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Abstract

The goal of this paper is to protect induction motors against possible failures by increasing the reliability, the efficiency, and the performance. The proposed approach is a sensor-based technique. For this purpose, currents, voltages, speed and temperature values of the induction motor were measured with sensors. When any fault condition is detected during operation of the motor, PLC controlled on-line operation system activates immediately. The performance of the protection system proposed is discussed by means of application results. The motor protection achieved in the study can be faster than the classical techniques and applied to larger motors easily after making small modifications on both software and hardware.

INTRODUCTION
The alternating current (AC) induction motor (IM) is frequently referred to as the workhorse of the manufacturing. This is because it offers users simple, rugged construction, easy maintenance and cost-effective pricing. These factors have promoted standardization and development of a manufacturing infrastructure that has led to a vast installed base of motors; more than 90 percent of all motors used in industry worldwide are AC induction motors [1]. Unexpected failures of IMs can considerably cost for the industrial applications. Therefore, condition monitoring of IMs has received considerable attention in recent years. Classical protection techniques for three phase IMs are generally provided by some combination of mechanical and electrical equipments such as contactors, timers, electromagnetic switches, thermal relays, over current relays and over/lower voltage relays. These equipments have mechanical parts, and their responses are very slow compared with that of electronic equipment. The mechanical parts of the equipment can cause problems during their operations and reduce the life and efficiency of the system. In terms of economic consideration, the cost of the digital hardware has been decreased and the cost of classical relays has been increased recently [2-4]. In the literature, a number of reviews have been offered about various stator faults, their causes, detection techniques, latest trends and diagnosis methods supported by artificial intelligence, microprocessor, computer and other technique in the monitoring and protection technology [5-14]. In these works, while one or two variables were considered together to protect the IMs, the variables of the motor were not considered altogether. This might cause difficulties in protection. In references [2 and 4], computer based protection system has been introduced. In where, the measurements of voltages, currents, temperatures and speed were achieved and transferred to the personal computer (PC) to do final

decision for protection. While many types of motor fault detection and protection methods have been proposed, practical detection techniques for three-phase IMs are generally provided by some combination of mechanical and electrical monitoring techniques. Digitally condition monitoring of electrical machines has received considerable attention in recent years. These methods are containing microcontroller, microprocessor, computer and programmable logic controller (PLC) [2, 4 and 15]. In this study, the PLC controlled on-line protection system working properly with any type of motors and load conditions have been introduced. It is important to note that classical or even sophisticated protective relays cannot predict fault conditions sensitively. The on-line protection system proposed attempts to protect and predict against the various motor failure in full protection coverage, reasonable cost, and good performance using sensors. The solution of various faults of the phase currents, the phase voltages, the speed, the winding temperatures of an IM occurring in operation have been achieved with the help of the PLC and they have been monitored on PC. The monitoring system helps first to avoid dangerous due to an electric shock and also to launch the diagnosis process as soon as an abnormal situations are detected. This makes the study an efficient tool for the protection and diagnosis

.IMPORTANCE OF MOTOR RELIABILITY AND PROTECTION

Induction motors have been used extensively for many industrial applications since several decades ago. These applications range from intensive care unit pumps, electric vehicle propulsion systems and computer-cooling fans, to electric pumps used in nuclear power plants. Safety, reliability, efficiency, and performance are some of the major concerns of motor applications. With issues such as aging motors, high reliability requirements such as for military applications, and cost competitiveness, the issues of preventive maintenance, online motor fault detection and diagnosis are of increasing importance [16]. Gabriel, in article [17] included the results of both an IEEE survey and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) survey. The data were reviewed to determine the percentage of failures associated in the following groups: electricity related, mechanically related, environmentally and maintenance related and other [16]. In this study, the majority of motor failures 1-4244-0895-4/07/$20.00 C 2007 IEEE 96 were categorized. These are unbalanced voltage, single phasing effect, overloading effect, increasing of stator winding temperature. This study presents a combined protection approach for IMs. To achieve this, the current, the voltage, the speed and the temperature values of the IM were measured with sensors. The experimental results have shown that the IM was protected against the unbalanced voltage, the single phasing effect, the overloading effect, the increasing of stator winding temperature problems encountered in on-line operation. In addition, the protection system can easily be applied to larger motors after doing small modifications in the software developed.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
In this article, a new protection system was designed and implemented to achieve protection for the current, the voltage, the rotor the speed and the winding temperature of IM. The schematic diagram of the experimental set-up is given in Fig. 1. The implementation is based on hardware, instrumentation and software. These parts are explained in the following sections.

A. Hardware and Instrumentation of System

The test rig used in the present study consists of a 1.5 kW/2800 rpm three-phase IM, three voltage transformers with transformation ratio of 220/5 V connected to each phase of IM, three current transformers with transformation ratio 1/1000 connected to each phase of IM, a temperature sensor with

transformation ratio of 10 mV for each 1 C increasing temperature [18], an incremental encoder with 360 pulse per rotor speed used for measuring the rotor speed [19], true RMS to DC conversion card, a Siemens CPU 224 and S7 200 series PLC and two EM 235 analog modules [20]. Implementation view of the proposed system components used can be seen in the Fig.2. The temperature sensor was inserted inside the stator coils, therefore its connection cable can only be seen near by the power cable on the connection box in Fig.3. The currents and the voltages of the motor in the protection system were measured using

measurement

card

including

three

Current transformers and three voltage transformers. The outputs of

the

measurement card were applied to the input port of true RM\S-to-DC conversion card as illustrated in Fig. 4. The AD536A integrated circuit was used for the true RM\S-to-DC conversion. The AD536A is a complete monolithic integrated circuit which performs true RM\S-to-DC conversion. It offers a good performance which is comparable or superior to that of hybrid or modular units cost more. The AD536A directly computes the true RM\S value of any complex input waveform containing AC and DC components [21]. Converted current and voltage values were then transferred to the PLC analog module through the true RM\S-to-DC conversion card.

The phase voltages, the phase currents, the rotor speed, the motor temperature are monitored without any human

interaction. After having all these data, they are compared with their tolerance values. The program continues to run since these data are in the defined boundaries. If there is no value read, the program re-continues to read and calculate the signals until to read currents and voltages. If any fault occurs, the program automatically stops the motor system immediately. The motor specifications given on the nameplate are delta wave connection, 220/380 V, 6.3/4.5 A, 1.5 kW, 60C. Over these values, the motor is shutdown by the control signal sent from the computer and a message finally appears on the monitor of the PC. Minimum and maximum limit values of voltage, current, temperature and speed have to be entered from keyboard.

B. Software
In order to achieve the protection of the IM easily, a PLC program was developed in Micro in using ladder diagram programming method. In addition, the computer interface program is written by means of package SCADA software called as Win log. Flow chart of the software developed is given as in Fig. 5.

if the user wants to see three phase graphics, only the group are seen on computer as graphic by means of groups. Graphic forms of the voltages and the currents are also illustrated in this menu. Moreover, eight different motor status buttons representing three phase currents and voltages are given in this screen shot. The motor variables; the three phase voltage, the three phase currents, the temperature and the speed are also displayed on this screen. If the IM is required to be run, minimum and maximum values of voltage, current, temperature and speed have to be entered from keyboard, first. After entering all values, the motor is then ready to start. When the motor icon is clicked on, the menu shown in Fig. 6 is displayed on the screen. The optional waveforms of the currents and the voltages can be seen on the oscilloscope. These obtained data were then analyzed on the computer using the software developed. In addition, the computer screen is refreshed at every 300 ms for observing the changes of currents, voltages, temperature and speed.

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In Fig.6, The menu of the program consists of six buttons: Start, stop, alarm & reset, groups, time axis and aspect. Start button is used to start the motor. Stop button is used to stop the motor. Alarm & Reset button is used to stop the motor at any failure. Even if the failure condition turns to normal, the motor will not start again automatically. To restart the motor, first the reset icon and then the start icon must be clicked on. Group is used for constituting individual graphical group. For example, rig. o 1 ne screen snot oI program page In the software, all possible faults were described. Date, hour and possible faults name are displayed on the alarm screen. After removing the alarm, the system is reset by pushing on reset button. If the alarm is still active, it cannot be removed even by pushing on reset button. The alarm menu developed for the motor protection is given in Fig. 7 If any fault is observed during any execution, a warning message and the last data read are displayed on the alarm screen as well as stored in a file with date, time and explanations of faults. Finally, the motor is stopped by the computer immediately. When an undefined fault occurs, the motor stops without giving any description. In this case, the fault can be described and found by the operator.

Total length of PLC software is about 500 lines. Execution time of the PLC is about 0.37,us for each Boolean instruction, therefore the PLC software developed is scanned at every 18 ms. Detection of the possible faults was also achieved about 10 times in one second through the related sensors.

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CONCLUSIONS
A three phase IM protection system has been designed and implemented at Gazi Electrical Machines and Energy Control (GEMEC) Group Laboratory at the Technical Education Faculty of Gazi University. The solution of various faults of the phase currents, phase voltages, speed, winding temperatures of an IM occurring in operation have been achieved with the help of the PLC and they have been monitored on PC. If any fault is observed during any action of the motor, a warning message appears on monitor and then motor is stopped. The test is successful and the protection system shows a good performance in detecting the faults and in clearing them.

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REFERENCES
[1] M. Peltola, "Slip of AC induction motors and how to minimize it", ABB Drives Press Releases Technical Paper, 2003, pp. 1-7, ABB, New Berlin. [2] I. Colak, H. Celik, I. Sefa, $. Demirba,, "On line protection system for induction motors", Energy Conversion and Management, vol.46(17), 2005, pp. 2773-2786. [3] W.A. Farag, M.I. Kamel, "Microprocessor-based protection system for threephase induction motors", Electric Machines and Power Systems, vol.27, 1999, pp. 453- 464 .[4] M. Cunka,, R. Akkaya, A. Ozturk. "Protection of AC motors by means of microcontrollers", 10. Mediterranean Electro technical Conference, Melecon 2000, Nicosia, Cyprus, 3, pp. 1093-1096. [5] A. Siddique, GS. Yadava, B. Singh, "A review of stator fault monitoring techniques of induction motors", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.20(1), 2005, pp. 106-114. [6] Y. Zhongming, W. Bin, "A review on induction motor online fault diagnosis", The Third International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, PIEMC 2000, 3, 15-18 Aug. 2000, Beijing, pp. 1353-1358. [7] MEH. Benbouzid, "Bibliography on induction motors faults detection and diagnosis", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.14(4), 1999, pp. 10651074. [8] Tandon N., Yadava GS., Ramakrishna KM. A comparison of some condition monitoring techniques for the detection of defect in induction motor ball bearings, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing (available online),

http://www.sciencedirect.com/.

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