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GENERAL EDUCATION (20% Natural Sciences)

Content Update: Basic concepts and Principles Introduction: Science is, indeed, one of the most important subject areas in todays curriculum. Much emphasis have been to this field of study. Life has been increasingly influenced by science and technology in our pursuit of a more comfortable lifestyle. Technology is the application of the scientific theories and laws. The inventions in telecommunication and transportation have drawn the world smaller and smaller. With the advent of information can be relayed to other parts of the word in just a matter of seconds. The recent breakthroughs in genetic mapping have made it possible to identity the useful and bad genes that will result to the breeding of a better specie. All these have made life more convenient than ever. However, these technology may also pose hazard to mankind if not used properly. The mobile phones could sabotage the economy of a particular country. The ever-increasing number of vehicles has been badly changing our climatic condition. Science can be a vehicle to inculcate values on the proper use of technology that bring both advantages and disadvantages. The natural sciences review shall focus on the following objectives: 1. Utilize scientific knowledge in the preservation of human life and conservation of the earths resources relate scientific theories of actual happenings and natural and man-induced calamities utilized biological knowledge and theories in the improvement of the quality of life and apply knowledge and theories of physical sciences in the improvement of life 2. Apply scientific knowledge and principles for the improvement of human resources and socio-economic development 3. Identify problems and suggest solutions related to personal and community health I. What is Science? It presents a systematized body of knowledge, structured but not rigid. The contents or facts of this knowledge are gathered through keen observation and relentless experimentation whereby the ideas generated are also products of further investigations. Science is not only a mere body of knowledge. It is a search for answers to questions, or of solutions to problems, using the process skills of observing, inferring, experimenting, and the like. a. Natural Science is a wide field of study compressing biological and physical sciences b. Biological Sciences deals with life and has many branches. The two general branches are botany (the study of plants) and zoology (the study of animals). c. Physical Sciences any of the natural sciences dealing with inanimate matter or with energy as physics, chemistry, and astronomy collectively. Generated knowledge or information through scientific study about living and non-living things and the process skills of science are used as tools or vehicles for addressing the needs and concerns of society. II. What is Technology? An applied science. It can be an invention, a gadget, a process or just an improved procedure. Technology as a product may be a gadget, tool, device, piece of equipment, machine or instrument. Or may be a consumer item, such as seedless grapes, powered mild biodegradable soap and Styrofoam. The process of reproducing whole plants from its issue or plant tissue culture is an example of this kind of technology, so is skin grafting.
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Powder technology involves the making of dry materials with particle diameters of 100 micrometers (mm) or less. Powders are converted from bulk solids using mechanical processes which subject the mumps too contact forces. The lumps break up into very much smaller particles, the size of which depends not only on the forces applied but also on the nature of the material. Basic Goals of Science Education: The teaching of science at all levels (from elementary to secondary to tertiary level) is carried on for three basic reasons: a) to prepare scholars in the discipline ( pure scientists) b) to provide individuals with a background in science of technological or professional occupations ( applied scientists) c) to provide individuals with a background science as part of their general education of effective citizenship ( the ordinary citizen) More specifically, the basic goal is to produce a populace with basic understanding of the principles of science, the ability to utilize he technology available and an interest in and appreciation for science. (THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCIENTIFICALLY LITERATE CITIZENRY). The identified constructs of Scientific and technological Literacy (STL) below were based on studies made by science educators and researchers using the following behavior indicators:
III.

of Science and Technology- a teacher demonstrates an understanding of the nature of science and technology when he/she: - exhibits knowledge of background on the history and development, the philosophy, and the sociology of science and technology - appreciates the empirical nature and objectivity of science and technology - recognizes the works of scientists and the nature of the scientific enterprise The dimensions of the nature of science, based on the interdependent relationship of process and products are: 1) Science proceeds as a series of approximations 2) Science is tentative 3) Scientific knowledge is capable of public empirical test 4) Science proceeds on the assumption that time, space and matter are real and that nature is consistent 5) Every effect has a cause that can be qualified 6) There is no single method of science but many different possible ways of conducting investigations.
B. Concepts and Principles o Science and Technology A teacher

A. Nature

demonstrates knowledge of the basic concepts, principles of science and technology when he/she: - defines an presents facts, basic concepts, principle and laws in sciences and technology - applies science and technology concepts, principles and theories in reallife situations; i.e, in solving everyday problems and making decisions - shows familiarity with the basic precepts of science and technology - communicates effectively the scientific knowledge to bridge the gap between the scientific knowledge to bridge the gap between the scientific community and the lay public. The seven conceptual schemes are: 1) All matter is composed of units called fundamental particles 2) Matter can be classified in hierarchies or organizational levels. 3) The behavior of matter in the universe can be described on a statistical basis. 4) Units of matter interact

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5) All interacting units of matter tend toward an equilibrium in which energy content in minimum and energy distribution is at random. In the process of attaining equilibrium, matter-energy transformations occur and is conserved 6) The fundamental unit of matter is in constant motion and is responsible for heat and temperature as well as the states of matter 7) All matter exists in time and space and change occur at various rates and patterns C. Processes of Science and Technology- a teacher demonstrates understanding of the processes of science and technology when he/she: - uses the processes of science in solving problems, making decisions and furthering his/her own understanding of the universe - engages in activities that encourage higher levels of thinking and uses inquiry-oriented instruction - develop skills associated with the products of science and technology D. Dispositions/Attitudes of Science and Technology a teacher demonstrates appropriate scientific attitude and values if he/ she develops attitude about science and taking an active interest in natural phenomena and technological advancements and if he/she exhibits: a. Objectivity d. Resourcefulness b. honesty e. Suspended judgment c. open-mindedness f. Creativity The operating conceptions and methodological corollaries to scientific attitudes are as follows: 1) All facts and concepts of science undergo objective and critical analysis 2) Science includes a constant search for new and superior explanations of phenomena 3) All theories, laws, etc.. Are based on evidence rather than tradition 4) The aim of science is to increase knowledge of physical and biological world; it is developmental 5) Secrecy in science cannot be tolerated E. Interaction of Science, Technology and Society a teacher demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the joint enterprise of science technology and the interaction of this with society when he/she: - recognizes the role that science and technology play in the countrys progress - describes the usefulness of science and technology to society - discusses social issues related to science and technology The important dimensions of the interrelationship of science, technology and society are as follows: 1) Science and technology differs only in motivation and purpose 2) Pure science produces conceptual schemes useful knowledge and technology produces conceptual schemes useful to pure science 3) Social, political and economic problems are related to advances in science and technology 4) Science is part of our cultural heritage 5) Technological aspects of society are the links between the scientist and the non- scientists ANALYZING TEST ITEMS Directions: Read each question very carefully. Choose the correct/best answer for each of the questions below. A. Nature of Science and Technology 1. Which of the following statements is definitely true about the nature of Science? a. Science can always uncover the truth in the realm of nature b. Science will help make the world a better place to live in
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a. b. c. d.

c. Theories in science can be disproved by testing: a well established theory can be demolished with a sing observation d. Scientific work requires a dedication that excludes the lives of people in other fields of work 2. Who among the following scientists have been credited as the founder of scientific method? a. Francis Bacon b. Aristotle c. Charles Darwin d. Isaac Newton 3. Even when scientific investigations are done correctly, the knowledge that what scientists discover from those investigations may change in the future exists. Which of the statements below do you think best explain or describe how scientific knowledge changes? a. Scientific knowledge changes because the earths physical environment changes. b. Scientific knowledge changes because scientists disprove the theories or discoveries of old scientists by using new techniques or improved instruments c. Scientific knowledge appears to change because new knowledge is added onto old knowledge ; the old knowledge does not change d. Scientific knowledge appears to change because the interpretation of old facts can change ; correctly done experiments yield unchangeable facts 4. Scientists use the word theory in a different way from its usage in everyday speech. All of the following statements are characteristics of a scientific theory, Except: Scientific theories are explanations that may be revised or improved Scientific theories are hypotheses or suppositions that has not been verified Scientific theories evolve as they go through stages of redefinition and refinement Scientific theories are well tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world 5. A scientist and a statesman is: a. George Washington b. Benjamin Franklin c. Thomas Jefferson d. Alexander Hamilton 6. All of the following statements prove that scientific knowledge is born out of an effort to understand the unity of nature, Except: a. The various science contribute to a single organized body of knowledge b. Biology, Chemistry and Physics are similar kinds of knowledge c. Relationships among laws, theories and concepts contribute to the explanatory and predictive power of science d. Todays scientific laws, theories, and concepts of science may have to be changed in the face of new evidence B. Concepts of Science and Technology 1. Ultrasound is often used by medical workers to obtain features of internal body parts. Infrasound the other hand is commonly used in: Monitoring condition in pregnant women Detecting harmful living tissues inside the body Seismographic surveying of structures below the Earths surface Providing instant moving pictures of tidal waves and earthquakes 2. The following statements are ideas about the environment. Which one is FALSE? plants clean the air of harmful gases clear water is clean water it takes millions of years for crude oil to form fire can sometimes start by itself in a big pile of decaying garbage 3. Which of the following processes of treating water in industrial waste is provided by a wide lagoon? a. aeration, cooling sedimentation c. aeration, flocculation, condensation b. filtration , condensation, flocculation d. Sedimentation, condensation, cooling 4. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE of energy in the biosphere?
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a. b. c. d. a. b. c.
d.

a. b.

a. b. c. d.

Energy follows a one-way path c. Energy follows a cycle through the web of life Energy is conserved in the biosphere d. Energy leaves the living system in the form of heat 5. A paper bag will hold potatoes but will not hold water very long. A plastic bag may hold water, but oxygen will pass through the plastic fast enough to keep a goldfish alive for weeks; but not fast enough to keep you alive even for a few minutes. From the above statements we could infer that: paper bag is permeable to potatoes but not to water the paper bag is permeable to oxygen but not to water the plastic bag is permeable to oxygen but not to water the plastic bag is permeable to both water and potatoes 6. All interacting units of matter ten toward a state in which energy content is a minimum, and the energy distribution is most random. In the process of attaining this state, energy, matter, and energy-matter transformations occur. This scheme is governed by all of the following concepts, Except: 7. a. conservation b. Equilibrium c. homeostasis d. Isostasy 8. Which of the following facts support the Big Bang Theorys explanation of the creation of the universe? a. The universe does not expand nor contract. b. The universe seldom expands. c. The universe will have background radiation. d.The universe has no beginning or end. 9. In which kingdom should MOLD be classified? A. Protista B. Plantae C. Fungi D. Animalia

10. The Santiago family has had four children, all girls. The fifth child born is a boy. This change is the result of A. A conception classes taken by the parents. B. The timing of the fertility cycles. C. The fathers contribution of a Y chromosome. * D. The law of averages finally catching up. C. Processes in Science and Technology 1. When a scientists investigate, it is said that follow the Scientific method. How will you logically arrange the essential steps of the scientific method? make an educated guess-hypothesis recognize the problem formulate the simplest generalization perform experiments to test the prediction predict the consequences of the hypothesis 6. a. 1,4,2,3,5 b. 2,1,5,4,3 c. 2,5,1,3,4 d. 3,2,1,4, 2. Scientist also found that other stalky vegetables such as carrots also help lower blood pressure. This statement is BEST classified as a. experiment b. nonessential fact c. finding d. prediction

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Questions 3-4 refer to the experiment below: Cynthia and Reggie were experimenting with their microwave oven. Cynthia was interested to know if all liquids got as hot as each other in the microwave. A picture of the front control panel is shown below: MIN 10 MIN 1 SEC 10 SEC 1

Reggie noticed that Cynthia pressed the buttons in this order: HIGH pressed once MIN 1- pressed twice SEC 10 press 3 times Cynthia then put a cupful of water in the cooker and pressed Start. 3. How long was the water heated? a. 2 min., 30 sec. B. 2 min., 3 sec c. 1 min, 10 sec. D. 1 min., 3 sec 4. To determine if oil gets as hot as water in a microwave cooker, which of the following cups and times should be used to compare oil and water? oil Water oil water

a. b.

a. b. c. d.

a. (half cup)150 sec b. 1(half cup) 150 sec c. (cupful)150 secd. (cupful) 150 sec 5. A paint technologist used different kinds of white paint onto concrete wall. He came back every two months and observed the painted areas with a hand lens. Which of the following question could be a possible problem for this experiment? Which paint color is best for concrete walls? c. Which kind of white paint faded fastest under the sun? Do walls need to be painted with different colors? d. Which part of the concrete wall needs to be repainted? 6. All of the following statements play some part in describing the scientific method. Which statement does not clearly described the scientific method? the scientific method is an attitude that guides students in their work the scientific method is testing and pre-testing; it is proving something true or false in a valid way the scientific method is recording results carefully and being accurate in making analysis the scientific method is the laboratory procedure and techniques often written in a book or journal by a scientist D. Interaction of Science , Technology and Society 1. Which of the following statements best describes the connection between science and technology? technology involves the practical applications of scientific knowledge scientist use the laws and principles discovered by technologist technology is the part of science that deals with mechanical problems science depends on technology for ideas and the organization of experimental work 2. The wise use of resource for the permanent good of all is referred to as: a. restoration b. Preservation c. conservation d. Reforestation 3. Biologist are now learning more about the metabolism of plants and animals through the use of: a. Isotonic tracers c. high energy particle accelerators
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a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

b. mass spectroscopy d. Cloud chamber photography 4. Scientists do more than just work in laboratory benches, a study of the works of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Isaac Newton, Francis Bacon, ect. Have resulted in great benefits to man in scientific investigations and the arts, education, literature and politics. This dimension only proves that statements that: Science and technology interacts directly with society The lay public must come to understand the scientist and his methods Science is one the humanities; man should know science in a humanistic way The intelligent direction of science in a free society depend upon an informed public E. Attitudes/Dispositions in Science and Technology 1. One dilemma resulting from technological advancements is the exploitation of resource. Which of the following social response do you think is more relevant to society today? invent technologies that use only renewable resources use natural resources and not exploitable resources invent non-polluting technologies design technologies that are labor intensive 2. The air in Metro Manila is now heavily polluted with carbon dioxide and lead dust from motor vehicles, factories and restaurants. As a citizen, you will minimize pollution by following all the practices below, Except: bury garbage rather than burning it burning garbage in you own backyard participate actively in the governments tree planting project help disseminate information regarding the advantages of using anti-pollution devices for motor vehicles Modified True or False The items below are pairs of related statements/ideas about science and technology. For each pair, write: A. if both statements are true B. if both statements are false C. if the first statement is true and the second is false D. if the first statement is false and the second is true 1. a) The success of any group activity depends on the group leader b) Every member, however, after being given a topic to research on should gather data, make experimentation and draw conclusions regardless of whenever the others have done these too. 2. a) Imagination has no place in developing a science theory; it is based on reasoning and experimental techniques b) As such, science is impersonal and value free 3. a) Any physical or chemical change in the environment that is capable of eliciting a response from a living system is a stimulus b) The ability of an organism to respond and survive to the changing stimuli is referred to as adaptation 4. a) In engineering, a design takes into account all the constraints ( e.g. Physical Laws, economic, politics) b) An optimum (i.e., Best) design arrives at some reasonable compromise ( i.e. balance) among the different constraints 5. a) Engineering decisions without fail involve scientific judgments b) these decisions involve social and personal values 6. a) The earths axis is tilted; i.e. slanted b) this tilt produces seasonal changes in the earths climate 7. a) Scientific knowledge is tentative and nothing can be proved absolutely b) if at some future date it is found that electricity does not consist of electrons todays practices in designing electrical appliances will have to be discarded. 8. a) Scientist study a world of which they are a part; not a world of which they are part b) this is because there is a social context and accountability to science 9. a) Engineers can design solution for all the problems
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a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

b) in the short term, engineering affects societies and cultures more directly than scientific research 10. a) A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a problem b) When it is neither supported nor discredited by one set experiment, it becomes a theory IV. UPDATING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE On Health and Medicine Biotechnology a field of scientific research on the development of techniques in genetic engineering and increased understanding of the molecular basis of cellular processes At present, cancer patients are treated through surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation. The use of monoclonal bodies also holds promise in the treatment of cancer Antibiotic production. The manufacture of antibiotics may consist of growing Bacillus and Streptomyces species in a medium enriched with coconut water Vaccine Production. Protoplast or cell fusion is being done to produce monoclonal antibodies which can detect specific antigens their desirable qualities, such as yield, growth rate and resistance to diseases On Food Food crops Propagation. Through tissue culture, a biotechnological process, commercially important species may be propagated in great numbers in a short period of time without changing their desirable qualities, such as yield, growth rate and resistance to diseases On Environment There are ways of effectively resources and treat waste products. These are: a) Biosensing, the detection of environmental pollutants using a biological element b) Bioremediation, the use of microorganism to breakdown toxic compounds into harmless substances c) Bioteaching, the removed of pollutants using microorganism or organic materials Plastic are man-made substances which can be molded into different shapes. Plastic are largely made from chemical obtained from petroleum oil; more specifically, they are polymers made from alkenes. Plastic are made from elements carbon, hydrogen, chloride and sometimes ammonia. They are formed by linking units at the same kind through the process known as polymerization Wide use of plastic can be traced to the fact that its Hardness can be adjusted such that it can be made to be hard (as in ratio, camera or cellular phone cases), soft (as in plastic bags), or runny (as in Stockings) Polymers making up plastics may contain element other than alkane base. Chlorine is added to polymers to come up with polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) found in phonograph records, garden hoses, etc. Nonstick utensils are also based on plastics that do not contain hydrogen. The fluorine-carbon bond is so strong that will not allow anything to stick to it But lately, these new materials have been creating problems in our environment. People are now thinking of how these synthesis materials can be disposed of without harming the environment .
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Although 92 elements are found in nature, 10 elements already make up 99% of all matter on earth by weight. These are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium,, sodium, potassium, magnesium hydrogen and titanium. The commonly occurring compounds as grouped into oxides, silicates, acids, bases and salts. Oxides are compounds consisting of an element combined with hydrogen. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, iron oxide, and sulfur dioxide. Are examples of oxides. ACIDS are compounds which when dissolved in water release hydrogen to form hydrogen ions. Acids turn blue litmus paper to red or pink. BASES are compounds which always contain a group called hydoxyl ion consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom. Bases turn red or pink litmus paper to blue. Salts are formed by combination of acids and bases in the process called neutralization. What are some basic science concepts that are related to the preservation of human life, conservation of the earths resources and socio-economic development? BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES OF MATTER Protoplasm is the basic living matter. For most organisms on earth, the cell containing protoplasm, is the smallest unit of life. Living things undergo metabolism which is the synthesis of substances and cell respiration or the breakdown of food substances to release energy needed for living Living things and the environment affect each other. This mutual effects and reaction is described as the interaction between living and non-living things. There is also interaction among living things The amount of matter on earth remains more or less the same through time. This is made possible by the biogeochemical cycles of matter. Photosynthesis which is the production of carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, and oxidation of organic compounds (also called cell respiration when it occurs within the living cell), are two important processes involved in the oxygen cycle. The chemical changes that make the oxygen cycle possible are also the same chemical changes involved in the carbon and hydrogen cycles Oxygen in excess of 21% in the atmosphere reacts with may substances in rocks and soils, and dissolves into bodies of water where aquatic organisms absorb it Carbon dioxide, in excess of 0.03% in the air, diffuses into the bodies of water to sink at the where it combines with other substances such as calcium and magnesium The phosphorus cycle occurs only in the litosphere, the hydrosphere , and the biosphere but not in the atmosphere because, phosphorous does not form a gaseous compound The burning of coal and petroleum, volcanic eruptions, and decay of organic matter are processes that release sulfur into the atmosphere ENERGY FLOW IN THE BIOSPHERE The energy coming from the sun reaches the earth in a form known as electromagnetic radiation The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can only be changed of energy The second law of thermodynamics states that some useful energy is converted into heat at every transformation of energy Green plants are capable of capturing solar radiation because of the chlorophyll found in their cells Energy transfer among living things is made possible by a series of eating and being eaten. In this process of energy and being eaten. In this process of
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energy transfer, living things are grouped as producers, consumers and decomposers Only an averaged of 10% of the energy stored in the bodies of organisms in one tropic level can be transferred to the next higher tropic level. This makes the energy transfer in living systems highly inefficient The total mass of any tropic level at any one time must be greater than the total biomass of the tropic level which it supports The cell in the living body utilized energy for the maintenance of life processes, for growth and foe the repair of damaged cells of the body. The energy in the biosphere can be conserved by maximizing and using it properly ENERGY GENERATION The two basic forms of energy are potential and kinetic energy A body that exerts force, performs work, or undergoes changes has energy The different source of energy are fossil fuels ( oil and coal), nuclear energy, water power, wind power, tidal power, geothermal power, and solar energy Imported energy accounts for more than half (54.33%) of our energy need in the last decade of the century. Of this, 49.41% comes from oil, 4.92% is obtained from coal The Philippines is the worlds second largest producer of geothermal energy. The largest geothermal power plant in the world is in Tiwi, Albay. Hydropower is the biggest indigenous source of energy in our country yet it supplies only less than a tenth of our energy needs The extraction, development, transport, use and disposal of energy wastes cause damage to land, air and water resources; and to the environment as a whole The most serious threat to the environment associated with oil and gas takes place when fuel is transported and used. Conservation of energy does not mean non-use; it means wise and efficient use of energy Energy conservation requires the combined efforts of industries, government agencies and individuals HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND THE ATMOSPHERE Air is a mixture of gases. The gases that compose dry air are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, neon, helium, methane, krypton, and hydrogen. Air also contains some very important variable gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. Air pollution is the presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants such as dust, fumes, gases and smoke in large quantities that are harmful to human, plant and animal life Air pollutants are the substances that physically or chemically changes the properties of air and makes it harmful. The best known air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and chloroflourocarbon compounds Acid rain is brought about by burning tremendous quantities of fossil fuels, that is petroleum and coal. This process release million metric tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen into the air. These compounds undergo chemical changes and produce acids.

