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© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

9.3
9.3
OBJECTIVES

NOTE “Indices” is the plural of “index.”

1. Add and subtract expressions involving numeric radicals

2. Add and subtract expressions involving algebraic radicals

Two radicals that have the same index and the same radicand (the expression inside the radical) are called like radicals. For example,

2 13

and

5 13

 12 and 15 are not like radicals—they have different radicands. 12 and 1 3 2 are not like radicals—they have different indices (2 and 3, representing a

square root and a cube root).

Like radicals can be added (or subtracted) in the same way as like terms. We apply the distributive property and then combine the coefﬁcients:

2 15 3 15 (2 3) 15 5 15

Example 1

NOTE Apply the distributive property, then combine the coefﬁcients.

Simplify each expression.

 (a) 5 12 3 12 (5 3) 12 8 12 (b) 7 15 2 15 (7 2) 15 5 15 (c) 8 17 17 2 17 (8 1 2) 17 9 17
 CHECK YOURSELF 1 Simplify. (a) 2 15 7 15 (b) 9 17 17 (c) 5 13 2 13 13

If a sum or difference involves terms that are not like radicals, we may be able to combine terms after simplifying the radicals according to our earlier methods.

Example 2

Simplify each expression.
(a)
3 12 18

We do not have like radicals, but we can simplify

18

14 2 2 12

18 . Remember that

717

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718 CHAPTER 9

NOTE Simplify 112.

NOTE The radicals can now be combined. Do you see why?

so
3 12
18

18

3 12 2 12

(3 2) 12 5 12

(b)

5 13 112

5 13 5 13

5 13 2 13

(5 2) 13 3 13

14 3 14 13

CHECK YOURSELF 2

 Simplify. (a) 12 118 (b) 5 13 127

If variables are involved in radical expressions, the process of combining terms proceeds in a fashion similar to that shown in previous examples. Consider Example 3. We again assume that all variables represent positive real numbers.

Example 3

NOTE Because like radicals are involved, we apply the distributive property and combine terms as before.

NOTE Simplify the rst term.

NOTE The radicals can now be combined.

Simplifying Expressions Involving Variables

Simplify each expression.

(a)

(b)

5 13x 2 13x

(5 2) 13x 3 13x

2 2 3a 3 5a 13a
2 2 a 2 3a
5a 13a
2 2 a 2 13a 5a 13a

2a 13a 5a 13a

(2a 5a) 13a 7a 13a

CHECK YOURSELF 3

 Simplify each expression. (a) 2 17y 3 17y (b) 2 20a 2 a 145

 1. (a) 9 15; (b) 8 17; (c) 4 13 2. (a) 4 12; (b) 2 13 3. (a) 5 17y; (b) a 15

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9.3

Exercises

Simplify by combining like terms.

 1 2 12 4 12 3 11 17 4 17 5 5 17 3 16 7 2 13 5 13 9 2 13x 5 13x 11 2 13 13 3 13 13 5 17 2 17 17 15 2 15x 5 15x 2 15x 17 2 13 112 19 120 15 21 2 16 154 23 172 150
 2 13 5 13 4 5 13 3 12 6 3 15 5 15 8 2 111 5 111 10 7 12a 3 12a 12 3 15 2 15 15 14 3 110 2 110 110 16 5 13b 2 13b 4 13b 18 5 12 118 20 198 3 12 22 2 13 127

24. 127 112

Name

Section

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

719

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25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

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31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

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39.

40.

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42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

720

 25 3 112 148 27 2 145 2 120 29 112 127 13 31 3 124 154 16 33 2 150 3 118 132

Simplify by combining like terms.

35.

37.

a 127 2 2 3a

2

5 2 3x

3

2 127x

26.

28.

30.

32.

34.

36.

38.

5

2

18 2 118

198 4 118

150 132 18

163 2 128 5 17

3 127 4 112 1300

5 2 2y

2

7 2 2a

3

3y 18

18a

 Use a calculator to ﬁnd a decimal approximation for each of the following. Round your answer to the nearest hundredth. 39. 13 12 40. 17 111 41. 15 13 42. 117 113 43. 4 13 7 15 44. 8 12 3 17 45. 5 17 8 113 46. 7 12 4 111

47. Perimeter of a rectangle. Find the perimeter of the rectangle shown in the gure.

36

49

48. Perimeter of a rectangle. Find the perimeter of the rectangle shown in the gure. Write your answer in radical form.

147

108

47.

48.

49.

50.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

49. Perimeter of a triangle. Find the perimeter of the triangle shown in the gure.

3
3
2
3
2

50. Perimeter of a triangle. Find the perimeter of the triangle shown in the gure.

4

5
3
5
3
Getting Ready for Section 9.4 [Section 3.4]
Perform the indicated multiplication.
(a)
2(x 5)
(b)
(c)
m(m 8)
(d)
(e)
(w 2)(w 2)
(f)
(g)
(x y)(x y)
(h)
3(a 3)
y( y 7)
(x 3)(x 3)
(b 7)(b 7)
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© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies