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KANAWA PYRAMID HOTEL Exposition of Hausa traditional Architectural Design elements In hotel design

By

ALIYU ABBA ALIYU KUST/ENV/06/210

In partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelors degree in Architecture

Submitted to the

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE KANO UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WUDIL FEBRUARY 2010

DECLARATION I hereby declare that this research project has been conducted solely by me under the supervision of my mentor in person of Arc. Aminu Lawan (Mnia) of department of Architecture, Kano University of science and Technology Wudil. It has not in this form at any time or anywhere been submitted for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.s.c) degree in architecture. Any resemblance in whole or in part of any material is due to limiting factor in the use of time or otherwise. However, adaptations from other works are clearly noted and given reference.

Aliyu Abba Aliyu

... Signature/Date

The above declaration is confirmed by;

. Arc. Aminu Lawan Mnia

. Signature/Date

CERTIFICATION This project has been read, supervised and approved to have met the standard required by the department of Architecture, Kano University of science and Technology Wudil. In partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Science Degree, B.s.c. Architecture.

.. Project supervisor

... Signature/Date

.. External Examiner

... Signature/Date

.. Head of department

... Signature/Date

DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my parents and my beloved friend late. Ahmad Bashir Galadanci may his soul rest in perfect peace, Amen.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The successful completion of this project was made possible with the help of God Almighty. I wish to express my profound gratitude to my family and to the entire students of Architecture department for their co-operation. And lastly to my supervisor, Arc. Aminu Lawan Mina. For his tireless effort to see that this project works is successful.

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The word hotel according to Wikipedia is derived from French hotel [coming from hotel meaning host] ,Which refer to French version of town house or any other building seeing frequent visitors, rather than place offering an accommodation. Evidence of hotels and hospitality industry have been recorded as far back as biblical times when marry and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem during the census .As the bible depicts, marry and Joseph were refused accommodation because there was no room at the inn. Since the beginning of time people have travelled for commerce, religion, family, health, immigration, education and recreation. As cited by Texas Tech University, the word hospitality comes from the Latin root meaning host or hospice. The university further noted that the first hotels were nothing more than private homes opened in the public. Most, unfortunately, had poor reputations. Under the influence of the Roman Empire, inns and hotels began catering to the pleasure traveler in an effort to encourage visitors. The emergence of hotel as a significant commercial institution, however is a development of the past centuries and may be traced by example in the United States. The first inn located in America was recorded in the year 1607 and lead the way with many other firsts in the hospitality industry. The first publically held hotel (the city hotel) opened in New York in 1972. The first modern hotel (the Tremont) opened in Boston in 1809 and the first business hotel (the buffalo Statler) opened in 1908. For many years it served as a model for other large-city transient hotels. From there a surge of hotels flooded American and the rest of the world with prominent names such as Radisson, Marriott and Hilton (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hotel). The location of hotels has always been related to transportation industry. During colonial times, hotels were usually situated in sea towns but by the end of 18th century, when the stage coach had increased travel within the United States, many inns and Taverns were constructed to offer lodgings along with high way routes. Moreover, business hotels offer a high standard by providing rooms equipped with what business travelers would consider necessities. Usually found in business-class hotel rooms are high speed internet connections, alarm clocks, comfortable bed, irons and ironing boards, coffee makers, complimentary newspaper delivery and hair dryers.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The promptitude in any research undertaking results from problem identification either in existence or anticipation. However, the curiosity in any study areas with the intension finding the root cause and effects of these problems and at time with the hope if possible in the course inquiry which for the architect is done through design. Nigeria, and Kano in particular, is richly blessed in culture and tradition, has so many local and international hotels which do not showcase our tradition or culture architecturally. Kano has long been the economic centre of northern Nigeria, and a centre for production of groundnuts. Commerce is the second largest sector of Kano economy. The state has for long been rated as the second to Lagos state in terms of commercial activities. The state has witnessed the tremendous growth in large, medium and small scale commercial outfits. The commercial activities includes the scale and distribution of imported and locally made goods such as textiles, cosmetics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, spare parts, vehicles, building materials, and electronics. However, the flows of administrative information and trips, for various purpose of high intensity exist. This is expected to remain as a strong factor of interaction as other government activities intensify. The social influence of Kano is strong and associated with many activities and network social visits. In addition, intense interaction between Kano and other states in its immediate region is marked by visits for medical, educational and cultural services. The problems associated with the study area Kano are stated as follows: 1. The hotels are so inadequate to accommodate the teeming visitors and foreigners patronizing Kano for commercial activities. 2. As a centre for commerce, the hotels in Kano are not to standard to cater for foreigners and other tourist guest patronizing the city. Thus, slowing the growth of the economy. 3. The hotels are mostly booked by the state government making other customers stranded. 4. The present facilities (hotel) apart from lodging and feeding do not have other facilities to make guest comfortable. Despite the fact that Kano is an industrial and commercial city with many primary industry and extensive wholesale and retail commercial activities, the above mentioned problems are increasing. However it is hoped that at the end of this proposal will have contributed in no small way to the solution of the above mentioned problems. MOTIVATION The lacks of accommodation, catering facilities as well as poor state, in the few leisure and accommodation areas in the state serve as stimulus to this proposal.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES The primary aim of this thesis is to propose a design of standard hotel in Kano with the exposition of Hausa traditional architectural design elements. The secondary aim, on the other hand is to improve economic, social and technological advancement in the city of Kano and Nigeria as a whole. Thus, ensuring greater productivity and also imbibe the Kano dwellers to the importance of recreation and entertainment to a healthy living. These would be achieved through the following objectives; To evaluate well articulated and properly conceived architecture, that will blend with the traditional and modern architecture complementing the immediate environment. Provide a luxurious hotel with broad range of accommodation facilities for business men, road travelers, and foreigner patronizing the state. To satisfy apparent social stratification of the general public. To take into consideration the national and international patronage and its blending situation in the study area. To meet the internationally accepted standards for a hotel as much as possible. Create an enhancing impression for the rich Hausa architectural heritage of Kano in the hotel. JUSTIFICATION Kano as the second largest state in terms of commercial activities does not have an internationally standard three (3) star hotel. Many foreigners as well as business men are not having proper and comfortable accommodation. Thus the need for a standard 3 star hotel makes itself obvious. SCOPE OF STUDY Bearing in mind the ever changing world design standards and the new and diversified role hotels are playing now, the proposed hotel is a venture which will help the infrastructural development of the state. The scope of study shall therefore be made to include the following; 1. 2. 3. 4. The basic requirements of a 3 star hotel. Business and commercial facilities. Leisure and recreational facilities Facilities to attract residents and nonresident guest, tourist.

ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE A concise design will be evolved from the research hat will promote the tourist industry through cultural exposition.

CHAPTER TWO LITERITURE REVIEW HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The history of hotel was approximately started, 2000 years ago, to a period as remote as the beginning of civilization when it existed as a roadside shelter for man and beast. However, inn keeping was not possible until some standardized medium of exchange come into existence. With the invention of money sometime in the pre-Christian era came the first real impetus to trade and travel. As other radius of travel widened, the need by travelers for lodging increased. The inns of those das were nothing more than a small portion of private dwelling. Hotels then existed in crude and primitive forms. These conditions prevailed with little, if any charge for thousand years. It was not until the industrial revolution occurred in England in 16th century that new ideas and progress in the business of inn keeping. In keeping increased services, maintained standards of cleanliness and to some extent catered for guests. From 1750 to 1820, English inns gained the reputation of being the finest in the world. The England inns reached their peak during the middle 19th century, when high was improved. In the colonies, the inns were located in the seaport towns and patterned directly after the inns of the mother country. While the English maintained the status quo, his American counterpart demonstrated no such inhibitions. The American inn keeper was an innovator, a gambler and expansionist. By 1800, it was evident that the United States would assume leadership in the development of the modern first class hotel. The era of overgrown inns spanned for 35 years and set the stage for the first golden age of hotels in the states. In 1828 the modern first class hotel was born in Boston- THE TREMONT HOUSE. At the beginning of the twentieth century the hotel industry faced the challenge of serving the new travelling population. World War 1 brought a relative calm in the development of hotels until the twenties ushered in another golden age for industry. Hotel Pennsylvania was the worlds largest when it opened before the canard Hilton took over the title with its 3,000 rooms, which it is maintaining until present.

The depressing period of the industry occurred when the country plunged into great economic depression. By 1940 the industry was slowly destabilizing, but at a level below that of 1920s. During World War II, the hotel business flourished. No hotels were built, but existing establishment were occupied nearly to capacity at all times. Hotel have undergone significant development both in scale and sophistication from what it used to be in the past and it has been able to get a wider patronage and as such now become worldwide phenomenon. More efficient transportation and the growing importance of air travels have reduced need for accommodation along highway routes. Motor hotels are now being within the boundaries of large cities and within or easily accessible to airports. HOTEL DESIGN IN NIGERIA According to Egwudale (1989) in Nigeria there are so many hotels with different kinds of character in terms of functionality, space arrangement, elevations, and also design elements. These hotels are also characterized by classification which ranges from one star to five star. However, in the past one went to the home of the ruler of the town or may expect to find kindly offer of a place to stay till one could make more permanent arrangement. As more and more people behave in ways not complementary to the kindness whom to them, the realities of economic made it too difficult to finance this hospitality, it stopped. The increasing movement of people and the demand for a place to lay the head gave enterprising people a new way to make money, by providing for this requirement. The hotel business had been born in this country for a long time but did not achieve recognition to point of requiring or requesting the attention of professional. The business and architecture for it was imported, by foreign countries that had developed the industry long before us now saw the potential in this country. It can be understood that at the beginning of the industry, it was intended for use by foreigners. The western based culture and architectures it was inevitable that the designs have to fall short of requirement for this area. The changing phenomenon of the Nigeria economy is introducing its own requirements. The exigencies of the workday demand more intense loosing up at the end of the day. Lack of sufficient and effective numbers of recreational centres in urban centers for people to use is an important factor contributing to the failure of the typical hotel design. The demand to these things have turned to hotels not designed to hotel them. The evil effect of this varying demand on hotels manifest in ways, depending on the attitude which usually accompany the use of the various facilities. This state of affairs has continued over years and the mistake may still be seen repeating itself in new hotels.

In Nigeria, the first renowned catering house apparently owned by Mr. Robert Forsyeh Irving and Nigeria Railways on 14th march 1928. After World War II, to settle people and the increasing commercial activities brought about an urgent need to accommodate a growing number of visitors to Lagos. Having studied the emergence of hotel in Nigeria it is worthy enough to loot hotel in general and other different kind of accommodation.

HOTEL By definition, a hotel is a public establishment offering travelers two basic services namely accommodation and catering, (Lawson, 1979). Another definition of hotel includes an establishment that provides paid lodging on short term basis. (Wikipedia, 2010). However, in most countries, a hotel is defined as a public establishment offering against payment, two basic services accommodation and catering. The precise definition of what constitute a hotel and conditions for hotel registration and grading by legislation in some 50 countries. National system of classification however, varies both In the range of categories and method of designation (Letters, Figures, Stars and symbols) and in some countries only apply to tourist hotels. CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS Hotels are generally classified by location, functions, and other special characteristics, a given hotel may fall into more than one category. Each hotel has different goal as to kind of guest it seeks, its planning requirement varies by the location, size, image, space standard, circulation and other features. Hotels are also classified in different stars, which are between 1 to 5 stars. According to Lawson (1979), 1 to 5 star hotels are the hotels with physical equipment, appliances and high service quality; meet the diversified demand of tourists on board and lodging, daily activities and entertainment in accordance with the standards of each classification which comply with international standards which are estimated through criteria: I. II. III. IV. V. Location and Architecture Facilities and service conveniences Services and service qualities Attendant staff Hygiene

If hotel is classified with a higher rank, it must have perfect and proficient service quality, physical equipment and the number of services in order to diversified demands of customers.

Vietnam national administration of tourism April 2001 gave criteria for awarding stars and is divided over mandatory and voluntary standards. The voluntary standards are valued by points. The first star is the basis. Every additional star means that a hotel offers more facilities and services. These extra facilities and services differ per hotel and also depend on the type of hotel e.g. a business or family hotel. In Lawson (1979) a business that does not meet the criteria of one star hotel may not carry the name hotel. After its application a hotel is temporarily classified. Once it is definitely classifies the hotel receives a dark red shield with the number of stars. The shield will be clearly visible in the hotels main entrance. The safeguard the quality of hotel, the hotels are periodically tested. 0-STAR An accommodation with 0 stars is not officially qualified as a hotel.

100 % of the rooms with shower/WC or bath tub/WC - Daily room cleaning - 100 % of the rooms with colour-TV together with remote control - Table and chair - Soap or body wash Reception service - Facsimile at the reception - Publicly available telephone for guests - Extended breakfast Beverage offer in the hotel - Deposit possibility Tourist

The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel star. The bathroom facilities are usually at the same level as for two stars hotels but built from cheaper materials. The cost for regular inspection by independent associations is waived as well. Superior Tourist

In addition to the single star (*) hotels: - Breakfast buffet Reading light next to the bed - Bath essence or shower gel - * Bath towels - Linen shelves - Offer of sanitary products (e.g. toothbrush, toothpaste, shaving kit) - Credit Cards Standard

Superior Standard

The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel star. The Standard-Superior does usually offer the same service level as three star hotels but the interiors of the hotel are smaller and cheaper so that the three stars were not to be awarded by the inspection body. A two star superior does not require mystery guessing.

Comfort

In addition to the standard star (**) hotels: - Reception opened 14 hours, accessible by phone 24 hours from inside and outside, bilingual staff (e.g. German/English) - Three piece suite at the reception, luggage service - Beverage offer in the room - Telephone in the room - Internet access in the room or in the public area - Heating facility in the bathroom, hair-dryer, cleansing tissue - Dressing mirror, place to put the luggage/suitcase - Sewing kit, shoe polish utensils, laundry and ironing service - Additional pillow and additional blanket on demand - Systematic complaint management system

The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel star. The accommodation facilities for a superior hotel need to be on a modern level and fully renovated which is checked regularly. Superior Comfort

First Class

In addition to the comfort star (***) hotels: - Reception opened 18 hours, accessible by phone 24 hours from inside and outside - Lobby with seats and beverage service Breakfast buffet or breakfast menu card via room service Minibar or 24 hours beverages via room service Upholstered chair/couch with side table - Bath robe and slippers on demand - Cosmetic products (e.g. shower cap, nail file, cotton swabs), vanity mirror, tray of a large scale in the bathroom) - Internet access and internet terminal - " la carte"-restaurant

The Superior flag is provided when the first class hotel has a proven high quality not only in the rooms. The superior hotels provide for additional facilities in the hotel like a sauna or a workout room. The quality is checked regularly by mystery guessing of an external inspection service. Superior First Class

Luxury

In addition to the first class (****) hotels: - Reception opened 24 hours, multilingual staff - Doorman-service or valet parking - Concierge, page boy - Spacious reception hall with several seats and beverage service - Personalized greeting for each guest with fresh flowers or a present in the room - Minibar and food and beverage offer via room service during 24 hours - Personal care products in flacons Internet-PC in the room - Safe in the room - Ironing service (return within 1 h), shoe polish service - Turndown service in the evening - Mystery gusting.

Superior Luxury

The Luxury star hotels need to attain high expectations of an international guest service. The Superior Luxury star is only awarded with a system of intensive guest care. These are often member of The Leading Hotels of the World association.

Traditional building elements These are series of symbolic interpretation and design styles manipulated in buildings to give a decorative as well as functional outlook. Symbolic interpretation can vary from age to age, culture to culture; these elements characterize our homes and comprise their timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural design Galadanci (1989). Galadima emphasizes the element under certain classification, which include the primary, secondary and terciary elements.

The primary elements was for the fact that most of elements under this category stand on their own or as an entity within this structure, while secondary and tertiary elements serves as a tool for all architectural design, in organizing space and their generic transformation in a typological manner. It ultimately provides the individual designer to select, test and manipulate these elements into concept, meaningful and useful organizations of space, structure and enclosure. The wide range of these elements varies from place to place and culture to culture. The few selected are based on appropriate and clarity and serve simply to illustrate fundamental ideas. As an art, architecture is more than satisfying the purely functional requirement of a building problem. Fundamentally, the physical manifestation of architecture accommodates human activity. However, the arrangement of elements and usage will determine the character of a building (Galadima); the architecture might promote endeavours, elicit responses and communicate meaning. These elements documented are therefore not as ends in themselves, but a building, with the element provided by both traditional and modern architecture, with a view of solving a problem in response to conditions o function purposes and context and that is architecture. In all case, however, these elements are systems which should be interrelated. Independent and mutually reinforcing to form an integrated whole architectural order, is created when these elements and systems, as constituents parts make visible the relationship among themselves and the building as a whole when their relationships are perceived as a contributing to the singular nature of the whole, than a conceptual order exist, that is perhaps, more enduring than just transient perceptual visions. Some may convey images and meaning while others may serve as qualifiers or modifiers of these images and meaning. Understanding of how they could be manipulated will help realize their visual, implication in the implementation of a good design. Architectural components are used to define or express functions or an activity. It is also the arrangement and organization of these elements to create space or to define an activity or function. These elements are essential tools used to communicate meaning. It should be useful to recognize the basic elements of architecture and how they can be manipulated in the development of design concept and realized there visual implication of a design solution which include; PRIMARY ELEMENTS These are element that constitutes the structural part of a building they carry load and are intermediate elements from one space to another. SECONDRY ELEENTS According to Abdulhamid 1989s, secondary elements are elements that provide the major transition between architecture and people, its existence provide comfort in the things we do,

working, eating, sleeping and relaxing we expect each piece of furniture to fulfill the specific function we required it. Furniture also performs as an architectural element by organizing the space within a room, defining conversation areas and traffic paths suggesting separation of areas and so forth. TERTIARY ELEMENTS That human beings have an inherent desire for aesthetic enrichment can scarcely be refuted. Tertiary elements are ornament no different from the embellishments we are accustomed to seeing on a sofa or chair or even wall (abdullhamid 1989). Column Floors Ceilling Roof Windows Doors Staircase Wall

NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE Nigerian traditional architecture is based on the experience of centuries. In a relatively small area several types of house are found which have different means of construction. The spontaneous deliberateness, creative imagination and the inventiveness of self-taught builders among the people resulted in residences which are exceptionally suitable for life, work and the environment (Aliyu, 1993). This was manifested not only in the appearance and floor plan of village homes and there accompanying buildings, but also in all the other external and internal functional and artistically formed elements and details. In building residences, traditional builders estimated the climatic condition and the nature of the soil with remarkable skill. By using materials found in the surroundings, they created architectural styles which were specific to a given region. The financial situation often had certain significance in these efforts as did the professions and life of the residents, and the trends which came along from various cultural spheres in the flow of historical event. Nigerias three largest ethnic groups the Hausa,Yoruba, and Igbo-represent about 70 percent of the population Dmoschowski (1985). About 10 percent of the total population consists of several other groups numbering more than 1 million numbers each. Traditional architecture range from the north Nigerian-inspired mud houses of the house to the sprawling Yoruba compounds and Igbos that accommodate several branches of an

extended family. Such dwellings are often decorated. Hausa houses commonly have basrelief geometric design, while Yoruba palaces feature elaborately carved doors and veranda posts. Wood carving is especially prominent among the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria. NORTHERN NIGERIA The Hausa form a large group of people of mixed and various physical types, linked by language, by Islamic faith and by a common way of life, Hausa land comprises much of northern Nigeria outside the middle belt, the territories north of Kano and katsina provinces, and north and west of sokoto, Hausa legend speaking of bayajida a refugee prince from Baghdad, who after numerous and romantic adventures reached Daura .There he killed the dragon kia, who prevented access to a source of water. The prince married queen Daura, in which his direct descendants founded the seven Hausa Bakwai, the legitimate states of Daura,Katsina,Kano,Gobir,Rano,Biram and Zaria His seven illegitimate sons have founded zamfara,kebbi,Nupe,Gwari,Yauri,Ilorin, and Kwararafa. Many people of non Hausa origin have become assimilated into the Hausa nation throught intermarriage and acculturation. One such group is the Fulani, traditionally a semi nomadic livestock-herding people. Many Fulani have settled in Hausa cities and towns and become part of the Hausa community (sanikatsina, 1999) The architecture prevalent in northern Nigeria is the Hausa architecture which reached its final mature excellence due to the quality of the Hausa building men. The architectural elements in Hausa buildings include parapet, doorways, windows tubal walls floors, pillars roofs, plastering, and circular plan form. EXPOSITION OF HAUSA TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ELEMENTS Introduction Nigerians three largest ethnic groups the hausa, Yoruba, and igbo represent about 70 persent of the population.About 30 persent of the total population consists of several other group numbring more than 1 million members each, including the kanuri, tiv, and Ibibio.Traditional architecture ranges from the northern Nigeria-inspired mud houses of the hausa to the sprawling Yoruba compound that accommodate several branches of an extended family.Such dwelling are often decorated. Igbo are not left out with compound which accommodates several branches of extended family like the Yorubas.Hausa houses commonly have bas-relieve geometric design, while Yoruba palace features elaborately aeved doors and veranda post.Wood aerving is especially prominent among the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria.

CULTURE SIGNIFICANCE A building that aspires to culture significance is one that takes risks, engage the public, and seriously explores a structures role as a part of the city and social extent rather than merely functioning a box. DIFINITION OF CULTURE The oxford English dictionary has the following definition for culture. Culture is define as shared believes,costoms,practices,social behaivior,language,and the entire way of life of particular group of people at a particular place,clss or time to which they belong. Cultures include customs, ceremonies, works of art, inventions technology, styles of dress, way of producing and cooking food and political, economic system and traditions. Culture is the most important concept in anthropology [the sturdy of all aspect of human life, past and present].Anthropologist commonly uses the term culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same way. Likewise any group of people who share a common culture and in particular, common rules or behavior and a basic form of social organgization constitute a society. Thus the term culture and society are somewhat interchangeable. CATEGORIES OF CULTURE Anthropologist came up with simpler categorization of culture. A common practice is divided all of culture into three broad categories; material ideological.A fouth category, the art, has characteristics of both material and ideological culture. Material culture include product of human manufacture, such as technology. The art include such activities and areas of interest as music, sculpture, architecture, painting, pottery, theater, cooking, writing, and fashion. CULTURE AND BUILDING The best buildings are often so well constructed that they out last their original use They then survive not only as beautiful objects but also as documents of the history of cultures,achivememts in architecture that testify the nature of the society that produce them. These achievements are never wholly the work of individuals. Early cultures used substances occurring in their environment and invented the tools, skills, and technologies to exploit a variety of material creating a legacy that continues to inform more industrialize method (Abdulhamid 1989). Cultural institution can therefore best be define as institution where cultural activities such as ceremonies, work of art,inventions,technology,way of producing and cooking food, traditions work of art, tradition and so on, are freely practiced or produced.

3.5 CULTURAL EXPRETION IN ACHITECTURE According to Abdulhamid (1989) expression can be define as a word or group of word that communicate an idea. From the above definition it is clear that expression is all about communicating something through some kind of mean. Culture expression are communication of culture trough some kind of mean. Architecture is one of the form or mean of culture expression. Culture is expressed through architecture. Different architecture styles and form vary widely from one culture to the other; the culture of various regions can determine the types of buildings built, the materials used and the building technique employed in building. Various cultures have similar architecture but not quite the same as several variants could exist in different regions. Architecture, as a means of cultural expression, has adjusted more flexibly and quickly to changes in the world around. Building styles, tools, skills, and technologies to exploit a variety of materials, have gone through changes and modifications creating a legacy that continues to inform more industrialized methods. The way of life in settlements usually determines the types of dwellings built.Structures may be round, rectangular, or semicircular, communal structures, for holding meetings and teaching children, are located in a prominent place in the settlement. Many rural societies in Africa adorn the outsides of houses with painted designs or with relief (raised) patterns worked into a soft clay surface.Frafra women of northern Ghana decorate the walls of houses and other buildings with geometric patterns that communicate information about the social status that is the wealth and power of a buildings owner.Ndebele women in Zimbabwe and the northeastern part of South Africa paint the mud walls of their houses with geometric apatterns based on the shapes of windows.steps,and other building features and everyday objects.Traditionally,Africans have used natural clays as paints,but today brightly colored aerylic paints are popular.

NORTHERN NIGERIA ARCHITECTURE DESIGN ELEMENTS The architecture of the Hausa is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful architecture of the medieval age. Many of their early mosques and palace are bright and colorful and often intricate engraving or elaborate symbolizes designed into faade.these element include: DOORWAY The door less entrances consist of two parts; the lower part is rectangular at a height 1.3 meter to the jambs two small shelves are formed (maajin fitila)which are suitable place to put oil lamps. Above the lower part is an arch way of radius 1.2 meters. WINDOWS Windows were simply openings always set in the upper most of walls of the lee side of the building which are less affected by driving rain. There shape is an elongated upright rectangular sometimes stopped with an arch or triangle. PINNACLES These are inevitable feature of Hausa architecture coming in different shapes and imparting character and beauty to traditional building. They originally reinforced projection around which ropes hitched to aid builders in climbing upon to the roof during construction or repairs. With the ZANCO has been accepted as a mark of aesthetics which the building is considered incomplete pinnacle reflects the mood of a building (or the builder) by being exquisite elegant, brutal shape or dull. WATER SPOUT (INDARARO) From the surface of the parapet (Rawani) are the tabular semi-tabular water spout (indararo) made of asbestos cement or forced clay. WINDOWS The use of windows in traditional Hausa buildings in greater reduced in order to check the effect of intense insulation and harsh hammattan winds indoors, coupled with the need for privacy.

RAWANI (PARAPET WALL) Rawani is the parapet which surround the roof functionally it is use to conduct rain water to the point of discharge. This minimizes the drainage to the mud roof. This is a traditional type of

roof. It is made up of AZARA and trees constructed in pattern criss-cross to construct advance shape and latter covered with mud, which easily drains water away from the roof. DECORATIVE MOTIFS The Hausa building motifs symbolize the peak of celebration that reigns inherently in a traditional builder at work. Being expressive of man and nature. Motifs could be molded on relief pattern, impaled or scratched out ones, pointed on a textual with alterations smooth and rough finishes. The motifs are mainly focused on the vaults, piers, pinnacles, Zaure and doors windows as well as the entire front facades.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1.0 Methods of data collection


The hotel business is like any other commercial venture; therefore an insight to the viability of the project is required. This was done through feasibility study. A good feasibility study provided information on sources of business, number of likely customers, required facilities and scope of the market. Primary were obtained directly from interview with civil/trade officials and visitors, local hotels, and other facilities examined. The study of Hausa traditional architectural design elements requires some in depth explanation which would involve; I. Sampling method

The buildings to be surveyed in this study are of two categories, hotels due to the fact that the subject matter is a design of a hotel, and palace due to the fact that most design elements are found in palaces of any particular place. II. Relevant measuring tools

There are different methods used in looking at the problems of research on aspects of hotel design and also the use of traditional design elements in hotel designs which include sketches and drawings which provides a physical inventory and a holistic picture.

3.1.1 Method of Data Analysis The method of analyzing the information was content analysis, through which the elements are transformed into units that facilitated their description and analysis. The methodology used in this work was based on the research questions and the problem to be addressed and also the theoretical base. 3.1.2 Case studies Introduction: Studying existing related cases of hotel design is prerequisite to engaging in the processes of analysis, synthesis and evolution of a proposal for the subject of his research. Generations of hotel continue to evolve in the bid to satisfy the ever changing tastes of prospective guests. It is

imperative for every new approach to take a retrospective vew of how hotel operators in the past have tried to attend to these problems with a view to adopting, developing upon their success strategies as well as discarding and avoiding their pitfalls. This informs the pertinence of selecting a number of existing cases for the purpose of comperative analysis. 3.2.1 case study selection criteria It was ensured that the selected case studies have a degree of relationship either directly or indirectly with the subject of this research. This is to ensure their relevance to the study. The central focus of this research is on the aspect of exposition of Hausa traditional architectural design elements in a hotel design and as such, the criteria for the case study shall revolve around this focus. This is not to go back on the pertinence of attending to those fundamental issues that are naturally associated with hotel design. In the process of selecting case studies for this research, the following criteria was considered: Indigenous local hotel: This take cognizance of the fact that the target market s highly localized. Foreign hotel: it is important that foreign examples be studied considering the context of the bulk hotels as we they now have their roots on foreign architectural essays. It can be gainfully said that the major advancement in hotel design as well as in other aspect of oter spheres of life, are synonymous with foreign lands of which the west is a major example. In this regard, an examination of the problems solving approaches adopted in such instances can be very beneficial to the overall program of research. The location look: The hotel location look largely determines different aspects of the hotel. It is on this note that this selection criteria for these case studies narrows in the Kanawa trade centre bearing in mind that the proposal is for Kano state hotel. The Emirs Palace: The subject topic which is on Hausa traditional architectural design element has made it necessary to study the palaces as case studies, due to the fact that most palaces show case major traditional element on them.

3.3.1 CASE STUDY 1 JIGAWA THREE STAR HOTEL CLIENT: LOCATION: CLIMATE: CONTEXT: DATE OF COMPLETION: STYLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL PRESENT STATE: International Concrete, steel, and Glass. Functional Jigawa State Government. Kiyawa road dutse-Jigawa State, Nigeria. TROPICAL URBAN

Plate, 3.1. 1 Approach view of the Jigawa three star hotel

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Jigawa three star hotel is located in the outskirt of the dutse city around kiyawa road. It was built by the state government in order to accommodate guest in the state as well as enhance tourism. The hotel is surrounded by lush greenery and gardens and has a view of the rocky hills (dutse).

DESIGN The Jigawa three star hotel has a semi-circular shape plan, and adopted a central Atrium. Its rooms are double banked opening into a poorly lit corridor.

STRUCTURE The structural system is based on the guest room unit on both sides of the public service area.

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION The materials of construction of floors is concrete, the wall are prefabricated building panels (Aluminum Zinc) with wood panel finishing. Windows are in aluminium frames. The top roof is of light metal sheet trusses.

FACILITIES 1. Swimming pool: This is located between in the outdoor recreational area, between basket ball court and the guest rooms. 2. The Bar This is located in the main lobby adjacent to the main restaurant. Non alcoholic drinks are mostly served.

Plate, 3.1.2 (view of the main bar at the Jigawa 3 star Hotel)

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

3. Restaurant The restaurant is large enough to accommodate the guest and serve both domestic and international dishes.

Plate, 3.1. 3 (view through the entrance of the reception at the Jigawa 3 star Hotel). Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

4. The main lounge This is a public place where the guest may relax or wait in the main lobby.

Plate, 3.1. 4 (a view through the main lounge at the jigawa 3 star hotel)

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

5. CAR PARK The hotel operates two car parks. The parking spaces are easily accessible after the entry gate.

Plate, 3.1. 5 view through the car park at the 3 star hotel Jigawa state.

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

3.3.1 CASE STUDY PRINCE HOTEL KANO

CLIENT: LOCATION:

PRINCE HOTEL 100 TAMANDU ROAD, ABDU BAKO WAY, NASSARAWA GRA, KANO, NIGERIA. TROPICAL URBAN

CLIMATE: CONTEXT: DATE OF COMPLETION : STYLE: PRESENT STATE:

INTERNATIONAL FUNCTIONAL

plate, 3.1. 6 (View through the main gate of Prince Hotel)

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

BACKGROUND INFORMATION The prince hotel is a hotel situated in the northern part of the country. Kano is Nigerias second largest city offering at the friendliest culture, ancient history, vibrant trade, and genuine hospitality. The hotel is located in a quiet district yet only a few minutes from the local and international airports. The multi award winning prince hotel is considered a cut above the rest, spread over the large area in villa style sections, one cannot help but admire the layout and landscaping. Along with a serene environment and hospitality that is second to none. DESIGN The principle of spatial allocation was employed in the plan of the hotel. This is evident enough for the fact that the rooms are dispersed and the chalets format. HOTEL FACILITIES AND AMENITIES I. Restaurant Dine in syle and delight in continental and Lebanese cuisine with a visit to a calypso restaurant from English and continental. Breakfast to homos, king size prawn and grills, a meat at calypso is a feast fit for a king.

plate, 3.1. 7 (view through the restaurant of the Prince Hotel)

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

II. Swimming pool The pool is open twelve months a year and is exclusive to hotel residents.

plate, 3.1. 8(view through the swimming pool of the Prince Hotel)

Sources (Authors survey, 2010)

III. Conference Room The air-conditioned conference room is up to the task, with a seating capacity of 24. It is specifically designed for business and boardroom meetings. IV. Laundry/Dry Cleaning There is a latest European laundry and dry cleaning equipment. You can be sure of turning up to your meetings looking your best.

V. WIRELESS INTERNET HOTSPOT The hotel is equipped with wireless internet hotspot, accessible form most sections of the hotel. The guest can keep in touch with the world and your business using their personal pc. VI. Car park The hotel has little space for parking, which on the basis of this study are considered insufficient.

3.6.0 ROOM FEAUTURES The prince hotel have wide range of rooms form standard, executive and VIP, to Royal, ambassador and presidential suites. Whatever the Guest choice would be. He will be impressed by meticulous and well-appointed air conditioned rooms, with attentive room service and round the clock security.

3.7.1 CASE STUDY SHERATON HOTEL AND TOWERS

CLIENT: LOCATION: CLIMATE: CONTENT: STYLE: INTERNATIONAL PRESENT STATE: FUNCTIONAL

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

This 660 bedrooms, 5-star hotel in Nigerias new capital city is indeed a place to be, whenever one is in Abuja, this hotel is located in the central business district(CBO) offers a good view of the Zuma Rock and Aso hills in addition to the order interesting buildings surrounding it. This hotel indeed a 50star hotel offers a variety of suites (Luxury, business, and presidential) variety of restaurants, good news in the interior of the hotel and deluxe facilities in bathroom namely bidets etc

The Abuja Sheraton hotel also stands out as an expression of the philosophy of the international style. The international style itself is a type of architecture developed in the twentieth century marked a radical break with traditional buildings.It is characterized by rectilinear often asymmetrical shapes and flat undecorated surfaces, pierced by horizontal stripes of windows with steel frames all of which are vividly shown in the Abuja Sheraton, which has asymmetrical faade of protrusions, recesses and bold forms. The interior has a free open plan DESIGN The Sheraton hotel and towers has an open plan principle in its design, which opens up into a long integrated atrium. Moreover, there is the application of organic architecture in the design. STRUCTURE It is framed construction of concrete, glass and steel. HOTEL FACILITIES AND AMENITIES 4.6.0 CASE STUDY 4 EMIRS PALACE KANO

ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: CLIMATE: CONTEXT: DATE OF COMPLETION: CONSTRUCTION METHOD:

Muhammad Rumfa (1463-99) Sarkin Rumfa Kano State Tropical Traditional Late 15th century Masonry

4.6.1 BACKGROUND INFORMAITON The emirs palace at Kano, which today continue to define the axis of the city was built in the fifteenth century by Sarkin Rumfa(also known as Rimfa) Rimfa transformed the fabric of Kano, and was said to be the author of twelve innovations in Kano, including the palace and the Kurmi Market, according to the Kano chronicle. However, before the erection of the Gidan, or Dakin. Rumfa(sic. House of Rumfa) there existed a palace, the south gate of which now serves as the passage from the Sarkins private courtyard to the royal graveyard. The 33 acre palace continues to house about 1,000 people in some of the most desirable housing in Kano. The palace grounds occupy the highest space in Kano. The entire palace complex is embraced by a wall of 20 to 30 feet high from the outside the height of which never exceeds more than 15 feet from the inside. Visitors at the turn of the twentieth century commented on the walls durability, which said to have been 15 feet thick in some places. It is tapered inward and surmounted by rounded crenellations. The exterior wall, similarly to the exteriors of the buildings inside the complex, is modestly decorated with shallow arched grooves traced in the mud plaster. The eleven mile wall was once surrounded by a moat with a parapet bridge to the main south gate. The main entry gate of the complex, Kofar Kudu, is located in the southern faade of the wall. This gate that has bronze detailing is recessed from the line of the wall. Within the walls of the recession are studded loopholes, as once a mantelet was hung in front of the gate. Legend has it that this southern gate was sealed by Muhammad Rumfa in the 1480s soon after the completion of Gidan Rumfa on the advice of the town official Islamic scholar, or malam, who prophesized that as long as the southern gate was sealed, the Rumfa dynasty would remain in power. Not until before 1806 was the mantelet apparently removed and the Rumfa dynasty then fell from power. The palace compound used to contain grazing land for the royal cattle as the houses of the palace retainers, public reception rooms and the apartments of the Sarkin himself.

4.6.2 DESIGN

The buildings were made of wattle and daub, which is a rich mix of mud and cow dung. The design of the palace is more of Hausa traditional architecture where the residential building s rotate around the palace, which is the central focal point. After entering though the confines of the outer wall of the palace complex, one is confronted on the same axis by the impressive and more recent Soron Gabjeje gateway. The graceful tow story height of the doorway of the gate is buttressed by two sturdy gatehouses. The thick tapered sides of the gatehouses visually hug the

slender central passage. Though the defining feature of the passage is the central steeped arch interrupted by a thin railed passage, the side buttresses complement the center through the replication of vertically elongated windows. These side gatehouses also mimic the central roofline crenellations and corner pinnacles, which in Hausa architecture define the intersection of interior and exterior walls. The processional access of the palace resembles an elongated version of a typical Kano house, where entry through a zaure (in this case the Soron Gabjeje) leads to the semi-private kofa gida courtyard which is bounded to the north and east by reception spaces. As in a traditional Kano House, one proceeds from this space into the private apartments which shelter the familys private cikin gida. In the case of the palace, the main reception rooms, the Soron Ingila to the northeast of the courtyard, and the Soron Giwa to the northwest of the courtyard were built of clay with a door on each side, and were connected by narrow dark passages.

Plate 4.6.7 Soron Gabjeje gate, the graceful two story height of the doorway supported by two sturdy gate houses

Source: Field study 2010 4.6.3 STRUCTURE The most elaborately decorated parts of the palace are these two royal audience chambers. The soron Ingila interior reaches a height of between six and eight meters the room is divided in two by high domed bays created by five arches each. These intersecting arches comprised of coupled corbels are a unique element of Hausa architecture called Bakan Gizos, the main audience chamber is comprised of 0 such corbels forming ten Bakan Gizos. These structures are covered with Azaras, heavy rigid timbers that are resistant to termites and decay, laid in two directions. These are then covered with layers of Azaras set horizontally until they reach the height of the domes apex. These Azaras are usually plastered into the wall, which is made of Tubali, of sun dried bricks. The plaster reveals the Azaras coffering which defines rectilinear shapes on the wall surfaces. In the ceiling these beams are often left exposed to reveal their linear patterning. Inlaid enamel bowls stud the intersection of the arches. The massive doors to the room are comprised of planks bound together by iron bars fastened by nails and then ornamented with circular brass heads. Practically the entire ceiling and walls are decorated with grooved patterns and bold paint. The ceiling the beams and the floor are stained a deep black by the varnish from a locust bean shell. The walls are plastered with a mixture that includes mica, giving the walls a silvery sheen. This plaster is burnished with a stone to give the raised sections of the groves this soft gleam rather than a glittery effect.

4.6.4 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ELEMENTS.

I.ARCH Arches where frequently used which added to the beauty of the faade of the palace.

Plate, 4.6.8 Arch been used in one of the residential houses within the palace compound Source: Field Study 2010

II. MOTIFS The Hausa building motifs symbolize the peak of celebration that reigns inherently in a traditional builder at work. Being expressive of man and nature. Motifs at te palace were done by professionals: this can be seen on the external and interior wall surface.

Plate 4.6.9 design motifs used on external part of the wall. Source: Field study 2010 4.6.5 MERIT I. II. III. Good use of traditional motifs The use of parapet which symbolizes northern Architecture is seen Arches were seen to be used in most entrances.

3.3.0 CASE STUDY 1 TRANSCORP HILTON, ABUJA. CLIENT: NICON INSURANCE PLC

LOCATION: CLIMATE: CONTEXT: DATE OF COMPLETION: STYLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL PRESENT STATE:

No.1 Agunyi Ironsi Maitama Abuja, Nigeria. TROPICAL URBAN 1988 International Concrete, steel, and Glass. Functional

3.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION The establishment of the Transcorp Hilton hotel, Abuja, was informed by the relocation of the capital of federal republic of Nigeria. Being one of the first set of international hotel to be planted in the Federal Capital Territory (F.C.T), the Nicon Hilton occupies a strategic location in the Central Business District. Built on a large expense of land, the hotel offers services to a wide range of local and international demand generators. It offers accommodation, banqueting, catering, conferencing and recreational services. Its provision includes rooms that are equipped with a mini bar, color television, satellite channels, direct dial telephones, and air-conditioning. Other amenities include three restaurants and two bars an outdoor swimming pool, childrens pool, night club, a fitness centre including a sauna massage, three floodlit tennis courts. The Transcorp Hilton is 42 kilometers from the Airport and 10 kilometers from the city gate. It is located in the citys central Business Area. The hotel with its 670 rooms and suites is set in beautiful landscape grounds, less than one kilometer from the ministries and Embassies. It is a 45 minute drive from the Nnamdi Azikwe international Airport, Abuja.

3.3.2 DESIGN Transcorp Hilton hotel has a Y-shape plan form with centralized service core. Its rooms are double banked opening into a poorly linked corridor. 3.3.3 STRUCTURE It is a framed construction concrete, glass and steel.

3.3.4 HOTEL FACILITIES & AMENITIES There are three restaurants and a bar whish include: 1. Zuma restaurant: the menu is varied, with light tasty dishes as well as richer creations. Availability of panist who plays contemporary background music. 2. Bukka restaurant: Hilton breakfast, lunch and dinner in a convivial and informal atmosphere are being provided at this restaurant.

3. Fulani pool bar: a poolside bar and restaurant, ideal for relaxing, ctching some sun and generally watching the day go b wit a touch of Nigerian culture. 4. Oriental restaurant: Chinese fine dining restaurant which also provide international delicacies. 5. Business centre: the business centre offers complete business service, with specially trained staff who are ready to provide typing, word processing, photocopying, facsimile, binding (electronics and spiral), internet and secretarial services. 3.3.5 HOTEL SERVICES & AMENITIES: Services provided include a barber shop, beauty salon, car rental desk, elevators, florist, foreign currency exchange, Gift shop, Laundry/valet services, Local area transportation, lounge, luggage hold, News stand, on site convenience store, room service, safety deposit box, shoe shine stand.

3.3.6 ROOM FEAUTURES The Transcorp Hilton hotel Abuja offers a wide range of rooms each with individually controlled air-conditioning, radio, mini bars, hairdryers, complimentary tea/coffee making facilities, interactive television, satellite channels, direct dial telephone, voice mail and state-of-th-art security door lock systems for guest safety.

3.3.7 APPRAISAL i. ii. iii. iv. v. Adequate number of restaurants provided Segregation of car park from the rooms Recreation/outdoor facilities provided Large entrance/reception hall Registration area large enough for the size of the hotel

3.3.8 CRITIQUE i. ii. iii. double banking of guest floor corridor Compositional monotony. Peripheral integration of elements of culture.

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DESIGN SYNTHESIS AND REPORT 4.1THE SITE 4.1.1 LOCATION Nigeria is located in western Africa, bordering the gulf of guinea, between Benin and Cameroon. 10N 8E and has a total area of 923,768km2, with varying climate from equatorial in the south, tropical in the centre to the arid in the north. Kano is a state located in north western Nigeria. Created on may 27, 1967 from part of the northern region. Kano state borders katsina state to the north-west, jigawa state to the northeast, and Bauchi and Kaduna states to the south. The capital of Kano state is Kano. It is the third largest city in Nigeria in terms of geographical size, after Ibadan and Lagos, also with a population of more than 4 million. it has the land mass of about 20,760 square kilometers.

Plate, 4.1. 1 Map of Nigeria showing Kano.

Source; Microsoft Encarta (2009)

4.1.2 HISTORY Kano state lies between the Sudan (and dry) and Guinea savanna agro-eological zones of the country. Settlement at Kano dates from the 7th century, by which time Hausa peoples of the area were smelting iron. Kano was founded in the 10th century as one of the seven original Hausa city-states. The people of the city converted to Islam probably between the 12th and 14th centuries. Kano was a major terminus of trans-Saharan trade caravans, and the city became a dominant political center of the West African savanna. The history of

Kanos rise as a Hausa city-state, its embracing of Islam, and its emergence as a major power is documented in the Kano Chronicle, a richly detailed manuscript compiled in the 18th or 19th century from earlier sources. The Kano area was taken by the Fulani in the 19th century and held by them until 1903, when it was seized by the British. Population 2007 estimate 3,630,000. 4.1.3 GENERAL FORM & STRUCTURE The town is structure in 3 main sectors which are linked to the regional roads passing through it. The old part is a compact high density indigenous residential area with, mixed commercial and industrial activity. The Sabon Gari and other main Kano city metropolis (excluding the Badala) are characterized by regular structure owing to the grid iron street pattern. It is inhabited by a largely strange population living in buildings of modern design and construction materials. It is a medium density area. A large proportion of the commercial land use in the town exists in this sector. The GRA form the third sector. It is a low density residential area with generous plot sizes and adequate streets servicing the widely spaced modern buildings including the community and research facilities in this area.

4.1.4 Site characteristics: The Savannah region in the state also falls within the semi-arid zones of the country. Many areas of southeast Kano are dominated by windblown deposits covering complex basement rocks largely of granites and gneisses. The northern portion of the state is dominated by shrub vegetations, while the southern portion by wooded savanna trees. The uplands are traversed by some streams and rivers. These are tributaries of the rivers Hadejia, Kano and Challawa. The stream valleys need to be protected through controlled development. Due to its location, it favors the growth of truft grasses forming a matrix of thorny shrubs and scrubs. Thick and perennial forest vegetation is found along the valleys of the major streams and rivers that truncate the area. The low lying (Fadama) are intensively farmed giving system of economic green in the area. Together with the several cereal crops grown during the rainy season, the otherwise harsh physical landscape is moderated by the vegetation cover. The dominant trees are Acacia Senegal and Insoberlina (doka). The caesalphicaceae and cumbustanteance trees are also common. Within Kano, th streets are lined with Azadiraction indica (neem) as shade trees. Economic trees like Adonsonia digitata (Baobab), mangifera indica (Mangoes) are common in the area. In this harsh and fragile environment, the vegetation needs to be saved and generous landscaping encouraged.

4.1.5 CLIMATE: The Kano state lies between the Sudan (or dry) and Guinea savanna agro-ecological zones of the country. The state enjoys a tropical climate with high temperatures during the months of April and May The state has land mass of about 20,760 square kilometers. Three major rivers borders and transverse the state, the rivers Hadejia, Kano and Challawa.The state starts a rainy season in May which retreats in September, a dry season then starts around October ending in April. Dry harmattan occurs around December-February. 4.2 KANAWA PYRAMID HOTEL SITE The site of the hotel is in the proposed Kanawa trade centre, western bypassNaibawa, kumbotso local government area of Kano state as proposed by the planning department (Department of Town planning Kano) taking into consideration the type of commercial activities their which will provide ready market. The site has the Saadatu Rimi college of Education to the north, eastern bypass to the east, western bypass to the west and the proposed kanawa trade centre to the south. The main Zaria road passes in the south along east-west axis.

Plate, 4.1. 2 Views showing features on the site Source; Field study (2010)

4.2.1

TOPOGRAPHY The site has few trees and are scattered around the site, most of the land is used for individual farming. The topsoil is laterite with high content of sandy and expensive clay underneath before a rocky base. Expansion joint are necessary in construction in this area. The site has hills and valleys through which the valley will favor the construction of basement. Thus reducing the excavation cost and gives the site good natural drainage. 4.2.2 UTILITIES The water distribution man passes close to the south. The electricity line, telephone lines are also available on site 4.2.3 POLLUTION The fact that the site is located away from any industry saves it from air pollution.the site is prone to noise pollution, due to its location and junction of roads. This will not really constitute much nuisance to the accommodation function and services of the building. In addition, trees and hedges will be used as barriers. 4.2.4 ACCESS The availability of three roads by the site provided good opportunity for bringing vehicles into the site. However, vehicular access is to be taken from the minor road to enhance security and reduce traffic hold up. Moreover, the pedestrian access will be adjacent to vehicular entry and security central shall be from the same sources with the motorist. 4.2.5 ORIENTATION Placement of building on site shall be guided by i. Orientation with respect to prevailing winds. ii. Orientation to take advantages of good view and block view especially from residential building. iii. Solar orientation (sun movement) 4.2.6 LAND USE PATTERN The use to which the site will be put i.e. hotel is in conformity and zoning map for commercial buildings in the state capital. 4.2.7 LANDSCAPE Trees and shrubs (for Hedges) will be planted to act as refining elements, shading and suffers for unwanted review and noise control. Shrubs and lawns will be planted to control traffic and glare on the premises.