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SOME ECONOMICAL PROBLEMS CAUSED BY HUMAN INDISCRETION: Forest denudation caused extensive logging and kaingin; endangers species, even causes extinction and in the short term; long term effects includes erosion, floods, and siltation. Extinction of wildlife one of the results of the above activity but may also happen in all disturbed ecosystems. Soil erosion occurs in soils devoid of all cover and exposed to impact of wind and rain Siltation is a result of soil erosion or mining activities; effects crop fields as well as rivers and coral reefs Eutrophication enrichment of a body of water with organic substances beyond its natural capacity, the result is the lack of oxygen or Death of that body of water characterized in its early stages by blooms of increase in the populations of certain species ( e.g. bacteria, algae, water hyacinth) to the disadvantage of others which also need oxygen Destruction of marine ecosystem caused by over Collection of corals and shells, dynamite fishing, cyanide, fine net fishing gear, wastes, oil spills, offshore oil drilling Thermal inversion a weather phenomenon occurring during the colder months of the year when a cold air layer forms next to earth ( Usually, it is the other way around, temperature dips the higher you go); in deep valleys, this not disperse as fast, if the valley happen to be a thickly populated and industrialized city, the hazardous emissions of machine are suspended in the air for toys, endangering the health of sensitive individuals Radiation fallout the fine debris on the aftermath of a nuclear explosion; the radioactive particles may make he in an ecosystem radioactive; the concentration of radioactivity could be magnified at every level of the food chain until toxic or lethal are reached ( Biological magnification). PART II. ANALYZING TEST ITEMS Direction: Read the question properly. Indicate your answer by enriching the letter of your choice. 1. Nilda performed an experiment on air pressure. She always interprets her data on the basis of actual observations and experiments. What scientific attitude does she have? a. Curiosity b. Creativity c. objectivity d. rationality 2. A scientist works on the following concepts. Which is a technological concept rather than a scientific concept: Experiments provide information that will always support predictions Events nature do not point the way to possible solutions to problems Predictions do not point the way to possible solutions to problems Graphs, tables are not useful in interpreting data 3. A factory is on fire. The cause of this is traced to faulty electrical wiring. How is energy here transformed one from to another? Mechanical to electrical energy c. Electrical to heat energy Electrical to mechanical energy d. Heat energy to electrical energy 4. Which of the following is a technological concept rather than a science concept: Fluorescent lamps are improved through methods of manufacturing Tungsten has a high melting point Resistance is directly proportional to current Metals are good conductors of heat 5. You are asked by your science teacher to prepare a solution, which of the following mixtures will you need? a. oil and water b. powdered chalk and water c. sulfur and water d. Sugar and water
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a. b. c. d. a. b. a. b. c. d.

a. b.

a. b. a. b.

a. b. c. d. a. b. a. b.

6. A chemical change takes place when... a. Milk sours b. A paper cut into pieces c. Ice melts d. Water boils 7. Oil from a ship leaked out while it is sailing in the sea. Which of the following will be observed? The oil will change into water c. The oil will stay on top of the water The oil will settle t the bottom of the sea d. The oil and sea water will mix 8. A hanging bridge that is about to collapse demonstrations a. Kinetic energy b. potential and Kinetic energy c. Potential energy d. Mechanical energy 9. Jet propulsion illustrates a. first law of motion b.second law of motion c. third law of motionl d. Nuclear tension 10. Metals are elements that can be drawn into wires. This property is referred to as: a. Ductility b. Tensile strength c. Malleability d. Nuclear energy 11. Which shows the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy? a. A turned on radio b. electric fan turning c. A turned on microwave d. A turned on air-conditioning 12. Which of the alternative sources of energy could result to acid rain? a. solar b. Biogas c. geothermal d. Nuclear energy 13. Which of the following should be done to accelerate a bigger mass? Apply a bigger force c. Apply a equal force e. Stabilize the force Apply a smaller force d. Balance the mass and force 14. Aquatic forms of life in a stream are dying because of pollution. Which of the following is most likely cause? Gas exhaust from motor vehicles c. Dust particles in the air Chemical wastes from motor vehicles d. Dust particles in the stream 15. Reforestation can help prevent a. Weathering b. Erosion c. volcanism d. Gradation 16. The decline in catches of fish is attributed to: a. Soil erosion b. Nutrient overload c. toxic chemicals from industrial dumping d. Sewage 17. Marine life in Laguna de Bay has been greatly depleted because of: a. water pollution c. Indiscriminate catching of fish b. catching fish using dynamite d. Lack of initiatives from local government unit 18. Which environmental problem is link with the use of detergent and fertilizers? a. Acid rain b. Eutrophication c. Global warning d. Thermal pollution 19. Scientific methods adhere to hypothesis. Once he notices the correctness of a hypothesis what should be pursued? a. Use imagination b. gather more facts c. Pursue experimentation d. Get scientific ideas from past researches 20. Water tanks are used in most houses. Why has the use of water pumps endangered many lives? Water is less expensive with water boosters Leakage in water pipes allow contamination of water Water pressure assures good water supply Water pumps draw contaminated water from pipe leakage 21. War experts use energy in its discovery of nuclear bombs. When energy is released from a nuclear fission, what occurs? energy is release after fission c. the energy possessed is used for bombing nations decrease in mass nuclear bombs d. atoms are split into fragments 22. Farmers are enthusiastic in the campaign for Gintong Ani for mangoes. Which practice is harmful to the environment? Using organic fertilizer every six months c. Using a sexual propagation of mangoes Spraying the tress with herbicides and pesticides d. Encouraging insects to do pollination 23. Not all organisms are harmful. Which of these are done by yeast?
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a. b.

a. b.

a. Cause Yakult to be milky c. Encourage disease food b. Promotes the rising of bread for baking d. Cause milk to become cheese 24. Nata de Coco making is very lucrative. However, important of this home made product has declined because: Too much chemical was used by manufacturers c. The production will negatively affects our environment The process of manufacturing was crude d. Microorganism were found in the product 25. The cheapest source of energy is found in the Philippines. These are identified in the: a. Geothermal plant in Tiwi c. Geothermal Plant in Mindanao b. Geothermal Plant in Leyte d. Nuclear Plant in Bataan 26. Where are flash floods in Metro Manila blamed to? a. Clogging of rivers with waste c. Urbanization practice b. volcanic eruption d. Encouraging insects to do pollination 27. What has caused the soil fertility in many rice fields? organic fertilizers are effective c. farmers overflowed their land chemical fertilizers made our soil acidic d. pesticides are effective 28. Experiments and techniques in food production are usually found in some schools. The most expensive ones are in: a. Philippine Normal University c. University of the Philippines in Los Banos b. Mariano Marcos University d. University of the Philippines Diliman 29. Ruth wants to open tightly closed bottle of Bagoong. What should she do? a. Loosen the cap by knocking the edge of the bottle c. Heat the jars cover b. Use a rough material d. Insert a sharp knife at edge of the bottle 30. To save fuel it is advisable to keep your pot tightly closed while cooking. This prevent: a. Escape of chemical compounds which tenderize the food c. Escape of nutrients b. Escape of vapor which uses the boiling point d. Escape of steam thus built up pressure PART III. ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS 1. The opening and closing of a regular door is an example of: a. Pull of gravity b. Force c. Friction d. Attraction of magnet 2. What is the direction of force when you are sitting on a chair? a. rightward and leftward b. downward and upward c. Downward only d. Upward only 3. The following types of energy has the sun as its main source except: a. nuclear energy b. energy from coal c. tidal energy d. Wind 4. Which phrase best describe conservation? a. avoiding use or exploitation of a natural resources b. planned management of a natural resource to prevent its exploitation, pollution, destruction or neglect c. planned management of a natural resource for its full use d. careful protection and preservation of natural resource 5. The pollutants that can cause uncontrolled growth of green plants in lakes are: a. Gasoline b. Acid rain c. Pesticides d. Phosphates 6. Which is not an environmental importance of coral reefs? a. They serve as feeding grounds of numerous sea organisms c. They can be used as decor b. They serve as home of numerous sea organism d. They prevent coastal erosion 7. When there is a typhoon, it is best to: a. See a movie b. Call up friends c. Stay at home d. Shop for canned goods
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a. b.

a. b. c.

a. b.

8. Mel does aerobic exercises every morning. What type of energy conversion is shown in this activity? a. Chemical to mechanical energy c. Electrical to heat energy b. Mechanical to heat energy d. Chemical to heat energy 9. When organism die and decay, chemical elements are made available to: a. Omnivorous b. Decomposers c. producers d. Consumers 10. Why does a lime water turn milky after breathing into it? Because of the presence of carbon dioxide c. Because of the presence of nitrogen Because of the presence of oxygen d. Because of the presence of pollutants 11. Fossil fuel is considered as a non-renewable resource. Which of the following is an example of a fossil fuel? a. Coal b. Hydrogen c. radioactive materials d. Stream 12. What are the products of photosynthesis? a. Carbon dioxide b. Starch c. oxygen d. Starch and oxygen 13. What is the importance of nutrient cycling? It ensures that nutrients get used and reused often It ensure that nutrients get well distributed in an ecosystem It makes the plants healthy d. It provides food 14. A knowledge gained by observation and experimentation a. Technology b. Superstition c. Science d. Scientific study 15. Which of the following substances will boil first? a. Acetone . Alcohol c. Water d. Ether 16. One of the following statements describes why we feel cool after perspiring: Water coming out of the body is cold c. Evaporating water in our skin produce a cooling effect Vapor in air condenses in our skin d. Pores in our skin allow cool air to enter 17. The bacteria which do not cause disease are known as: a. Pathogen b. Bacteria c. Virus d. Non-pathogen 18. Which of the following is not a physical change? a. Melting of ice c. Oxidation of a metal b. Dissolving of salt water d. Condensation of air to form water droplets 19. Young people stand straight. Very old ones usually stoop. Why? a. Greater gravitational pull on the old than on the young b. Sedentary lives of the old c. Habit of stooping developed in the old d. Bones of the of have become weak and soft and their joints become loose 20. What is the function of DIFFUSION in the human body? a. Regulates blood flow b. Plays an insignificant role in the bodys functioning c. Allows an even distribution of substances throughout all cells of the body d. Comes into play in times of extreme illness 21. What is the MOST likely reason for a desert plant to have a few or no leaves? a. To increase photosynthesis b. To decrease photosynthesis c. To increase transpiration d. To decrease transpiration 22. What does a stick of unlit dynamite demonstrate? a. Chemical energy b. Nuclear energy c. Kinetic energy d. Potential energy 23. Which law of force and motion explains this occurrence, when a rocket is propelled upward by the powerful downward discharge of exhaust gases?
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A. B. C. D.

Universal Gravitation Action and Reaction Applied Force Inertia

23. Why does a pendulum in a grandfathers clock once set in motion continue to swing thereby regulating the clocks movement? This is due to the law of a. Universal Gravitation b.. Action and Reaction c. Applied Force d. Inertia 24.Why does a bullet when discharged into the air eventually fall to the ground? This is due to the Law of _______________. a.Universal Gravitation b.Applied Force c.Inertia d.Action and Reaction 25. The Philippine Air Force took off to scatter salt to the existing clouds. This was an attempt to a. Encourage earthquake occurrence b. Produce rain over dry fields c. Drive the clouds further to the sea d. Avoid water evaporation

PART III. ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS 1. What is the direction of force when you are sitting on a chair? a. Rightward and leftward b. Downward and upward c. Downward onlyd. Upward only 2. The following types of energy has the sun as its main source except: a. nuclear energy b. Energy from coal c. tidal energy d. Wind 3. Which phrase best-described conservation? a. Avoiding use or exploitation of a natural resource b. Planned management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, pollution, destruction or neglect c. Planned management of a natural resource to for its full use d. Careful protection and preservation of a natural resource 4. The pollutants that can cause uncontrolled growth of green plants in lakes are: a. Gasoline b. Acid rain c. pesticides d. Phosphates 5. Which is not an environmental importance of coral reefs? a. They serve as feeding grounds of numerous sea organisms c. They can be used as decor b. They serve as home of numerous sea organism d. They prevent coastal erosion 7. When there is a typhoon, it is best to: a. See a movie b. call up friends c. Stay at home d. Shop for canned goods 7. Mel does aerobic exercise every morning. What type of energy conversion is shown in this activity? a. Chemical to mechanical energy c. Electrical to heat energy b. Mechanical to heat energy d. Chemical to heat energy 8. When organisms die and decay, chemical elements are made available to: a. Omnivorous b. Decomposers c. Producers d. Consumers 9. Why does lime water turn milky after breathing into it? a. Because of the presence of carbon dioxide c. Because of the presence of nitrogen
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b. Because of the presence of oxygen d. Because of the presence of pollutants 10. Fossil fuel is considered as a non-renewable resource. Which of the following is an example of a fossil fuel? a. Coal b. Hydrogen c. Radioactive materials d. stream 11. What are the products of photosynthesis? a. Carbon dioxide b. Starch c. oxygen d. Starch and Oxygen 12. What is the importance of nutrient cycling? a. It ensures that nutrients get used and reused often b. It ensure that nutrients get well distributed in an ecosystem c. It makes the plants healthy d. It provides food 13. A knowledge gained by observation and experimentation: a. Technology b. Superstition c. Science d. Scientific study 14. One of the following statements describes why we feel cool after perspiring: a. Water coming out of the body is cold b. Vapor in air condenses in our skin c. Evaporating water in our skin produce a cooling effects d. Pores in our skin produced a cooling effect 15. The bacteria which do not cause diseases are known as: a. Pathogen b. Bacteria c. Virus d. Nonpathogen 16. Which of the following is not a physical change? a. Melting of ice c. Oxidation of a metal b. Dissolving of salt water d. Condensation of air to form 17. Young people stand straight. Very old ones usually stoop. Why? a. Greater gravitational pull on the old than on the young b. Sedentary lives of the old c. Habit of stooping developed in the old d. Bones of the of have become weak and soft and their joints become loose 18. A couple has the funds and can avail themselves of any needed scientific expertise. How can their offspring have all the desirable qualities they like? a. Cloning b. Pray c. Test tube baby d. Contraception 19. A group of mountaineers lost their way to their camp. How can they find their way back? a. Use of Thermometer b. Use of compass c. Use of Sphygmomanometer d. Use of Scanner 20. Where can we trace El Nino phenomenon? a. Man has consumed too much water c. Thinning of the ozone layer b. Seasons do not change annually d. Typhoons are normal regulator of weather 21. The possible interconnected feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem are termed: a. Food Pyramid b. Food web c. Food chain d. Food vacude 22. A good method to prevent soil from being eroded from a hill is to: a. Plant the hill with grass or tree c. Plow the hill regularly b. Plant only in alternate layers d. Irrigate the area 23. The following described chemical change, Except: a. Some examples of chemical change are souring milk, ripening of fruit and digestion of food b. For a chemical change to take place, heat, light or electricity is either needed or given off c. A chemical change takes place when a solid is changed ti liquids is changed to gas d. A chemical change, a new substance is formed, with chemical properties that are different from the original substance
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a.

24. When oil from ship leak out, which of the following will be observed? a. oil will settle at the bottom c. oil will stay on top of the water b. oil will change into water d. oil and sea water will mix 25. You have no weather instrument with you, but you would like to study the direction and speed of the wind. What should you do? a. Observe the amount of rain collected b. Observe the condition of the atmosphere 26. The yearly occurrence of red tide casualties are traced to a seaweed with poison because of: Heavy rain and dry season b. Oil spill from ships c. Careless disposal of waste d. Organic fertilizer 27. Mayon Volcano was very active lately so the earthquake is of: a. Hurricane b. Tectonic c. Tidal wave d. Volcanic 28. An increase in the number of motor vehicles in the cities will mean rise in the carbon dioxide content of the air. Which of the following would be the effect of rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? a. Cooling of the atmosphere c. Darkening of air in the cities b. Increase in solar radiation d. Warming of the atmosphere 29. What should be the next thing to do after defining a problem? a. Gather relevant date b. formulate a hypothesis c. Test the hypothesis d. Make a conclusion 30. Where do we trace El Nino Phenomenon? a. Typhoons are normal regulators of weather c. The season do change annually b. Man has consumed too much water d. The thinning of ozone layer has much to do 31. Which situation shows that work is done? a. Pushing the wall b. lifting a load c. Watching television d. Sweeping the floor 32. Alcohol thermometer works on the principle that: a. Volume usually increase with temperature b. Temperature usually increases with pressure 33. Loss of water for human consumption is aggravated by: a. Selected logging b. total log ban c. irrigation dams d. Denuded water sheds 34. To save fuel, it is advisable to keep the pot tightly closed while cooking. This prevents the escape of: a. chemical compounds which tenderize the food c. vapor which rises the boiling point b. steam that build up pressure d. nutrients needed by the body 35. A diet of animal fat usually come up with patients found ill of: a. Kidney malfunction b. diabetes c. Hypertension d. Sclerosis 36. How does green plant transform sunlight into chemical energy? a. Green plants can undergo photosynthesis c. Green leaves trap the energy from the sun b. Other green plants can performed chemosynthesis d. Non-green leaves have no chlorophyll 37. Children in upland areas are prone to goiter. What do they need for their diet? a. multivitamins b. Iodine c. protein d. Insulin 38. A large body of air that has about the same temperature and humidity throughout is: a. air mass b. Cloud c. hurricane d. Tornado 39. Scouting is always defined with camping. How may scouters find their way to the camp? a. Use a barometer b. use of thermometer c. Use of a compass d. Anemometer 40. The point or a line on the earths surface directly above the center of the origin of the earthquake:
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a. Epicenter b. Focus c. Fault d. Volcano 41. Promotion of more harvest has been identified through regular irrigation. Irrigation in some provinces are made through: a. Re-channeling of river outlet c. Desalination of seawater b. Impounding water between sources and hills d. Converting water source to river dams 42. The process by which the atmosphere traps the suns radiation: a. Green house effect b. global warming c. Thermal inversion d. Convection 43. How can the presence of a person afflicted by positive HIV and/or AIDS be andle? a. Discourage the establishment of recreation centers like cabarets and discos b. Avoid and discourage patronage of places frequented by these persons c. Conducting home forum to discuss the identification of AIDS cases d. Discreetly reporting the case to health authorities 44. To preserve the fertility of the soil, farmer should employ the following except: a. Continuous farming b. Strip cropping c. contour farming d. Terracing 45. A type of erosion in which deep channels formed as water flows to the ground: a. Sheet wash b. Gullying c. Mass wasting d. Avalanche 46. An instrument used to measure detect and measure movements of the earths crust: a. Tsunami b. Seismograph c. Telescope d. Richters scale NATURAL SCIENCE PART I 1. The pollutants that can cause uncontrolled growth of green plants to take place are: a. gasoline b. Pesticides c. acid rain d. Phosphates 2. Which of the following causes skin problem in the newborn baby? a. Harmful drugs b. Mutation c. Improper nutrition d. pigmentation 3. Many pesticides of commercial importance can be totally controlled by: a. using biological control c. completely banning the sale of pesticides b. increasing the cost of pesticides d. encouraging the use of predators 4. What is the importance of controlling pollution? a. The risk to animal life can be totally eradicated b. The government will provide more tax write off c. We can avoid future damage to biological resources d. the immediate toxicity to people in the local areas can be avoided 5. Why do we usually soak meat in pineapple juice before cooking it? a. In preserves the natural tastes of meat c. It removes the bad odor b. It improves the taste of meat d. It makes meat tender 6. Cold virus is usually picked from a. Cold air c. Frequent changes in weather b. Dirty surroundings d. Direct contact with people infected with colds 7. Which is not an environmental importance of coral reefs? a. They serve as feeding grounds of numerous sea organisms c. They can be used as aquarium decor b. They serve as biomes of numerous organisms d. They prevent coastal erosion 8. The following statements described physical change, Except: a. In a physical change, a substance can be changed can be changed back to its original size, shape and appearance
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In a physical change, a new substance is formed, for example, burning of wood 9. Which energy change takes place in a flashlight with batteries? a. Electrical light chemical c. light electrical chemical b. Chemical electrical light d. Chemical electrical light 10. A book is on the edge of a table. When you let it fall on the floor, what happens to its energy? a. its potential energy is changed to kinetic energy c. its potential energy is not changed at all b. its kinetic energy is changed to potential energy d. it loses some energy 11. What are the products of photosynthesis? a. Carbon dioxide and starch b. oxygen c. Starch d. Starch and oxygen 12. Which phrase best describes the role of the respiratory system? a. To deliver oxygen to the tissues b. To get rid of carbon dioxide from the tissues c. To deliver oxygen to the tissues and get rid of carbon dioxide from the tissues d. To supply the blood with oxygen so that the blood can deliver oxygen to the tissues 13. What is importance of nutrient cycling? a. It ensures that nutrients get used and reused often b. It ensures that nutrients get well distributed in an ecosystem c. It makes plants healthy d. It provides food for the decomposer organisms 14. If you want greater magnification for your specimen, what should you do with your microscope? a. Use HPO b. adjust the diaphragm c. Move the fine adjustment d. Tilt the arm 15. The following types of energy has the sun as its main source______ a. nuclear energy b. energy from coal c. wind energy d. Tidal energy 16. Which statement is false? a. Constellations have religious or mythological names b. Constellations are imagined groupings of stars c. Constellations help astronomers locate certain stars d. Constellations help us mark the season 17. Which phrase best describes conservation a. Avoiding use or exploitation of natural resources b. Planned management of a natural resources to prevent its exploitation pollution, destruction or neglect c. Planned management of a natural resource to prevent its future use d. Careful preservation and protection of a natural resource so that we can boost Eco-tourism 18. During an earthquake , you should a. rush out of a building c. hold to a post b. go under a desk or table d. Take an elevator instead or the stairs 19. When there is a typhoon, it is best to: a. see a movie b. call up friends c. stay indoors d. Shop for canned goods 20. Which of the alternative source of energy could result in acid rain a. solar energy b. hydroelectric energy c. geothermal energy d. Shop for canned goods 21. Oil from a ship leaked out while it is sailing in the se. Which of the following will be observed? a. The oil will become water c. The oil will go on the top of the water b. the oil and seawater will mix well d. The oil will go to the sea 22. Metals are elements that can be drawn into wires. The property is referred to as: a. Ductility b. Tensile strength c. Malleability d. Surface tension
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b.

