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Multiple Antennas for MIMO Communications  Channel Correlation
1
Introduction The performance of a multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) is critically dependent on the availability of independent multiple channels. It is well known that channel correlation will downgrade the performance of a MIMO system, especially its capacity. Channel correlation is a measure of similarity or likeliness between the channels. In the extreme case that if the channels are fully correlated, then the MIMO system will have no difference from a singleantenna communication system.
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2 Types of channel correlation
The capacity of a MIMO system not only depends on the number of channels (N M), but also depends on the correlation between the channels. In general, the greater the channel correlation, the smaller is the channel capacity. The channel correlation of a MIMO system is mainly due to two components:
(1) spatial correlation (2) antenna mutual coupling.
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2.1 Spatial correlation
In a practical multipath wireless communication environment, the wireless channels are not independent from each other but due to scatterings in the propagation paths, the channels are related to each other with different degrees. This kind of correlation is called spatial correlation. For a given channel matrix H, the spatial correlation between the channels are defined as:
ij pq
,
E hh
ij
*
pq
ij , 
1,2, , N 
p , q 
1,2, M , 
(1)
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The spatial correlation depends on the multipath signal environment. Multipath signals tend to leave the transmitter in a range of angular directions (called angles of departure, AOD) rather than a single angular direction. This is the same for the multipath signals arriving at the receiver (called angles of arrival, AOA). Usually, the spatial correlation increases when AOD and AOA are reduced and vice versa.
= AOD
Transmitting
array
= AOA
Receiving
array
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Example 1 Find the spatial correlation, _{1}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{1} , of the channels h _{1}_{1} and h _{2}_{1} of a MIMO system with N = 2 and M = 1. All the antennas are dipole antennas. The channels are random with a Gaussian distribution (zero mean and unit variance). Assume that the AOA at the receiver is 360° on the plane (Hplane) perpendicular to the dipole antennas and the radiation patterns of the dipole antennas are omnidirectional. Furthermore, assume that the incident fields at the receiver are polarization
matched.
^{V} in
^{V} o2
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Solutions As there is only one transmitting antenna, the AOD is not relevant for the calculation of the spatial correlation. We define a channel as the opencircuit voltage V _{o} developed at a receiving antenna to the excitation voltage V _{i}_{n} at a transmitting antenna. Therefore,
h
11
V
o
1
V
in
,
h
21
V
o
2
V
in
Note that V _{o}_{1} and V _{o}_{2} are random complex numbers because the channels h _{1}_{1} and h _{2}_{1} are random. However, V _{i}_{n} is deterministic. Thus the correlation coefficient _{1}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{1} can be written as:
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11,21
Ehh
11
*
21
**
E hh
11
11
Ehh
21
21
As the AOA at the receiver is 360° on the Hplane and the incident field is polarization matched to the dipole antennas, the multipath signals at the receiving antennas are as illustrated on the next page. Note that although the far fields come from the same scatterers (aligned in a circular form), the far fields received by dipole 1 and dipole 2 have a phase difference between because their spatial locations are not the same. Hence we denote them by E _{1} and E _{2} , respectively.
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plane waves from the transmitter
Scatterers in the far field region of the receiver
E _{1} , E _{2}
Receiving dipoles (top view)
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Therefore the opencircuit voltages V _{o}_{1} and V _{o}_{2} can be expressed as:
E
*
V V
01
02
E
1
I
m
2
1
0
0
I
z
E
1
dzd
2
I
m
I
0
0
*
z
E
2
dzd
where I(z) is the current distribution on a dipole antennas when it is in the transmission, E _{1} _{(}_{}_{)} and E _{2} _{(}_{}_{)} are the incident fields on the receiving dipole antennas. Note that E _{1} () and E _{2} () are random complex Gaussian numbers due to the random nature of the channels.
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Therefore,
EVV
01
1
*

2
I
m

1 


2
I
m

1 


2
I
m

CJ
0
E 1 
E 
0 

2 

E
1
d
0
E
1
*
2
0
jkd
r cos
E
Ee
*
d
02
Costant
00
kd
r
I
I
I
z
z
z
I
I
I
*
*
*
z
z
z
dzdz
dzdz
dzdz
E
2
0
00
00
E
2
E _{0} = path gain from transmitter to receiver (a Gaussian random number with each scatterer)
2
0
E
E
2
2
0
e
jkd
r
cos
d
2
E
E
0
d
J
1
2
2
0
0
kd
e
jkd
r cos
d
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where C is a complex constant with the expression:
C
0
0
I
z
I
*
z
dzdz
E
E
0
*
By a similar derivation procedure, we can find:
_{} 01
01
*
EVV
02
*
EVV
02
C
Hence the correlation coefficient is then:
11,21
*
02
EVV
01
*
EVV
01
01
*
EVV
02
02
CJ
0
kd
J
r
0
kd
r
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Example 2 Similar to Example 10 but now find the spatial correlation, _{1}_{1}_{,}_{1}_{2} , of the channels h _{1}_{1} and h _{1}_{2} of a MIMO system with N = 1 and M = 2, i.e., one receiving antenna and two transmitting antennas. Assume that the AOD at the transmitter is 360°.
V o
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Solutions Now there is only one receiving antenna, the AOA is not relevant for the calculation of the spatial correlation. The channels are now:
h
11
V o
V
in
,
h
12
V
o
V
in
Thus the correlation coefficient _{1}_{1}_{,}_{1}_{2} is:
11,12
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e 1 
e 
0 

