys only, I mean. No, no it wasn't. It was coeducational, for boys and girls.
I see. And did you have a school uniform? Yes, we certainly did. It was blue and white, I remember.
And did you have a different uniform for summer and winter? The girls did, they had summer dresses and a winter uniform, but we boys wore short trousers all year
round, summer and winter too. Of course we wore jumpers under our blazers, and we put on coats, gloves and hats to go to school in the really cold weather.
And what about the different lessons? Did you like all of them? No, I didn't. I hated maths, actually. And I was very bad at it. I hated the maths teacher too. But I really
loved French. We had a very nice French teacher.
My father went to boarding school when he was five.
My sister did not go to school, yesterday.
My mother did not wear school uniform at her old school.
What did they do to Ravana? They killed him.
Who went with Rama to get his wife back from Lanka? His best friend.
At half past nine in the morning Pat walked to the post office.
He/she posted a letter to his/her Spanish penfriend.
From half past ten to half past eleven, he/she watched TV.
At half past eleven his/her cousin phoned.
He/she invited Pat to supper.
At one o'clock in the afternoon Pat went to his/her friend's house for lunch.
From half past two to five o'clock they played computer games together.
At half past five Pat hurried home.
At six o'clock in the evening he/she showered and changed his/her clothes.
He/she didn't have time to dry his/her hair.
At half past six he/she cycled to his/her cousin's house.
At seven o'clock his/her aunt cooked spaghetti for supper. Everyone loved it.
From half past seven to half past eight Pat and his/her cousin listened to some CDs together, and at nine o'clock Pat returned home.
IMPERATIVES
USO
Se utiliza para dar rdenes o instrucciones, y para indicar direcciones. No se usa para pedir a alguien que haga algo.
ESTRUCTURAS
Afirmativa
Negativa
Verbo en infinitivo SIN TO ...
DO NOT (DON'T) + verbo en infinitivo SIN TO ...
EjempIo
EjempIo
Go into the hall and turn right.
Dont touch the ball with your hands.
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES
Ejemplos
Their house is bigger than ours.

A toilet's more important than a TV.

His bedroom's dirtier than mine.

25

PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT (grficos)


CINEMA

CINEMA

INTO the cinema = dentro de (al)

OFF the roof = fuera de (del)

OUT OF the cinema = fuera de (del)

ONTO the roof =encima de (al)

UP the mountain = arriba de (al)


ALONG the road = a lo largo de (por)
DOWN the mountain = abajo de (del)

ACROSS the road = a lo ancho de (por)

26

THROUGH the pipe = a travs de (por)


AROUND the tree = alrededor de

OVER the fence = por encima de

UNDER the fence = por debajo de


BUS
Stop

PAST the bus stop = pasado / a

ROUND the corner = alrededor de;


doblar, volver, girar

BEACH
FROM the beach = desde, de

TO the beach = hacia, a

27

DETERMINANTES INDEFINIDOS A LOT OF, MORE, MUCH, MANY, A LITTLE, A FEW, FEWER, LESS,...
Se usan delante de nombres, para hablar sobre cantidad no concreta.
A LOT OF Se usa normalmente en frases afirmativas.
Estructuras
A LOT OF + nombre incontable.
A LOT OF + nombre contable en plural
EjempIos
Japanese people eat a lot of fish and seafood.
I have a lot of work.
There are a lot of eggs.
MUCH / MANY Se utilizan en preguntas, formando las partculas interrogativas "How much ... ?" y How many ... ?", y en negaciones.
Estructuras
MUCH + nombre incontable.
MANY + nombre contable en plural.
Ejemplos
How much petrol is there in the car?
How much cheese is there in the fridge?
How many brothers and sisters have you got? There are not many potatoes.
He has not much time.
How much bread do Japanese people eat?
Japanese people don't eat many milk products.
A LITTLE / A FEW Se utilizan en frases afirmativas e interrogativas.
Estructuras
A LITTLE + nombre incontable.
A FEW + nombre contable en plural
Eiemplos
We've got a little bread.I have a little money to spend.
The baby has got a few toys.
MORE / FEWER / LESS Se usan para establecer comparaciones sobre cantidades. Normalmente en frases afirmativas y negativas.
Estructuras
MORE + nombre incontable. MORE + nombre contable en plural.
FEWER + nombre contable en plural. LESS + nombre incontable.
Ejemplos
English people eat fewer eggs than Japanese people. English people eat less rice than Japanese people.
CANTIDADES QUE REPRESENTAN
Ms cantidad
A LOT OF, MUCH, MANY
MORE
A LITTLE, A FEW
FEWER, LESS

mucha
ms
poca
menos
Menos cantidad

RESUMEN
Con nombres contables en plural
Con nombres incontables
Frases interrogativas MANY, A FEW.
MUCH, A LITTLE.
Frases afirmativas
A LOT OF, MORE, A FEW, FEWER. A LOT OF, MORE, A LITTLE, LESS.
Frases negativas
MORE, MANY, FEWER.
MUCH, LESS.
ADVERBIO DE CANTIDAD A LOT
A LOT Es un adverbio de cantidad que acompaa a un verbo y modifica su significado.
Estructura
... verbo principal + A LOT ...
Ejemplos
I studied a lot last summer.
I did not paint a lot when I was young.
28

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY ALWAYS, USUALLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES, HARDLY EVER, NEVER,...


Contestan a la pregunta "How often ...?" = Con qu frecuencia ... ?, Cuntas veces ...? How often do they play volleyball?.
USO
Se utilizan para indicar la frecuencia con que se realizan las acciones. Normalmente acompaan a un verbo en presente simple.
COLOCACIN EN LA FRASE
Con el verbo "to be"
Inmediatamente detrs del verbo.
Ejemplos
Diana is always at work at 8.30.
We are sometimes tired in the mornings.
I am never bored,
It's never quiet during carnival,
Carnival is usually very noisy.
There are always lots of parties.
Con cualquier otro verbo
Delante del verbo principal.
Ejemplos
My sister sometimes drinks tea for breakfast.
She sometimes drives to work.
Spanish people often have fruit for dessert.
They often feel bad.
I usually stay at home in the afternoon.
We generally start school at 8.30.
They never come here.
People sometimes wear national costumes.
Children often make paper lanterns.
They hardly ever go to sleep at carnival time.

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UNIDAD 6
PAST SIMPLE
Ejemplos
In the end, Joanna stayed with the Zebrataurs and the doctor returned to the time machine.
Where did Matilda Krum go in the film Daughter of Adventure? To an island. Why dont we fight for you?, said Joanna.
What piece of equipment did Matilda lose down the mountain? Her camera.
What did Matilda Krum draw on Makana? Flowers and plants.
Doctor Preston and Joanna Ward travelled into the future.
Later Zeeron told the doctor and Joanna his story.
The next day the robots came to Zeerons house.
The doctor and Joanna destroyed them with their laser guns.
No, said the doctor. We have to return to our time.
Long John Silver liked Jim and did not kill him
Please stay with us, he said.
Havent you got any guns? asked the doctor
How did she travel? By boat.
They asked for Zeeron.
What was the weather like? Foggy.
Why dont we kill the dragon?, said Matilda.
The pirates left the island in 1761.
The man told me his name.
He found the treasure last month.
He travelled back to 1996 without Joanna
Where were you yesterday evening? How long did the journey take?
She didnt hitchhike to India.
She travelled around the world by bike.
It was a sunny day.
They were in a hot, exotic jungle.
They walked north.
They discovered a city in the jungle.
There were no people in the streets.
Joanna saw Big Ben.
They followed Zeeron to his house.
My people need help, he said.
Suddenly the robots attacked.
Then Zeeron was very happy.
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
Ejemplos
Which is the most expensive holiday camp? = Which holiday camp is the most expensive?
VERB PATTERNS.- Hay verbos que van seguidos de otro verbo.
ESTRUCTURAS
Hay dos modelos de estructuras:
... LOVE
... NEED
... LIKE
... WOULD LIKE
... ENJOY
+ verbo EN GERUNDIO (con terminacin ING)
... WANT
+ verbo EN INFINITIVO (con TO delante)
... MIND
... PLAN
... HATE
... LEARN
Ejemplos
Ejemplos
Do you like going camping?
Which camp would you like to go to? Id like to go to the Nature Camp.
No, we dont like fighting, said Zeeron.
Its in the north-west of Ireland.
Why dont we take a train? Because I hate travelling by it.
I dont want to cycle there.
The pirates wanted to kill Jim.
When are you catching the plane? I plan to catch it on Wednesday morning.
The robots in the north of the city want to kill us.

30

HAVE GOT: PAST SIMPLE


ESTRUCTURAS.- En pasado no lleva nunca GOT
Afirmativa
(Yes), They
had
red hair
Sujeto
Verbo principal
(Nombre o
pronombre)
HAD
Interrogativa
Where
Partcula
interrogativa
(si la hay)

did
she
Verbo auxiliar Sujeto
(Nombre o
DID
pronombre)

Negativa
(No),
she
Sujeto
(Nombre o
pronombre)

did
Verbo auxiliar
DID

have
Verbo principal

her camera?

En infinitivo sin to (HAVE)


not
Negacin verbal
NOT

have
Verbo principal

a country house

En infinitivo sin to (HAVE)

didnt
USO
a). Se utiliza para decir lo que poseamos o tenamos.
Ejemplos
They didnt have any camping equipment.
b). Tambin se usa para describir seres o cosas.
Ejemplos
Can you describe the monster on Mount Mabubu? It had long white hair and red eyes.
The strange animal had a zebras tail.

It didnt have a big head.


It had a soft voice.

How many legs did the creature have?


They had red eyes and metal claws.

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