23. Sound is produced because:

a. objects bump into each other b. objects explode c. objects expand d. Objects vibrate 24. Where does absorption of food nutrients take place in the digestive system? a. Small intestine b. stomach c. large intestine d. Esophagus 25. Which is not a mixture? a. gold b. Soil c. air d. Fruit salad 26. Which shows the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy? a. A turned-on electric stove b. A turned-on radio c. Electric fan turning d. A lighted bulb 27. If all pigment colors are combined, you see: a. Black b. White c. secondary d. Primary colors 28. Keep toxic and flammable substance, like denatured alcohol, insect spray and muriatic acid a. on a low, open shelf b. beside the stove c. in the all purpose cabinet d. On a high shelf with a door 29. Simple goiter is caused by a deficiency in the secretion of which hormone? a. Pituitrine b.Thyroxine* c. Adrenaline d. Estrogen 30. During wars, what is most dreaded by nations? E. biological war * F. anthrax G. atomic bomb H. hydrogen bomb Part II. 1. Ipil-ipil seeds make good animal feed because of their: a. Vitamin C b. Protein c. Alkaline d. Carbohydrates 2. When carbohydrates and vaccines were discovered, the result was: a. More business-minded individuals engaged in speculation b. People became well-nourish c. The community became more sanitary d. The conquest of disease such as cholera, pneumonia, smallpox, and poliomyelitis 3. Which of the following are found in chromosomes which determine hereditary characteristics? a. hybrid b. Sperms c. genes d. Ova 4. To prevent pests and disease among animals it is best to: a. keep their surroundings clean from time to time c. give them good food b. immunize then d. select a good breed 5. The scientific method is based on: a. Inductive reasoning b. deductive reasoning c. Scramble facts d. Random data 6. To protect a product from imitation, one should register it with the: a. Immigration Office b. Bureau of Post c. Patent Office d. Health department 7. How many seconds are there in one day? a. 360 b. 480 c. 86, 000 d. 72,000 8. What do you call the pores on the surface of a leaf: a. Stomata b. Calyx c. cotyledon d. Epidermis 9. What are the three states of matter? a. Solid, gas and water b. soil, moisture and food c. Solid, gas and liquid d. Color, taste and weight 10. What do you call this plant? It has a thick fleshy stem to withstand the heat of the sun and usually has no leaves:
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a. Maguey b. Cactus c. fern d. orchid 11. It is the process by which milk is partially sterilized by keeping it fir some time in high temperature: a. Sterilization b. Pasteurization c. stabilization d. Naturalization 12. The decaying flesh of deal animals is called: a. Decompost b. Carrion c. molting d. scion 13. It is an electrical device that can stop the flow of electric current when a short circuit occurs: a. Switch b. Wire c. electric meter d. Fuse 14. The temperature or the Centrigade scale which corresponds to 40 Fahrenheit is: a. 0C b. 22.2C c. -72C d. 4.4C 15. A marathon is a running event which is measured: a. in kilometers b. in the number of sprints c. by the number of competitors d. By the size of the audience 16. Heat can be described as: a. momentum b. Power c. energy d. Fluid 17. People all over the world are now wary of the disastrous effects of radiation caused by the accident at: a. Bataan b. Chernobyle c. Moscow d. India 18. The basic unit of living matter is the: a. Cell b. Atom c. nucleus d. Molecule 19. Heat transference takes place when a room: a. has wall-to-wall carnets b. has many occupants c. has open windows d. Has closed windows and doors 20. The first person to win a noble prize in two fields- physics and chemistry was: a. Louis Pasteur b. Albert Einstein c. Marie Curie d. Wilhelm roentgen 21. That planets are kept in their orbits by the gravitational attraction of the sun was proven by: a. Newton b. Copernicus c. Da Vinci d. Galileo 22. Many underdeveloped countries are not able to utilize the technology offered by advanced countries because of: a. Lack of entrepreneurship b. cultural differences c. lack of social awareness 23. When an object heavier than air is thrown up, it always geo down. This is a principle of the: a. Law of compensation b. Law of diminishing c. Law of gravity d. Law supply and demand 24. Intercropping is the practice of: a. Growing two or more crops in alternative rows on the same piece of land b. Growing two or more crops during different seasons c. Growing crops only in summer d. growing crops only during rainy season 25. Most homes are protected from accidents due to excessive electric current by the protective device called: a. junction box b. Fuse c. switch d. Bulb 26. How many days will it take planet mercury to make a complete revolution around the sun? a. 120 days b. 90 days c. 88 days d. 110 days 27. It is the unit of measurement that is used to indicate the strength of earthquakes: a. Gravity b. Speed c. velocity d. Intensity 28. One of the following invented the barometer. Identify him a. Leonardo da Vinci b. Basco de Gama c. Miguel Zaldivard. Evangelista Torricelli
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29. The dynamite was invented by _________________. a. James Watt b. Alfred Nobel c. Mark Twain d. Aurora Borealis 30. Gabriel Daniel Farenheit discovered the _________ which could measure temperature. a. Sphygmomanometer b. Thermometer c. Tape measure d. Microscope 31. The earth moves through its orbit at the rate of one revolution per ____. a. Month b. Day c. year d. week 32. The earth must be about _____________ years old: a. 4 billion b. 4 thousand c. 10 million d. 6 1/3 billion e. 10 billion 33. The largest island in the world, found northeast of North America is: a. Scotland b. England c. Greenland d. Alaska d. Great Britain 34. The Scientific name for Rubbing especially of one object against another is _____. a. Drying b. Friction c. Fizz d. Gravitation e. Fault 35. The largest fresh water lake in the world is the ____________. a. Taal Lake b. Lake Lanao c. Lake Erie d. Lake superior e. Mississippi River 43. Which of the following contraceptive methods is most widely approved? a. douche b. Rhythm c. diaphragm d. Cervical cap 44. ________ is the destructive breakdown of meals into their oxides a. Evaporation b. Extrusion c. Cyclone d. Erosion e. Corosion 44. The blanket of air that surrounds the earth is the __________. a. Atmosphere b. Aurora c. Aquifer d. Bathysphere e. Aphelion 45. Which of the following processes is better associated with the technology than with Science? i. ii. iii. iv. I. Constructing concepts and laws Discovering forms of matter Designing a workable system Observing natural phenomena

Identify the following:

1. The act of inducing clouds to produce rain

2. A natural optical phenomenon produced by dispersion, reflection and refraction of the suns rays as they hit droplets of rain in the atmosphere 3. The most distant among the planets in the solar system 4. The science dealing with the study of weather 5. A large system of stars and celestial bodies in the universe 6. The chemical combination of oxygen with other elements 7. The island universe to which our sun belongs 8. A whirling wind that destroy everything along its path 9. The young of an oyster 10. The curved path of an object hurting through space 11. Calcium carbonate formation suspended from the roofs of caves 12. A bowl shape cavity at the mouth of a volcano 13. A change of state from liquid to vapor 14. Protection from loss , waste or destruction 15. The greatest folded mountain system in Europe 16. The science of the stars and other heavenly bodies 17. An overshadowing or cutting off of light 18. The path taken by a body in space during its periodic revolution around another body 19. The highest point water rises in a wave 20. Certificate issued by DENR to establish a factory
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III. 1. Smoke rises because of: a. Radiation b. Convection c. conduction d. Refraction 2. When a solid is heated, molecules collide hard against each other and are knocked apart. The material then: a. expands b. Contracts c. liquefies d. Condenses 3. Iron cannot kept from rusting by: a. Keeping it dry b. painting it c. Cooling it d. Putting acid on its pieces 4. Why is smoke produced in burning? a. Carbon is burned completely c. Minerals burn completely b. carbon is not burned completely d. Minerals are not burned completely 5. Why are handling of cooking utensils usually made of wood? Because wood is: a. cheap b. Light c. a nonconductor d. A conductor 6. How do we know that air pressure is present? a. Gravitation pull more air at the bottom b. Presence of air can be measure by barometer c. The deeper the air, the greater the air pressure at the bottom d. All of the above 7. Which of the following devices is not operated by air pressure? a. Medicine droppers b. perfume atomizers c. Drinking straw d. Tires of vehicles 8. Why can you not breathe freely if you stand in water that reaches your shoulder? a. Water pressure is greater than air pressure inside your body b. Water pressure is equal to the pressure inside your body c. Water pressure is less than air pressure inside your body d. Water pressure inside and outside your body are body 9. You weigh 50 kg. This represents: a. The amount of material in your body c. The amount of space your body occupies b. The amount of pull that gravity exerts on you d. The amount of materials in a unit of space 10. Which of the following statements is true? a. Heating expands and cooling contrasts rocks; hence, they crack and break b. Heating contrast and cooling expands rock; hence, they and break c. Both heating and cooling do not crack and break rocks d. two of the above 11. All of the following processes destroy the land surface and cause floods except: a. illegal logging b. coral exportation c. mining d. Kaingin system 12. Why does drying preserve food? a. no water needed for growth of bacteria c. hardens cells of organisms b. sunlight kills germs d. all of these 13. Which will not occur as you keep rising in the atmosphere? Choose the correct combination: 1. Air pressure would continually decrease 2. Air pressure would continually increase 3. Your weight will decrease 4. Your mass will decrease a. 1&3 b. 2 & 3 c. 2 & 4 d. 2 & 3 14. Hydrogen gas is used in: a. Saving victims of drawing, suffocation, heart attack, electric shock b. Solidifying oils, as margarine, pomade
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c. Water and sewage treatment d. Welding and cutting iron and steel 15. Which of the following gases helps in making things burn? a. Hydrogen b. Chlorine c. oxygen d. Nitrogen 18. On separate spots on your palm, you drop equal amounts of ______which makes your palm coolest? a. Coconut oil b. Alcohol c. tap water d. Gasoline 16. Which arrangement shows the correct order of the decreasing rate of evaporation of the following liquids? a. Gasoline-coconut oil-water-alcohol c. Coconut oil-gasolinewater-alcohol b. Coconut oil-water-alcohol-gasoline d. Coconut oil-watergasoline- alcohol 17. How does the addition of sodium benzoate preserve canned foods? a. acts as a reactant b. inhibits or delays food decay c. malleable d. Not corrosive 18. The fact that an object partly submerged in water appears to be bent at the surface is due to: a. Dispersion b. Polarization c. refraction d. Reflection 19. A WATT is a unit of: a. energy b. Force c. distance d. Work 20. Air is classified as a (n): a. element b. Compound c. mixture d. Solution 21. What name is given to magnetic poles? a. Anode and cathode b. north and south c. plus and minus d. East and west 22. All of the following are physical changes except: a. burning gasoline b. evaporation of water c. mixing salt and pepper d. Freezing water 23. Where does the huge amount of energy released during nuclear fission come from? a. Chemical reaction c. Disappearance of an equivalent amount of mass b. Combustion of subdivided atomsd. Neutrons that proceed in all directions 24. The cheapest form of energy that can be developed and used without polluting the environment and consuming fossil fuels is: a. nuclear energy b. geothermal energy c. solar energy d. Water energy 25. Why do you fall down your toes get stubbed on an obstacle while running fast? a. Acceleration b. inertia motion c. inertia at rest d. Deceleration

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