2 



E 



ge 1 

0 

2 



E 

ge 
1 

0 

2 



E 
g 
2 



0 
dzdz
*
I
z
I
z
*
I
z
I
z
dzdz
dzdz
e
jkd
t
g
** e
2
cos
d
d
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Similarly,
_{} 00
*
E VV
E VV
00
*
C
Hence the correlation coefficient is then:
11,12
J kd
0
t
11,21
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Example 3 Similar to Examples 10 and 11 but now find the spatial correlation, _{1}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{2} , of the channels h _{1}_{1} and h _{2}_{2} of a MIMO system with N = 2 and M = 2, i.e., two receiving antennas and two transmitting antennas. Assume that the AOD at the transmitter and AOA at the receiver are both 360°.
r
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Solutions Now the output voltages at the two receiving antennas V _{o}_{1} and V _{o}_{2} can be expressed in terms of the channels as:
V
o
V
o
1
2
hV
11
in
hV
21
in
hV
12
in
hV
22
in
Thus the correlation coefficient _{1}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{2} is:
11,22
*
22
Ehh
11
**
Ehh
11
11
Ehh
22
22
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where V _{o}_{1}_{1} and V _{o}_{2}_{2} are the partial output voltages at antenna 1 and antenna 2 that are due to signals passed through, respectively, channels h _{1}_{1} and h _{2}_{2} . Combining the expressions in Examples 10 and 11, we have:
EV
011
*
V
022
2
2
1
I
m
0
00
E
Ie
z
g
1
d
E
1
2
2
0
00
Ie
z
g
2
d
E
2
I
m
1
_{}
dzd
*
dzd
_{}
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As it is assumed that all the fields are polarization matched to the antennas (all aligned in the z direction), we have:
I
z
I
*
z
I
2
0
z
I
*
d
z
dzdz
g
** e
2
dzdz
2
0
2
Eg
e
jkd
t
cos
d
EE
0
C J
0
kd
t
J
0
kd
r
2
d
2
0
e
22
E
d
*
E
12
00
jkd
r
cos
d
d
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Similarly,
_{} 011
EV
011
*
V
022
*
EV V C
022
Hence the correlation coefficient is then:
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Notes:
In a MIMO system with arbitrary numbers of transmitting (M) and receiving (N) dipole antennas and the antenna separations are d _{t} in the transmitter and d _{r} in the receiver, the correlation coefficients can be calculated twobytwo at a time. The general formula is:

J 
kd 
i 
j 

J 
0 
kd 
k 


ij k ,0 
t 
r 
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2.1.1 Generation of a channel matrix H with specified spatial correlation
If the channel correlation is known, we can use a method [1] to generate the channel matrix H whose elements will have the required correlation. (1) Suppose H has the following form:
H
^{}
hh
11
12
hh
21
22
h
1 M
h
2 M
hh
N
1
N
2
h
NM
(2)
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(2)
Form the following vector vec(H) by stacking the column vectors of H onebyone:
vec(
H
)
h
11
h
N
h
12
1
h
N
2
h
1
M
h
NM
(the dimension of vec(
H ) is
NM
×1)
(3)
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(3) Obtain the covariance matrix R _{H} of vec(H):
R
H
=vec(
)vec(
HH
) ^{H}
(4)
(4) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of R _{H} . (5) Then the channel matrix H can be expressed as:
vec(H)=VD
1/2
r
(5)
where r (NM1) is a vector containing i.i.d. complex Guassian random numbers with a unit variance and a zero mean, V is the matrix whose column vectors are the eigenvectors of R _{H} , and D is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of R _{H} .
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(6)
Hence once the desired correlation is given (by specifying R _{H} ), H can be obtained by (5). The example on next page demonstrates how this is done.
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Example 4 Write a Matlab program to obtain the channel matrix of a 33 MIMO system equipped with dipole antennas with antenna separations at the transmitter and receiver being 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. Assume that the channels are Gaussian random channels with a unit variance and a zero mean, and the antenna mutual coupling can be ignored. Hence calculate the channel capacity when the SNR = 20dB.
Solutions
H
hhh
h
h
11
21
12
22
13
23
h
hhh
31
32
33
,
h
ij
CN
0,1
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d _{t} = 0.2, d _{r} = 0.15
As the channels are Gaussian random number with a unit variance, the covariance matrix R _{H} can be expressed as:
R
_{H} =vec(
)vec(
HH
) ^{H}
Instead of calculating R _{H} directly using the above formula, it can be generated by a simple method. Since the antennas are dipoles, the channel correlation matrix _{r} at the receiver (with a fix transmitting antenna, for example antenna 1) can be calculated first.
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ρ
r
Ehh
11
***
Ehh
11
21
Ehh
11
31
***
11
Ehh
21
21
Ehh
21
31
***
Ehh
31
21
Ehh
31
31
J
J
0
0
0.3
1
J
J
0
0
0.6
0.3
0.3
1
11
Ehh
^{}
21
Ehh
31
J
J
0
0
1
0.3
11
0.6
Then calculate the channel correlation matrix _{t} at the transmitter (with a fix receiving antenna, for example antenna
1).
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ρ
t
Ehh
Ehh
***
Ehh
11
Ehh
11
13
11
12
***
11
Ehh
12
21
Ehh
12
31
***
Ehh
13
21
Ehh
13
31
11
12
Ehh
13
11
^{}
^{}^{} _{}
J
J
0
0
1
J
0
0.4
1
0.4
J
J
0
0
0.8
0.4
1
0.4
0.8
J
0
Then it can be shown that R _{H} is the Kronecker product of _{t} and _{r} . That is,
R
H
=
ρρ
t
r
In Matlab, the Kronecker product is obtained by the command “kron( _{t} , _{r} )”.
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The Matlab codes are shown below (filename: correlated_H):
clear all;
M=3; % number of transmit antennas N=3; % number of receive antennas
k=2*pi;
dr=0.15 %lambda dt=0.20 %lambda
%spatial channel correlations generation
for i=1:N; for j=1:N;
pr(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dr*abs(ji));
end;
end;
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for i=1:M; for j=1:M;
pt(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dt*abs(ji));
end;
end;
RH=kron(pt,pr);
[V,D] = eig(RH); G=V*sqrt(D);
%channel matrix generation
snrdB=20;
snr=10^(snrdB/10);
for n=1:5000;
r=sqrt(0.5)*(randn(N,M)+1j*randn(N,M));
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for j=1:M; for i=1:N;
vec_r(i+(j1)*N)=r(i,j);
end;
end;
vec_H=G*vec_r';
for j=1:M; for i=1:N;
H(i,j)=vec_H(i+(j1)*N);
end;
end;
%capacity calculation
C(n)=log2(real(det(eye(N)+snr/M*(H'*H))));
end;
cdfplot(C)
Average_C=mean(C)
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The average capacity is found to be 12.3 bits/s/Hz. The cdf of C is shown below.
C (bits/s/Hz)
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2.2 Antenna mutual coupling For MIMO systems, except the spatial correlation will contribute to the channel correlation, antenna mutual coupling will also contribute [2], [3]. In the transmitter antenna array, antenna mutual coupling causes the input signals being coupled into neighbouring antennas. This effect can be represented by a mutual coupling impedance matrix Z _{t} (see Lecture Notes on “Mutual Coupling in Antenna Arrays):
1
v Zv
t
s
(6)
where v _{s} is the input voltage vector with mutual coupling not taken into account, v is the input voltage vector when mutual coupling is taken into account, and Z _{t} is given by:
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Z
t
^{}
1
ZZ
11
12
ZZ
LL
ZZ 1 ZZ
21
22
LL
ZZ
N
1
N
2
ZZ
LL
Z
1 N
Z
L
Z
2 N
Z
L
1
Z
NN
Z
L
(7)
Similarly, for the output signals, they are also modified by the antenna mutual coupling effect in the receiving antenna arrays. The actual output voltage vector v _{o} is related to the uncoupled output signal vector v _{u} as:
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v
o
1
Zv
ru
(8)
where Z _{r} is the mutual impedance matrix containing the receiving mutual impedances (see Lecture Notes on “Mutual Coupling in Antenna Arrays):
Z
r ^{}
1
Z
21
t
Z
L
Z
N
t
1
Z
L
12
Z
1 N
t
Z
L
Z
2 N
t
1
Z
t
Z
L
1
Z
L
N
t
2
Z
Z
L
(9)
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In (8), v _{o} and v _{u} are terminal voltage vectors across the antenna terminal loads. If the uncoupled output voltages refer to the opencircuit voltages, then v _{u} is related to the opencircuit voltage vector v _{o}_{c} as:
v
u
Z
L
Z
in
Z
L
v
oc
(10)
In (10), it is assumed that all the antenna elements have the same internal impedance Z _{i}_{n} and terminal impedance Z _{L} . Eq. (8) then becomes:
v
o
Z
L
Z
in
Z
L
1
Zv
r
oc
(11)
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Combining (6) and (11), we have signal model for a MIMO system under both spatial correlation and antenna mutual coupling as:
v 
oc 

v 
o 

Hv v
n
Z
L
Z
in
Z
L
Z
r
1
HZ
1
ts
v
v
n
(12)
where v _{n} is the vector of noise voltages which are assumed to be not affected by antenna mutual coupling.
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Example 5 Redo Example 13 but now take the antenna mutual coupling into account. It is given that the mutual impedance between two transmitting antennas are:
d _{t} = 0.2, Z _{1}_{2} = 25.91j15.34 , Z _{2}_{1} = 25.28j15.78 d _{t} = 0.4, Z _{1}_{2} = 0.90j20.30 , Z _{2}_{1} = 1.42j20.11 The mutual impedance between two receiving antennas are:
d _{r} = 0.15, Z _{t} ^{1}^{2} = 17.73j2.75 , Z _{t} ^{2}^{1} = 17.48j2.94 d _{r} = 0.30, Z _{t} ^{1}^{2} = 8.29j10.44 , Z _{t} ^{2}^{1} = 7.96j10.51 The internal impedance of the dipole antennas is:
Z _{i}_{n} = 39.00+j7.17 The terminal load impedance of the dipole antennas is:
Z _{L} = 50
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Solutions
N = M = 3 d _{t} = 0.2, d _{r} = 0.15
Z
t
Z
r
1.78
0.03 
0.41
0.14
jj
j
0.32
0.40
1.78
0.52 
0.14
0.52 
0.31
0.14
0.02 
0.51
j
0.51
jj
0.31
1.78
0.32
jjj
^{}
0.35 
0.16 
1
j
0.06
j
0.21
0.35 
1
0.35 
j
j
0.05
0.05
0.17 
0.35 
j
j
1
0.21
0.06
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The
mu_correlated_H):
Matlab
codes
are
shown
below
(filename:
clear all;
M=3; % number of transmit antennas N=3; % number of receive antennas
k=2*pi;
dr=0.15 %lambda dt=0.2 %lambda
%spatial channel correlations generation
for i=1:N; for j=1:N;
pr(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dr*abs(ji));
end;
end;
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for i=1:M; for j=1:M;
pt(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dt*abs(ji));
end;
end;
RH=kron(pt,pr);
[V,D] = eig(RH); G=V*sqrt(D);
%receiving and transmitting mutual impedance matrixes creation
zin=39.00+1j*7.17;
zl=50;
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z12=25.9059+1j*(15.3365);
z21=25.2796+1j*(15.7831);
z13=0.8920+1j*(20.3036);
z31=1.4192+1j*(20.1113);
zt12=17.73449488+1j*(2.74569212);
zt21=17.47727875+1j*(2.94131405);
zt13=8.28960286+1j*(10.43902986);
zt31=7.96114038+1j*(10.50848904);
zt=[
1+zin/zl z12/zl
z21/zl
z31/zl
z12/zl
z13/zl
1+zin/zl z21/zl
1+zin/zl
]
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zr=[ 

1 
zt12/zl zt13/zl 
zt21/zl 1
zt31/zl
]
zt21/zl
zt12/zl 1
%channel matrix generation
snrdB=20;
snr=10^(snrdB/10);
for n=1:5000;
r=sqrt(0.5)*(randn(N,M)+1j*randn(N,M));
for j=1:M; for i=1:N;
vec_r(i+(j1)*N)=r(i,j);
end;
end;
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vec_H=G*vec_r';
for j=1:M; for i=1:N;
H(i,j)=vec_H(i+(j1)*N);
end;
end;
H=(zl/(zin+zl))*inv(zr)*r*inv(zt);
%capacity calculation
C(n)=log2(real(det(eye(N)+snr/M*(H*H'))));
end;
cdfplot(C)
Average_C=mean(C)
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The average capacity is found to be 9.2 bits/s/Hz. The cdf of C is shown below.
C (bits/s/Hz)
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References:
[1] J. W. Wallace and M. A. Jensen, “Modeling the indoor MIMO wireless channel,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 591599, 2002. [2] R. Janaswamy, “Effect of element mutual coupling on the capacity of fixed length linear arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 1, pp. 157160, 2002. [3] H. T. Hui, "Influence of antenna characteristics on MIMO systems with compact monopole arrays," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 133136, 2009.
Hon Tat Hui
Multiple Antennas for MIMO Communications  Channel Correlation
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