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9.3 Adding and Subtracting Radicals 9.3 OBJECTIVES
9.3
Adding and Subtracting Radicals
9.3
OBJECTIVES

NOTE “Indices” is the plural of “index.”

1. Add and subtract expressions involving numeric radicals

2. Add and subtract expressions involving algebraic radicals

Two radicals that have the same index and the same radicand (the expression inside the radical) are called like radicals. For example,

2 13

and

5 13

are like radicals.

12

and

15

are not like radicals—they have different radicands.

12

and

1 3

2

are not like radicals—they have different indices (2 and 3, representing a

square root and a cube root).

Like radicals can be added (or subtracted) in the same way as like terms. We apply the distributive property and then combine the coefficients:

2 15 3 15 (2 3) 15 5 15

Example 1
Example 1

NOTE Apply the distributive property, then combine the coefficients.

the distributive property, then combine the coefficients. Adding and Subtracting Like Radicals Simplify each

Adding and Subtracting Like Radicals

Simplify each expression.

(a)

5 12 3 12
5
12 3 12

(5 3) 12 8 12

(b)

7 15 2 15
7
15 2 15

(7 2) 15 5 15

(c)

8

17

17 2 17

(8 1 2) 17 9 17

CHECK YOURSELF 1

 

Simplify.

 

(a)

2

15 7 15

(b)

9 17 17

(c)

5

13 2 13

13

If a sum or difference involves terms that are not like radicals, we may be able to combine terms after simplifying the radicals according to our earlier methods.

Example 2
Example 2

Adding and Subtracting Radicals

Simplify each expression. (a) 3 12 18
Simplify each expression.
(a)
3 12 18

We do not have like radicals, but we can simplify

18

14 2 2 12

18 . Remember that

717

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718 CHAPTER 9

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

NOTE Simplify 112.

NOTE The radicals can now be combined. Do you see why?

so 3 12 18
so
3 12
18

18

3 12 2 12

(3 2) 12 5 12

(b)

5 13 112
5 13 112

5 13 5 13

5 13 2 13

(5 2) 13 3 13

14 3 14 13

1 3 2 1 3 (5 2) 1 3 3 1 3 1 4 3 1

CHECK YOURSELF 2

Simplify.

(a) 12 118

(b)

5 13 127

If variables are involved in radical expressions, the process of combining terms proceeds in a fashion similar to that shown in previous examples. Consider Example 3. We again assume that all variables represent positive real numbers.

Example 3
Example 3

NOTE Because like radicals are involved, we apply the distributive property and combine terms as before.

NOTE Simplify the rst term.

NOTE The radicals can now be combined.

the fi rst term. NOTE The radicals can now be combined. Simplifying Expressions Involving Variables Simplify

Simplifying Expressions Involving Variables

Simplify each expression.

(a)

(b)

5 13x 2 13x
5 13x 2 13x

(5 2) 13x 3 13x

2 2 3a 3 5a 13a 2 2 a 2 3a 5a 13a 2 2
2 2 3a 3 5a 13a
2 2 a 2 3a
5a 13a
2 2 a 2 13a 5a 13a

2a 13a 5a 13a

(2a 5a) 13a 7a 13a

CHECK YOURSELF 3

Simplify each expression.

 

(a)

2

17y 3 17y

(b) 2 20a

2

a 145

CHECK YOURSELF ANSWERS

1.

(a)

9 15;

(b)

8 17;

(c)

4 13

2. (a)

4 12;

(b)

2 13

3. (a) 5 17y; (b) a 15

 

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9.3
9.3

Exercises

Simplify by combining like terms.

1.

2

12 4 12

3.

11 17 4 17

5.

5

17 3 16

7.

2

13 5 13

9.

2

13x 5 13x

11.

2

13 13 3 13

13.

5

17 2 17 17

15.

2

15x 5 15x 2 15x

17.

2

13 112

19.

120 15

21.

2

16 154

23.

172 150

2.

13 5 13

4.

5 13 3 12

6.

3 15 5 15

8.

2 111 5 111

10.

7 12a 3 12a

12.

3 15 2 15 15

14.

3 110 2 110 110

16.

5 13b 2 13b 4 13b

18.

5 12 118

20.

198 3 12

22.

2 13 127

24. 127 112

Name

Section

ANSWERS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

719

© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

ANSWERS

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

720

25.

3

112 148

27.

2

145 2 120

29.

112 127 13

31.

3

124 154 16

33.

2

150 3 118 132

Simplify by combining like terms.

35.

37.

a 127 2 2 3a

2

5 2 3x

3

2 127x

26.

28.

30.

32.

34.

36.

38.

5

2

18 2 118

198 4 118

150 132 18

163 2 128 5 17

3 127 4 112 1300

5 2 2y

2

7 2 2a

3

3y 18

18a

Use a calculator to nd a decimal approximation for each of the following. Round your answer to the nearest hundredth.

Use a calculator to fi nd a decimal approximation for each of the following. Round your

39.

13

12

40.

17 111

41.

15

13

42.

117 113

43.

4 13 7 15

44.

8 12 3 17

45.

5 17 8 113

46.

7 12 4 111

47. Perimeter of a rectangle. Find the perimeter of the rectangle shown in the gure.

36

49

48. Perimeter of a rectangle. Find the perimeter of the rectangle shown in the gure. Write your answer in radical form.

147

108

the fi gure. Write your answer in radical form. 147 108 ANSWERS 47. 48. 49. 50.

ANSWERS

47.

48.

49.

50.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

49. Perimeter of a triangle. Find the perimeter of the triangle shown in the gure.

3 3 2 3 2
3
3
2
3
2

50. Perimeter of a triangle. Find the perimeter of the triangle shown in the gure.

4

5 3 5 3 Getting Ready for Section 9.4 [Section 3.4] Perform the indicated multiplication.
5
3
5
3
Getting Ready for Section 9.4 [Section 3.4]
Perform the indicated multiplication.
(a)
2(x 5)
(b)
(c)
m(m 8)
(d)
(e)
(w 2)(w 2)
(f)
(g)
(x y)(x y)
(h)
3(a 3)
y( y 7)
(x 3)(x 3)
(b 7)(b 7)
© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

721 721

© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

Answers

1.

6 12

3.

7 17

5. Cannot be simplied

7.

3 13

9.

7 13x

11.

6 13

13.

4 17

15.

5 15x

17.

4 13

19.

15

21.

16

23.

11 12

25.

2 13

27.

2 15

29.

4 13

31.

4 16

33.

15 12

35.

a 13

37.

(5x 6) 13x

39. 0.32

 

43. 8.72

45.

42.07

47. 26

49.

2 13 3

e. w 2 4

41. 3.97 a. 2x 10

b.

3a 9

c.

m 2 8m

d.

y 2 7y

f. x 2 9

g.

x 2 2xy y 2

h.

b 2 14b 49

 

722