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Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011 ISSN: 2141 - 4181 Wilolud Journals, 2011 http://www.wiloludjournal.

com ` Printed in Nigeria

AN ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA. Alimi Baba Gana, Adda Gana Bukar and Yabawa Mohammed Kadai. Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri ABSTRACT This study examines the relationship between teachers, job satisfaction and performance in selected Borno State Secondary Schools. The study used a total of 180 as respondents of the three secondary schools. The research study was set to determine the relationship between promotion and teachers job performance, pay and teachers job performance, teachers job satisfaction and job performance in Borno State secondary schools. A questionnaire on teacher job satisfaction was developed in the research while postgraduate teaching practice assessment form from University of Maiduguri and Kashim Ibrahim College of Education was adopted and used in assessing and scoring live lecturing exercise of the samples as performance indicator. Descriptive statistic was used in analyzing the data using simple frequency distribution and percentages. It was therefore, recommended that based on the above result, teachers should be promoted and pay with high lucrative salary by Borno State government in order to maintain the tempo, and to build up on the present performance so as to live to the expectation of the government and public which has fall short of expectation. KEYWORDS: Effects; Relationship; Teachers; Job satisfaction; performance; Assessment. INTRODUCTION The teacher is a worker whose job satisfaction study is inevitable due to his enormous role in Nation building, so as to make him comfortable and stay on the job. The study of teachers job satisfaction and job performance in teaching and learning has become imperative to Administrators Academicians school head and government so as to motivate teachers to be productive or perform effectively. The principal concern of this study is to scrutinize the amicability between teachers job satisfaction and job performance in Borno State secondary Schools. Borno State has taken education as a matter of priority in its yearly budgetary statement in spite the said government priority measures researchers and teaching service Board have identified among other problems bedeviling education and teachers in the state, includes, fluctuation in cross net pay of staff salaries; teachers were not promptly promoted; salaries were not adjusted even after acquiring additional qualification; inability of government to pay the agreed 25% federal government increment, teachers condition of service was going from bad to worse, teachers salaries were not paid on time for reason only known to government the schools remained with insufficient teachers and recently said (1000) one thousands teachers recruited were not permitted to assume duty since January 2010 to the time of compiling this report, influx of ungratified teachers into the system and partially recruited part time teachers were also compliant of not paying as agreed (BSTSB; Handbook, 2010). The study revealed that there has been a high turnover of teachers in most secondary school in Borno State that resulted to poor performance of students in the recent year examinations. The situations suggest that teachers might not be satisfied with their jobs thus affecting their performance. Besides, studies on the relationship between job satisfaction and workers performance have not been conclusive. Against this backdrop, this study examined the level of teachers job satisfaction in Borno State and determines the relationship between teachers job satisfaction and performance. Therefore, the indices of job satisfaction like pay and promotion will be related with the indices under job performance like quality of teachers instructions, uses of teaching techniques in teaching and punctuality etc. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY (1) To determine the relationship between promotion, pay, and teachers job performance. (2) To determine the relation between teachers job satisfaction and job performance.


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

HYPOTHESIS (i) There exists a significant relationship between promotion and teachers job performance, pay and teachers job performance as well as teachers job satisfaction and job performance. METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN: The survey research design method was used in this study. It involves using a self-designed questionnaire and open-ended option in collecting data from the respondents. This method was chosen in order to make reference to phenomena as they exist in real life and it is relatively economical in terms of time and resources. INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were used to obtain information. These involved series of consultation of related documents and records. Other devices used in this study were questionnaire of various form. The questionnaire used comprises of two (2) sections: A and B. section A seeking for demographic data of the respondents and section B sought to elicit information on relationship between promotion and workers or teachers performance, pay and teachers performance. Job satisfaction and teachers performance in the three Borno state selected secondary schools such as GCM, GGCM and GSS Gubio respectively. PROCEDURE OF DATA COLLECTION The respondents were given the questionnaire at their respective schools. Instruction on how to fill the questionnaire was also thoroughly shown. And confidential treatment of their information was assured. With regard to the scoring of responses, the first section of the questionnaire needs no scoring, since the information required only bio-data of the respondents. The second section was done using simple pattern of scoring opinion but technically equal as yes and no package. The first cell of the tables represent Yes while the second cell represents No opinion. SAMPLES AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES The study is undertaken at three (3) selected secondary schools in Borno State. These are Government College Maiduguri, Government Girls College Maiduguri and government Secondary School Gubio respectively. The population of this study comprises only academic staffs including senior and junior drawn from the three secondary schools under study. A purposive sampling was employed to this study in order to make adequate representation of the study population. The study population is one hundred and eighty (180) and the same figure used in the study without discrimination with regards to sex and age. METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS The data collected from the field were analyzed based upon the research hypothesis and objectives of the study adopted. A statistical technique of simple frequency distribution and percentages was used to comprehend and analyze the data to differentiate respondent responses and tactically test the hypothesis of the study. RESULTS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING: This section deals extensively with the statistical testing of the hypothesis formulated for this study with three (3) strong consistent and related question advances to support the hypothesis and interpreting the outcome or results using the said statistical package adopted. HYPOTHESIS: The hypothesis states that there exists a significant relationship between promotions and teachers job performance, pay and teachers performance as well as teachers job satisfaction and job performance. In order to test the hypothesis, three (3) strong related questions were advanced to represent the hypothesis with the aid of tables.


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

Table1: Do you agree that prompt teachers promotion enhances job performance. Variables Sources of Govt. College Govt. Girl College Govt. Secondary information Maiduguri Maiduguri School Gubio Freq- Per% Freq- Per% Freq- Per% 1. Promotion 52 74.29 38 63.33 40 80 2. Job Performance 18 25.71 22 36.67 10 20 Total 70 100 60 100 50 100 Source: Field Work, 2010 S/N Table one indicates that majority from both schools made up of 74.29% from Government College Maiduguri and 63.33% also from Government Girl College Maiduguri Vis--vis government secondary school Gubio with 80% respectfully were of similar or equal view prompt and timely teachers promotion establish high job performance. Therefore, three of the school teachers support the hypothesis of the study. Table 2: Do you agree that prompt and lucrative pay enhances job performance. Variables Sources of Govt. College Govt. Girl College Govt. Secondary information Maiduguri Maiduguri School Gubio Freq- Per% Freq- Per% Freq- Per% 1. Pay 62 88.57 54 90 41 82 2. Job performance 08 11.43 06 10 09 18 Total 70 100 60 100 50 100 Source: Field Work, 2010. S/N The table two drawn a conclusion with vast majority opinion ranging from 88.57, to 90% down to 82% respectively were of the believe that prompt and lucrative payment could lead to teachers job performance in three of the secondary school understudy. Therefore the teachers, from either school vehemently upheld the position of the study hypothesis without much debate hence the majority option proof. Table 3: Do you agree that teachers job satisfaction enhances job performance. S/N Variables Source of information Govt. College Maiduguri Freq- Per% 58 82.86 18 25.71 70 100 Govt. Girl College Maiduguri Freq- Per% 38 63.33 22 36.67 60 100 Govt. Secondary School Gubio Freq- Per% 40 80 10 20 50 100

Teachers job Job Performance Total Source: Field Work, 2010

1. 2.

The result of the table three shows that the teachers of Government College Maiduguri who are 58 in number with 82.86% and teachers of Government Girls College Maiduguri who are 49 in number with 81.67% via-avis the teacher of the Government Secondary School Gubio were all agreed that teachers job satisfaction lead to job high performance. Therefore, the three of the Borno State Secondary Schools upheld the study hypothesis and believe that there is inherent relationship. DISCUSSION AND EMPIRICAL STUDIES The hypothesis, which states that there exists a relationship between promotion and teachers job performance, pay and teachers job performance as well as job satisfaction and teachers job performance in Borno state selected secondary school were accepted. This shows that prompt promotion and lucrative salaries given for teachers couple with ability by management to satisfy its teachers has a significant influence on teachers performance and it seems to be general assumption that employees who are happy with their job should also be more productive at work. (Alimi 2002) Nathan (2008), reported that from thousands of employees in a cross section of jobs-blue collar and white collar, prove that although job satisfaction and job performance do correlate, one does not cause the other. Even researchers according to him get confused of how the two things connect. To him, satisfaction and performance are related because each is the result of employee personality. By personality, Bowling pointed to such characteristic as self-esteem, emotional stability, extroversion and conscientiousness. Studies showed that


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

employees who have an overall negative attitude to all things in life likely wont find job satisfaction, regardless of performance, because of their personality traits. Emotional stability matters a lot. He said people who tend to be anxious depressed typically wont find satisfaction no matter how many jobs they try. The same goes for those with low self esteem, he added. Studies showed that employees with high esteem tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than those who do not have that level of confidence. He contended that in his words simply put, workplace interventions designed to improved performance by exclusively targeting employee satisfaction are unlikely to be effective. So how can you have both according to him? There are ways select employees who will be successful. Bowling said studies showed that intelligence is one of the things that derives the performance. And solid performing employees also exhibit a high level of conscientiousness those who are detail-oriented and hard workers and who set goals (Seattle Post Intelligence). Porter and Lawler (1968) have made tremendous effort in analyzing this proposition (performance causes satisfaction), when they said that satisfaction, rather than being a cause, is an effect of performance: that performance causes satisfaction. They buttressed further differential performance determines rewards which give rise to variation in employees expressions of job satisfaction. Here, they are envisaging that reward is key that regulates or moderates between satisfaction and performance. Locke (1976) argues that the conditions under which high productivity would lead to high satisfaction is (1) under which high productivity lead to the attainment of the individuals important job values such as promotion, recognition, high earnings, success and achievement (2) when such productivity was not attained at such a high cost as to undermine the pleasure of its attainment e.g. fatigue or to negate other values. In another study conducted on correlation between job satisfaction and productivity, Brayfield and Crockett (1955) astounded the world of occupational psychology by finding an average correlation of only +0.15 from the 26 studies published. Eight of these studies produced correlations of +0.00 or above; these were all supervisory or professional workers, using self, peer or supervisory ratings of performance. Petty et al (1984) in Usman (2004) found an overall correlation of +0.23, +0.31 for supervisors and above, +0.15 for those at lower levels. And the most fascinating thing about the findings was that the correlation is greater for those in supervisory or professional jobs. In these jobs, performance depends less on external pressures like wage incentives or assembly or assembly-line speeds and more on motivation, creativity and helpfulness. In another study conducted on the topic job satisfaction in tertiary institution; a case study of Atiku Abubakar College of Legal and Islamic Studies (AACOLIS), Nguru Yobe State, Ibrahim (2001) has studies the relationship between salary and staff motivation to increase productivity in AACOLIS. The study was a survey research design and as the researcher put it. The data collected were presented in a table form and uses not too much sophisticated statistics, but rather descriptive statistical methods of analysis such as percentages were used. The qualitative data extracted from interviews conducted were used to facilitate analysis and understanding of how salary administration, fringe benefits and employees consultation contributes to staff motivation and higher productivity in discharging their duties. The findings of the research have shown that there is high level of satisfaction by the staff of Atiku Abubakar College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Nguru in particular and visa-vis applicable to Borno State tertiary institutions that a result of the implementation of the said controversial CONTISS (46 salary structure). The satisfaction stems from the value workers place on their take away home. The research found that there was partially less complaint about their purchasing power occasioned by the new salary structure even in the face of the current galloping inflation in the Nigerian economy; and the last finding which perhaps is the major findings in the research and relevant to our present study is that increased salary serves as the major and strongest motivational aspect which leads to workers putting in their best in their various unit of work within the academicals circle and the school in general. It is the contention of the research study that increases in salary has a strong correlation with workers productivity. On the other hand, there was a study by Hackett and Guion (1985) on the relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism, and contrary to the most upheld view that satisfied worker is expected to turn up early to receive the benefits which they enjoy at work place. In fact, the average correlation is quite low: -0.09 in one metaanalysis. This shows that a satisfied worker is not necessarily a hard worker or a better worker. And same applied to performance. The study buttressed that the relationship is greatest with satisfaction for pay and promotion. Similarly, analyses have been made of job satisfaction and labour turnover and the correlation is


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

typical -0.20 to -0.30 and rarely greater than -0.40 yet, in a meta-analysis of 47 studies found an overall correlation. In another research conducted by Okwute (2004) job satisfaction and job performance among community development workers in selected local governments in Borno State, he wanted to find out how community workers job satisfaction affects their job performance. Hence the researcher set up the following research objectives as (1) to find out the extent to which community development workers were satisfied with their jobs; (2) the measurement of the community development workers performance level; (3) the extent to which their job performance were related. The study was designed to determine the relationship between two variables, job satisfaction and job performance. The researcher randomly selected twelve (12) local government areas in the state namely Maiduguri metropolis, Bama, Konduga, Gwoza, Askira Uba, Damboa, Biu, Kwaya Kusar, Hawul, New Marte, Dikwa and Nganzai. The tool used for data collection was an attitude scale. The scale was divided into two parts. First part consists of statements on job satisfaction for community development workers while the second set was on statement relating to performance which was meant for the supervisors of community development workers. A total of 140 copies of the questionnaire were given out. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistics of percentage score, chi-square and a cross tabulation. The research design of the study was an evaluation study. Okwute (2000) in her study reveals the following findings. The first research finding which answered first research question i.e. that the community development workers derive high level of satisfaction from their jobs. Secondly the result of the findings reveals that there is a list of factors that enhanced the job satisfaction of the community development workers which include among other things, conduction of work itself, rewards, content of work agents. This findings above has coincided with Nathan (2006) opined that the overall satisfaction of an individual could be predicted from information concerning only the first two most important needs of that individual. In other words workers can report overall job satisfaction when a workers two most important needs were being satisfied by the job while the third finding reveals that there is no relationship between workers job satisfaction and job performance. She concluded that it is safer to say that both satisfaction and performance has a mutual impact on each other. Furthermore, it is unfair to assume that the positive relationship between satisfaction and performance come about because satisfaction causes performance. There is need to emphasize that satisfaction is not the same as motivation though some people believe that increased job satisfaction can bring about higher performance. The relationship comes because good performance leads to reward, which in turn causes satisfaction. Porter and Lawler (1965) studies on managerial attitudes and performance have reported an impressive view. According to them whether money increases performances or not depends to a large extend upon the individual ability. They summarized high satisfaction and job performance variables under three (3) headings (1) the attractiveness importance of worker attached to the potential outcome (reward), (2) the performance reward linkage which is the degree of the individual belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the achievement of desired goal or outcome, (3) the effort performance linkage which is the perception by the individual that exerting a given amount of energy will produce an effective performance that will also lead to reward. In another research study conducted by Akinnigbagbe (2000) in Usman (2004) on the topic Relationship among Motivation Job Performance and Job Satisfaction in Federal University Libraries in Nigeria, after reviewing many empirical researches, she concluded in her findings that among others, there is a significant relationship between motivation and level of job satisfaction. Secondly, there is a corresponding degree of relationship between level of job performance and level of job satisfaction with minor variations in few cases. It is pertinent to this discussion to look into differences between job satisfaction and job performance. Studies on this aspect revealed that job satisfaction reflects the individual attitude or happiness with the situation of his job performance refers to the ability of a worker to combine skillfully the right behaviour towards the achievement of organizational goals or objectives. Herzberg (1959) two factor theories reveals that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction have different causal variables. Variables such as promotion, recognition and respect among others increases satisfaction but does not cause dissatisfaction when absent. While variables such as salary, good working condition and good social interaction among others can cause dissatisfaction and yet have no effect on satisfaction. Herzberg (1959) called the first variables (i.e. recognition, promotion, respect) motivators or satisfiers while the later variable like salary, good working condition as hygiene maintenance factors.


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

Steer and Porter (1979) opined that the use of monetary incentives and bonus payment for teaching assigned tasks is a cornerstone to improving performance. Teachers in all secondary schools in the state demonstrated a similar satisfaction level on their jobs and this may not be unconnected with similar gesture accorded to them by state government. Pay and promotion play an important role in a working career of teachers since all teachers reported a similar positive response on the two variables. And therefore, their performance level that the study considers high may possible be the answer of fair administration of pay and promotion to teachers in the state by Borno state government. THIS TEACHING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT USED IN STUDY AS PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 1. Introduction (Relevance motivation, strength and length) 2. Subject content (Mastery adequacy and accuracy) 3. Deliverance of lesson (logicality and sound flow) 4. Use of chalk board (Neatness, eligibility and order ness) 5. Teaching methods (Relevance, variety appropriateness of use of good illustrations and psychological rein-enforcement. 6. Use of teaching aids (effectiveness, appropriateness, and resourcefulness. 7. Time budgeting (time given to each section of the lesson plan 8. Use of vocabulary (simplicity and accuracy 9. Communication effectiveness (eye contact, deification of points, voice level and speech 10. Conclusion (summary of main points/ideas and main objectives of the lesson). CONCLUSION It is paramount clear and sound to conclude that prompt teachers promotion, lucrative payment and job satisfaction are the principal factor guiding the mind and perception of teachers as a vehicle of transmitting, generating and enhancing teachers job performance in Borno State Secondary Schools. Teachers in all the three (3) selected secondary school in this study were demonstrated a similar anger or level of dissatisfaction in respect of how Borno State Government through the state teachers services board mishandling the standard implementation of teachers incentives package like promotion, pay and other related welfares that teachers claim to have significant motives towards their job performance are all abortive. Therefore, Borno State Government is advice to live up to expectation and initiate a modern standard teachers remuneration policies that enhance their job performance, hence teachers are the engine block of every society. RECOMMENDATION The following recommendations are better given based on the findings of this study: 1. There is need for adequate provision of teaching facilities and school infrastructures to schools in the state. And government should focus more attention on maintaining the existing schools than building more schools that can not be catered for. 2. Teachers should be promoted promptly as when due without delay and bias. 3. Salaries should be reviewed upward to meet the modern day scale. 4. More teachers should be recruited to transmit qualitative education. 5. Government should always focus attention to area of teachers satisfaction, so as to be productive and yield high performance. REFERENCE Alimi. B.G (2002) The Effects of Motivation Worker Performance. Unpublished B.Sc final year dissertation submitted to the department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. BSTSB, (2010) A Handbook of Borno State Teaching Sevices Board; Meritorious award; Borno State. Herzberg, M (1959) The Motivation to work New York. Meseylted. Hackett and Guion, (1985) A re-evaluation of the absentecision, job satisfaction relation, organization behavior and human decision process USA. PP: 35,340-381.


Alimi Baba Gana et al.,: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011

Ibrahim, A.D (2001) Salary Administration and Staff Motivation in Yobe State tertiary institution. A case study of ATiku Abubakar College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Nguru, Unpublished Masters dissertation, University of Maiduguri Locke, E.A (1976) The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction: New York Mcgraw Hill Maslow, A.H (1970) Motivation and personality: New York: Harper and Row. Nathan, M, (2006) In Mohammeed Muazu (2008) Relationship between teachers job satisfaction and job performance Yobe State Senior Secondary Schools. Unpublished masters Dissertation, University of Maiduguri. Okwute, O.A (2004) Job Satisfaction and Job performance among Community Development Workers in selected Local Government in Borno State. Unpublished Masters Dissertation; University of Maiduguri. Porter and Lawler (1965) Behavior in Organization. New York: Mcgraw Hill Books Co. Seattle Post intelligence job Satisfaction does not guarantee 315506 job Satisfaction 14. html. Steer and Porter (1979) Motivation and Work behavior. New York, Mcgraw Hill. Usman, A (2004) Relationship between teachers job satisfaction and job performance in Borno Sate Secondary Schools. Unpublished Masters Dissertation, University of Maiduguri. Received for Publication: 07/05/2011 Accepted for Publication: 10/06/2011 Corresponding author Alimi Baba Gana Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. email: