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Prepared by : M.

Faisal Siddiqi

Introduction to Information Technology

McGraw-Hill Technology Education

Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Information Technology (I.T.)

Information Technology (I.T) refers to anything related to computer technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet, or the people that work with these technologies. (OR) The Technology use to receive, process, store, retrieve, manipulate and transmit information's through computer / digital technology is called Information Technology.

Computer / I.T. Prime Fields

Computer Hardware:
All those components / physical Parts related to computer is called Computer Hardware.

Computer Software:
Software means all the programs that runs the computer programs, It controls all the hardware parts in computer.

People (*users) who use / related to computer fields such as Data-Entry operators, Programmer, designer etc.
* A person who uses computers for work or entertainment or communication or business is known as computer user.

Introduction to Computer Software

McGraw-Hill Technology Education

Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Computer Softwares
Computer software, or just software, is a collection

of computer programs and related data that provides the

instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it.

Software refers to one or more computer programs and

data held in the storage of the computer. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing.

Types of Computer Software

1- System Software / Operating systems (OS). 2- Application Softwares.

Topics Relating Operating System

Operating System (Definition). Operating System Objectives. Layers of Computer Systems. Services Provided by the Operating. System. Functions of Operating Systems. Types of Operating Systems. Enhancing an OS.

Operating System
A program that controls the execution of application programs An interface between applications and hardware
An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer

system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,

Operating System Objectives

Makes the computer more convenient to use

Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner

Ability to evolve
Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service

Layers of Computer System

Services Provided by the Operating System

Program development
Editors and debuggers

Program execution Access to I/O devices Controlled access to files System access

Services Provided by the Operating System

Error detection and response
internal and external hardware errors
memory error device failure

software errors
arithmetic overflow access forbidden memory locations

operating system cannot grant request of application

Services Provided by the Operating System

collect statistics monitor performance used to anticipate future enhancements used for billing users

Operating System Basics

Ref Book: Chapter # 7:
Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton McGraw-Hill.

McGraw-Hill Technology Education

Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Functions of Operating Systems

Provide a user interface Run programs Manage hardware devices Organized file storage


Providing a User Interface

User interface
How a user interacts with a computer Require different skill sets

Providing a User Interface

Graphical user interface (GUI)
Most common interface
Windows, OS X, Gnome, KDE

Uses a mouse to control objects Uses a desktop metaphor Shortcuts open programs or documents Open documents have additional objects Task switching Dialog boxes allow directed input

Graphical User Interface

Providing a User Interface

Command line interfaces
Older interface
DOS, Linux, UNIX

User types commands at a prompt User must remember all commands Included in all GUIs

Command Line Interface

Running Programs
Many different applications supported System call
Provides consistent access to OS features

Share information between programs

Copy and paste Object Linking and Embedding

Managing Hardware
Programs need to access hardware Interrupts
CPU is stopped Hardware device is accessed

Device drivers control the hardware

Organizing Files and Folders

Organized storage Long file names Folders can be created and nested All storage devices work consistently

Types of Operating Systems

Real-time operating system
Very fast small OS Built into a device Respond quickly to user input MP3 players, Medical devices

Types of Operating Systems

Single user/Single tasking OS
One user works on the system Performs one task at a time MS-DOS and Palm OS Take up little space on disk Run on inexpensive computers

Single Tasking
Operating System cannot be able to take control back from the running process/task/application In case if a process call an I/O Instruction then Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding

Types of Operating Systems

Single user/Multitasking OS
User performs many tasks at once Most common form of OS Windows XP and OS X Require expensive computers Tend to be complex

Operating System can take control back from the running process and can give it to other. When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job

Types of Operating Systems

Multi user/Multitasking OS
Many users connect to one computer Each user has a unique session UNIX, Linux, and VMS Maintenance can be easy Requires a powerful computer

Multi user/Multi tasking OS

Enhancing an OS
Provide services not included with OS Goes beyond the four functions Firewall, anti-virus and compression Prices vary

Enhancing an OS
Backup software
Archives files onto removable media Ensures data integrity Most OS include a backup package Many third party packages exist

Backup Software

Enhancing an OS
Anti-virus software
Crucial utility Finds, blocks and removes viruses Must be updated regularly McAfee and Norton Anti-Virus

Enhancing an OS
Crucial utility Protects your computer from intruders Makes computer invisible to hackers Zone Labs is a home firewall Cisco sells hardware firewalls

Enhancing an OS
Intrusion detection
Often part of a firewall package Announces attempts to breach security Snort is a Linux based package

Enhancing an OS
Screen savers
Crucial utility for command line systems
Prevents burn in

Merely fun for GUI systems Screen saver decorates idle screens

Application Software
Application Software consists of programs that tell a

computer how to produce information. Some of the

more commonly used packages are:

Word processing Electronic spreadsheet Database Presentation graphics

Word Processing Software

Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents. Example : MS Word 2010

Spread Sheet Software

Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results. Example: MS Excel 2010

Presentation Software
Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen. Example: MS Powerpoint 2010

DataBase Software
Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities. Example: MS Access 2010

Reference Book:

Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton McGraw-Hill.

McGraw-Hill Technology Education

Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.