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Valerian was proclaimed Augustus by his own troops following the death of Trebonianus Gallus. He was another one of the emperors whose legacy was that of fighting war after war during his reign. He was the first emperor who realized that the Empire was getting just too big and unwieldy to manage and granted co-emperor status to Augustus 253-260 his son Gallienus so that he could focus wholeheartedly to the business of putting out the fires. More sensationally, he stands alone in the roster of Roman Emperors for having been kidnapped by a foreigner, in this case the Persian king Shapur. To add insult to injury, it was reported that after killing him he was stuffed and turned into a footstool!

Valerian I

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Valerian I facing Gallienus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, draped bust right of Valerian I facing Gallienus laureate, draped bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Valerian, along with his family, are the last to make Antoniniani that can be called silver. By the mid-250s there was so little silver in these pieces that they started falling apart soon after leaving the mint. Even those minted early in his reign were so debased that the coins were very delicate. Once they were lost in the ground they tended to lose much of the base metal making up the bulk of the coin leaving behind a spongy-looking mess. Look for these on Ebay and coin dealers junk bins. The very earliest Ants, those from 253-255, can sometimes be found in nice metal and tend to be prized as portrait coins in collector sets. By now true bronze coins are rare. The emperors were using that copper to make Antoniniani and, in effect, it was wasteful to make coins that were essentially just as expensive to make, if not more, but had a lower face value. Strangely, the Dupondius is the bigger casualty as it just simply vanishes. Bona fide coppers are struck with laureate portraits in roughly lighter and heavier versions which we take to mean they were nominally equivalent to the Sestertius and As, respectively. Another bizarre practice begins to emerge in that these coins along with having wildly fluctuating weights are also often found today misshapen and often of a squarish appearance. Its unclear whether they were struck this way or it was just practice to chop off coin sides to make small small change.
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) IOVI CONSERVA IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IVNO REGINA LAETITIA AVGG LIBERALITAS AVG I LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERALITAS AVGG II LIBERALITAS AVGG III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM LIBERTAS AVGG MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PACATORI ORBIS PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVGG PIETATI AVGG PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS III PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P V COS III PP PM TR P V COS IIII PP PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG RELIGIO AVGG RESTITVT GENER HVMANI

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM FELICIBVS AVGG IMP C LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP C VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS AVG IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP VALERIANVS P AVG IMP VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP VALERIANVS PIVS AVG IMP VALERIANVS PIVS FEL AVG PIETAS AVGVSTORVM VALERIANVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTORVM AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNIT AVGG AETERNITAS AVGG AETERNITATI AVGG ANNONA AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLINI CONSERVAT APOLINI PROPVG APOLINI PROPVGN APOLL SALVTARI APOLLINI CONSERVA BONAE FORTVNAE BONVS EVENT AVG CONCOR EXERC CONCOR LEGG CONCOR MIL CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA EXERCIT CONCORDIA EXERCITI CONCORDIAE AVGG CONSACRATIO CONSERVAT AVGG CONSERVT AVGG DEO VOLKANO DIANA LVCIFERA FELICIT AVGVSTORVM FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS EXERCITI FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX GALLIENVS CVM EXERCSVO GERMANICVS MAX TER IOVI CONSERV

287
71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) RESTITVT ORIENTIS RESTITVTI GENER HVMANI RESTITVTOR ORBIS RESTITVTORI ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE AETERNE SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SALVS PVBLICA SECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT PERP SECVRITAS AVGG SPES PVBLICA VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VICT AVGG 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) VICT PART VICT PARTICA VICTOR AETER VICTORIA AETER VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA EXERCIT VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIA PARTHICA VICTORIAE VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG IT GERM VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VOTA ORBIS No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock, next to Luna (Diana), also standing left, with bow and arrow. Apollo standing right, aiming with bow and arrow. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Concordia standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fides standing, facing, holding vexillum and scepter. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing on cippus reading IOVI VICTORI, holding Victory and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing right, holding wreath and anchor. Legend QVATERNIO Liberalitas seated left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Luna (Diana) advancing right, holding torch. Luna (Diana) standing left, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow. Luna (Diana) standing right, holding torch. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Pax standing, facing, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Sacrificial implements: lituus, cruet, simpulum, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma helmeted bust right Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Saturn standing right, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, resting head on hand. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (4) columns, Vulcan within, holding hammer over anvil and tongs. Trophy, seated captive on either side. Valerian I advancing right, raising hand and holding globe. Valerian I and Gallienus seated left on platform with two lictors, Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and citizen on steps to lower left Valerian I and Gallienus seated left, lictor between and behind them. Valerian I and Gallienus standing right on platform, attended by lictor, addressing several soldiers. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, facing each other, two shields and two spears between them. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, facing each other; emperor on left holding scepter and globe and one on right holding Victory and spear. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, sacrificing over altar in between. Valerian I riding biga right, being crowned by Victory. Valerian I riding eagle right, flying towards heaven. Valerian I riding horse left, led by Victory and followed by soldier Valerian I seated left, holding globe and scepter. Valerian I seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Valerian I standing left on right, holding spear, holding hand of kneeling Orbis to left Valerian I standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Oriens to left, holding scepter. Valerian I standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Valerian I standing left, resting hand on shield. Valerian I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Valerian I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter with eagle atop.

288
67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear Venus standing left, raising hand and holding palm; shield to side. Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together shield reading SC on palm tree. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory riding biga right. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory standing left, holding wreath and resting hand on shield Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm. Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm; seated captive by feet. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Virtus standing left, holding Victory. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Lugdunum 3) 4) Mediolanum Roma 5) 6) Samosata Viminacium

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O16, R025, T47 B2, O07, R028, T09 B2, O07, R052, T45 B2, O07, R093, T75

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 1 RIC Vi 34, C 52 RIC Vi 46, C 133

AR Medallion
5) B1, O07, R051, T32

AR Antoninianus
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) B6, O05, R103, T70 B8, O01, R056, T55 B8, O05, R005, T40 B8, O05, R009, T04 B8, O05, R028, T09 B8, O05, R030, T25 B8, O05, R031, T11 B8, O05, R041, T19 B8, O05, R053, T16 B8, O05, R057, T34 B8, O05, R066, T53 B8, O05, R070, T48 B8, O05, R071, T62 B8, O05, R074, T60 B8, O05, R079, T39 B8, O05, R092, T75 B8, O05, R093, T75 B8, O05, R102, T54 B8, O05, R102, T65 B8, O05, R102, T82 B8, O05, R103, T70 B8, O06, R102, T80 B8, O07, R006, T01 B8, O07, R023, T03 B8, O07, R028, T09 B8, O07, R041, T19 B8, O07, R043, T23 B8, O07, R069, T26 Q in right field B8, O07, R071, T62 B8, O07, R073, T61 B8, O07, R085, T67 B8, O07, R093, T75 B8, O07, R093, T78 B8, O07, R102, T54 B8, O07, R102, T82 B8, O16, R051, T43 B9, O06, R016, T05 B9, O06, R031, T12 B9, O06, R054, T33 B9, O06, R084, T46 B9, O10, R031, T12 RIC Vi 296, C 281 RIC Vi 285, C 152 RIC Vi 67 RIC Vi 74, C 25 RIC Vi 86, C 55 RIC Vi 213, C 61 RIC Vi 89, C 65 RIC Vi 41, C 100 RIC Vi 218, C 145 RIC Vi 219, C 155 RIC Vi 277, C 169 RIC Vi 220, C 179 RIC Vi 287, C 189 RIC Vi 119, C 180 RIC Vi 121 RIC Vi 125, C 230 RIC Vi 124 RIC Vi 292 RIC Vi 140, C 254 RIC Vi 133, C 263 RIC Vi 295, C 279 RIC Vi 268, C 272 RIC Vi 69, C 13 RIC Vi 85, C 50 RIC Vi 87, C 53 RIC Vi 216 RIC Vi 44, C 118 RIC Vi 115, C 177 RIC Vi 286, C 188 RIC Vi 50 RIC Vi 222, C 212 RIC Vi 261, C 223 RIC Vi 128, C 224 RIC Vi 293, C 276 RIC Vi 227 RIC Vi 12, C 143a RIC Vi 236, C 44 RIC Vi 241, C 71 RIC Vi 245, C 147 RIC Vi 257, C 205 RIC Vi 240, C 74

AE Sestertius
47) B1, O06, R092, T75

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 178, C 233

289
48) 49) 50) 51) 52) B1, O07, R092, T75 B2, O05, R092, T75 B2, O05, R102, T82 B2, O05, R104, T83 B2, O07, R044, T23 RIC Vi 202, C 227 RIC Vi 177, C 234 RIC Vi 182, C 219 RIC Vi 184, C 283 RIC Vi 165, C 121

AE As
53) 54) 55) B2, O06, R016, T07 B2, O07, R007, T02 B2, O07, R038, T17 RIC Vi 190, C 23 RIC Vi 195

Valerian I Busts

Valerian I Types

290
Valerian I Types (continued)

Mariniana
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) 3) Veiled, diademed, draped bust right on crescent Veiled, draped bust right Veiled, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Valerian. All coins in her name were minted posthumously.

Mariniana falls into the category of coins where if you have the money you can always locate one or two but it may take a bit of luck and patience to find one you are pleased with. Her Ants were minted during that difficult time when the coins had so little silver in them, less than 20%, that the coin looks silvery only if the right set of conditions presented itself at the time of loss. Otherwise, they can look awful with porosity being the main problem. As the bulk of the coin corroded away a spongy, silver-rich core remained. Interestingly, there are also many bronzes which are loosely categorized under the old denominations of Sestertius, Dupondius and As depending on their weights. However, there are no hard and fast rules because there appears to have been no specific coin weight range in mind by this time in Roman history. And at this point these coins probably traded hands at the marketplace by weight so that half a pound of copper coins was needed to buy X amount of Y. One such bronze coin if well preserved will surely cost a few hundred dollars at a minimum. The Ants, too, will cost two or three hundred dollars a piece if in good shape.

Obverse:
1) DIVAE MARINIANAE

Reverse:
1) CONSECRATIO

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Mariniana flying peacock left, upwards Mariniana flying peacock right, upwards Peacock advancing right Peacock standing, facing

Mint:
1) Roma

291
AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O1, R1, T4 B1, O1, R1, T5 B3, O1, R1, T2 B3, O1, R1, T3

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 5, C 11 RIC Vi 3, C 2 RIC Vi 6, C 14 RIC Vi 6, C 16

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
5) B2, O1, R1, T5 RIC Vi 9, C 7

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
6) B2, O1, R1, T5 RIC Vi 11, C 8

AE As (Posthumous)
7) B2, O1, R1, T5 Exe: ` RIC Vi 11

Mariniana Busts

Mariniana Types

292
Son of Gallienus (or possibly Valerian). This young boy was left in the care of Ingenuus, a trusted general under the employ of Gallienus. Valerian died under mysterious circumstances not too long after and Ingenuus rebelled. The easiest conclusion to make is that Ingenuus Caesar c.273-274 murdered him to pursue his imperatorial career. However, it is just as likely that Valerian died of natural causes and that Ingenuus, afraid of being blamed, took the drastic step of usurping the throne as a precautionary step.

Valerian II

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bare head right Bare headed bust right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped bust right

While not rare, Valerian II is an obscure Caesar whose coins for the most part survive in deplorable condition. This keeps prices down but also keeps interest down in his series as well. While the young Valerian was alive a modest run of coins was issued in his name and after dying a somewhat longer series of posthumous coins of the deified prince was put into circulation. Most of these coins, no big surprise, were of the severely debased silver Antoniniani type. Finding one that has survived in mint state condition is likely a pipe dream but reasonably appealing coins can be bought for under $100 largely thanks to slipping under the radar of many collectors.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) C P L VALERIANVS CAES COR LIC VALERIANVS CAES COR VALERIANVS CAESAR DIVO CAES VALERIANO DIVO CAESAR VALERIANO DIVO CAESARI VALERIANO DIVO VALERIANO CAES LIC VALERIANVS CAES P C L VALERIANVS CAES P C L VALERIANVS N C P C L VALERIANVS NOB C P C L VALERIANVS NOB CAES P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES P LIC VALERIANVS CAES VALERIANVS CAES VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) CONSACRATIO CONSECRATIO DEO VOLKANO FIDES MILITVM IOVI CRESCENTI LIBERALITAS AVGG MONETA AVGG 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) ORIENS PIETAS AGG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTORVM PM TR P V COS IIII PP PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENT 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA GERMAN VICTORIA PART

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Altar Eagle standing left. Eagle standing right Eagle, standard on either side. Funeral pyre Gallienus seated left, holding globe and scepter Jupiter riding goat left Jupiter riding goat right. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding scale and cornucopia Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged). Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Temple with (4) columns, Vulcan within, holding hammer and tongs with anvil to lower left. Valerian II riding eagle right, upwards Valerian II standing left, crowning trophy and holding spear with shield. Valerian II standing left, holding globe and spear. Valerian II standing left, holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left and scepter. Valerian II standing left, holding standard and scepter. Valerian II standing left, holding standard and spear. Valerian II standing left, holding wand and scepter Valerian II standing left, holding wand and spear; two standards to right. Valerian II standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Lugdunum 3) Roma

293
AU Aureus
1) B3, O12, R15, T18

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 11

AR Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) B6, O12, R10, T11 B6, O13, R10, T11 B6, O13, R15, T21 B6, O13, R18, T23 B6, O13, R19, T23 B6, O14, R05, T08 B6, O15, R05, T08 B6, O15, R10, T11 B6, O16, R04, T13 B6, O16, R13, T16 RIC Vi 20, C 50 RIC Vi 19 RIC Vi 53 RIC Vi 54 RIC Vi 13 RIC Vi 3, C 26 RIC Vi 4, C 52 RIC Vi 46, C 24 RIC Vi 49, C 67

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
12) 13) 14) B5, O04, R02, T03 Exe: S B6, O04, R02, T01 B6, O07, R01, T15 RIC Vi 24a, C 13 RIC Vi 9

AR Quinarius
15) B3, O12, R15, T19 RIC Vi 30, C 80

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
16) B3, O04, R02, T05 Exe: SC RIC Vi 35, C 17

Valerian II Busts

Valerian II Types

294
The son of Valerian, Gallienus became emperor when his father was taken prisoner by a Persian King. His greatest contribution to military history was the first commissioning of a cavalry-only unit which could be dispatched anywhere within the empire within short order. He was also successful in repelling wave after wave of Augustus 260-268 barbarian invaders as well as finally defeating Postumus after a prolonged period which saw the two in battlefields three times. Gallienus met a bloody end himself during the siege of another usurper, Aureolus, at the hands of his own soldiers.

Gallienus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Helmeted head right Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle Laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate torso right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, cuirassed torso left Laureate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, draped torso right, holding caduceus Radiate bust left, holding trophy and shield Radiate head left Radiate head right Radiate torso left, holding scepter Radiate torso right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, raising hand Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding club Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, draped torso left Reed-crowned head left

Sometime during the reign of Gallienus, in an imperceptibly gradual process perhaps, Roman coins stopped being issued with anything resembling quality control. More regrettably, the use of currency as an art venue gave way to its most utilitarian uses. There was now less care in the execution and craftsmanship of the dies, less variety of types and a generalized who-cares-what-they-look-like attitude that was pervasive from one corner of the empire to the next. Even the mighty Aureus had to suffer the indignity of wild swings in weights. Even the up-untilthen sacrosanct purity of the gold itself dipped. But while the most drastic changes appear to have happened during the tenure of Gallienus there were still, thankfully, many exceptions to the rule. The Antoninianus was still being made in reasonably good metal during his first couple of years on the throne and one may actually find one today in good shape at a not-exorbitant cost. Just be aware that for every one of those there will be a cartful of deplorable coins available which, it must be remembered, were already unrecognizable before leaving the mint.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) DIVO CAES GALLIENO DIVO CAES Q GALLIENO GALLIENAE AVGVSTAE GALLIENO PF AVG GALLIENVM AVG PR GALLIENVM AVG SENATVS GALLIENVM PR GALLIENVM PRINC PR GALLIENVS AVG GALLIENVS AVG GERM GALLIENVS AVG GERM GALLIENVS AVG GERM V GALLIENVS P AVG GALLIENVS PF AVG GALLIENVS PF AVG GERM GALLIENVS PIVS F AVG GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG GERM IMP C P GALLIENVS PF AVG IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) IMP C P LICIN GALLIENVS AVG IMP CAES GALLIENVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS AVG COS II IMP GALLIENVS AVG COS V IMP GALLIENVS AVG GER IMP GALLIENVS AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS F AVG IMP GALLIENVS P AVG IMP GALLIENVS P AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GM IMP GALLIENVS PIVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS F AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP LIC GALLIENVS AVG IMP P LIC GALLIENVS AVG

295
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADLOCVTIO AVGG ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTI ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGG AEQVIT AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS PVBLICA AEQVTAS AVG AET AVG AETERNITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVGG AETERNITATI AVG AETERNITATI AVGG ALACRITATI ALACRITATI AVG ANNONA AVG APOLINI CONS AVG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLINI PROPVG APOLL CONSERVAT APOLLI PAL APOLLINI CON AVG APOLLINI CONS AVG APOLLINI CONSERVA APOLLINI PAL APOLLO CONSER APOLLO CONSERV APOLLO CONSERVA APOLLO COS AVG BON EVEN AVG BON EVENT AVG BONAE FORTVNAE BONVS EVENTVS AVG CHORS TERTIA PRAETORIA CLEMENTIA TEMP COH H PRAET VI P VI F COH H PRAET VII P VI F COH H PRAET VII P VII F CONCOR AVG CONCOR EQVIT CONCORD PRET MILIT CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA EXERC CONCORDIA EXERCIT CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIAE AVGG CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVAT PIETAT CONSERVATOR AVG CONSERVATOR EXERC COS IIII PP DEO AVGVSTO DEO MARTI DEO VOLCANO DIANA FELIX DIANA LVCIFERA DIANAE CONS AVG DONA AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELICI AET FELICI AVG FELICIT AVG FELICIT DEORVM FELICIT PVBL FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITATI AVGVSTI FID MILIT FID MILITVM FID PRAET FIDEI LEG FIDEI PRAET FIDEI PRAET VOTA X FIDES AVG FIDES EXERC VIII FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES LEG FIDES MIL FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORT REDVX FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RED 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE REDVCI GALLIENVS AVG GENIO AVG GENIV AVG GENIVS AVG GENIVS EXE GERMAN MAX TR P GERMANCVS MAX V GERMANICVS MAX TER GERMANICVS MAX V GERMANICVS MAXIMVS HERCVLI CONS AVG HERCVLO CONS AVG IANO PATRI INDVLG AVG INDVLGENT AVG INDVLGENTIA AVG INVICTO AVG INVICTVS INVICTVS AVG IO CANTAB IOVI CONS AVG IOVI CONSERVA IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI CRESCENTI IOVI PATRI IOVI PROPVG IOVI PROPVGNAT IOVI PROPVGNATOR IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IOVI VLTORI IOVIS STATOR IOVIS STATORI IVNO CONSERVAT IVNO REGINA IVNONI CONS AVG LAETIA AVGG LAETIT TEMP LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVGG LEG I ADI V P V F LEG I ADI VI P VI E LEG I ADI VI P VI F LEG I ADI VII P VII F LEG I AVG VI P VI F LEG I ITAL VI P VI F LEG I ITAL VII P VII F LEG I MIN VI P VI F LEG I MIN VII P VII F LEG II AD VII P VII F LEG II ADI VI P VI F LEG II CL ADI VI P VI F LEG II ITAL VI P VI F LEG II ITAL VII P VII F LEG II PART V P V F LEG II PART VI P VI F LEG II PART VII P VII F LEG III ITAL VI P VI F LEG III ITAL VII P VII F LEG IIII FL VI P VI F LEG IIII FL VII P VII F LEG IIXX VI P VI F LEG IIXX VII P VII F LEG V MAC VI P VI F LEG V MAC VII P VIII F LEG VI CL VI P VI F LEG VI MAC VII P VII F LEG VII CL VI P VI F LEG VII CLA VI P VI F LEG VII CLA VII P VII F LEG VIII AVG V P V F LEG VIII AVG VI P VI F LEG VIII AVG VII P VII F LEG VIIII AVG VI P VI F LEG VIIII VI P VI F LEG X GEM VI P VI F LEG X GEM VII P VII F LEG XI CL VI P VI F LEG XIII GEM VI P VI F LEG XIIII GEM VI P VI F LEG XX VI P VI F LEG XXI GEM VI P VI F LEG XXII VI P VI F 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) 258) LEG XXX VLP VI P VI F LEG XXX VLP VII P VII F LIB AVG LIBERAL AVG LIBERALIT AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERO P CONS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG LIBERTAS AVGG LVNA LVCIF LVNA LVCIFERA MARS RED AVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFE MARTI PACIFER MARTI PACIFERO MARTI PROPVGN MARTI PROPVGNAT MARTI PROPVGNATORI MARTI VICTORI AVG MERCVRIO CONS AVG MINERVA AVG MONETA AVG MONETA AVGG NEPTVNO CONS AVG OB CONSERVAT SALVT OB CONSERVATIONEM PATRIAE OB CONSERVATIONEM SALVTIS OB LIBERTAT REC OB LIBERTATEM RECEPTAM OB REDDIT LIBERT ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG PACATORI ORBIS PAX AETERNA PAX AETERNA AVG PAX AVG PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PAX FVNDATA PAX PVBLICA PERPETVITATI AVG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETATI AVGG PM TR P COS II PM TR P II COS PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS II PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR P IMP VI COS V PP PM TR P V COS III PM TR P V COS III PP PM TR P V COS IIII PP PM TR P VII COS PM TR P VII COS III PP PM TR P VII COS IIII PM TR P VII COS IIII PP PM TR P VII COS PP PM TR P VIIII COS IIII PP PM TR P X COS IIII PM TR P X COS IIII PP PM TR P XII PM TR P XII COS V PP PM TR P XIII PM TR P XV COS VII PM TR P XV PP PM TR P XVI PM TR P XVI COS VII PM TR P XVII PRINC IVVENT PRINCIP IVVENTVT PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTI AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG PVDICITIA

296
259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) 274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) RESTIT GALLIAR RESTITVT GALLIAR RESTITVT GENER HVMANI RESTITVT ORIENTIS RESTITVTOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SPQR SAECVLARES AVG SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SALVS AVGVSTI SALVS ITAL SALVS PVBLICA SECVLI FELICITAS SECVR TEMPO SECVRIT AVG SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRIT PERP SECVRIT PERPET SECVRIT PVBL SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS AVGG SECVRITAS ORBIS SECVRITAS PVB SECVRITAS PVBL SECVRT AVG SISCIA AVG SOLI COMTI AVG SOLI CONS AVG SOLI INVICTO 291) 292) 293) 294) 295) 296) 297) 298) 299) 300) 301) 302) 303) 304) 305) 306) 307) 308) 309) 310) 311) 312) 313) 314) 315) 316) 317) 318) 319) 320) 321) 322) SPES PVB SPES PVBLICA TR P XII C VI PP TRIB POT COS II TRIB POT COS PP TRIB POT VIII COS III VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VBIQVE PAX VENERI VICTRICI VENERI VICTRIX VENVS AVG VENVS FELIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VESTA FELIX VIC GAL AVG VICT AET AVG VICT GAL AVG VICT GAL AVG III VICT GALL AVG VICT GALLIENI AVG VICT GER II VICT GERMANICA VICTORIA AET VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG II VICTORIA AVG III VICTORIA AVG VI VICTORIA AVG VII VICTORIA AVG VIII VICTORIA AVG VIIII 323) 324) 325) 326) 327) 328) 329) 330) 331) 332) 333) 334) 335) 336) 337) 338) 339) 340) 341) 342) 343) 344) 345) 346) VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIA PART VICTORIAE AVG VICTORIAE AVG GERMANICA VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG IT GERM VIRT GALLIENI AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM VIRTVS FALERI VIRTVS GALLIENI AVG VIRTVS GALLIENI AVGVSTI VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTIS AVGVSTI VOTA DECENNALIA VOTA ORBIS VOTA VICENNALIA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and anchor Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Aeternitas standing right, holding scepter Altar Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Annona standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and grain ears over modius. Antelope advancing left Antelope advancing right Apollo standing left, aiming with bow and arrow. Apollo standing left, holding branch Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting arm on altar Apollo standing left, holding globe and scepter. Apollo standing left, touching head and holding lyre. Augustus laureate head right Augustus laureate, cuirassed bust right Boar advancing right Bull standing right Capricornus advancing right Centaur advancing left, aiming with bow and arrow Centaur advancing right, aiming with bow and arrow Centaur advancing right, holding club. Centaur standing left, holding globe and club Centaur standing left, holding globe and trophy Centaur standing left, holding globe. Centaur standing right, holding club Clementia standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Concordia standing left, holding patera and (1) cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding patera and (2) cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder on globe. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Deer standing left Deer standing right Diana (Luna) standing right, holding torch with both hands. Diana advancing right, holding torch. Diana advancing right, pulling arrow and holding bow; dog to right Diana standing left, aiming with bow and arrow Diana standing right, holding spear and bow; dog to right Eagle Eagle perched on globe, standard on either side Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding globe and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding globe and scepter Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter; another standard to right Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

297
53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Galley sailing left Gallienus advancing left, holding standard in each hand Gallienus advancing right, raising hand and holding globe Gallienus advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Gallienus and Valerian I seated left; lictor standing to right Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other, resting hand on shield; two spears behind each. Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other; emperor on left holding a spear and globe and one on right a Victory and scepter Gallienus riding horse left, holding spear. Gallienus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Gallienus riding horse left, Victory to right and soldier to left Gallienus riding horse right over two enemies; soldier to left Gallienus riding horse right, spearing enemy. Gallienus riding horse right, spearing lion. Gallienus riding quadriga left, being crowned by Victory. Gallienus riding quadriga left, holding scepter. Gallienus seated left on right, receiving branch from soldier to left and being crowned by Victory to right Gallienus seated left, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing left on left, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm Gallienus standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Victory to left, holding wreath and palm. Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Orbis to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Gallia to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling person to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Oriens to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Victory to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, shaking hands with Sol to left, holding wreath Gallienus standing left, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing left, holding spear and trophy Gallienus standing left, holding spear in each hand; standard to right. Gallienus standing left, sacrificing over altar Gallienus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Gallienus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Gallienus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Gallienus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right, holding spear with shield Gallienus standing right, holding globe and scepter Gallienus standing right, holding globe and spear; captive on either side. Gallienus standing right, holding spear and standard. Gallienus standing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Gallienus standing, facing, holding spear; two standards on either side. Gallienus standing, holding parazonium and spear; river god on either side. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Goat advancing left Goat advancing right Goat suckling baby Jupiter Gryphon advancing left Gryphon advancing right Gryphon seated left Gryphon seated right Hands, in handshake. Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing left, resting hand on club and holding apple Hercules standing right, holding branch and club Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding apples with lion skin Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin Hippocamp advancing right Indulgentia seated left, holding branch and scepter. Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter Indulgentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over wheel and cornucopia Janus standing, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Jupiter (as child) riding goat left Jupiter (as child) riding goat right Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left on cippus reading IMP C E S, holding Victory and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; effigy of Gallienus to lower left. Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt and holding scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Libertas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding pileus and scepter Lion advancing left Lion advancing left with bulls head in mouth Lion advancing right

298
142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) Lion advancing right, eagle on back. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield Mars advancing right, holding branch and shield. Mars advancing right, holding globe and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars helmeted head left Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mars standing right, holding shield and spearing enemy. Mars standing right, holding spear and trophy. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; dog by feet. Minerva seated left, holding Victory and spear. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield. Minerva standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Monetae (3) each holding a scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Moose advancing right Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow and holding trident Panther advancing left Panther advancing right Pax advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pegasus rearing left Pegasus rearing right Pietas seated left, holding scepter; child on either side. Pietas standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; wheel by feet. Pietas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over wheel. Pietas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, leaning on column, pouring out patera Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Saturn standing right, holding scepter. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, touching head Serapis standing left, holding scepter Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding spear; rabbit by feet. Siscia seated left; swimming nymph below Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol riding quadriga left Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Stork standing right Temple with (4) columns; Mars standing within, holding shield and spear Trophies (3) Trophy; seated captive on either side Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopia Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield; seated captive to left Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding wreath and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and scepter. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading SC on palm Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding Victory on globe Victories (3) standing left Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath; shield on either side Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, placing garland over shield on cippus Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and trophy. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy. Victory riding biga left Victory riding biga right, holding whip Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm. Victory standing on globe, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side Victory standing right on shield, holding palm. Victory standing right, holding shield on palm tree Victory standing right, holding shield on palm tree reading III Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm; eagle to right. Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm; lion to right. Victory standing, facing, holding opened wreath with both hands; shield on either side. Virtus standing left, holding globe and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear

299
231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and globe Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Virtus standing right, holding spear and shield Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, COHORT PRAET PRINCIPI SVO within Wreath, FIDEI EQVITVM within Wreath, FIDES MILITVM within Wreath, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI within Wreath, VOT within Wreath, VOT / X / ET / XX within Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIB within Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS within Wreath, VOTIS within Wreath, VOTIS X ET XX within Wreath, VOTIS X within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Asia, locality uncertain Balkans, locality uncertain Lugdunum 4) 5) 6) Mediolanum Roma Siscia

AU Medallion
1) 2) B03, O23, R083, T051, M5 B40, O37, R042, T109, M5

Reference(s)
Four Aurei weight Eight Aurei weight
RIC 10 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 230

AU Binio
3) 4) 5) B40, O14, R316, T076, M5 B31, O09, R318, T213, M5 T in left field B23, O09, R346, T242, M4 RIC 81 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1112 RIC 84 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1116 RIC 96 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1353

AU Aureus
6) 7) 8) B40, O14, R299, T219, M5 B18, O19, R184, T137, M5 B14, O20, R025, T014, M5 RIC 72 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1018

AU Quinarius
9) 10) 11) B10, O09, R209, T194, M5 B10, O09, R297, T201, M5 B14, O20, R334, T230, M5 C 696 RIC 120 (Vi, Sole Reign) C 1217

AR Medallion
12) B18, O19, R201, T119, M5

Billon Antoninianus
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) B06, O09, R147, T198, M4 B06, O09, R193, T143, M4 B22, O09, R140, T168, M4 B22, O09, R188, T146, M2 Exe: B22, O09, R245, T140, M2 Exe: CVI PP over B23, O09, R001, T002, M5 B in left field B23, O09, R006, T003, M5 B23, O09, R011, T194, M5 G in left field B23, O09, R017, T007, M6 B23, O09, R018, T024, M5 Exe: H B23, O09, R018, T024, M5 Exe: Z B23, O09, R027, T013, M5 B23, O09, R027, T014, M5 B23, O09, R051, T080, M5 B23, O09, R058, T041, M4 B23, O09, R060, T010, M5 Exe: X B23, O09, R060, T010, M5 Exe: XII B23, O09, R060, T036, M5 Exe: E B23, O09, R060, T160, M4 B23, O09, R065, T047, M5 B23, O09, R083, T049, M5 N in right field B23, O09, R087, T055, M6 in right field B23, O09, R099, T020, M5 Exe: E B23, O09, R103, T119, M5 XI in right field B23, O09, R109, T103, M5 Exe: B23, O09, R110, T131, M5 N in left field B23, O09, R111, T131, M5 N in left field B23, O09, R116, T126, M5 XI in left field RIC 339 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 492 RIC 492 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 324 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 649 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 607a RIC 602 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 157k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 5 RIC 159k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 25 RIC 160k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 38 RIC 557k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 56 RIC 164k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 73 RIC 163k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 72 RIC 168k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 169k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 171A (Vi, Sole Reign), C 144 RIC 473k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 173 RIC 179k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 160 RIC 181k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 165 RIC 187k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 181 RIC 192k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 246 RIC 572k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 265 RIC 202k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 317 RIC 206k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 331 RIC 207k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 345 RIC 208k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 354 RIC 210k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 361 RIC 214k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 382

300
41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) B23, O09, R120, T134, M5 in left field B23, O09, R125, T102, M5 Exe: J B23, O09, R128, T135, M5 B23, O09, R175, T136, M5 in left field B23, O09, R181, T162, M5 Exe: B B23, O09, R182, T137, M5 S in right field B23, O09, R183, T137, M5 XI in right field B23, O09, R193, T149, M5 H in left field B23, O09, R202, T116, M5 Exe: N B23, O09, R209, T192, M5 Z in left field B23, O09, R214, T166, M4 B23, O09, R214, T166, M6 S in left field, I in right B23, O09, R214, T166, M6 B23, O09, R218, T166, M5 Exe: V B23, O09, R220, T173, M4 B23, O09, R253, T175, M5 B23, O09, R253, T175, M6 II in right field B23, O09, R269, T181, M6 I in right field B23, O09, R269, T182, M5 P in left field B23, O09, R269, T184, M5 XII in right field B23, O09, R275, T186, M4 Exe: MS B23, O09, R277, T186, M5 Exe: VI B23, O09, R279, T187, M5 H in right field B23, O09, R289, T021, M5 Exe: XI B23, O09, R289, T168, M5 B23, O09, R292, T195, M6 B23, O09, R297, T201, M6 E in right field B23, O09, R304, T204, M5 B23, O09, R315, T219, M5 Z in left field B23, O09, R334, T230, M2 B23, O09, R336, T231, M5 X in left field B23, O09, R336, T232, M5 X in left field B23, O23, R018, T105, M5 Exe: J B23, O23, R060, T036, M5 Exe: E B23, O23, R082, T049, M4 Exe: MD B23, O23, R092, T100, M5 VI in left field B23, O23, R212, T166, M5 J in left field B23, O23, R254, T176, M4 Exe: MD B23, O23, R269, T004, M4 Exe: P B28, O09, R137, T157, M5 B29, O12, R263, T079, M3 B29, O14, R097, T201, M3 B31, O09, R006, T003, M6 VI in right field B31, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B31, O09, R017, T007, M6 I in right field B31, O09, R037, T141, M4 B31, O09, R052, T004, M2 B31, O09, R067, T044, M5 Exe: T B31, O09, R077, T154, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R103, T118, M5 Exe: P B31, O09, R109, T102, M5 Exe: B31, O09, R111, T129, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R112, T129, M5 B31, O09, R120, T134, M5 in left field B31, O09, R132, T022, M4 B31, O09, R135, T020, M4 B31, O09, R140, T168, M4 B31, O09, R145, T025, M4 B31, O09, R145, T029, M4 B31, O09, R161, T021, M4 B31, O09, R185, T037, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R193, T149, M4 B31, O09, R198, T116, M5 Exe: N B31, O09, R254, T175, M5 X in right field B31, O09, R268, T036, M2 Exe: B31, O09, R269, T015, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R269, T181, M6 B31, O09, R269, T182, M5 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R276, T188, M5 B31, O09, R279, T187, M5 H in right field B31, O09, R287, T190, M6 B31, O09, R297, T201, M6 B31, O09, R300, T203, M2 B31, O09, R316, T211, M5 B31, O09, R318, T212, M5 T in left field B31, O09, R321, T212, M4 B31, O09, R328, T219, M5 S in left field B31, O09, R334, T113, M2 Exe: VIIC. B31, O09, R334, T150, M5 P in right field B31, O09, R334, T234, M2 B31, O14, R007, T003, M2 B31, O14, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R013, T193, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R056, T199, M3 B31, O14, R097, T201, M3 B31, O14, R118, T130, M2 B31, O14, R244, T189, M2 B31, O14, R266, T179, M2 RIC 221k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 224k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 491 RIC 226k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 426 RIC 227k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 562 RIC 230k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 588 RIC 232k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 593 RIC 233k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 596 RIC 236k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 617a RIC 244k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 669 RIC 249k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 699 RIC 499k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 739 RIC 575k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 729 RIC 575k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 727 RIC 260k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 773 RIC 507k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 267k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 854 RIC 580k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 872 RIC 581k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 275k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 935 RIC 274Ak (Vi, Sole Reign), C 932 RIC 513k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 278k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 280k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 961 RIC 285k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 983 RIC 283k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 979 RIC 584k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 996 C 1008 RIC 289k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1024 RIC 297f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1072 RIC 668k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1237 RIC 330k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 166k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 177k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 154 RIC 481 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 198k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 300 RIC 252k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 716 RIC 509k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 511Bk (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 332 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 462 RIC 18 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 308 RIC 553f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 20 RIC 557f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 55 RIC 370f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 105 RIC 632f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 192f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 193 RIC 607f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 205f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 327 RIC 207f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 341 RIC 608f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 376 RIC 221f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 402 RIC 315f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 447 RIC 320f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 455 RIC 324f (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 336f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 483 RIC 336k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 483 RIC 353f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 522 RIC 609f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 600 RIC 492f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 613 RIC 242k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 631 RIC 267f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 855 C 925b RIC 610f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 581f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 934 RIC 277k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 951 RIC 280f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 582f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 976 RIC 585f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1009 RIC 660f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1020 RIC 298f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1079 RIC 305f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1119 RIC 527f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1135 RIC 309f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1190 RIC 623a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1250 RIC 321f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 669c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1246a RIC 626f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 28 RIC 629f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 10 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 149a RIC 18f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 308 RIC 644f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 396 RIC 600 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 839 RIC 654f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 920

301
129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) B31, O14, R314, T215, M3 B31, O14, R314, T222, M3 B31, O14, R334, T230, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R335, T095, M3 B31, O14, R336, T114, M2 Exe: * B31, O19, R046, T032, M5 B31, O20, R110, T131, M5 B31, O20, R180, T136, M5 B31, O20, R324, T175, M5 B31, O23, R058, T039, M4 B31, O23, R269, T184, M5 B31, O23, R323, T212, M4 B31, O23, R328, T077, M1 B31, O29, R119, T129, M3 B31, O29, R215, T166, M4 B31, O29, R254, T174, M4 * in right field B31, O29, R292, T196, M5 B31, O32, R335, T147, M5 B32, O09, R132, T022, M4 B35, O09, R001, T002, M5 D in left field B35, O09, R006, T003, M5 B35, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B35, O09, R013, T193, M6 * in left field B35, O09, R037, T141, M4 B35, O09, R087, T055, M5 in right field B35, O09, R092, T101, M2 Exe: B35, O09, R199, T158, M2 Exe: B35, O09, R217, T200, M2 Exe: B35, O09, R220, T088, M2 Exe: VIIC B35, O09, R266, T179, M2 Exe: * B35, O09, R290, T193, M2 B35, O09, R290, T194, M2 B35, O09, R300, T203, M2 B35, O09, R316, T212, M2 * in left field B35, O09, R334, T232, M2 Exe: B35, O09, R336, T114, M2 * in right field B35, O09, R341, T200, M2 Exe: SPQR B35, O09, R346, T243, M5 B35, O19, R044, T109, M5 B35, O19, R087, T154, M2 B35, O19, R087, T154, M5 B35, O19, R211, T127, M4 B35, O19, R222, T172, M2 B35, O19, R261, T060, M2 B35, O19, R335, T231, M5 B35, O19, R344, T209, M1 B35, O20, R112, T091, M1 = in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R209, T083, M1 = in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R221, T064, M1 B35, O20, R323, T082, M1 > in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R335, T065, M1 B36, O09, R269, T183, M2 B37, O09, R186, T037, M2 B38, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R007, T003, M2 Exe: . B38, O09, R011, T005, M2 Exe: PXV B38, O09, R011, T235, M2 Exe: B38, O09, R013, T193, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R118, T130, M2 * in right field B38, O09, R118, T130, M2 Exe: * B38, O09, R128, T135, M2 Exe: VIIC B38, O09, R214, T166, M6 B38, O09, R245, T140, M2 Exe: CVIPP B38, O09, R247, T161, M2 Exe: VIIC. B38, O09, R256, T154, M2 B38, O09, R290, T193, M2 Exe: PXV B38, O09, R334, T230, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R334, T233, M1 B38, O19, R069, T038, M2 B38, O20, R209, T081, M5 B38, O20, R221, T064, M1 B38, O20, R262, T081, M1 Exe: .. B38, O23, R292, T195, M6 258-259 258-259 RIC 45 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1048 RIC 49 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1062 RIC 667f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1235 RIC 58 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1309 RIC 672f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1321 RIC 132f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 131a RIC 143f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 363 RIC 148f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 571 RIC 158f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 889 RIC 380f (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 274f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 405f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1148 RIC 453 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 21f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 398 RIC 392f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 752 RIC 403 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 315 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 159c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 20 RIC 627c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 24 RIC 555c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 51 RIC 638c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 651c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 632 RIC 652c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 618f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 655c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 658c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 987 RIC 660c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1021e RIC 663c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1094 RIC 670c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 673c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1320 RIC 675c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1331 RIC 92 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1337 RIC 131c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 125 RIC 292c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 75 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 294c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 295c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 296c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 181c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1288 RIC 459c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1335 RIC 440c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 378 RIC 445c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 705 RIC 446c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 793 RIC 450c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1109 RIC 456 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1310 RIC 646f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 627a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 25 RIC 606a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 628f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 630a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 645a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 616a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 425 RIC 575c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 728 RIC 603a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 849 C 875 RIC 611a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 668a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1237 RIC 612a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 291a (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 446a (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 448a (Vi, Joint Reign), C 902 C 995

AE Sestertius
202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) B14, O20, R046, T031, M5 B14, O20, R068, T047, M5 B14, O20, R324, T221, M5 B14, O23, R214, T165, M5 B14, O31, R318, T212, M5 B14, O32, R040, T194, M5 B14, O32, R326, T220, M5 B18, O20, R335, T230, M5

Reference(s)
RIC 209 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 211 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 203 RIC 242 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 391 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 273 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 712 RIC 284 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1168 RIC 248 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1295

302
Gallienus Busts

Gllienus Types

303
Gallienus Types (continued)

304
Gallienus Types (continued)

305

Salonina
? d.268
Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Gallienus, murdered alongside her husband during the siege of Mediolanum. Salonina was said to be if not an outright Christian at least sympathetic to their fledgling sect.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) COR SALONINA AVG COR SALONINA PF AVG CORN SALONINA AVG CORNEL SALONINA AVG CORNELIA SALONINA AVG CORNELIA SALONINA AVGVSTA SALONINA AVG

Locating a coin of Salonina is cheap and easy. In fact, of all the empresses her coins are the most plentiful. By and large the available ones fall under the category of rather poorly preserved Antoniniani but coins made with just enough silver to retain a silvery look are found with regularity. These go anywhere from a few dollars each to over $100 for a very nice sample.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) ABVNDANTIA AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS PVBLICA AVG IN PACE AVGVSTA IN PACE CERERI AVG CERES SEGESTAE CONCOR AVG CONCORD AET CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG DEAE SEGETIAE DIANA LVCIFERA DIANAE CONS AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELICIT PVBL FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVX INDVLGENT AVG 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) IVNO AVG IVNO CONSERVAT IVNO REGINA IVNO VICTRIX IVNONI CONS AVG IVNONI REGINAE LAETITIA AVG LIBERAL AVG LVNA LVCIF MINERVA AVG MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PAX AVG PAX PVBLICA PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVST PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG PVDICITA AVG PVDICITIA PVDICITIAE AVGVSTAE RESTITVTOR ORBIS 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRIT PERPET SECVRIT PVBL VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VENEREM GENETRICEM VENERI GENETRICI VENERI GENETRIX VENVS AVG VENVS FELIX VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICT VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VESTA AETERNA VESTA FELIX VICTORIA AET VINO REGINA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Deer advancing left Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands. Fecunditas standing left, raising hand and holding baby; child to left. Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Gallienus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Juno seated left, holding flower and baby Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Peacock standing, facing, spread-tailed Pietas seated left, holding scepter; three children to left Pietas seated left, holding scepter; two children to left, one under chair Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia.

306
29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) Pudicitia seated left, holding scepter and pulling veil; Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake and Felicitas to right, leaning on column and with legs crossed Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Salonina and Gallienus standing, facing each other, shaking hands. Salonina draped bust right, facing Gallienus laureate, cuirassed bust left. Salonina seated left, holding branch and scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas seated left, holding scepter and touching head. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and wish legs crossed, holding scepter. Sol standing left, holding globe Temple with (4) columns, Segetia standing within, raising hands Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Venus seated left, holding scepter. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter; Cupid to left. Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear; shield to left. Venus standing left, leaning on column, holding helmet and palm. Venus standing left, leaning on column. Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter Vesta seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter Vesta standing left, holding Victory and scepter Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Lugdunum Mediolanum Roma Asia, uncertain locality

AR Quinarius
1) B1, O7, R27, T16, M2

Reference(s)
RIC 40 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 61

AE Medallion
2) B1, O5, R03, T19, M5 RIC 17 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 61

Billon Antoninianus
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) B2, O1, R29, T06 Exe: J B2, O3, R04, T34 Exe: MS B2, O3, R08, T05 B2, O3, R10, T32 B2, O3, R11, T32 B2, O3, R39, T25 B2, O7, R02, T02 Exe: /VIIC. B2, O7, R06, T03 Exe: B2, O7, R06, T03 B2, O7, R10, T04 Exe: II B2, O7, R11, T04 B2, O7, R12, T39 B2, O7, R15, T08 B2, O7, R25, T15 Exe: MS B2, O7, R26, T17 N in right field B2, O7, R27, T16 B2, O7, R27, T17 * in left field B2, O7, R27, T17 B2, O7, R28, T16 B2, O7, R39, T25 D in left field, II in right B2, O7, R39, T25 Exe: P B2, O7, R39, T26 B2, O7, R40, T23 B2, O7, R46, T30 Exe: VI B2, O7, R46, T31 B2, O7, R49, T13 B2, O7, R50, T35 B2, O7, R50, T35 Exe: VIIC. B2, O7, R59, T44 Exe: PXV B2, O7, R61, T42 B2, O7, R63, T45 B2, O7, R64, T48 Exe: Q B2, O7, R64, T49 B2, O7, R64, T50 B2, O7, R68, T17 * in left field RIC 16 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 70 RIC 57 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 18 RIC 71 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 24 RIC 63 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 31 RIC 21 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 78 RIC 90 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 22 RIC 72 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 28 RIC 5 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)) RIC 5a (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 39 RIC 62 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 55 RIC 11 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 56 RIC 13 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 60 RIC 12 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 67 RIC 92 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 67 RIC 31 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 68 RIC 78 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 22 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 79 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 35 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 84 RIC 25 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 94 RIC 24 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 67 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)) RIC 88 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 86 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 113 RIC 30 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 31 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 129 RIC 32 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 143 RIC 68 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 139 Ed Flinn collection

AE Sestertius
38) 39) B2, O5, R27, T16 B2, O5, R40, T24 Exe: SC RIC 46 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 62

307
Salonina Busts

Salonina Types

308
Saloninus was the son of Gallienus and became Caesar upon the death of his brother Valerian II. He led his armies on a mission to quell barbarian revolts in Germany but Postumus, his leading general, revolted and had himself declared Augustus. Saloninus, still only Caesar, fled with a group of Augustus 260 loyalist troops but were soon surrounded by Postumus. The soldiers dug into their quarters and raised Saloninus to the rank of emperor but the siege wore them down and Postumus finally captured and executed him.

Saloninus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped bust right

Due to a brief reign as Caesar, and an even briefer one as Augustus, a coin of Saloninus is rather difficult to come by. Low grade Antoniniani are pretty cheap when available but anything else is both expensive and rare. Especially rare are the few remaining coins of Saloninus as emperor.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) IMP SALON VALERIANVS AVG LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES P COR SAL VALERIANO CES P COR SAL VALERIANVS CAES SAL VALERIANVS C SAL VALERIANVS CS SAL VALERIANVS NOB CAES SALON VALERIANVS CAES SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ADVENTVS AVGG CONSACRATIO DEO MARTI DIINVTRITORES FELICITAS AVGG 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS RELIGIO AVGG SPES PVBLICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Diana standing left, holding bow Eagle Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Saloninus riding horse right, holding spear Saloninus standing left, holding globe and scepter; seated captive to left Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; standard to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with shields at base to left. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with shields at base to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with two captives at base to left Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; two standards to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and trophy Saloninus standing left, holding standard and scepter Saloninus standing left, stepping on captive, holding standard and spear. Saloninus standing right on left, holding spear, receiving flower from Spes to right, raising skirt Saloninus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Sol standing left, holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (4) columns, Mars within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Antioch Colonia Agrippinensis Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) B2, O8, R15, T16

Reference(s)

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) B5, O1, R15, T19 B5, O2, R11, T05 RIC Vi 14, C 94 RIC Vi 26, C 49

309
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B5, O2, R11, T07 P in right field B5, O4, R04, T17 B5, O6, R11, T07 B5, O8, R09, T05 B5, O9, R15, T16 = above B5, O9, R15, T16 RIC Vi 28, C 63 RIC Vi 35, C 21 RIC Vi 10, C 61 RIC Vi 9, C 41 RIC Vi 36, C 95 RIC Vi 36, C 95

AE As
10) B2, O4, R13, T07

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 34, C 90

Saloninus Busts

Saloninus Types

310

Regalianus
Augustus c.260

Regalianus was a usurper under the reign of Gallienus shortly after the capture of Valerian. His soldiers revolted against the tyrannical nature of Gallienus and his oppression in the region. Regalianus lasted for a short time before he fell to either an undocumented battle with Gallienus or at the hands of his own supporters. All of his coins are exceedingly rare and often overstruck over older Denarii of previous emperors. Regalianus. For collectors of Roman coins the name is enough to make their mouth water. They are probably the most wretched looking things in the entire corpus of Roman imperial coinage and quite probably an embarrassment to the emperor whose access to skilled metalsmiths and celators was evidently nonexistent. But with ancient coins at least, price and desirability are inversely proportional to historical popularity and since Regalianus scores as one of the most obscure characters his few remaining coins receive top bids on the rare occasions theyre offered for sale.

Bust:
1) Radiate head right

Obverses:
1) IMP C P C REGALINAVS AVG (and many other variants)

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) AEQVITAS AVG CONCORDIA AVGG FIDES MILITVM IOVI CONSERVATORI(?) LIBERALITAS AVGG(?) ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG PROVIDENTIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Regalianus and Dryantilla standing, facing each other; altar in between Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Liberalitas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding whip Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia.

Mint:
1) Carnuntum

AR Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R7, T6 B1, O1, R8, T7

Reference(s)
M&M Auction 92 Lot #233 RIC Vi 7, C 4 RIC Vi 8, C 5

Regalianus Bust

Regalianus Types

311

Dryantilla
? - 261?
intended types. Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Regalianus. Together with the coins of her obscure husband, these are among the greatest rarities in the Roman Imperial series. Typically these coins are so crude in manufacture that deciphering the legends involves guesswork. The catalog below shows what are believed to be the major

Obverse:
1) SVLP DRYANTILLA AVG

Competing in the so ugly theyre cute coin sweepstakes, Dryantilla puts in a strong bid. History does not mention whether she herself was homely or not but her coins sure dont make a strong case for beauty. But this is all academic, of course, considering there are probably less than a dozen coins of her left. And most of these are in museums. Pinning down a market value for such epic rarities is just a tad pointless. It really depends on how much the seller wants and how eager the buyer is. And its a sellers market. The coin below, struck over a Lucius Verus Denarius, sold at auction in 2000 for over $12,000. Reference(s)
RIC 2, C 1

Reverses:
1) 2) AEQVITAS AVGG IVNO REDINE

Types:
1) 2) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter.

Mint:
1) Carnuntum

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R2, T2

312
Postumus remained Gallienus's nemesis for most of his reign and, with the aid of the traitor Aureolus, his eventual killer. Postumus came on the scene following a dispute with Saloninus over the distribution of captured war loot. Because Postumus was in command of the military, Saloninus had little Augustus 260-269 to defend him except for his title and official recognition. Postumus had himself named emperor and captured and executed Saloninus sealing his fate with the rest of the empire. However, the rest of the empire could do little at the moment. Gallienus was embroiled with battling several usurpers out east and could not avenge his brother's death. Neither could Rome do anything about it. And so for the time being Postumus held the western half of the empire as de facto ruler.

Postumus

When Gallienus finally returned from the east he would find Postumus entrenched in Gaul and having snatched Britain and Spain away from the empire as well. Because his power had grown during Gallienus's absence, he had had time to consolidate his leadership and posed a bigger threat. However, for one reason or another, Postumus never made preparations to attack Rome or mount an offensive against Gallienus and contented himself with this secessionist state. But he knew Gallienus was mulling over his options all the meanwhile and had on his agenda the recapturing of the lost lands. Gallienus mounted several expeditions to depose Postumus but all failed. Still, Gallienus would most likely have ultimately been the ultimate victor had Postumus not gained the aid of one of Gallienus's trusted men, Aureolus, who engineered a successful conspiracy ending with the murder of Gallienus. Postumus would meet a deadly fate himself the following year following a revolt from within instigated by one of his own earlier leading generals, Laelianus, in a move very reminiscent of his own rise to power. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) Bare head facing Bare headed cuirassed bust facing Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, draped bust left Helmeted, draped bust right Laureate bust left of Postumus over Hercules bare headed bust left Laureate bust left of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust left Laureate bust right of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate head right left of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust left Laureate head right right of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, raising hand Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left, raising hand Laureate, draped bust left, raising hand and holding shield Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, holding club and lion skin Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding club Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, helmeted bust right Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right

Postumus kicks off the Gallic empire with well-made, high-grade coins and by the time of his fall both have suffered considerably in tandem with the coinage elsewhere in the Roman world. While the Aureus and its multiples will be priced into the stratosphere, the ordinary Antoninianus is easily available and affordable. Expect, however, to find these to be fairly lousy in quality overall. Although there are better grade coins, and even mint state gem ones, these are more often available only through established numismatic firms and at substantially higher cost. Early in his reign Postumus even reintroduces big copper with the double Sestertius. These coins look similar to the old fashioned Dupondius with its radiate crown but at a weight more comparable to that of the once mighty Sestertius. Coins attributed to the Mediolanum (now Milan) mint were issued by an associate usurper named Aureolus. Postumuss portraits, as well as those of his Gallic successors, give him an appearance reminiscent of Santa Clause.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) IMP C LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C M CAS LAT POSTVMVS AV IMP C M CAS LAT POSTVMVS AVG IMP C M CAS LAT POTVMVS IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS AV IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P I AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG IMP C POSTVMVS IMP C POSTVMVS AVG IMP C POSTVMVS P AV IMP C POSTVMVS P I AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG COS III IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS FEL AVG

313
19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) IMP POSTVMVS AVG IMP POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP POSTVMVS PIVS AVG IMP POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG M CAS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG POSTVMVS AVG POSTVMVS PF AVG POSTVMVS PF AVG COS POSTVMVS PF AVGVSTVS T P POSTVMVS PIVS AVG POSTVMVS PIVS FEL AVG POSTVMVS PIVS FELIX AVG VIRTVS POSTVMI AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG CASTOR CCAA COS IIII CLARITAS AVG COL CL AGRIP COS IIII COMITI AVG CONCORD EQVIT CONCORD EQVITVM CONCORDIA EQVIT CONSERVATORES AVG CONSERVATORI AVG COS III COS IIII COS V DIANAE LVCIFERAE DIANAE LVCIFERE DIANAE REDVCI EXERCITVS AVG FELICITA FELICITAS FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMP FIDES AEQVIT FIDES EQVIT FIDES EQVITVM FIDES EXERC FIDES EXERCITAS FIDES EXERCITI FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RAEDVX FORTVNA REDVX GERMANICVS MAX V HER DEVS ONIENS HERC DEVS ONIENSI HERC PACIFER HERC PACIFERO HERCVLI ARCADIO HERCVLI ARGIVO HERCVLI AVG HERCVLI CRETENCI HERCVLI CRETENSI HERCVLI DEVS ONIENSI HERCVLI ERVMANTINO HERCVLI GADITANO HERCVLI IMMORTALI HERCVLI INVICTO HERCVLI LIBVCO HERCVLI MAGVSANO HERCVLI NEMAEO 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) HERCVLI PISAEO HERCVLI ROM HERCVLI ROMA HERCVLI ROMANO HERCVLI ROMANO AVG HERCVLI THRACIO HILARITAS AVG I O M SPONSORI SAECVLI IM C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP X COS V INDVLG PIA POSTVMI AVG INVICTO AVG IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI PROPVGNAT IOVI PROPVGNATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETI LAETITIA LAETITIA AVG LIBERALITAS LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VICTOR MERCVRIO FELICI MERCVRIO PACIFERO MINER FAVTR MINERVA AVG MONET AVG MONETA AVG MONITA AVG NEPT COMITI NEPTVNO REDVCI ORIENS ORIENS AVG PACATOR ORBIS PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX EQVITVM PIETAS AVG PM G M T P COS III PP PM T P COS PM T P COS IIII PP PM TR P COS I PP PM TR P COS II PP PM TR P COS III PP PM TR P COS IIII PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P COS V PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR P IMP V COS III PP PM TR P VI COS III PP PM TR P VII COS III PP 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) PM TR P VIIII COS IIII PP PM TR P X COS V PP POSTVMVS AVG POSTVMVS AVGVSTVS POSTVMVS PF AVG PROFECTIO AVGVSTI PROVID DEOR COS III PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA DEOR QVINQVENNALES AVG QVINQVENNALES POSTVMI AVG REST GALLIARVM REST ORBIS RESTIT GALLIAR RESTIT GALLIARVM RESTIT ORBIS RESTITOR GALLIAE RESTITOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLI FELICITAS SAECVLI FRVGIFERO SAECVLO FRVGIFERO SAECVLVM AVGG SALVS AVG SALVS EXERCITI SALVS POSTVMI AVG SALVS PROVINCIARVM SARAPIDI COMITI AVG SERAPI COMITI AVG SERAPI COMITI AVG SPEI PERPETVAE TR P X COS V PP TRIB POT X COS V VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VICT COMES AVG VICT GERM PM TR P V COS III PP VICT GERM TR P V COS III PP VICT GERMANICA VICTORI AVG VICTORIA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIAE AVG VIRTVS AEQVIT VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS EQVIT VIRTVS EXERCITVS VIRTVS POSTVMI AVG VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOT PVBL

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it; globe to lower right. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Busts (3), radiate; center one facing, other two facing towards center. Caduceus, winged. Castor riding horse right. Castor standing left, holding spear; horse to side. Club; bow to left and quiver to right Diana advancing right, holding bow; deer to right. Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands.

314
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands; dog to right. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides seated left, holding patera and standard. Fides standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding patera and rudder on globe. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Hercules advancing left, holding pickax; jug by feet. Hercules advancing right, dragging Cerberus and holding club. Hercules advancing right, holding the boar of Erymanthos; jar by feet. Hercules laureate bust left. Hercules laureate head right Hercules standing in garden of Hesperides: apple tree and three nymphs. Hercules standing left, clubbing hydra of Lerna. Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing left, wrestling lion of Nemea. Hercules standing left, wrestling Queen Hippolyte. Hercules standing right, fighting the three-bodied Geryon. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding apples. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding wand. Hercules standing right, wrestling bull of Crete. Hercules standing right, wrestling deer of Ceryneia. Hercules standing right, wrestling the horses of Diomedes. Hercules standing, facing, holding bow and lion skin, driving the birds of Stymphalos. Hercules torso left, holding club. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child on either side. Jupiter advancing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and eagle. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and raising hand. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and raising hand; seven stars in field, eagle between feet. Jupiter advancing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, aiming thunderbolt and holding shield. Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt Laureate head right of Victorinus over Hercules laureate bust right. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Lion advancing right. Lion, radiate, advancing left, thunderbolt in mouth Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mercury standing, facing, holding purse and caduceus. Minerva advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear. Minerva standing left, raising hand and holding shield. Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident; galley prow to left. Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding dolphin and trident Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing, facing, holding baby in either arm; child to either side. Pietas standing, facing, raising hands. Postumus advancing left, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Postumus advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Postumus bare head right. Postumus bare headed, cuirassed bust facing. Postumus cuirassed torso left, holding spear over shoulder. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust right over Victory, holding wreath and palm. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust right. Postumus laureate bust right facing Hercules bust left. Postumus laureate bust right over Jupiter, holding thunderbolt. Postumus laureate bust right over Virtus helmeted bust right Postumus radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter over shoulder. Postumus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Postumus riding horse left, soldiers (3) to left Postumus riding horse left, soldiers (4) to left Postumus riding horse right, holding spear, following Victory, holding wreath and trophy. Postumus riding oncoming quadriga, holding branch, accompanied by Victory, holding palm; soldier on either side of horses. Postumus riding quadriga left, holding branch. Postumus seated left on platform, attended by lictor and Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Postumus seated left, holding globe and scepter. Postumus seated left, raising hand; kneeling citizen to left Postumus standing left on right, holding spear and holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left, holding branch. Postumus standing left on right, holding spear and holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing left on right, sacrificing over altar and holding spear, facing Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Postumus standing left on right, stepping on captive, holding spear and holding hands of kneeling Gallia to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing left, holding globe and spear, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Postumus standing left, holding globe and spear. Postumus standing left, holding spear and crowning trophy; captive seated either side of trophy. Postumus standing left, holding spear and wreath, being crowned by Hercules, holding club with lion skin. Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar among witnesses. Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar; Mercury to left, holding purse and caduceus.

315
101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) Postumus standing right on left, holding scepter and holding hand of kneeling Orbis to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing right on left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Roma seated to right; shield to side. Postumus standing right, holding spear and crowning trophy; captive seated either side of trophy. Postumus standing right, holding spear and globe. Postumus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, raising hand towards flaming globe. Rhine lying left, resting hand on boat prow and cradling anchor. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding and feeding snake. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake, facing Aesculapius to right, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; galley prow to left. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol radiate, draped bust right. Sol, radiate bust right over Luna with crescent behind neck. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (4) Temple with (4) columns, Hercules standing within, resting hand on club and holding lion skin. Triumphal arch, trophy with captive on either side above. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield on palm; seated captive on either side. Victory advancing left, holding branch and spear. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and spear. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory bust right, holding wreath and palm over Felicitas, holding branch. Victory draped torso right, holding wreath and palm over Felicitas bust right, holding branch. Victory draped torso right, writing VOT / XX on shield. Victory riding biga left, holding whip. Victory riding biga right, holding whip. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and trophy, captive on either side. Victory standing right on shield, holding wreath and palm; captive on either side. Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VOT X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VO / XX Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading V X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading Q Virtus advancing right, holding spear and shield. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Weapons in a pile.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Lugdunum Mediolanum

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B03, O24, R151, T090 B09, O30, R146, T086 B11, O15, R154, T137 Exe: AVG B11, O28, R019, T012 B11, O28, R066, T089 B11, O28, R165, T085

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 15 RIC Vii 42 RIC Vii 276, C 145

AR Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) B21, O24, R072, T049 B21, O24, R111, T009 B24, O15, R016, T140 B24, O15, R017, T140 B24, O15, R018, T011 B24, O15, R024, T013 B24, O15, R033, T121 B24, O15, R040, T121 B24, O15, R042, T028 B24, O15, R049, T033 B24, O15, R072, T049 B24, O15, R072, T049 B24, O15, R073, T048 B24, O15, R075, T020 Exe: AVG B24, O15, R081, T058 B24, O15, R086, T062 B24, O15, R086, T062 RIC Vii 310, C 160 RIC Vii 292, C 282 RIC Vii 287c, C 31 RIC Vii 288c, C 32a RIC Vii 299c, C 33 RIC Vii 58c RIC Vii 66c RIC Vii 67c RIC Vii 64c, C 91a RIC Vii 278c, C 158 RIC Vii 309c, C 159a RIC Vii 311c, C 161a RIC Vii 73c, C 167 RIC Vii 313c, C 192 RIC Vii 315c, C 199a RIC Vii 75c, C 199

316
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) B24, O15, R089, T063 B24, O15, R091, T117 B24, O15, R092, T118 B24, O15, R093, T065 B24, O15, R093, T066 B24, O15, R093, T066 B24, O15, R095, T066 Exe: T B24, O15, R096, T067 B24, O15, R102, T091 B24, O15, R108, T055 B24, O15, R111, T009 B24, O15, R112, T143 B24, O15, R118, T106 B24, O15, R118, T106 B24, O15, R133, T098 B24, O15, R135, T006 B24, O15, R137, T003 B24, O15, R138, T003 B24, O15, R139, T113 B24, O15, R140, T109 B24, O15, R142, T115 B24, O15, R148, T125 B24, O15, R153, T128 B24, O15, R159, T148 B24, O15, R163, T034 B24, O19, R010, T017 Exe: S B24, O19, R028, T014 RIC Vii 76c, C 205 RIC Vii 316c, C 213c RIC Vii 317c, C 214 RIC Vii 219c, C 226 RIC Vii 219c, C 225 RIC Vii 318c, C 215 RIC Vii 381, C 228a RIC Vii 320, C 230a RIC Vii 54c, C 243 RIC Vii 57c, C 73a RIC Vii 291c, C 281 RIC Vii 295c, C 285 RIC Vii 221c, C 295a RIC Vii 323c, C 295a RIC Vii 83c, C 331 RIC Vii 326c, C 336 RIC Vii 327c, C 348 RIC Vii 328c, C 350 RIC Vii 87c RIC Vii 329c, C 360a RIC Vii 330c, C 365 RIC Vii 234c, C 386 RIC Vii 93c, C 419a RIC Vii 333, C 19b RIC Vii 373c, C 19a

AR Denarius
51) B30, O12, R005, T007

Reference(s)

AE Double Sestertius
52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) B24, O09, R034, T015 B24, O09, R040, T122 B24, O09, R042, T028 B24, O09, R075, T020 Exe: AVG B24, O09, R101, T091 B24, O09, R102, T095 S G across fields B24, O09, R155, T131 B24, O09, R159, T148 S in right field RIC Vii 123c RIC Vii 134, C 99 RIC Vii 135, C 106 RIC Vii 143c, C 179 RIC Vii 106c RIC Vii 169c, C 379 RIC Vii 179c, C 422

AE Sestertius
60) 61) B17, O17, R076, T020 Exe: SC B17, O17, R155, T128 RIC Vii 172, C 387

AE Dupondius
62) 63) B24, O09, R038, T124 B24, O15, R101, T095 RIC Vii 198, C 86 RIC Vii 188, C 252

AE As
64) B17, O15, R155, T126 RIC Vii 167

317
Postumus Busts

Postumus Types

318
Postumus Types (Continued)

319

Laelianus
Augustus 269
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Laelianus was a usurper against Postumus, himself another usurper, who was unable to rout the incumbent when their forces met in battle. Laelianus thus had a tenure lasting from near the beginning of the year 269 through no later than that summer. Because of this short time there was little time for him to make much of a mark on history. His coins, however, are much sought after for their rarity. Take any ten or twenty thousand Roman coins at random and it wouldnt be surprising if not a single one of them would be a Laelianus. He is even rare within the subset of Roman coins that includes only the rebel emperors based in Gaul. Hoards that contain thousands of coins from this period and region may list only a handful of Laeliani. With only the scantiest availability and many collectors interested in these emperors its a foregone conclusion that when they do become available for sale they are anything but cheap. Antoniniani have been spotted in the $1,000-$2,000 range but availability is severely limited.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) IMP C LAELIANVS PF AVG IMP C VLP COR LAELIANVS IMP C VLP CORN LAELIANVS IMP LAELIANVS PF AVG LAELIANVS AV

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) PAX AVG TEMPORVM FELICITAS VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS MILITVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Hispania lying left, holding branch and resting arm on rabbit Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch Virtus holding standard and spear

Mint:
1) Colonia Agrippinensis

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R2, T1

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 2

AE Antoninianus
2) B2, O1, R3, T4 RIC Vii 9, C 4

Laelianus Busts

Laelianus Types

320
There's next to nothing to be said for Marius because his reign was so short. The historian Eutropius writing about a hundred years after his death records his reign as lasting all of three days. Aurelius Victor, another historian contemporary to Eutropius, has him murdered the following day. This is of Augustus 269 course hyperbole as evidenced in the fact that relatively many coins of him survive. The man was a blacksmith and how he made the jump from that lowly career to becoming an emperor, however short his tenure, should be worth its own "Movie of the Week" award. He succeeded Laelianus, another short-lived emperor, when the undisciplined troops under his command were told to hold their positions following an initially successful attack on barbarian-controlled Mainz. The soldiers wanted to recover war loot and wouldn't be held back by Laelianus so they murdered him and named the head rabble-rouser, Marius, as their next emperor.

Marius

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG IMP C M AVR MARIVS PF AVG IMP C MARIVS PF AVG

Difficult to find, expensive to purchase and usually unappealing to behold, the coins of Marius are eagerly sought after the world over. Being issued under what probably were emergency conditions its understandable that quality control during their striking was not the highest of priorities. Those Antoniniani that are left in the marketplace usually cost around $200 and up for a lousy wreck. A well-preserved coin can easily cost three times that much. More importantly, the problem transcends one of mere affordability. Locating a Marius is a hit-and-miss kind of thing with the various dealers in ancient coins. It might well be that if youre after one your best bet is to have a dealer seek one on your behalf and then get back to you when it becomes available. Even glitzy auction catalogues list them on rather rare occasions.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) AEQVITAS AVG CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONCORDIAE MILITVM FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM SAEC FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMPORVM FELICITAS VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding two standards Hands, in handshake Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding palm and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.

Mint:
1) Colonia Agrippinensis

AU Aureus
1) B1, O2, R04, T4

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 3

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B3, O1, R11, T6 B4, O1, R11, T5 B4, O1, R11, T6 B4, O1, R12, T7 B4, O3, R04, T4 B4, O3, R08, T2 RIC Vii 17, C 19 RIC Vii 18 RIC Vii 17, C 19 RIC Vii 19, C 22 RIC Vii 7, C 4 RIC Vii 10, C 13

321
Marius Busts

Marius Types

Victorinus was a high-ranking commander during the secessionist regime of Postumus. After the brief accessions of Laelianus and Marius he himself was elevated as Augustus by the troops. While Victorinus was initially successful in bringing order after the chaotically implosive reigns of his two predecessors, the separate Augustus 269-271 empire's days were quickly waning. Spain withdrew its recognition of Victorinus and transferred its loyalty back to the forces of Claudius II and Rome. Then Victorinus himself died at the hands of one among his military staff, a certain Attianus, reputedly because he had seduced his wife. The fledgling empire would linger on for three more years under Tetricus and his son before being reabsorbed back into the greater empire.

Victorinus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Laureate bust left of Victorinus over indeterminate bust left, draped Laureate bust left of Victorinus over Sol, radiate Laureate bust right Laureate bust right of Victorinus over Mars, laureate Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed torso right, holding spear and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right of Victorinus over Laureate, draped bust of Mars Radiate bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped bust right

Overall the coins of the Gallic emperors share several loose traits. First of all there is the style that is at once distinctive from the rest of the Roman empire but very similar from ruler to ruler. Then there is the fact that the mints were decentralized and apparently largely unregulated so that the quality of craftsmanship both on the dies used as well as the flans on which they were struck vary from the supremely artistic to the unskilled. In fact, it isnt often easy to distinguish between official issues and the so-called barbarous imitative coins made by and for Romanized Celts. For Victorinus proper we may say that his coins are slightly scarcer than those of Tetricus who succeeds him and quite a bit less than those of Postumus, the last stable emperor. However, the collector in search of his coins will find that this relative scarcity is not enough to generally make a difference in price. A bigger test of patience will be locating coins that are well enough preserved to be collectable in the first place. For a filler-grade coin one need only look to the dregs available on Ebay with his name on it. Some of these coins go unsold at opening bids of $1.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) DIVO VICTORINO PIO IMP C M PIAVVONIVS VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PI VICTORINVS AVG IMP C PI VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIA VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIAV VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIAVVONI VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C VICTORINVS AVG IMP C VICTORINVS P AVG IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP CAES VICTORINVS PF AVG

322
12) 13) 14) 15) IMP PI VICTORINVS AVG IMP PIAV VICTORINVS AVG IMP PIAVVONIVS VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP VICTORINVS AVG 16) 17) 18) 19) IMP VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP VICTORINVS PIVS AVG VICTORINVS AVG VICTORINVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) ADIVTRIX AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG COMES AVG CONCORD EQVIT CONSACRATIO CONSECRATIO COS II DEFENSOR ORBIS FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM FORT REDVX FORTVNA AVG INDVLGENTIA AVG INVICTVS INVICTVS AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LEG II AVGVSTA P F LEG II TRAIANA P F LEG III GALLICA LEG IIII FLAVIA P F LEG PRIMA MINERVINA P F LEG V MACIDONICA P F LEG X FRETENSIS P F LEG X GEMINA P F LEG XIII GEMINA LEG XIII GEMINA P F 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) LEG XX VAL VICTRIX P F LEG XXII P F LEG XXII PRIMIGENIE LEG XXX VLP VICT P F LEG XXX VLPIA PIA F MARS VICTOR MONIT AVG ORIENS AVG PAX AVG PIETAS AVG PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS III PP PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLI FELICITAC SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SECVRITAS AVGG SPES PVBLICA TEMPOR FELICIT VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA V C S AVG VIRTVS AVG VOTA AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Abundantia standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding baby on lap; rudder to left. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Boar standing left Bull advancing right. Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder. Eagle perched on column with wreath in beak. Eagle perched on globe, with wreath in beak; capricornus to left. Eagle perched on globe, with wreath in beak; standard to either side. Eagle perched on globe. Felicitas standing left, holding branch and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Hercules advancing left, holding club. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin; capricornus to left. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt; capricornus to left. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt; captive by feet. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Lion advancing left Lions (2) facing each other, Minerva helmeted bust right above and in between. Luna bust right, holding bow and pulling arrow from quiver Luna standing left, resting hand on deer and holding scepter. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars helmeted bust right Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma helmeted, draped bust right over Luna, holding bow Roma helmeted, draped bust right. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol diademed, bust right facing Luna diademed bust left, holding bow. Sol radiate bust right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Ubertas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victorinus riding horse left over enemy. Victorinus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Victorinus standing left, holding globe and spear. Victorinus standing left, sacrificing over altar. Victorinus to left, holding hand of kneeling Indulgentia to right, holding cornucopia.

323
48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) Victorinus to left, receiving globe from Roma seated to left; soldier in background. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory sacrificing over altar and holding trophy. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath; ram to right. Victory torso right, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Gaul, uncertain localities Treveri

AU Aureus
1) B04, O11, R04, T54

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 94, C 16

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B16, O10, R39, T29 B17, O10, R39, T29 B17, O10, R44, T32 B17, O10, R48, T36 B17, O10, R48, T36 B18, O06, R04, T50 B18, O06, R11, T12 B18, O06, R38, T28 B18, O10, R15, T38 * in left field B18, O10, R38, T28 V in left field, * in right field B18, O10, R48, T35 B18, O10, R50, T41 B18, O10, R55, T58 RIC Vii 57, C 90 RIC Vii 61 RIC Vii 122, C 112 RIC Vii 67 RIC Vii 107 RIC Vii 109, C 36 RIC Vii 117, C 83 RIC Vii 114, C 49 RIC Vii 118, C 79 RIC Vii 71 RIC Vii 73, C 120 RIC Vii 78, C 131

Victorinus Busts

Victorinus Types

324
Only very recently has the identity of this extremely obscure emperor been confirmed. In the year 1900 a coin bearing the legend IMP C DOMITIANVS PF AVG was discovered in a rural area of France and given the unusual nature of the find quickly written off as a forgery. In February of 2004 the British Museum Augustus 271 announced that their own team had restored a coin among 5,000 others that had solidified together and been found recently as a single lump by a metal detectorist. The coin again bore the same legend and this time there was no denying that the emperor did in fact exist and that the earlier coin was genuine.

Domitian II

Straddling the short reign of Victorinus and that of Tetricus it now appears that in the wake of Victorinus's murder a power struggle emerged and Domitian, a general, was hailed emperor by his subordinates. Politically, however, Victoria (the mother of Victorinus) had much more influence and somehow managed to suppress Domitian's bid and place her son on the throne instead. In all, Domitian probably enjoyed his precious Augustus title for only a few days. Bust:
1) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP C DOMITIANVS PF AVG

With there being all of two coins known for this emperor, both of them in museums, the acquisition of one of these for a collector is about as hopeless a pursuit as pining away for an undiscovered Van Gogh. Given that only one coin out of that mass of 5,000 was of this Domitian odds are that in the year 271 these coins were instant rarities. Therefored only other as-yet undiscovered large hoards provide any realistic hope of future discoveries.

Reverse:
1) CONCORDIA MILITVM

Type:
1) Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.

Mint:
1) Gaul (Colonia Agrippinensis?)

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)

325
Tetricus was governor of Acquitaine in Gaul when Victorinus, the emperor of this secessionist region, was murdered. Victorinus' mother, who evidently had a certain degree of influence in the army, then appointed the Governor to emperor. The reign of Tetricus was potmarked by a string of battles against loyalist Augustus 271-274 Romans, other secessionist states, would-be crown usurpers and barbarians. It all finally ended when Tetricus arranged for surrender to the forces of Aurelian in exchange for his life. The plot was carried off and Aurelian subsequently pardoned him as well as appointed him to office either as governor of Lucania or as corrector of Italy. Contemporary historians relate how the two former adversaries retained a strong friendship.

Tetricus I

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Laureate bust right of Tetricus I, bareheaded bust left of Tetricus II Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding scepter over shoulder and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

As a whole, the coins of Tetricus I (and his son too) are easily available and cheap. The problem is that finding coins of either of these guys in desirable condition can be a challenge. By the closing years of the Gallic empire the coins were produced with wild carelessness and of very low grade metal. The dies, particularly obverse dies, were typically used until they were worn smooth or broke apart under ceaseless hammering. This left mint state coins nearly unrecognizable even back then. Add in over a dozen centuries of weathering and its understandable that nice coins are hard to come by. To complicate matters, many of the coins for this reign were minted in territories nominally under Tetricuss control but more or less autonomous. The people who lived in these areas struck their own coins imitating the official Tetricus issues as best they could. These barbarous coins, as theyre now termed, range in style and workmanship from the good to the abominable and, unfortunately, often blend elements of the official coinage so close that telling the two apart is an academic exercise of little consequence.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) IMP C C P ESV TETRICVS AVG IMP C C P ESVVIVS TETRICVS AVG IMP C P ESV TETRICVS AVG IMP C P ESVVIVS TETRICVS AVG IMP C TETRICVS IMP C TETRICVS AVG IMP C TETRICVS P AVG IMP C TETRICVS PF AV IMP C TETRICVS PF AVG IMP C TETRICVS PIVS AVG IMP TETRICI AVGG IMP TETRICVS IMP TETRICVS AVG IMP TETRICVS P AVG IMP TETRICVS PF AVG IMP TETRICVS PIVS AVG IMPP TETRICI AVGG No Legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) ABVNDANTIA ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG V AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVGG CARITAS AVGG COMES AVG COMIT AVG CONCORD CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONSACRATIO CONSECR CONSECRA CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG COS III FECVNDITAS FELICIT AVG FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA REDVX HILARITAS HILARITAS AVG HILARITAS AVGG IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG INVICTVS

34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59)

IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N LAETITIA AVGG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVGG MARS VICTOR MONETA AVG NEPTVNO CONS AVG NOBILITAS AVGG ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG P I TETRICVS C PA PVBLIC PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTO PM TR P COS III PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P I COS PP PM TR P II COS PP

326
60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS PP PRINC IVVENT PRO AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAEC FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SPES AVG SPES AVGG SPES PVBLICA 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) TVTELA VBERITAS AVGG VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG I VICTORIA AVG IIII VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA GERM VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOTA PVBLICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Abundantia standing left, pouring cornucopia Abundantia standing right, pouring cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopiae Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe and holding robe Altar Altar, Concordia standing by holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Eagle Felicitas sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left with crossed legs, leaning on column and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Felicitas standing, facing, holding caduceus and cornucopia Feunditas standing left, holding two babies and two babies by feet Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Hercules standing right, leaning on club; lion skin lying on rock. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia, child on either side. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia, two children on either side. Hilaritas standing left, holding wreath and leaning on scepter. Hippocamp advancing right. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and spear Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, Tetricus to lower left. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding patera and rudder, child on right. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Laetitia standing left, pouring cornucopia into vase Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding branch and spear Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopiae Nobilitas standing right, hold spear and globe. Galley prow by feet. Pax standing left, holding anchor and feeding serpent on altar Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding broken bow and cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding palm and cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding patera and scepter, facing snake. Pax standing left, holding scale and two cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding wreath and rudder Pietas standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding box Providentia standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopiae, globe by feet. Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopiae. Roma seated left by shield, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: aspergillum, simpulum, cruet, lituus (variously arranged) Sacrificial implements: cruet Sacrificial implements: cruet with a lituus on either side Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Salus standing left, holding wreath and anchor; altar by feet. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding globe. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Spes standing left, holding flower and palm Spes standing left, holding patera and scepter Tetricus I and Tetricus II, facing each other, jointly holding Victory on globe Tetricus I handing over globe to Tetricus II, both holding scepter, altar in between. Tetricus I riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter Tetricus I sacrificing over altar, standing next to Tetricus II, holding globe and being crowned by Victory. Tetricus I seated left, holding branch and scepter Tetricus I seated left, holding globe and scepter Tetricus I standing left, holding globe and parazonium; seated captive to left. Tetricus I standing left, holding globe and scepter

327
71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) Tetricus I standing left, holding wand and scepter Tetricus I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Tetricus I standing right, holding spear and globe Tetricus I standing right, stepping on globe, holding spear and parazonium. Tutela standing left, holding patera and spear Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopiae Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy Victory advancing right, trampling enemy, holding wreath and trophy Victory crowning globe held by Tetricus, captive by feet Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, in front of altar, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, holding trophy Virtus seated left, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Gaul Treveri

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) B4, O16, R83, T69 B5, O13, R83, T69 B6, O09, R60, T74 B6, O09, R83, T84

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 41, C 205 RIC Vii 7, C 130 RIC Vii 21, C 202

AE Antoninianus
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) B7, O09, R29, T20 B7, O09, R78, T77 B7, O13, R24, T16 B7, O15, R29, T20 B7, O15, R39, T29 B7, O15, R49, T38 B7, O15, R70, T53 B8, O06, R22, T12 B8, O06, R24, T16 B8, O09, R09, T81 B8, O09, R51, T36 B8, O09, R70, T53 B8, O09, R70, T53 B8, O09, R73, T60 B8, O09, R84, T85 B8, O15, R09, T77 RIC Vii 79 RIC Vii 141 RIC Vii 71, C 43 RIC Vii 80 RIC Vii 88 RIC Vii 127f, C 152 RIC Vii 69 RIC Vii 56, C 17 RIC Vii 100, C 95 RIC Vii 126c, C 154 RIC Vii 128 RIC Vii 136 RIC Vii 148 RIC Vii 57

Tetricus I Busts

328
Tetricus I Types

Tetricus II
Caesar c.273-274
bearing a legend ending in AVG. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bareheaded, draped bust right Bare-headed, draped bust right, wearing imperial mantle Radiate head right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust right

Son of Tetricus I. He shared in the pardon of his father and is said to have later been given the position of Senator in which he served with distinction. He may also have been promoted to the rank of co-augustus shortly before the two capitulated to Aurelian. The evidence rests on a coin or two featuring his portrait (distinguished by the lack of beard as opposed to his fathers portrait)

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) C P E TETRICVS CAES C P E TETRICVS CES C P ES TETRICVS CAES C P ESV TETRICVS CAES C P ESV TETRICVS CAES C P TETRICVS CAE C P TETRICVS CAE CES C P TETRICVS CAES CES C PI ES TETRICVS CAE C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES C PIV TETRICVS A C PIV TETRICVS P AVG C PV TETRICVS CAES C PV ESV TETRICVS CAES PIV ESV TETRICVS AVGG PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES

What goes for Tetricus I goes for II as well. The interesting point to ponder is whether he made it to emperor or stayed Caesar until his fathers abdication. One could make an argument that the title was conferred shortly before based on the few coins of his with AVGs in their legends. Or perhaps this was all due to the general apathy towards the dies in their preparation. Either way, historians of the day say nothing of the subject and consider it enough to state that they both surrendered to Aurelian. Just about the only coins for Tetricus (either Tetricus) will be the Antoninianus. Initially, under Caracalla and until around the early 250s, these coins were silver coins about twice the size of the old Denarius. But by the time the Tetricus pair are making them they have shrunk to the size of a Denarius, often smaller and thinner, and made of a metal that quickly turned black or dark brown. For this reason it will be nearly impossible to find a Tetricus that still looks white and new. Even more challenging will be to find one whose both sides retain sharp details. Typically, the reverse die was used til worn nearly flat. So forgetting about those nonexistent gem coins one is left more often than not with a thin, black, ratty coin with a worn reverse. Price for these, thankfully, should be only a few dollars.

329
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) AEQVITAS AVG COM IMP AVG COMES AVG COMES AVGG COMOLVTETIO CONSECRATIO FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM HERC COMITI HILARI AVGG HILARITAS AVGG HILARITAS AVGG INVICTVS IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) LAETITIA AVGG LAETITIA AVGVSTI LATITIA AVG MARS VICTOR MONETA NOBILITAS AVGG ORIENS AVG PAX AVG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVS PIETAS AVGVSTO PIETAS AVGVSTOR PIETAS AVSTO PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROVID AVG 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SOLI CONSER SPEI PERPETVAE SPES AVGG SPES PVBLICA VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Centaur holding bow Eagle Felicitas standing left, child on either side. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child to either side of her. Hilaritas standing left, holding wreath and anchor Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Minerva sacrificing over altar and holding spear Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Nobilitas standing, holding scepter and globe Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding scepter Pax standing, holding two standards Sacrificial implements: lituus, cruet, simpulum, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopia Salus standing left, feeding snake in altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, holding and feeding snake Salus standing left, holding branch and anchor Salus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding anchor Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple, Hercules within Tetricus II standing left, holding branch and scepter Tetricus II standing left, holding patera and scepter Tetricus II standing left, holding standard in each hand Tetricus II standing left, holding wand and standard Tetricus II standing right, holding spear and globe Uberitas holding grapes and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Virtus standing, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) Gaul, various localities Treveri

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B5, O10, R40, T28 B6, O01, R26, T19 B6, O01, R28, T19 B6, O10, R24, T20 B6, O10, R30, T30 B6, O10, R40, T28 B6, O10, R41, T28 B6, O14, R40, T28

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 255, C 48 RIC Vii 259, C 60 RIC Vii 260, C 62 RIC Vii 270, C 88 RIC Vii 272, C 97

330
Tetricus II Busts

Tetricus II Types

Quietus
Augustus 261
before he, too, was located and executed. Busts:
1) 2) 3) Laureate bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Quietus ascended the throne at the same time as his brother Macrianus following the capture of Valerian, the former emperor. However, after Macrianus and his army were unable to defeat the forces of Gallienus he saw his support base dissipate and he fled his post. The troops of Gallienus were able to track him down and execute him soon after thus ending his brief reign. Quietus survived him scarcely any more time

Obverse:
1) IMP C FVL QVIETVS PF AVG

Quietus appears with modest frequency among the offerings of ancient coin dealers. With the exception of some extreme rarities the coins will all be relatively poor condition Antoniniani. Because they were minted exclusively in the Middle East these coins often sport attractive sandy patinas that enhance the contrast of the details. Condition being the key in determining value, one of these Ants will go anywhere from about $100 to over $300.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVTAS AVG AEQVTAS AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLLINI CONSERVA FORT REDVX INDVLGENTIAE AVG INDVLGNTIAE AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI MARTI PROPVGNATORI PIETAS AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SOL INVICTO SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left by feet. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Pietas standing left, holding purse and caduceus Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; eagle to left

331
9) 10) 11) 12) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm

Mint:
1) Antioch

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R15, T11

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B3, O1, R03, T01 * in left field B3, O1, R04, T02 * in left field B3, O1, R07, T04 * in left field B3, O1, R09, T05 B3, O1, R12, T08 Exe: and * in left field B3, O1, R13, T09 * in left field B3, O1, R14, T10 * in left field RIC Vii 2, C 1 RIC Vii 3 RIC Vii 5 RIC Vii 6, C 8 RIC Vii 9, C 11b RIC Vii 10, C 12a RIC Vii 11, C 14a

AE As
9) B1, O1, R03, T01 * in left field RIC Vii 13, C 2

Quietus Busts

Quietus Types

332
The story of Macrianus is intimately connected with that of his brother Quietus. The two were sons of Macrianus Sr. who was one of Valerian's highest-ranked generals. After Valerian was kidnapped by a Persian king whom he was seeing on business of discussing war settlements the elder Macrianus chased the Augustus 261 Persians away and the soldiers offered him the post of Augustus. He, in turn, declined and bestowed the titles jointly upon Macrianus Jr. and Quietus. It was decided that Macrianus would now lead an expedition to depose Gallienus back in Rome while Quietus would stay in the east to secure the region against any Persian reprisals. Macrianus's army suffered a defeat and the troops loyal to Gallienus gave chase to a fleeing Quietus who was eventually captured and executed. All coins from eastern mints, imperial issues only from Antioch.

Macrianus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG

For being an usurper and having a coin-striking season lasting perhaps less than a full year, the coins of Macrianus are relatively easy to find. That is, so long as your expectation stretches no farther than a so-so condition Antoninianus of very low grade silver. With that one caveat, you may expect to pay about $100 for the average coin with premium coins doubling or tripling that amount.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVTAS AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA CONSERVATRICI AVG FORT REDVX INDVLGENTIAE AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI MARTI PROPVGNATORI ROMAE AETERNAE SOL INVICTO SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting hand on lyre. Diana standing right, holding bow; deer to side. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Antioch

AE Aureus
1) B1, O1, R09, T09

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 2, C10

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B4, O1, R02, T01 * in left field B4, O1, R02, T01 B4, O1, R03, T02 B4, O1, R06, T06 * in left field B4, O1, R07, T07 * in left field B4, O1, R08, T08 B4, O1, R09, T09 * in left field RIC Vii 5, C1 RIC Vii 5, C1 RIC Vii 6, C 2 RIC Vii 8, C 6 RIC Vii 9, C 8 RIC Vii 10, C 9 RIC Vii 11, C 11

333
9) 10) 11) 12) B4, O1, R09, T09 B4, O1, R10, T10 B4, O1, R10, T10 * in left field B4, O1, R11, T11 RIC Vii 11, C 11 RIC Vii 12, C 12 RIC Vii 12, C 12 RIC Vii 13, C 13

Macrianus Busts

Macrianus Types

334

Claudius II
Augustus 268-270
promptly executed.

Claudius was apparently one of the principal conspirators who instigated a lethal mutiny against Gallienus during his siege against the usurper Aureolus. His claim that Gallienus designated him his heir in his deathbed and absent any credible witnesses led many to doubt the story. Regardless, Claudius rose to power and quelled any discontent over Gallienus's fate by giving each soldier the princely sum of 20 Aurei and locating Aureolus who was

The controversial accession besides, Claudius proved a remarkably able battlefield commander and he earned the nickname Gothicus following the devastating blow he dealt to the Goths; accounts of which had the battle ending with some 50,000 barbarians of this tribe being killed. Before he had much time to secure more honorary titles for himself, however, he contracted plague and died in Sirmium two years later. The Senate dutifully praised and deified him afterwards as one of the greatest emperors ever. Contemporary historians linked his family to that of Constantine and evidently his memory was still popular enough half a century later that Constantine would be able to exploit the public relations value of this link through a series of coins minted honoring his alleged dead ancestor. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left Radiate bust left, holding globe and scepter Radiate bust left, holding scepter Radiate head left Radiate head right Radiate torso left, holding globe and scepter Radiate torso left, holding spear and shield Radiate torso right, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, raising hand and holding globe Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding shield Radiate, draped bust left, holding spear Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Veiled, laureate head right

Claudius takes over during turbulent years. Coins are being made by the millions but quality control has sunk to its lowest level yet ensuring that these coins deteriorated soon after entering circulation. And what does this leave for those that have had to endure another 1,600 years? While the gold coinage escapes the poor quality control issues there are so few of them that the point is moot for the vast majority of collectors. This leaves only the sorry Antoninianus as representative of this emperor. The Ants had been suffering a steady decline in their fineness ever since their inception under Caracalla a half century before. By the 250s there was so little silver in them that they no longer looked silvery or did so only briefly before corrosion and wear revealed them for being the essentially copper coins that they really were. Under the reign of Gallienus, or perhaps that of Claudius II, a new process of silver washing was developed to at least keep the appearance that these were silver coins still worth, in theory, two Denarii. This coating measured a meager few thousandths of an inch and wore or flaked off quickly on the high points of the coin. Only a brand new coin buried in a protective container could survive to this day with this silvering intact. And while theyre available today they are rare and expensive. The process of silvering the Ants lasted until Diocletians reform a few years later. During this period, and certainly including Claudius, Ants will be readily available with partial silvering but unless a substantial amount survives they carry no premium over an otherwise patinated coin. Low grade coins may be found among uncleaned coins or dealers junk bins for a few dollars each. Nicer specimens quickly escalate in price.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) CLAVDIVS AVG CLAVDIVS PF AVG CLAVDIVS PIVS AVG INV DIVO CLAVDIO DIVO CLAVDIO GOTHICO DIVO CLAVDIO OPT IMP DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP DIVVS CLAVDIVS OPT IMP IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C M AVREL CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C V CLAVDIVS AVG IMP CLAVDIVS AVG IMP CLAVDIVS CAES AVG IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETER AVG AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG APOLLI CONS APOLLINI CONS APOLLINI P CONS

335
11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) CERES AVG CONCO EXERC CONCOR AVG CONCOR EXER CONCOR EXERC CONCOR EXERCI CONCORD EXER CONCORD LEGI CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA EXERCITVS CONSACRATIO CONSAECRATIO CONSECR AVG CONSECRATIO CONSER AVG CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVAT PIETAT CONSERVATORES AVG COS III DACIA FELIX DEO CABIRO DIANA LVCIF DIANAE CONS AVG DIANAE VICTR FECVND AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELIC AVG FELIC TEMPO FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SAECVL FID MILITVM FIDES AVG FIDES EXERCI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE RED FORTVNAE REDVCI GENIVS AVG GENIVS EXERCI GENIVS POPVLI 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) HILARITAS AVGG INVICTVS AVG IOVI CONSERV AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI FVLGERAT IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IVNO REGINA IVVENTAS AVG IVVENTVS AVG LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N LIBERAL AVG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERO CONS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI MEMORIAE AETERNAE MINERVA AVG MONETA AVG NEPTVN AVG NEPTVS AVG ORIENS AVG PAX AET PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX EXERC PIETAS PIETAS AVG PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P O PP PROVENTI AVG PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDEN AVG 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG REGI ARTIS REQVIES OPT MER REQVIES OPTIMOR MERIT REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SECVRIT AVG SECVRITAS PERPETVA SOL AVG SOLI CONS AVG SPES AVG SPES PVBLIC SPES PVBLICA TEMPORVM FELI TEMPORVM FELIC VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VENVS AVG VICTOR GERMAN VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMAN VICTORIA GERMANIC VICTORIA GM VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRT AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVSS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS CLAVDI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOTA ORBIS No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing left, holding scepter with snake coiled around it. Altar Altar, lit. Annona standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding grain ears and cornucopia. Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Cabirus standing right, holding hammer and nails Ceres standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Claudius II advancing left, holding scepter and globe. Claudius II advancing right, holding scepter and globe. Claudius II riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Claudius II riding horse right, spearing barbarians Claudius II seated left, holding scepter Claudius II standing left, holding branch and scepter. Claudius II standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Claudius II standing to left, holding scepter, facing Fortuna to right, holding rudder and cornucopia. Claudius II standing to right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Pietas. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia. Concordia standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Concordiae (2) facing each other, each holding a torch and grain ears. Dacia standing left, holding staff with donkey head atop Deer advancing right. Diana standing right, holding torch Diana standing right, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow; deer to right. Diana standing right on left, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow, facing Apollo to right, holding branch and resting hand on lyre. Eagle standing left Fecunditas standing left, touching child on head and holding cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding vexillum and scepter Fides standing right, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Funeral pyre Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding apple. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin.

