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Physics--Heat Definiton of Terms

1. Internal Energy The total amount of energy stored in the particles of an object i.e. Internal Energy = Total K.E. (random motion) + Total P.E (molecular attraction). related to temperature, mass, and states. Cannot be measured directly, but its change can be measured average KE of the particles. Energy transferred due to temperature difference. A change in energy due to the application of a force. The energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1oC. the amount of energy (in Joules) that is needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1oC unique to every substance the energy absorbed to change 1 kg of substance into another state without a change in temperature. We have latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vapourisation. Latent heat relates to the PE of molecules

2. Temperature 3. Heat 4. Work 5. Heat Capacity 6. Specific Heat Capacity

7. Latent Heat

Thermometers containing liquids such as mercury and alcohol are useful and accurate because these liquids usually expand and contract uniformly (regularly). amount of expansion or contraction in length = ncrease or decrease in temperature

Mercury - can measure high T. - quick response to T. change.

Alcohol - can measure low T low m.p. - slow response

- poisonous - rather expensive

- non-poisonous - cheap

Notes: Clinical thermometer

Features - Uses mercury - Narrow T. scale (35-42 oC) - A smaller bulb and narrower mercury column - A kink in the tube Uses - quick response to record body T. - record a more precise body T. - sensitive to small changes in T. - prevent mercury from contracting quickly and allow accurate temperature reading. - Make the tube thicker for easier vision to the scale.

- Triangular in shape

Calibrating Thermometers
The Process: 1. Place the thermometer into melting ice and make a mark where the liquid column reaches. 2. Place the thermometer into boiling water and make another mark. 3. Divide the interval between two marks into 100 equal divisions. **Calibration of liquid-in glass thermometer LT L0 T 0 = T is temperature, L is length. L100 L0 100 0 The unit of T is degree Celsius or degree Fahrenheit.

Heat transfer can occur through one of three methods: - Conduction - Convection - Radiation.


- This can be demonstrated by heating rods of aluminium, copper, iron and glass into a brass
sphere or disk and then attaching a small ball of wax to the end of each rod. - When one end of a rod is heated, the molecules in that end of the rod vibrate faster and strike other nearby molecules, causing them to vibrate faster. In this manner, the increased molecular motion is transferred from one end of the rod to the other, allowing the heat to travel through the rod. - Factors increasing rate of conduction: 1. more free electrons 2. greater T difference between two ends 3. greater cross sectional area conducts more heat per unit time 4. shorter length of the bar less heat loss

Convection is the transfer of heat due to the motion of the liquid or gas. e.g when a beaker of water is heated the water layer closest to the heat source

is warmed slowly by conduction. 1. As the water becomes warmer, it expands and rises. This brings heat to the

upper layer. 2. Cooler water from the upper portion of the beaker replaces the place of the

rising water, and is heated. 3. When cooler water becomes warm enough, it expands and rises. The process

is repeated again and again until the same temperature is reached. Convection Current

DEMONSTRATION OF CONVECTION CURRENT Use the convection box with a candle.

Daily Examples of Convection



- does not require a conducting medium. - e.g. The light energy from the sun is transferred by radiation across the vaccum. - Absorption of radiation Best Absorber Radiator BLACK (ROUGH) BLACK (ROUGH) Worst SILVERY (SMOOTH) SILVERY (SMOOTH)

- Application of the table: 1. white clothing in summer ;dark clothing in winter. 2. aluminium roofing keep homes cool in the summer and warm in the winter. 3. vacuum bottle - double walled partial vacuum between the walls prevent heat transfer by conduction or convection. - cork stopper prevents heat transfer by conduction. -silvery inner glass wall reflect radiant heat back into the liquid minimize heat loss by radiation. heat exchanges very slowly with the surroundings by conduction, convection, or radiation keep warm or cool.


The process: Shorter wavelength IR radiation can pass through the glass wall and get inside. The radiation is absorbed by plants and the plants get warmer and longer wavelength IR, which cannot pass through the glass wall, is emitted.

Energy is radiated in but not out again inside of a greenhouse is warmer than the outside.

liquid changes to gaseous state below the boiling point. IMPORTANT!! If molecules have enough kinetic energy, they can directly jump off the water surface to become vapour. Model to explain the COOLING effect of evaporation: The water molecules move randomly and they have different KE. They may collide with one another. With more collisions, one may get enough KE to break off the attraction forces and leaves the water surface. Note that evaporation only occurs at the water surface. After the molecule with the greatest KE leave, the average KE of the remaining molecules drops Temperature decreases. Thats why you feel cooler after getting wet.

Factors affecting the rate of evaporation: Wind speed Temperature

Humidity Surface area Air pressure

Notes: As there is change of state, in other words, water molecules should have absorb latent heat to evaporate.

Importance of High Specific Heat Capacitiy of Water

High SHC means water absorbs a great amount of energy to get to a certain T. The unique property of water has following effects A better coolant carry the heat to radiator Help to maintain constant body temperature for optimal metabolism Allow a milder climate in coastal areas.