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Andaman Islands

Report on Water Advocacy

February – March 2008

Emmanuel Hospital Association

ANDAMAN WATER PROJECT

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

Long-term decision making in water—by all actors and at every level—should lead to sustainable use of the world’s water resources, sustainable development of societies, and improved, dignified livelihoods for individuals.

Anders Berntell Executive Director, Stockholm International Water Institute

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

CONTENTS

1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands – An Overview

5

2. The Andaman Water Project

7

3. Water and the Island’s Development

9

4. The

Advocacy Initiative

13

5. The Competition

15

6. Stakeholders’ Meetings

16

1. Diglipur Stakeholders’ Meeting

17

2. Rangat Stakeholders’ Meeting

20

3. Baratang Stakeholders’ Meeting

23

7. Regional Seminar

26

8. Recommendations

31

9. Conclusion

32

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

1

Andaman and Nicobar Islands – An Overview

The Andaman and Nicobar islands (92°to 94°East and 6°to 14°North) is an archipelago of 556 islands/islets, stretching over nearly 800 kms from north to

south, in the Bay of Bengal. There are 38 inhabited islands with a total population

of approximately 356,000

Andaman, South Andaman and Nicobar. The capital of the Andaman & Nicobar

Islands is Port Blair, situated in South Andaman.

1

. The islands have three districts - North and Middle

The Andaman islands are hilly and heavily covered with tropical rain forest (about 87% of the surface area) 2 . The climate is tropical, with the temperature ranging between 24°and 30°C and is quite humid (mean relative humidity of 78.5%). There is abundant rainfall (the normal annual rainfall of 3180 mm), supporting rich vegetation. The Southwest Monsoon (May to October) predominates, though some rain from the northeast monsoon falls in November and April. Thus it gets some 8 months of rainfall.

While there are no rivers in the Andaman Islands, many creeks traverse the mainland with tributaries of varying lengths and during high tide, water from the sea penetrates creating swamps and marshes, which nurture the thriving mangrove. Coconut, areca nut, banana, and rice are the major crops grown in addition to forest products. Rain-fed paddy cultivation is harvested between October and January during the northeast monsoon season.

Political:

Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a Union Territory under the governance of the centre; the local administration led by a Lieutenant Governor. The islands also have one elected representative to Indian Parliament. Though the democratic process is present, the real administrative powers lie with the bureaucrats as it has a separate structure. These islands are considered of military and strategic importance to India. For this reason, several groups were brought from the mainland to inhabit these islands which are discussed in the following section.

1 http://www.and.nic.in/KnowAndaman/ecostat2007
2

ibid

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

Demographics:

The government classifies four groups of people found on the Andaman Islands:

Tribals, Pre-1942 (those who settled prior to the Japanese occupation in WW II), Settlers and Islanders. Settlers are those brought by the government, mostly from West Bengal and Tamil Nadu, and leased land in order to safeguard the territory for India. Islanders are those who have been living on the islands for more than ten years. There is another group which makes up a significant proportion of the population in some areas. They are ‘Encroachers’ – poor people mostly from the states of Jharkhand & West Bengal who have “settled” in the protected forest and now considered “encroachment areas”. Thus construction requires permission from the forest department, which is rarely given. These areas are generally not accessible by road with the result that the encroachers are one of the most marginalized groups on the islands.

Infrastructure:

The infrastructure in the Andaman Islands is limited, and in many ways inadequate. There is one primary road called ‘ATR (Andaman Trunk Road)’ that connects the North, Middle and South Andaman areas with Port Blair. A handful of secondary roads connect to jetties and some of the villages, however many villages are accessible only by footpath or by the sea. Transportation is limited to vehicle travel along the ATR and on a handful of ferries running between the larger centers. Cargo ships arrive only in Port Blair and inter-island freight must be sent by truck (who take the ferries) or on a chartered boat. Port Blair is home to the only airport in the archipelago.

The Public Works Department (PWD) has installed piped water supplies on the North, Middle and South Andaman, to most of the villages, however these villages have year-round water rationing, ranging from few minutes a day to few minutes a week, from rainy to dry season. Also those villages not on the main roads, however, do not have piped water connections.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

2

The Andaman Water Project

The Andaman Water Project (AWP) of the Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) has been working on the issue of water in the Andaman group of Island since June 2007. The Andaman group of islands covers an area of 6,408 sq km and is also the more populous, with a population of 314,084 spread over 24 inhabited islands.

Soon after the devastating tsunami of 2004, EHA initiated a tsunami rehabilitation project called the AshaSagar Project in the Andaman islands. During the general needs assessment undertaken for this project, the shortage of water and the non availability of potable drinking water emerged as the major need of the community. Based on a survey undertaken by a team of engineers commissioned by the Disaster Management Unit of EHA, a decision was taken to address this critical issue of water through a project specifically focussing on it. Thus the Andaman Water Project came into existence to address drinking water issues in the Andaman group of islands.

These islands are covered under two adminstrative districts – North and Middle Andaman and South Andaman. The AWP target is to cover a population of 10,000 people in 30 villages located within both of these districts under the following objectives:

Objectives:

1. Improve quantity quality and proximity of drinking water to target population

2. Improve health of local population

3. Empower local communities to maintain and promote the systems

4. Advocate for improved water supply to island communities (outside target area)

This project is implemented through faith based groups. These groups have the advantage of being localised and consisting of members from the target

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

community and thus familiar with the particularities of the area. They also bring an extensive network of contacts to the projects and an ability to facilitate action within the local government structure and context. While the first five are involved in field level implementation of the project, the last will help EHA to operate a mobile clinic. These partners are the

Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church (GELC),

Indian Evangelical Mission (IEM), the Methodist Church,

Shiloh Evangelistic Mission,

Hindi Baptist Church and

PILARS Health Centre.

The project is in the first year of its implementation - which is a pilot phase covering 10 villages. All of the water situations are represented within these villages and each of the three proposed technical approaches (construction/ rehabilitation of wells, hand pumps and rooftop rainwater harvesting) as well. Thereafter, the strengths and weaknesses of each water supply and treatment systems will be assessed by the project team with the village water committees to help select the most appropriate approach for the remaining of the villages to be covered in the next phase.

The activities envisaged under the project are as under:

1. Household survey of 10 villages to determine the above factors.

2. Construct

a. 8 tube wells

b. 1 Rehabilitation existing well

c. 6 community based household rooftop rainwater harvesting systems (RRWH)

d. 50 water treatment systems (water filters) in two villages.

3. Regular testing of drinking water by the village water committees and Community Health Volunteers to ensure that water quality meets BI standards.

4. Conservation practices are taught to populations with year-round adequate piped water supply

5. Testing of existing water supplies to determine presence of contaminants (faecal coliform, hardness, salinity, chemical contamination etc).

6. Improving awareness of safe water handling practices and personal hygiene through awareness and trainings

7. Train and capacitate community-based groups to maintain and promote the water systems.

8. Advocate with government and non government stake holders through the media and through meetings with district and panchayat level officials, a regional seminar and national workshop for improved water supply and responsible water usage.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

3

Water and the Island’s Development

Water is Life. Yet at least 1.1 billion people lack access to safe water. Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals is to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015 3 . Worldwide 6000 children die every day from disease related to water.

India falls into the category of those countries where, by 2002, 48% of the population lacked access to improved drinking water sources. It ranks 120 in water quality and 133 in per capita availability. According to the 10th Five Year Plan, 161 million people in India do not have access to safe drinking water and there are148,515 habitations which are not covered by drinking water facilities.

An attempt has been made here to survey the water situation in Andaman, a group of 24 islands with an area of 6408 sq.km. – of which 780 km 2 falls under revenue land. Most of the matter herein is gained through the experience of the ‘Andaman Water Project’ of EHA for the past year in the two district of South Andaman and Middle and North Andaman.

Rainwater

There is abundant rainfall with average annual precipitation of 3,100 mm. The Southwest Monsoon (May to October) predominates, though the northeast monsoon also brings some rain. Thus it gets some eight months of rainfall.

Percentage of Total Rainfall

40%

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

Jan-05

Apr-05

Jul-05

Oct-05

Jan-06

Apr-06

Jul-06

Oct-06

3 Health, Dignity and Development: What Will It Take? UN Millennium Project Task Force on Water and Sanitation, Final Report, Abridged Edition. 2005. pg. 13

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

Thus a theoretical estimate indicates that this is about the 221 times the annual demand and if each person collects all the rainwater that falls on 2 sq m, the area will have sufficient water throughout the year

 

Area

   

Amount

Land Description

(sq km)

Rainfall

Litres

Excess

Total area (incl. Forest land)

6408

3100

17,878,320,000,000

1814 times

Revenue area

780

3100

2,176,200,000,000

221 times

The issue associated with rainwater harvesting is storage, especially for the quantity needed for the lean season. A disturbing fact in a survey done by the project team in Port Blair shows that 99% of the water harvesting tanks in schools do not function because of minor faults. With only a little mantainence these tanks could add to the storage capacity of water in Port Blair.

Groundwater

The project team is not aware of any study done on groundwater by relevant authorities. The Cental Groundwater Authority in its website mentions that groundwater has not been assesed in the Andaman Islands. The openwells used have an average depth of 15 feet. Such wells are unlikely to deliver potable water.

During the pilot phase of the project 9 hand pumps (tubewells) were instalted of which only 5 are delivering

suffcient freshwater. These drillings show that the subsurface soil, sitting on hard formations, is in most cases shallow and of types varying from silty clay to hard black clay. Clay soils have low

permeability but high porosity. This means that these shallow depth of clay contains water but not enough to supply sufficient water during the dry season and most of the rain that falls on this surface is lost in the sea as surface runoff. These data compel us to consider constructing ponds with an

25 20 15 Depth Average 10 5 0 Feet
25
20
15
Depth
Average
10
5
0
Feet

1

4

6

No of Wells

42

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

Demand/ Supply 100 thousand Gallons

100 thousand

Population

accompanying shallow handpump as a good alternative method of gathering clean drinking water.

There are also indications that undergroung water levels have been disturbed after the tsunami due to the Burma microplate – on which the islands sits - hitting against the India plate, causing the islands to rise in southern Islands and slump in northern parts. This change in groundwater dynamics needs to be studdied and taken into consideration while planning appropiate water source for any place.

Surface Water

Surface water is the most commonly used water resource in the islands. The Andaman’s PWD has done a commendable job, especially when compared to their counterparts in the mainland, considering the difficulties of reaching the difficult terrain. They have connected about 70% of villages with a piped water system. Checkdams are constructed at several elevated springs that collect the water and supply water through the piped network. The fact that several sources are attached to the piped supply increases the availability of water; should one source dry up, other sources meet the water need. However, these sources are insufficient to provide water throughout the year. In many cases one pipe connection is shared between five or six households. Furthermore, many pipelines are old and rusted which reduces water quality and also reduces water avalability.

The average daily water demand for the Andaman Islands is

approximately 27 million litres per day.

A study by Zila Parisad on Port Blair

shows only 40-50%

demand is met. During rainy season

the population overcomes the shortage by harvesting rainwater while rest of

Port Blair Situation

120

3

100

100

80

2

60

40

 

1

20

     

0

0

2006 Supply
2006
Supply
2016 Demand
2016
Demand

2026

2036

Population

Population

the year it is left thirsty. The situation in Port Blair is an example with about 50% shortage. Water supply is rationed and provided for few minutes from alternate days to once in a week.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

Quality of Piped Water Sand bed filters and bleaching powder are used to treat water in the Island. There is lack of adequate treatment plants and water is not always adequately treated. This is evident from the colour / turbidity of water supplied especially during the eight months of rainy season . Effectively there is no quality monitoring system in place in the Island. It is a matter of serious concern calling for prompt action.

Forests and Water

The islands are hilly and heavily covered with tropical rain forest (87% of Andaman surface area). Most of the freshwater sources are found in the forest. There are villages which are not piped that rely on these springs deep in the

jungle. Villagers are forced to hike further (up to 2 hours each way) as the nearby sources dry up. Women are the most affected, spending several hours each day collecting water, particularly in the dry season. Stakeholder meetings indicate that opposed to popular opinion the Forest Department is open to working with the the PWD on the issue of accessing freshwater sources in the forest. Through

a joint venture water sources in the forest could posibly be tapped to supply those living in the area.

Disaster and Water

This area is prone to earthquakes (falls in Zone V), tsunamis, cyclones,

landslides and floods. The devastating tsunami of 2004, crippled the system upto

a month in some parts of the islands. Since then there have been 315

earthquakes & aftershocks in the Island measuring 5 or above on the Richter Scale. Are the systems then, greared to face future disasters or do we need to think about alternatives such decentralization of the water supply system and

community management of water.

Water and the Community

In the Andaman Islands the major player for water supply is the Public Works Department (PWD). The Zilla Parishads and Panchayts also play a part in supply at the local level. From the funds allocated to the them, the Panchayats create local initiatives such as digging katcha wells. Effective water suppy and maintainence could be gained at the local level if the Panchayats are empowered through training and allocation of sufficient funds to manage water.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

4

The Advocacy Initiative

Arising out of the understanding of the situation as presented in the previous chapter, certain concerns came into the forefront with regards to water, especially safe drinking water, that need attention and addressal. These being:

Augmenting the shortfall in supply

Optimising water harvesting

Effective water treatment

Proximate access to drinking water in remote villages, especially

those which have a small population.

