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Multiple Antennas for MIMO Communications - Channel Correlation

1

Introduction The performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is critically dependent on the availability of independent multiple channels. It is well known that channel correlation will downgrade the performance of a MIMO system, especially its capacity. Channel correlation is a measure of similarity or likeliness between the channels. In the extreme case that if the channels are fully correlated, then the MIMO system will have no difference from a single-antenna communication system.

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2 Types of channel correlation

The capacity of a MIMO system not only depends on the number of channels (N M), but also depends on the correlation between the channels. In general, the greater the channel correlation, the smaller is the channel capacity. The channel correlation of a MIMO system is mainly due to two components:

(1) spatial correlation (2) antenna mutual coupling.

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2.1 Spatial correlation

In a practical multipath wireless communication environment, the wireless channels are not independent from each other but due to scatterings in the propagation paths, the channels are related to each other with different degrees. This kind of correlation is called spatial correlation. For a given channel matrix H, the spatial correlation between the channels are defined as:

ij pq

,

E hh

ij

*

pq

* * E hh E h h ij ij pq pq
*
*
E hh
E
h
h
ij
ij
pq
pq

ij ,

1,2,

,

N

p , q

1,2,

M

,

(1)

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The spatial correlation depends on the multipath signal environment. Multipath signals tend to leave the transmitter in a range of angular directions (called angles of departure, AOD) rather than a single angular direction. This is the same for the multipath signals arriving at the receiver (called angles of arrival, AOA). Usually, the spatial correlation increases when AOD and AOA are reduced and vice versa.

y Scatterers  x
y
Scatterers
x

= AOD

Transmitting

array

Scatterers y  x
Scatterers
y
x

= AOA

Receiving

array

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Example 1 Find the spatial correlation, 11,21 , of the channels h 11 and h 21 of a MIMO system with N = 2 and M = 1. All the antennas are dipole antennas. The channels are random with a Gaussian distribution (zero mean and unit variance). Assume that the AOA at the receiver is 360° on the plane (H-plane) perpendicular to the dipole antennas and the radiation patterns of the dipole antennas are omni-directional. Furthermore, assume that the incident fields at the receiver are polarization

matched.

V in

d r h 11 V o1 h 21
d
r
h 11
V
o1
h
21

V o2

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Solutions As there is only one transmitting antenna, the AOD is not relevant for the calculation of the spatial correlation. We define a channel as the open-circuit voltage V o developed at a receiving antenna to the excitation voltage V in at a transmitting antenna. Therefore,

h

11

V

o

1

V

in

,

h

21

V

o

2

V

in

Note that V o1 and V o2 are random complex numbers because the channels h 11 and h 21 are random. However, V in is deterministic. Thus the correlation coefficient 11,21 can be written as:

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11,21

Ehh

11

*

21

**

E hh

11

11

Ehh

21

21

*  EVV  01 02  *  *  EVV EVV 01 01
*
EVV 
01
02
*

*
EVV
EVV
01
01
02
02

As the AOA at the receiver is 360° on the H-plane and the incident field is polarization matched to the dipole antennas, the multipath signals at the receiving antennas are as illustrated on the next page. Note that although the far fields come from the same scatterers (aligned in a circular form), the far fields received by dipole 1 and dipole 2 have a phase difference between because their spatial locations are not the same. Hence we denote them by E 1 and E 2 , respectively.

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plane waves from the transmitter

NUS/ECE EE6832 plane waves from the transmitter Scatterers in the far- field region of the receiver

Scatterers in the far- field region of the receiver

E 1 , E 2

Receiving dipoles (top view)

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Therefore the open-circuit voltages V o1 and V o2 can be expressed as:

E

*

V V

01

02

E







1

I

m

2

1



0

0

I

 

z

E

1

dzd



2

I

m



I

0

0

*

 

z

E

2

dzd



where I(z) is the current distribution on a dipole antennas when it is in the transmission, E 1 () and E 2 () are the incident fields on the receiving dipole antennas. Note that E 1 () and E 2 () are random complex Gaussian numbers due to the random nature of the channels.

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Therefore,

EVV

01

1

*

2 I m
2
I
m

1

2 I m
2
I
m

1

2 I m
2
I
m

CJ

0

E

1



E

0

   

2

E

1



 

d

0

E

1

*

2

0

jkd

r cos

E



Ee

  
jkd r cos   E  Ee    *    d

*



d



02

02 Costant

Costant

02 Costant
02 Costant
02 Costant



00

kd

r

I

I

I



z



z



z

I

I

I

*

*

*

z

z

z

 

dzdz

dzdz

dzdz



E



2

0



00





00



 

E

2

E 0 = path gain from transmitter to receiver (a Gaussian random number with each scatterer)

2

0

E

 

E

2

2

0

e

jkd

r

cos



d

2

E

E

0

d

E 2  2  0 e jkd r cos   d  2 E

J

1

2

2

0

0

kd

e

jkd

r cos

d

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where C is a complex constant with the expression:

C

1   2 I  m
1
2
I
m





0

0

I



z

I

*

z

dzdz

E

E

0

*

By a similar derivation procedure, we can find:

01

01

*

EVV

02

*

EVV

02

C

Hence the correlation coefficient is then:

11,21

*

02

EVV

01

*

EVV

01

01

*

EVV

02

02

CJ

0

kd

 J

r

CC
CC

0

kd

r

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Example 2 Similar to Example 10 but now find the spatial correlation, 11,12 , of the channels h 11 and h 12 of a MIMO system with N = 1 and M = 2, i.e., one receiving antenna and two transmitting antennas. Assume that the AOD at the transmitter is 360°.

V in d t V in
V
in
d
t
V
in
h 11 h 12
h
11
h
12

V o

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Solutions Now there is only one receiving antenna, the AOA is not relevant for the calculation of the spatial correlation. The channels are now:

h

11

V o

V

in

,

h

12

V

o

V

in

Thus the correlation coefficient 11,12 is:

11,12

*  E  h h 11 12    **   E
*
E  h
h
11
12
**

E
h
h
E
h
h
11
11
12
12
*  E  VV  0 0  *  *  E VV
*
E  VV 
0
0
*

*
E VV
E VV

0
0
0
0

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Scatterers in the far-field region of the transmitter e 1 , e 2 plane waves
Scatterers in the
far-field region of
the transmitter
e 1 , e 2
plane waves
travelling to
the receiver
transmitting dipoles
(top view)
g = path gain from a
transmitter scatterer to
receiver (a Gaussian
random number with
each scatterer)
2
 

*
1
E
V V
 
E


I

z
g
e
dzd
00
1
I

m 0
0
*
2
 
1
I

z
g
e
dzd


2
e1,e2 = far fields
generated by
transmitting antennas
I
m
0
0
Hon Tat Hui
Multiple Antennas for MIMO Communications - Channel Correlation

14

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e

1

e

0

 
   

2

 

 

E

ge

1

 

0

 

2

E

ge

1

0

 

2

E

g

2

 

0

 



E  *  VV  0 0  1     2
E 
* 
VV 
0
0

1
 
2
I
m
00
 1     2 I  m 00

1
 
2
I
m
00

 

dzdz

*

I



z

I

z

*

I



z

I

z

dzdz

 1  *   I  z I  z   

1
*
 
I

z
I
z
2
I
m
00
 C J
kd
0
t
A constant

dzdz

jkd cos   e     ee t 2 0 e 
jkd
cos
e

ee
t
2
0
e
 far field amplitude
0
2
** e
 
 
d
g

  d
2
 
 
0

 

e

jkd

t

 

g

** e

2

cos

d

 

d



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Similarly,

00

*

E VV

E VV 

00

*

C

Hence the correlation coefficient is then:

*  E  VV  0 0  *  * E VV E
* 
E
 VV 
0
0
*

*
E VV
E VV

00
00

11,12

 J kd

0

t

11,12   J kd 0 t    11,21
11,12   J kd 0 t    11,21
11,12   J kd 0 t    11,21
11,12   J kd 0 t    11,21

11,21

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Example 3 Similar to Examples 10 and 11 but now find the spatial correlation, 11,22 , of the channels h 11 and h 22 of a MIMO system with N = 2 and M = 2, i.e., two receiving antennas and two transmitting antennas. Assume that the AOD at the transmitter and AOA at the receiver are both 360°.

V in d t V in
V
in
d
t
V
in
h 11
h
11
h 22
h 22
V o1 d V o2
V
o1
d
V
o2

r

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Solutions Now the output voltages at the two receiving antennas V o1 and V o2 can be expressed in terms of the channels as:

V

o

V

o

1

2

hV

11

in

hV

21

in

hV

12

in

hV

22

in

Thus the correlation coefficient 11,22 is:

11,22

*

22

Ehh

11

**

Ehh

11

11

Ehh

22

22

 *  EV V 011 022  *  *  EV V EV
*
EV
V
011
022
*

*
EV
V
EV
V
011
011
022
022

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where V o11 and V o22 are the partial output voltages at antenna 1 and antenna 2 that are due to signals passed through, respectively, channels h 11 and h 22 . Combining the expressions in Examples 10 and 11, we have:

EV

011

*

V

022





2

2

1

I

m

0



00

E

Ie

z

g

1



d

E





1

2

 

2

0



00

Ie

z

g

2



d

E

2





I

m



1





dzd

*



dzd



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As it is assumed that all the fields are polarization matched to the antennas (all aligned in the z direction), we have:

 * EV V 011 022  1     2 I 
*
EV
V
011
022

1

2
I
m
0
0

I



z

I

*

z

2   E    ge 1  0  1  
2

E

 ge
1

0

1

2
I
m
0 0

I

2

0

z

 

 

I

*

d



z

 

dzdz

g

** e

2

dzdz

  



 

 

 

2

0

2

Eg

e

jkd

t

cos

d

EE

0

C  J

0

kd

t

J

0

kd

r

2

 

d

2

0

e







22





E





d

*

E

12

00

jkd

r

cos

d

 



d







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Similarly,

011

EV

011

*

V

022

*

EV V  C

022

Hence the correlation coefficient is then:

 *  EV V 011 022     J  kd 
*
EV
V
011
022
 
J
kd
J
kd
11,22
0
t
0
r
11,12
11,21
*

*
EV
V
EV
V
011
011
022
022

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Notes:

In a MIMO system with arbitrary numbers of transmitting (M) and receiving (N) dipole antennas and the antenna separations are d t in the transmitter and d r in the receiver, the correlation coefficients can be calculated two-by-two at a time. The general formula is:

 

J

kd

 

i

j

J

0

kd

 

k

ij k

,0

t

r

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2.1.1 Generation of a channel matrix H with specified spatial correlation

If the channel correlation is known, we can use a method [1] to generate the channel matrix H whose elements will have the required correlation. (1) Suppose H has the following form:

H

hh

11

12

hh

21

22

h

1 M

h

2 M

 

hh

N

1

N

2

h

NM

 

(2)

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(2)

Form the following vector vec(H) by stacking the column vectors of H one-by-one:

vec(

H

)

h

11

h

N

h

12

1

 

h

N

2

h

1

M

h

NM

(the dimension of vec(

H ) is

NM

×1)

(3)

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(3) Obtain the covariance matrix R H of vec(H):

R

H

=vec(

)vec(

HH

) H

(4)

(4) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of R H . (5) Then the channel matrix H can be expressed as:

vec(H)=VD

1/2

r

(5)

where r (NM1) is a vector containing i.i.d. complex Guassian random numbers with a unit variance and a zero mean, V is the matrix whose column vectors are the eigenvectors of R H , and D is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of R H .

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(6)

Hence once the desired correlation is given (by specifying R H ), H can be obtained by (5). The example on next page demonstrates how this is done.

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Example 4 Write a Matlab program to obtain the channel matrix of a 33 MIMO system equipped with dipole antennas with antenna separations at the transmitter and receiver being 0.2and 0.15, respectively. Assume that the channels are Gaussian random channels with a unit variance and a zero mean, and the antenna mutual coupling can be ignored. Hence calculate the channel capacity when the SNR = 20dB.

Solutions

H

hhh

h

h

11

21

12

22

13

23

h

hhh

31

32

33

 

,

h

ij

CN

0,1

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d t = 0.2, d r = 0.15

As the channels are Gaussian random number with a unit variance, the covariance matrix R H can be expressed as:

R

H =vec(

)vec(

HH

) H

Instead of calculating R H directly using the above formula, it can be generated by a simple method. Since the antennas are dipoles, the channel correlation matrix r at the receiver (with a fix transmitting antenna, for example antenna 1) can be calculated first.

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ρ

r

Ehh

11

***   

Ehh

11

21

Ehh

11

31

***

11

Ehh

21

21

Ehh

21

31

***

Ehh

31

21

Ehh

31

31

      

J

J

0

0





0.3

1

J

J

0

0

0.6

0.3

0.3

1

11

 Ehh

21

Ehh

31

J

J

0

0

1

0.3

11





0.6

 

Then calculate the channel correlation matrix t at the transmitter (with a fix receiving antenna, for example antenna

1).

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ρ

t

Ehh

  Ehh

***   

      

Ehh

11

Ehh

11

13

11

12

***

11

Ehh

12

21

Ehh

12

31

***

Ehh

13

21

Ehh

13

31

11

12

Ehh

13

11

 

J

J

0

0

1

J

0





0.4

1

0.4

J

J

0

0

0.8

0.4

1





0.4

0.8

J

0

 

Then it can be shown that R H is the Kronecker product of t and r . That is,

R

H

=

ρρ

t

r

In Matlab, the Kronecker product is obtained by the command “kron(t ,r )”.

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The Matlab codes are shown below (filename: correlated_H):

clear all;

M=3; % number of transmit antennas N=3; % number of receive antennas

k=2*pi;

dr=0.15 %lambda dt=0.20 %lambda

%-----------spatial channel correlations generation

for i=1:N; for j=1:N;

pr(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dr*abs(j-i));

end;

end;

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for i=1:M; for j=1:M;

pt(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dt*abs(j-i));

end;

end;

RH=kron(pt,pr);

[V,D] = eig(RH); G=V*sqrt(D);

%-----------channel matrix generation

snrdB=20;

snr=10^(snrdB/10);

for n=1:5000;

r=sqrt(0.5)*(randn(N,M)+1j*randn(N,M));

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for j=1:M; for i=1:N;

vec_r(i+(j-1)*N)=r(i,j);

end;

end;

vec_H=G*vec_r';

for j=1:M; for i=1:N;

H(i,j)=vec_H(i+(j-1)*N);

end;

end;

%-----------capacity calculation

C(n)=log2(real(det(eye(N)+snr/M*(H'*H))));

end;

cdfplot(C)

Average_C=mean(C)

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The average capacity is found to be 12.3 bits/s/Hz. The cdf of C is shown below.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 4 6 8 10
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
cdf(C)

C (bits/s/Hz)

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2.2 Antenna mutual coupling For MIMO systems, except the spatial correlation will contribute to the channel correlation, antenna mutual coupling will also contribute [2], [3]. In the transmitter antenna array, antenna mutual coupling causes the input signals being coupled into neighbouring antennas. This effect can be represented by a mutual coupling impedance matrix Z t (see Lecture Notes on “Mutual Coupling in Antenna Arrays):

1

v Zv

t

s

(6)

where v s is the input voltage vector with mutual coupling not taken into account, v is the input voltage vector when mutual coupling is taken into account, and Z t is given by:

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Z

t

1

ZZ

11

12

ZZ

LL

ZZ 1 ZZ

21

22

LL



ZZ

N

1

N

2

ZZ

LL

Z

1 N

Z

L

Z

2 N

Z

L

1

Z

NN

Z

L

(7)

Similarly, for the output signals, they are also modified by the antenna mutual coupling effect in the receiving antenna arrays. The actual output voltage vector v o is related to the uncoupled output signal vector v u as:

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v

o

1

Zv

ru

(8)

where Z r is the mutual impedance matrix containing the receiving mutual impedances (see Lecture Notes on “Mutual Coupling in Antenna Arrays):

Z


r


 

1

Z

21

t

Z

L

Z

N

t

1

Z

L

12

Z

Z

1 N

t

Z

Z

L

Z

2 N

t

1  

Z

t

Z

L

1

Z

L



N

t

2

Z

Z

L

(9)

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In (8), v o and v u are terminal voltage vectors across the antenna terminal loads. If the uncoupled output voltages refer to the open-circuit voltages, then v u is related to the open-circuit voltage vector v oc as:

v

u

Z

L

Z

in

Z

L

v

oc

(10)

In (10), it is assumed that all the antenna elements have the same internal impedance Z in and terminal impedance Z L . Eq. (8) then becomes:

v

o

Z

L

Z

in

Z

L

1

Zv

r

oc

(11)

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Combining (6) and (11), we have signal model for a MIMO system under both spatial correlation and antenna mutual coupling as:

v

oc

v

o

Hv v

n

Z

L

Z

in

Z

L

Z

r

1

HZ

1

ts

v

v

n

(12)

where v n is the vector of noise voltages which are assumed to be not affected by antenna mutual coupling.

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Example 5 Re-do Example 13 but now take the antenna mutual coupling into account. It is given that the mutual impedance between two transmitting antennas are:

d t = 0.2, Z 12 = 25.91-j15.34 , Z 21 = 25.28-j15.78 d t = 0.4, Z 12 = -0.90-j20.30 , Z 21 = -1.42-j20.11 The mutual impedance between two receiving antennas are:

d r = 0.15, Z t 12 = 17.73-j2.75 , Z t 21 = 17.48-j2.94 d r = 0.30, Z t 12 = 8.29-j10.44 , Z t 21 = 7.96-j10.51 The internal impedance of the dipole antennas is:

Z in = 39.00+j7.17 The terminal load impedance of the dipole antennas is:

Z L = 50

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Solutions

N = M = 3 d t = 0.2, d r = 0.15

Z

t

Z

r

1.78

  -0.03 -

0.41

0.14  

jj

j

0.32

0.40

1.78

0.52 -

0.14

0.52 -

0.31

0.14

-0.02 -

0.51-

j

0.51-

jj

0.31

1.78

0.32

jjj

0.35 -

0.16 -

1

j

0.06

j

0.21

0.35 -

1

0.35 -

j

j

0.05

0.05

0.17 -

0.35 -

j

j

1

0.21

0.06

 

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The

mu_correlated_H):

Matlab

codes

are

shown

below

(filename:

clear all;

M=3; % number of transmit antennas N=3; % number of receive antennas

k=2*pi;

dr=0.15 %lambda dt=0.2 %lambda

%-----------spatial channel correlations generation

for i=1:N; for j=1:N;

pr(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dr*abs(j-i));

end;

end;

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for i=1:M; for j=1:M;

pt(i,j)=bessel(0,k*dt*abs(j-i));

end;

end;

RH=kron(pt,pr);

[V,D] = eig(RH); G=V*sqrt(D);

%--receiving and transmitting mutual impedance matrixes creation

zin=39.00+1j*7.17;

zl=50;

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z12=25.9059+1j*(-15.3365);

z21=25.2796+1j*(-15.7831);

z13=-0.8920+1j*(-20.3036);

z31=-1.4192+1j*(-20.1113);

zt12=17.73449488+1j*(-2.74569212);

zt21=17.47727875+1j*(-2.94131405);

zt13=8.28960286+1j*(-10.43902986);

zt31=7.96114038+1j*(-10.50848904);

zt=[

1+zin/zl z12/zl

z21/zl

z31/zl

z12/zl

z13/zl

1+zin/zl z21/zl

1+zin/zl

]

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zr=[

1

zt12/zl zt13/zl

zt21/zl 1

zt31/zl

]

zt21/zl

zt12/zl 1

%-----------channel matrix generation

snrdB=20;

snr=10^(snrdB/10);

for n=1:5000;

r=sqrt(0.5)*(randn(N,M)+1j*randn(N,M));

for j=1:M; for i=1:N;

vec_r(i+(j-1)*N)=r(i,j);

end;

end;

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vec_H=G*vec_r';

for j=1:M; for i=1:N;

H(i,j)=vec_H(i+(j-1)*N);

end;

end;

H=(zl/(zin+zl))*inv(zr)*r*inv(zt);

%-----------capacity calculation

C(n)=log2(real(det(eye(N)+snr/M*(H*H'))));

end;

cdfplot(C)

Average_C=mean(C)

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The average capacity is found to be 9.2 bits/s/Hz. The cdf of C is shown below.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2 4 6 8
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
cdf(C)

C (bits/s/Hz)

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References:

[1] J. W. Wallace and M. A. Jensen, “Modeling the indoor MIMO wireless channel,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 591-599, 2002. [2] R. Janaswamy, “Effect of element mutual coupling on the capacity of fixed length linear arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 1, pp. 157-160, 2002. [3] H. T. Hui, "Influence of antenna characteristics on MIMO systems with compact monopole arrays," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 133-136, 2009.