Community involvement in water resource management – is it

needed? If yes, how can it be done?

The right of those living in ‘encroached areas’ to drinking water

Complex issue of forest, water and people.

Is the water supply system geared for disaster situations

Thus it was thought expedient to take up these issues with various stakeholders in the water sector, focussing particularly on drinking water issues. The fourth Objective of the Andaman Water Project is to ‘Advocate for Improved Water Supplies to Island Communities’ wherein this initiative was undertaken.

The key objectives of the initiative were to:

1. Highlight the water issues that are common to Islands and unique to Andaman (which often go unnoticed)

2. Give opportunity to different stakeholders to listen to on another on drinking water issues by bring them together on the same platform

3. Document the findings and present suggestions to the state Administration.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

The Approach

The initiative consisted of a series of stakeholder meeting and a competition on ‘Alternative models of water Augmenting’ followed by a Regional Seminar in Port Blair. The theme for all these gatherings was ‘Water and the Island’s Development’. Learning and inputs from the Stakeholders’ Meeting were carried to the Regional Seminar, with representatives from these meeting presenting their points before the local administration in the Seminar.

The schedule for the competition & meetings was as given below:

Competition date:

 
 

Port Blair

6 th Mar 2008

Stakeholders’ meeting

North Andaman Diglipur

1 st Mar 2008

Middle Andaman Rangat Baratang

3 rd Mar 2008 6 th Mar 2008

The Regional Seminar Port Blair

12 th Mar 2008

Rangat Baratang 3 r d Mar 2008 6 t h Mar 2008 The Regional Seminar Port

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5

The Competition

The competition of technical papers was conducted on the topic ‘Alternative Models of Water Augmentation in the Island’. The objective of the competition was two pronged first to generate awareness - interest on water situation among the students and thereby encourage their participation in a constructive way, two it was a build up towards the Regional Seminar wherein stakeholders start talking on the issue well in time.

The call for competition was disseminated through advertisement in the local newspaper and letters were sent to the Principals of the various institution. About 22 students participated in the competition. The technical papers were evaluated on the basis of contents, originality of ideas, contextual relevance of Andaman, technical details and sequence of presentation.

Mr. Neeraj from Dr. Abedkar Govt. Polytechnic won the first prize, for his novel idea of recharge wells on the river beds.

Ms TK Saptha Rishika who discussed on rainwater harvesting and community participation from Kamraj English Medium School won the second prize,

Mr. Mohd. Kamran Khan from Jawaharlal Nehru Rajkeeya Mahavidyala (JNRM) in his paper presents a fine balance between tradition & technology along with strategy required was the third prize winner.

The consolation prize went to Mr.Jaikaar Singh Sahi who discussed on different methods of recharging & rainwater harvesting was from Naval Children School.

All the winners were honoured with prizes and certificate in the Regional Seminar through the Partners. The first prize winner Mr. Neeraj was also given an opportunity to share a summary from his paper during the seminar. The competition drew interest from all sections of people including PWD and the media.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

6

Stakeholders’ Meetings

The Stakeholders

The stakeholders included members of the village community and community based organisations, leaders from the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Zilla Parishad, officials from the Administration, Public Works Department (PWD), the Forest Department, representatives from other Non-Government Organisations (NGO), Educational Institutions, Students, Print and Electronic Media.

The meetings

These meetings lasted about three hour and followed a similar pattern of an introduction to EHA’s Water Project in the island, presentation of the background paper, presentations from the PWD, Forest Department or other stakeholder, and open forum, group discussion and presentations, concluded by a session consolidating the main points emerging out of the meetings. The meeting ended or began with lunch.

Details of each meeting are given below.

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EHA-Andaman Water Project

1. Diglipur Stakeholders’ Meeting

i) Dates and Coverage

The first meeting was in Diglipur town on 1 st March 2008 from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. covering following gram panchayats

1. Kishorinagar

2. Radhanagar

3. Kerelapuram

4. Subashgram

ii) Proceedings

1. Welcome and Introduction to EHA

5. Kalighat

6. Shibpur

7. Diglipur

(20 min)

The dignitaries were welcomed and Power Point presentation introducing EHA’s and its work in the island through the Andaman Water Project was done by Ms. Suman, Programme Officer for the AWP.

2. Background Paper

(20 min)

The purpose and the context of the meetings were set before the people through a background paper presented by Mr. Abraham Dennyson, Project Manager – AWP, as given in Chapter 2 of this report.

3. Chief Guest’s Address

(10 min)

The Executive Engineer of the PWD in Diglipur, Mr. Tej Badhur, addressed the gathering, appreciating the efforts of EHA to organise such an initiative.

4. Presentation - APWD

(20 min)

Following which a presentation was done by the Junior Engineer, PWD – Diglipur on the work of the PWD and the plans it had for the future.

5. Presentation - Nandi Foundation

(7 min)

Mr. Joseph Royal, Project Manger for the Livelihood Project of Nandi Foundation presented the work of Nandi Foundation in the island and their efforts through public – private – community partnership in addressing rural drinking water needs in Andhra Pradesh. The drinking water treatment plants work on UV technology and provide affordable water at about Re. 1 for every 15 litres. This can be tried out in Island if Panchayats come forward he mentioned.

6.

Open Forum

(50 min)

This was a time given to the floor to talk about the issue of water specific to their area. People were asked to take five minutes each to state the issue and suggest recommendations for improvement if they had any.

7.

Group Discussion

(30 min)

Groups were made as per the gram panchayats represented by them, so that they would be able to discuss the issues pertinent to their area and collectively come up with recommendations for the same. The group discussion was guided by a set of questions given to them. These questions were:

1. What are the different drinking water sources in your area?

2. What are the most important problems related to water in your villages?

3. How can the problems be solved?

a. By the community

b. By the Government

4. How can we optimize the use of rain water?

5. Do ‘encroachers’ have rights to water?

(Note: For the presentations from the group discussion refer to Annexure 1.)

8. Consolidation of GD

(10 min)

The main points that arose from the meeting were consolidated and presented to the audience by Ms. Esther Ghosh.

9. Vote of Thanks

(5 min)

Rev. Akai Haokip, point person from the partners Indian Evangelical Mission (IEM) presented the vote of thanks.

iii) Highlights

There is a shortage of water, especially during the dry season.

Water supply is just for 10-15 minutes every other day. Some places have pipe lines but they do not get water.

In some pipe lines installed 20-25 years have rusted, clogging the system and restricting water supply.

The water table has receded post tsunami, so the problem of shortage has compounded as there is less water in the diggies (mud walled wells), ring well; also this water is murky due the shallow depth

Many villages, especially those in ‘encroached areas’ such as Pailoon do not have water in their proximity and women have to trek for 2 hour to get water from streams in the forest. At times fights break because of water problems.

The freshwater sources in Lamyabay can be tapped to improve the water supply.

The panchayat leaders emphasised that if more funds were made available to the PRI, they would be able to augment based on local need efficiently (presently they get Rs. 1 lakh per annum which is sufficient for 1 ring well only).

2. Rangat Stakeholders’ Meeting

i) Dates and Coverage

The first meeting was in Rangat town on 3 rd March 2008 from 12:00 noon to 4:00 p.m. covering following gram panchayats

1.

2.

3.

4.

Rangat

Parnashala

Dashratpur

Sabri

ii) Proceedings

1. Welcome and Introduction to EHA

5.

6.

7.

8.

(15 min)

Nimbutala

Urmalapur

Panchvati

Betapur

The audience was welcomed and Power Point presentation introducing EHA’s and its work in the island through the Andaman Water Project was done by Ms. Suman, Programme Officer for the AWP.

2. Background Paper

(20 min)

The purpose and the context of the meetings were set before the people through

a background paper presented by Mr. Abraham Dennyson, Project Manager – AWP, as given in Chapter 2 of this report.

3. Welcome of Dignitaries

(7 min)

The key people present, the Executive Engineer – PWD Rangat, the Assistant Conservator of Forest d the Point Person from the partners were recognised and welcomed with bouquets.

4. Presentation - APWD

(20 min)

The Executive Engineer, Mr. K Das of the PWD in Rangat gave a presentation on the work of the PWD and the plans it had for the future. He stated that all villages, except encroached villages had been covered by the PWD to supply

piped water. Apart, from Baratang where water scarcity has risen after the tsunami, he stated that they have sufficient water supply capacity for the next 30 years. Augmenting the scarcity in Baratang will be looked at, he added. Further,

a new filter is also being installed to improve water quality in the area.

5. Presentation – Forest Department

(10 min)

The Assistant Commissioner of Forest (ACF) of Rangat, Mr A K Mondal talked about the importance of maintaining forest for stabilizing rainfall patterns and conserving water. Before 1960, there were a lot of perennial sources in the forest, but due to deforestation and encroachment, these sources are fast drying up. As to rights of those living in encroached areas, as per government

regulations, the pre-1970 settlers have been regularised and the other cannot, he said.

6.

Open Forum

(30 min)

This was a time given to the floor to talk about the issue of water specific to their area. People were asked to take five minutes each to state the issue and suggest recommendations for improvement if they had any.

7. Group Discussion (30 min)

Groups were made as per the gram panchayats represented by them, so that they would be able to discuss the issues pertinent to their area and collectively come up with recommendations for the same. The group discussion was guided by a set of questions given to them. These questions were:

1. What are the different drinking water sources?

2. What are the most important problems related to water in your villages?

3. How can the problems be solved?

c. By the community

d. By the Government

4. How can we optimize the use of rain water?

5. Do ‘encroachers’ have rights to water?

Since there were many Assistant and Junior Engineers present in the audience, they were given asked to comment on the issues raised in the back ground paper, which were:

How to supply the shortfall (about 50% ) ?

Optimising water harvesting.

Is the water supply system geared for disaster situations?

Effective water treatment

Proximate access to drinking water in remote villages, especially those which have a small population.

Can the community be involved in water resource management?

Do people living in ‘encroached areas’ have right to drinking water?

Complex issue of forest, water and people.

(Note: For the presentations from the group discussion refer to Annexure 1.)

8. Consolidation of GD

(10 min)

The main points that arose from the meeting were consolidated and presented to the audience by Ms. Esther Ghosh.

9.

Vote of Thanks

(5 min )

Rev. Santosh Surin, point person from the partners Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church (GELC) presented the vote of thanks.

iii) Highlights

There is a shortage of water, especially during the dry season.

Water supplied is not always clean. A dam was promised to Nimbutala has not yet been built. This should be taken up so that the people in this have enough water.

Shiv nagar can get water from Panchvati

Rainwater Harvesting not done. If this is taken up, much of the water problems will be solved.

Water supply is just for half an hour every other day, which is not enough to meet all the needs.

The claim of the 100% coverage under the PWD water supply system was contested by the people. The PWD agreed that due to increase in population and addition of newer households, the entire village may not in effect be covered by them. This could be amended if the PRI approached the Revenue Department after every two years to show the increase in population, then the PWD can provide them partially covered status and submit a proposal and get funds to cover the entire village under their system.

3. Baratang Stakeholders’ Meeting

i) Dates and Coverage

The first meeting was in Rangat town on 6 th March 2008 from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon covering following gram panchayats of Baratang and also Kadamtala sub- division

1. Uttara

2. Nilambur

3. Sundergarh

ii) Proceedings

1. Welcome and Introduction to EHA

(15 min)

The audience was welcomed and Power Point presentation introducing EHA’s and its work in the island through the Andaman Water Project was done by Ms. Suman, Programme Officer for the AWP.

2. Background Paper

(20 min)

The purpose and the context of the meetings were set before the people through a background paper presented by Mr. Abraham Dennyson, Project Manager – AWP, as given in Chapter 2 of this report.

3. Presentation - APWD

(10 min)

The Junior Engineer, Mr. Pradeep Kr. Roy of the PWD in Kadamtala gave a presentation on the work of the PWD and the plans it had for the future.

4. Presentation – Forest Department

(10 min)

The Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) of Baratang, Mr Saurabh Kumar there are no laws to prevent people from accessing water, laws only tells one how to get it in the appropriate way. For a basic necessity like water, basic measure should be taken to access it. He further stated that the impression that the Forest Department is creating hindrance in accessing water is not logical. The need is for all to be aware of the laws and it provisions and for the coming together of all players to work on this issue.

5.

Open Forum

(30 min)

This was a time given to the floor to talk about the issue of water specific to their area. People were asked to take five minutes each to state the issue and suggest recommendations for improvement if they had any.

6.

Group Discussion (30 min)

Groups were made as per the gram panchayats represented by them, so that they would be able to discuss the issues pertinent to their area and collectively come up with recommendations for the same. The group discussion was guided by a set of questions given to them. These questions were:

6. What are the different drinking water sources?

7. What are the most important problems related to water in your villages?

8. How can the problems be solved?

e. By the community

f. By the Government

9. How can we optimize the use of rain water?

10. Do ‘encroachers’ have rights to water?

The PRI and Zilla Parishad leaders and representatives from NGOs and educational institutions in the audience, with their wider range of experience were asked to comment on the issues raised in the back ground paper, which were:

How to supply the shortfall (about 50% ) ?

Optimising water harvesting.

Is the water supply system geared for disaster situations?

Effective water treatment

Proximate access to drinking water in remote villages, especially those which have a small population.

Can the community be involved in water resource management?

Do people living in ‘encroached areas’ have right to drinking water?

Complex issue of forest, water and people.

(Note: For the presentations from the group discussion refer to Annexure 1.)

7. Consolidation of GD

(10 min)

The main points that arose from the meeting were consolidated and presented to

the audience by Mr. Dennyson Abraham

8. Vote of Thanks

(5 min )

Pastor Newton, point person from the partners Indian Evangelical Mission (IEM) presented the vote of thanks.

iii) Highlights

There is a shortage of water, especially during the dry season.

In dry season, piped supply hardly suffices and water in the wells also dry up as in South Creek.

Villages with small population neglected, as a village in Kadamtalla consisting of 20-25 in a secluded place. They have piped water but a single connection which is not sufficient for the entire village.

Since after the tsunami, there has been a change in the ground water dynamic, bore well, may not be a suitable option for Baratang, the best option would be to have small check dams.

Rainwater harvesting at the village level will help solve problems of water scarcity.

In Roglachang piped water supply from the stream could be looked at as the water in the bore well there are brackish. Water from these well also reduce shelf life of food cooked in it.

7

Regional Seminar

The Stakeholders’ Meetings culminated in a Regional Seminar held on Port Blair on the 12 th of March 2008 at Megapode Resort. The theme of the day long Seminar, as that of the Stakeholders’ Meetings, was ‘Water and the Island’s Development’. The Seminar started at 9.00 a.m. and ended at 4:00 p.m.

The purpose of the Regional Seminar was to get people bring people with experience to present their point before those in position of authority and capable of bring change.

Proceedings

1. Welcome

The guest and audience present were welcomed and introduced to the purpose

of

the Seminar

2.

Introduction to EHA

A

brief introduction to EHA and its projects in the Andaman Islands was given by

Mr. Gladstone Rajesh, Project Manager of the Asha Sagar Project of EHA.

3. Background Paper

Again Mr. Abraham Dennyson, Project Manager – AWP, set before the audience the purpose and the context of the Seminar through a background paper as given in Chapter 2 of this report.

4. Chief Guest’s Address

The Chief Guest for the occasion was Shri Arvind Ray, Commissioner cum Secretary for Higher Education in the Andaman and Nicobar Administration. He also holds additional charge as Secretary to the Lieutenant Governor, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. He was deputed on behalf of the Chief Secretary, Shri Cherring Targay, who due to unavoidable circumstances could not attend the function as earlier planned.

Shri Arvind Ray appreciated the efforts of EHA to be so selflessly involved in the issues affecting the people of the island, especially the issue of water. He stated that since his arrival in the islands last august, he was faced with problem of severe water shortage in Port Blair town. To address which they had to transport water from the nearby Rutland Island in barrages.

He also mentioned the various water projects which were on in the island and the projects which were in the pipeline, like the submarine water channel from Rutland Island to Port Blair, the Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant, etc.

In the end he said the administration would welcome the resolution coming out of

this Seminar and would look how they could be used.

5. Address by Guest of Honour

The Guest of Honour was Ms. Miriam Bibi, Chairman of the Zilla Parishad in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Miriam Bibi talked about the schemes that the Zilla Parishad had to augment the water situation in the island and the conservation of water and rainwater harvesting was essential.

6. Keynote Address

The Keynote Address was given by Mr. R.C. Srivastava, who is the Director of the Central Agricultural Research Institute (CARI) in Port Blair. He has done a

research on the water situation of the island, especially with regards to agriculture and irrigation.

Mr. Srivastava emphasized that a decentralized water supply and management system, implemented through the PRI, would be better since the PRI system in the island functions well and they are directly responsible to the people. Maintenance could be done locally by Water Users Associations.

7. Presentation - Water Quality in the Inter-Islands

A presentation was made by the faculty of the B.R. Ambedkar Government

Polytechnic on the quality of water in the inter-islands. Mr. Jensen Daniel and

Mrs. Rita, who had undertaken a research funded by the WHO on the quality of drinking water at the source, presented their findings.

The study showed that faecal coliform contamination was found in most (95%) samples much beyond the permissible limits; even ground water was not free from these indicating faulting construction of septic tank - the prevent human excreta disposal method in the island, which allowed seepage from it.

The team was also apprehensive of desalination system, as the prevalent methods do not address UV radiation in the desalinated sea water.

8.

Water Vision - Role of PWD and Zilla Parishad in tackling water issues in the Island

In this section, engineers from the PWD and Zilla Parishad presented the roles of

their respective bodies in augmenting the water situation in the island. The presentation of the PWD was made by Mr. S.C. Nath, Executive Engineer – Public Health Engineering Department and for the Zilla Parishad by the Assistant Engineer – Planning, Mr. S. Ganeshan

The PWD said that it intended to create a sweet water lake at Sippighat by

stopping the inflow of sea water into the low lying areas and collecting rain water

in it. They also intended to tap 5 of the 11 freshwater streams in Rutland Island

and transport the water through a submarine channel as being explored by the National Institute of Ocean Technology.

9. Presentation by ADRA

Mr. Rajesh Kashyap, Project Director with Adventist Development Relief Association (ADRA) who heads the Nancowarie Water Project of ADRA gave a presentation. The emphasized the need for both community and household rainwater harvesting in rural and urban areas and showed what his organisation was doing in this area.

10.

Prize Distribution to winners of writing competition

In

the post-lunch session, the winners of the writing competition on the theme

‘Alternate Models of Water Augmentation in the Island’ organised by the AWP

were recognized. The first prize of went to Mr. Neeraj - 6

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Government Polytechnic for his concept of Percolation wells

in the stream/river bed to charge underground aquifers. The second prize was

given to Miss. T. K. Saptha Rakshika a student of Class VII in Kamraj English

Medium School. The third prize to Mr. Md. Kamran Khan, a B.Com 1 st Year of JNRM College and one consolation prize went to Mr. Jaikaar Singh Sahi, a Class

X student of Navy Children School.

th

Semester student of

11. Open Forum

The session was opened to the floor for their inputs. The following suggestions came up during this session.

1. Water is wasted as no taps or valves are there on the public supply lines. Municipality needs to keep a check on this by maintaining proper taps and valves.

2. What about the rights of the encroachers to water? Bing human they too have the right to water. If they have the permission to live in the forest they must have the provision of water as well. Water can be provided to them by means of ring well, tube wells, and piped water from the streams.

4. Tanks do not have floating valves; so much water is wasted due to overflow. The PWD should provided floating valves in all their storage tanks.

5. PRIs from Baratang to Diglipur are not given sufficient funds for water. The plans made are only short term plans which do no help the poor or middle class with water. The Zilla Parishad has crores of rupees under the water sector which is not used. But PRIs are only given 2, 3, or 5 Lakhs per year, under minor water screams.

6. 80% of the freshwater sources are in the forest. But the forest department doesn’t allow it’s usage even if the community [PRI] suggest eco friendly methods for tapping these sources. Most Pradhan are not highly educated so are not aware of the Forest conservation laws. Due to which he or she is not able to provide water for his/her people.

7. Suggest that EHA do a survey on the quality of water form Baratang to Diglipur. The NGOs are working with the funds provided by people out of their salaries but the Gov has lots of money which they do not use. The Gov in the centre says that they have money under water that the Andaman administration needs only to send a proposal. The administration is sleeping and needs to wake up on this.

8. If the administration encourages rainwater harvesting and storage by means of providing easy loans, the stress on piped water can be lessened. Rain water harvesting can especially be encouraged in Hotels and big establishments.

12. Group Activity The participant divided in four groups. Questions mentioned below were given to guide their discussions. Two groups used the first set of questions and other two the next set of questions.

SET 1 for Group 1 & 2 How can rain water harvesting be optimized in the island? Also consider (1) storage and (2) who can be the players involved in it. How do we address issues related to ground water in the island? Community based water management – how can this done? Consider the option of decentralized water supply system.

SET 2 for Group 3 & 4 How can we address water quality related issues? How can we work on inter-departmental cooperation to augment the water situation in the island? Consider the rights of forest dwellers/encroachers to water and what must be done about it?

13.

Consolidation

The main points emerging from the presentation and discussions were enlisted and presented before the participant for additional inputs. The final recommends that emerged are enlisted in the next chapter.

14. Vote of Thanks

Mr. Abraham Dennyson, Project Manager – AWP concluded the Seminar with a

vote of thanks to all who contributed to the Seminar.

8

Recommendations

1. Administration should make rainwater harvesting mandatory both for existing and new buildings in urban areas and promote it by way of subsidy and easy loans.

2. Ground water assessment needs to be done urgently and a Monitoring Body need to set up to regulate ground water extraction.

3. Watershed management should be taken up all over Andaman, including forest land.

4. Strengthen the existing water treatment system and put monitoring system in place to follow BIS guidelines on water.

5. The administration provides health and education services to encroachers and similarly there need for clean drinking water has to be met.

6. Empower & decentralize water supply system under PRIs

7. Introduce water meters to make users accountable.

8. Enhance Inter-departmental coordination and cooperation to expedite (Forest Department, PWD, Zilla Parishad and PRIs) to access and protect sources in forests using environmentally sustainable technology.

9. Strengthen regular maintenance of existing supply and storage systems to prevent wastage.

10. Measures need to be taken to protect supply sources from contamination including those in the juggles.

11. Promote awareness of relevant laws e.g. forest conservation act and scheduled tribes and forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights)

9

Conclusion

Water is Life. This oft repeated statement will never lose its essence or importance, especially in present day world scenario. So also in the Andaman archipelago, with its population of some 3.56 lakh, besides the additional tourist in-flow of some 75,000 per year!

As mentioned earlier in this report, statistics show that the present municipal supply meets only about 40-50 % of the demand. Therefore to be able to cater just to the present population the system has to increase the supply by double. If the increase attributable to tourism and population growth is to be kept in mind, the present system has to augment its supply by at least 60-70 %.

To be able to meet this challenge, the strategy should look at involvement of stakeholders, through the process of decentralisation – partial, if not complete. This would thus entail diversification of water sources and access for the remotest villages and settlements. Panchayati Raj Institutions, which are remarkable active in this part of the country, should be a more active player in the area of localised supply, quality management and maintenance.

Across the lines during the stakeholders meeting people had agreed that access to potable drinking water is a right of every citizen including those who live in forest land. Government should rethink its policy of denying any drinking water facility rather in lines with primary education and health, potable water should be made available to these forest dwellers.

Speaking of quality management and maintenance, this aspect too needs looking into. Quality monitoring system put in place and BIS guidelines need to be followed in supply system. Poor quality of the water supplied was an issue the emerged time and again in the course of meetings held with various stakeholders.

Since water is an issue which involves many stakeholders, more so in this region where many departments of the State have a stake, it would be worthwhile for the administration to think of a high level Inter-Departmental Body to solely cater to the sustainable extraction and utilization of water. This body could consists of

members from the Public Works Department (PWD) – the major player of water supply in the Island, the Forest Department, the Agriculture Department, Zilla Parishad and Panchayati Raj representatives and other necessary stakeholder. Such an independent body could also suggest and implement such laws and policy relevant for the sustainable usage of water, such as building laws making rainwater harvesting structures mandatory, or awareness on sustainable use and storage of water in schools, etc.

This body could also look at issue of right of ‘encroachers’ to water. This is vital as there is this sizeable chunk of population, especially in the target area of this Andaman Water Project, which belongs to this category but do not figure in Government plans and schemes.

The beautiful islands of the Andamans are a heaven for many, and many come from far o taste of its splendour. But without adequate and safe water this heaven will lose its life – for WATER is LIFE!

Annexure

Annexure 1

Presentations from Stakeholders’ Meeting’s Group Discussions

Questions for discussion

1. What are the different drinking water sources?

2. What are the most important problems related to water in your villages?

3. How can the problems be solved?

g. By the community

h. By the Government

4. How can we optimize the use of rain water?

5. Do Encroachers have rights to water?

Point’s of discussion on Background Paper

a. How to supply the shortfall

b. Optimising water harvesting

c. Is the water supply system geared for disaster?

d. Effective water treatment

e. Proximate access to drinking water in remote villages, especially those which gave a small population

f. Community involvement in water resource management

g. Do people living in encroached areas have right to drinking water?

h. Complex issue of forest, water and people

Diglipur Stakeholders’ Meeting

Group 1 [Kishorinagar Gram Panchayat]

1. Existing check weir at K. Nagar may be heightened or repaired. Two more natural sources may be tapped by crating check weir at K. Nagar and Parangara. By constructing dug well at K. Nagar 1 and 3 and Parangara 1 and 2. By constructing RCC ring wells in various pockets of these villages. Rain water harvesting tank may be constructed.

2. Main problems; a huge shortage of drinking water for domestic us and animals. Existing pipelines are rusted and need replacement.

3. By constructing check weirs and tapping existing wells. By replacing old rusted pipelines both at K. Nagar and Parangara villages. The works may be executed by Gram Panchayat or APWD along with active support of NGOs. Sufficient funds should be made available by

the administration to the Panchayat. By constructing ponds and katcha wells by the villagers. 4. ---

5. Encroachers have rights. All the encroached areas can be covered by constructing RCC ring wells and pipelines.

Group 2 [ Kerela Puram Panchayat]

1.

Rain water, wells, streams in the forest, ponds, nalla.

2.

We have small diggies that dry up and become murky in summer. In the rains they become murky as well.

3.

 

a. Support from the villagers.

b. Katcha diggies should be made pucca.

4.

Rain water can be harvested by making ponds.

5.

Encroachers have rights to water, everyone needs water.

Group 3 [Village Paloon and Srinagar]

1.

We can get water from wells, nallas, wells and streams in the forest and ponds and by collecting rain water.

2.

We have to go a long distance to get water. Water is not clean or enough. During dry seasons we have severe water problems. Due to deforestation we have less rain. We do not have wells and hand pumps

3.

 

a. The villagers can get together to dig a well.

b. The Government can provide ring wells and hand pumps.

4.

Rain water can be stored in big Sintex drums and tanks, and by making ponds.

5.

Encroachers have a right to water, everyone needs water.

Group 4 [Radhanagar]

1. Nallas

2. The water in the nalla is always dirty so we get diseases. Everyone

used the same source of water, humans and animals, which makes it dirty. During summer the water level gets reduced. 3. Having pucca wells and bore wells will solve the problem. 4. ---

5. Encroachers also have a right to water.

Group 5 [Swaraj Gram Ward #1 and 4]

1. Wells, ponds, rain water.

2. During summer wells and ponds dry up and we have no facilities for rainwater harvesting. We also can’t go to the forest to collect water.

a. It is beyond us to change the situation because we do not have funds.

b. If the Government can provide water through the pipelines from the stream in Badahur Tikrey forest area then our problem would be solved.

4. ---

5. Everyone in this world needs water.

Group 6 [Village Millan Gram]

1.

---

2.

We have to walk a long distance to get water. Provide bore wells, and make pucca diggi.

3.

 

a. We can make a pucca diggi to store rain water.

b. The Government can provide bore wells.

4.

We can boil rain water and use it. We can also make ponds to store

rain water.

5.

---

Rangat Stakeholders’ Meeting

Group 1 [Naya Savera and Shakti, Lakhinallah]

1. Nalla, well, streams in the forest, and diggies, rain water.

2. They do not have a pipeline in their village, so they have to get water from a diggi, but the water here is very dirty.

3. The Government can dig a pond to collect rainwater. We can also do

roof top rainwater harvesting. 4. ---

5. Encroachers have a right to water.

Group 2 [Kiran, Nimbutalla]

1.

Rainwater, nallas, streams in the forest, pipelines, wells ponds.

2.

We get water for a very short duration. And during rains the water that comes from the pipe is dirty.

3.

a. We can collect rainwater, filter it and add chlorine tablets.

b. The Government can give us pipelines. And make diggies in more

places. They can also make a pond and Dam

5. The people who live in the forest also have rights to water; they can collect rain water and make kutcha diggies.

Group 3 [Chitrakut]

1. We can get water from wells, nallas and taps.
2. ---
3. ---

4. We can collect rain water and use it for gardening, washing clothes and toilets.

5. Encroachers also need water.

Group 4 [Shivapuram]

1.

Rainwater, wells, streams in the forest, ponds, lake.

2.

There is a scarcity of water during the dry season.

3.

 

a. The villagers can provide labour.

b. If the source for rain is connected to panchvati then the problem will

be solved. Also Rain water can be stored filtered and supplied with the help of a pump set.

4.

We can use rain water for agriculture, animals, washing clothes and for toilet purposes.

5.

Encroachers have full rights to water, without water there is no life.

Group 5

Gave recommendations for various areas Rangat bay

1. Regular water supply for summer season.

2. Ward # 5 needs water tank.

3. Nimbutala village needs main pipeline

4. Fillter method to be used in main water tank.

Parnashala

1. Increase the duration of water supply during summer

2. Water should be filtered

Yeratta

1. Pipeline should reach interior areas.

2. Duration should be increased during summer season.

Discussions on Background Paper

Group 1

a. Proper distribution system and proper utilization of available water

b. Water harvesting need not be done as this scheme has failed here

c. The system is well planned to meet any disaster situation. Hence no need to gear up the system

d. Effective water treatment: the process is in progress to provide portable dinking water

e. Need sufficient funds to provide water supply network for proximate access.

f. PRI are doing the job and it is excellent

g. Matter is related to the Government of India.

h. No comments

Group 2

a. Shortfall can be augmented by:

a. Rainwater harvesting facility in every house

b. Wastage should be minimised

c. Water meter to be installed

b. ---

c. Water sources have dried up after the disaster
d. ---

e. ---

f. Community should be involved g. Getting drinking water is the fundamental right of every Indian h. ---

Baratang Stakeholders’ Meeting

Group1 [Foster Valley, Kadamtala]

1. Nalla, rain water, wells, piped water supply, Streams in the hills.

2. During the dry season we have a lot of problem because the wells and stream dry up. They have to dig small holes in the stream to get water. This water is salty and dirty, so people get sick.

3. Have a hand pump. Have pipe line. Dam the streams in the hills and connect pipelines to it.

4. Make ponds to collect rain water.

Group 2 [Naveen SHG, Katakhari Baratang]

1. Streams in the forest, diggi.
2. During the summer the water dries up and we have to go a long distance to collect water.
3. If the Government listens to us and we work together we can improve the situation.
4. ---

5. Everyone has a right to water

Group 3 [Roshan group, Rochlachang]

1.

Streams in the forest, wells, ponds, hand pumps and collecting rain

water.

2.

We have to get water from a distance of 2km. In the summer the well dries up and we have to get water from the forest.

3.

 

a. We can put in a hand pump, or we can collect rain water in ponds

b. The Panchayat

4.

Every house can have a rain water harvesting tank, and the water flowing through the stream can be dammed.

5.

Everyone has a right to water, because without water there is no life.

Group 4 [Rajat Garh, Kattan]

1.

Rain water, well, pond, nalla, streams in the forest, check dam on nallas, pipe line from a stream in the forest. Make a dam on Hudi Tikrey.

2.

In the summer the water dries up, the pond water becomes dirty, and the water level in the stream goes down.

3.

 

a. Make a number of wells, dig more ponds, hand pumps, collect rain water,

b. Government should provide more pipelines.

4.

We can collect rainwater in a tank and use the water after filtration. Dams can be created on the nalla to collect rain water, which can then be provided through pipes.

5.

Encroachers have a right to water because without water there is no life. And they are our brothers and sisters.

Group 5 [Teachers, Baratang]

1.

Rain water, water from wells, pipes, streams in the forest, water from the sea, water from the ponds and Hand pumps.

2.

Shortage of proper storage, lack of interest on the peoples part towards this issue. Someone to initiate people to work towards this. Wastage of water, dirty water.

3.

a. Providing simple technology and crating awareness among people.

b. The Panchayat can help dig wells and harvest rain water

4. Collect rainwater in tanks from rooftops. Create check dams. Increasing ground water level by making check dams on the hills so that ground water is recharged and wells at lower level will continue to have water.

5. Encroachers have a right to water because they are human and humans need water to survive.

Group 6 [Kanchangarh]

1.

Wells, streams in the forest, ponds, sea, check dams, rain water

2.

There are no dams ponds or rainwater harvesting systems in our village.

3.

 

a. The villages can come together to make katcha wells and check dams

b. The Government can provide us pipelines and help in making wells ponds and check dams.

4.

We can effectively use rain water by making check dams digging ponds and making tanks.

5.

Encroachers have a right to water, because water is life and like fishes they will die without water.

Group 7 [Village Flat Bay, Baratang]

1. Rain water, water from wells, taps, streams.

2. We diseases do to unclean water. Wastage of water

3. Each member of the family should save water, and that’s how water in the community will be saved. And if families in the village come together, then we can ask the Government to help us.

4. Boil it and use Halogen tablets.

5. Everyone has a right to water.

Group 8 [Santanu, SHG]

1.

Wells, rain water, streams in the forest, ponds, taps.

2.

Scarcity of piped water, wells and hand pumps. Water supply is for a short duration and the pipes are narrow so they do not get enough water. During rainy season the water in the pipes is murky.

3.

 

a. If 10 or 15 people in the village are trained they can do maintenance work.

b. The Government can provide pipelines.

4.

Rain water can be stored in tanks and used.

5.

Everyone needs water for life.

Group 9 [SHG Nishi, Adazig]

1.

Streams in the forest, wells, ponds, rain water

2.

Diseases due to unclean water. Scarcity of water during the summer.

3.

 

a. Boil water,

b. Filter and purify water.

4.

To use rain water more optimally we must make ponds and dams to collect rain water.

5.

Everyone needs water to live and eat.

Discussions on Background Paper

Group 1

1. Planting trees, and organizing ‘Van Mothatsav’ (Forest Festival). Preventing the cutting of trees. Preserving ecological balance.

2. Not disturbing ground water sources, preventing soil erosion, creating check dams.

3. Make people aware and get their participation.

4. Through small ponds, making wells, through rainwater harvesting. Proving water from smaller sources through gravity.

5. The community should work together and be part of every program related to water. And also understand its importance.

6. Yes, according to the Indian Constitution every citizen, whether encroacher or allotted land has been given the provision of land rights.

7. Especially small sources in the forest should be tapped and water provided to the villagers through gravity.

Group 2

1. By creating katcha check dams we can stop the flow of small streams.

2. Make ponds to stop rain water.

3. Make overhead tanks to stop rain water.

4. Make wells and hand pumps.

5. Make provisions for harvesting rain water in schools and Government buildings for use.

6. Before and earthquake we should have wells in various places to stop rain water. Also have hand pumps and store water in big Sintex tanks

7. Each village should have two filter beds to purify water.

8. In small villages where the population is not big the Government should provide pipelines and wells.

9. Some people from the village should be involved in the supply of

water.

10. In places where Encroachers live water should also be provided.

Annexure 2

Presentations from Regional Seminar Group Discussions

Questions for Discussions (Group 1 & 2)

1. How can rain water harvesting be optimized in the island? Also consider (1) storage and (2) who can be the players involved in it.

2. How do we address issues related to ground water in the island?

3. Community based water management – how can this done? Consider the option of decentralized water supply system.

Group 1

1. Storage: plastics, cement tanks, GI tanks. Players: Household, PRI, Hospital, other departments, other NGOs,

Hotels Community Based Organizations

2. Semi-Salinity, hard water, chemical composition, limited water found. Continuous drawing of ground water will lead to brackish water

a. Solutions:–can be used for cleaning washing and secondary usage. Filtration either by aqua-guard or boiling. Limited usage, planting more trees, water recharging though wells, ponds check dams.

3. A mega rainwater harvesting tank can be set up in the community which can be run though village participation.

Group 2

1. Storage:

a. Every house should have a rainwater harvesting plant.

b. Construction approval should only be granted if they show rainwater harvesting plan, as in Tamil Nadu.

c. Catch water where it falls: make percolation ponds, check dams, ponds, ridges and furrow, trenches and bunds, across the water flow

Players:

a. Every individual, government, APWD, Panchayat and NGOs

2. Moral education to school students. Involves scouts, NCC, NSS, eco clubs. Local concert, advertise and publicize in India, Create the awareness to all stakeholders to SHGs

3. Could have village level, Panchayat level, water storage system by tapping water resources.

a. Could introduce water meter for every household, like an electricity

meter.

Questions for Discussions (Group 3 & 4)

1. How can we address water quality related issues?

2. How can we work on inter-departmental cooperation to augment the water situation in the island?

3. Consider the rights of forest dwellers/encroachers to water and what must be done about it?

Group 3

1. Muddy water: to build wall or ring around the source and use alum.

a. Micro organisms and other contamination: Filter, chlorination, boiling, RO, fining right source.

b. Quality monitoring by health department or PWD

2. Public awareness, village water committee and area level development

meeting.

3. Like health and education services being provided by the administration the encroachers must also be provided with water.

a. Proper settlement or replacement of these people.

Group 4

1. Necessary regulation must be made for preservation of water quality. Regular water quality monitoring. Water quality checkups. Proper chlorination. Maintenance of water storage tanks. Clean the catchments area. Free from excreta. Shallow wells need to be made pucca. Wells can be covered with nets or nylon.

2. Regular coordination meetings between forest departments APWD, Municipality, PRI/Tribal Counsel. Cooperation of forest department. Awareness among departments about projects.

3. Rights of forest dwellers, as per the Supreme Court directive Encroachers should be removed. Proper watch on Encroachers. Right to hold as per act.

Annexure 3 Media Clipshots

Annexure 3 Media Clipshots