336
43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) Hilaritas standing, holding palm and cornucopia; another cornucopia to right Isis standing left, holding sistrum and basket. Isis standing right on left, holding sistrum and basket, facing Serapis to right, holding scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to lower left. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Claudius II to lower right, holding scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Lion advancing right Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Mars standing left, holding branch. Mars standing left, holding parazonium and spear. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding a scale and cornucopia. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. Panther advancing left Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing right, holding branch and scepter. Pegasus advancing right Pietas standing left, holding patera and spear. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; shield to side. Roma seated left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake, facing Aesculapius to right, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Saturn standing left, holding scepter and scythe. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter Serapis standing right on left, holding scepter, facing Isis to right, holding sistrum and basket Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing right on left, raising hand and holding whip, facing Luna (Diana) to right, holding torch Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Table with vase atop Temple; Roma within, holding Victory and spear. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Venus standing left, holding helmet and cradling spear; shield to right Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together shield on palm reading SC. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm; two captives to left. Virtus advancing right, holding spear and trophy Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear; shield to left Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Vulcan standing right on left, holding hammer and nails, facing Minerva to right, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Vulcan standing right, holding hammer and tongs Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Cyzicus Mediolanum 4) 5) 6) Roma Siscia Thessalonica

AU Medallion
1) B13, O04, R020, T020

Reference(s)
8 Aurei weight

AU Aureus
2) B16, O02, R123, T106

337
AE Antoninianus
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) B09, O10, R003, T002 B09, O10, R025, T088 B09, O10, R102, T007 B09, O10, R102, T026 B09, O10, R102, T044 B09, O10, R106, T089 B10, O16, R039, T029 B10, O16, R043, T032 B10, O16, R045, T033 ` in right field B10, O16, R047, T036 - in right field B10, O16, R050, T040 ` in right field B10, O16, R089, T011 D in right field B10, O16, R113, T099 ` in right field B10, O17, R003, T002 B10, O17, R040, T029 B10, O17, R117, T102 B10, O18, R093, T077 Exe: ` B10, O18, R110, T095 Exe: ` B15, O10, R002, T012 B15, O10, R003, T002 B15, O10, R007, T006 B15, O10, R039, T029 B15, O10, R043, T032 B15, O10, R059, T050 B15, O10, R066, T055 B15, O10, R095, T078 B15, O10, R102, T081 B15, O10, R110, T094 B15, O10, R117, T104 B15, O12, R115, T100 Exe: SPQR B15, O12, R121, T098 Exe: SPQR B15, O16, R005, T090 B15, O16, R007, T006 B15, O16, R063, T054 ` in right field B15, O16, R069, T056 X in right field B15, O16, R108, T095 ` in left field B15, O16, R113, T099 B15, O16, R114, T099 B15, O16, R117, T104 B15, O18, R048, T035 Exe: ` B16, O12, R127, T042 B17, O10, R003, T002 Exe: B17, O10, R084, T072 B17, O10, R095, T078 B17, O10, R097, T111 B17, O10, R102, T081 B17, O13, R102, T044 B17, O16, R003, T002 B17, O18, R045, T031 B17, O18, R047, T035 B17, O18, R081, T091 B17, O18, R121, T098 B17, O18, R121, T098 Exe: SPQR B17, O18, R123, T108 B21, O10, R003, T002 Exe: H B21, O10, R025, T087 Exe: ` B21, O10, R034, T025 B21, O10, R039, T029 B21, O10, R042, T065 B21, O10, R051, T039 B21, O10, R058, T049 B21, O10, R059, T050 B21, O10, R060, T047 Exe: B21, O10, R060, T047 Exe: ` B21, O10, R062, T041 Exe: ` B21, O10, R072, T060 B21, O10, R079, T067 Exe: ` B21, O10, R102, T007 Exe: B21, O10, R110, T095 B21, O10, R123, T107 B21, O10, R123, T109 Exe: ` B21, O12, R064, T053 M C across fields B21, O12, R083, T072 Exe: SPQR B21, O12, R129, T112 Exe: SPQR B21, O13, R123, T107 B21, O16, R046, T035 B21, O16, R094, T077 ` in right field B21, O17, R046, T035 ` in right field B21, O18, R038, T030 Exe: ` B21, O18, R044, T032 Exe: ` B21, O18, R081, T092 Exe: ` B21, O18, R084, T069 Exe: ` B21, O18, R117, T103 Exe: ` B21, O18, R123, T106 Exe: `

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 197l, C 8 RIC Vi 219l, C 260 RIC Vi 217l RIC Vi 221l RIC Vi 33 RIC Vi 41k RIC Vi 46k, C 109 RIC Vi 12k, C 216 RIC Vi 193k, C 286 RIC Vi 179k RIC Vi 163k RIC Vi 168k, C 227 RIC Vi 13f, C 4 RIC Vi 14f, C 7 RIC Vi 18f, C 21 RIC Vi 34f, C 84 RIC Vi 54f, C 129 RIC Vi 57f, C 144 RIC Vi 91f, C 230 RIC Vi 98f RIC Vi 102f RIC Vi 104f, C 293 Obv Exe: RIC Vi 16f, C 16 RIC Vi 19f, C 22 RIC Vi 181f, C 139 RIC Vi 63f, C 152 RIC Vi 191f RIC Vi 193f RIC Vi 103f RIC Vi 151f C 198 RIC Vi 91c RIC Vi 215a, C 239 Zachary Beasley collection RIC Vi 15c, C 10 C 93 C 204 Obv Exe: Obv Exe: RIC Vi 197a, C 6 RIC Vi 201a, C 58 RIC Vi 205a, C 67 RIC Vi 32a RIC Vi 207a RIC Vi 48a, C 114 RIC Vi 52a RIC Vi 53a RIC Vi 212, C 235 RIC Vi 213a, C 137 RIC Vi 66a RIC Vi 214a, C 183 RIC Vi 216a RIC Vi 102a, C 281 RIC Vi 109a RIC Vi 225a, C 317 RIC Vi 235a, C 142 RIC Vi 237a, C 195 RIC Vi 40a RIC Vi 145a, C 74 RIC Vi 149, C 88 RIC Vi 153a, C 185 RIC Vi 157a, C 202 RIC Vi 171a, C 302 RIC Vi 172a, C 315

Obv Exe:

338
AE Antoninianus (Posthumous)
87) 88) 89) 90) B10, O04, R021, T005 B10, O04, R024, T005 B10, O04, R024, T027 B21, O04, R024, T005 Obv Exe:

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 261k RIC Vi 266k RIC Vi 261a

AE Medallion
91) B05, O11, R078, T066 C 181

AE3 (Posthumous)
92) 93) B23, O08, R100, T014 Exe: TS` B23, O08, R100, T014 Exe: SIS RIC 26 (VII, Thessalonica) RIC 43 (VII, Siscia)

Claudius II Busts

Claudius II Types

339
Claudius II Types (continued)

340

Quintillus
Augustus 270
been emperor for only a few weeks. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Quintillus came to power after the death of his brother Claudius II. Although loved by the Senate, Quintillus had no strong ties with the army and when Aurelian claimed that Claudius had meant for him to be the next successor what little loyalty Quintillus had evaporated. With Aurelian's forces coming nearer, Quintillus had no muscle to contest the usurper and committed suicide before testing Aurelian's mercy. He had

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) IMP AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C L QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVREL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP CAES M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP QVINTILLVS IMP QVINTILLVS AVG IMP QVINTILLVS PF AVG QVINTILLVS AVG

Well, he might have been emperor for only a few weeks but the mints sure were busy spitting out coins for him the whole while. And while they may not be very common nowadays, theyre not very expensive either. That probably has something to do with the fact that very few survive in top condition. Most will be Antoniniani that have seen better days most, actually, have seen much better days. And these low grade Ants can be picked up on the internet for a few dollars each. Nicer ones tend to go for around fifty dollars and rarely go for above $100. But that, again, is because the grades are usually so disappointing. A mint state coin, if there is such a thing, would easily be worth several hundred dollars.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNIT AVG APOLLINI AVG APOLLINI CONS APOLLINI CONSERVATORI CONC EXERC CONCO EXER CONCO EXERC CONCOR EXER CONCORD EXER CONCORD EXERC CONCORDIA AVG CONSECRATIO DIANA LVCIF FELICITAS AVG FIDES EXER FIDES EXERCIT FIDES MILIT 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE RED GENIVS AVG INVICTVS IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA AVG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VLTOR MARTI PAC MARTI PACAT MARTI PACI MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIL PANNONIA 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVG PM TR P COS PP PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENT AVG SAECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT AVG TEMPOR FELI TEMPORVM FEL TEMPORVM FELI VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae. Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding vexillum and spear. Fides standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and wreath. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle by feet Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Quintillus to lower left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor on globe. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Mars advancing left, holding branch and shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.

341
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Pannonia standing left, holding branch and standard. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and scepter. Quintillus standing, facing, holding spear and globe Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Trophy, seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Cyzicus Mediolanum Roma Siscia

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O05, R10, T04 Exe: T B1, O03, R31, T26 Exe: P B1, O05, R17, T11

Reference(s)

AE Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) B3, O03, R47, T08 B3, O05, R48, T39 ` in right field B4, O11, R20, T08 B4, O11, R20, T08 B4, O11, R24, T15 B4, O11, R24, T15 B5, O03, R02, T37 B5, O03, R04, T03 H in right field B5, O03, R12, T06 Exe: B5, O03, R19, T10 E in right field B5, O03, R26, T18 Exe: XII B5, O03, R34, T23 X in left field B5, O03, R37, T28 B5, O03, R41, T31 Exe: T B5, O03, R42, T31 B5, O03, R44, T35 XI in right field B5, O03, R49, T41 in right field B5, O03, R51, T43 B in right field B5, O10, R14, T07 Exe: ` B5, O10, R18, T11 Exe: S B5, O10, R21, T12 B5, O10, R31, T26 B5, O11, R19, T10 C 68 RIC Vi 78f RIC Vi 83c RIC Vi 83c RIC Vi 84c, C 36 RIC Vi 84c, C 36 RIC Vi 7, C 2 RIC Vi 9 RIC Vi 13a RIC Vi 18, C 28 RIC Vi 22a RIC Vi 24a, C 49 RIC Vi 26 RIC Vi 29, C 61 RIC Vi 31, C 63 RIC Vi 33, C 70 RIC Vi 35, C 73 RIC Vi 52a, C 25 RIC Vi 54, C 33 RIC Vi 58a, C 47 RIC Vi 82, C 27

342
Quintillus Busts

Quintillus Types

343
Aurelian was an upwardly-mobile soldier who was eventually appointed commander of the cavalry by Claudius II. With the aid of a sympathetic army he revolted against the accession of Quintillus and a civil war was avoided when the latter committed suicide following the growing popularity of his rival. Aurelian was then Augustus 270 -275 hailed as emperor by the Senate and the rest of the legions alike. His first mission was to strengthen the army by the introduction of the strictest reforms and discipline as well as quelling the various uprisings that had broken out over the last two decades. He thus spent the next five years until cut down by his own Praetorian Guard at the height of his glory. It seems Aurelian's personal secretary, after being reprimanded by the emperor for attempted extortion, felt an execution would follow. To guard against this possibility, he concocted a story about Aurelian intending to execute his personal guard and then rushed to share with them this manufactured evidence. Naturally, afraid for their lives, they entered the emperor's quarters and effected a preemptive strike. Somehow or other it was soon afterward found out that the formerly beloved emperor had no such motives and his secretary himself was swiftly executed for treason. When news reached Rome of what had happened Aurelian's wife seems to have actually been left nominally in power while a new emperor was selected, a period that may have lasted several months. Although history is a little hazy in this matter, it would mark the first and only time a Roman empress explicitly ruled the empire.

Aurelian

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder. Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust facing away, looking left, holding spear and shield Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding spear and shield Radiate head right Radiate, bust right, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding shield. Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed torso left, holding Victory on globe. Radiate, draped bust left. Radiate, draped bust right

Aurelian leaves a very strong numismatic legacy for his five years as emperor of the Romans. His coins, 99% or more of which are Antoniniani, are ubiquitous in the inventory of any dealer who carries ancient Roman coins. Oodles, yes oodles, of these Ants are available on Ebay and other internet outlets. They turn up regularly even on the dirt-on late Roman bronze coins the sort that are sold in bulk at a dollar or two each. Aurelian is also the first emperor to really use the cuirassed bust as a predominant type on his coins. On some of the coins the cuirass shares almost as much real estate as his head and, on rare instances, featuring elaborate designs within the cuirass itself. In his portraits, his head often looks shrunken on top of an impossibly elongated neck. The effect makes for curious collectibles. And speaking of collectibles, fully silvered gem Ants can be found for less than $100 with some difficulty but more typically for a little more than that.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AVRELIANVS AVG AVRELIANVS AVG CONS AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP AVRELIANVS AVG IMP AVRELIANVS INVICT AVG IMP AVRELIANVS INVICTVS AVG IMP AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP AVRELIANVS PIVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS INVICTVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS INVICTVS P AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP C D AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L D AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L D AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP CAES L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP DEO ET DOMINO NATO AVRELIANO AVG SOL DOM IMP ROM SOL DOM IMP ROMANI SOL DOMINVS IMPERI ROMAN

344
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG APOL CONS AVG APOLLINI CONS AVRELIANVS AVG CONS CONC EXER CONCO EXER CONCOR AVG CONCORD LEGI CONCORD MILIT CONCORDI LEGI CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVSTOR CONCORDIA LEGI CONCORDIA MILI CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONS PRINC AVG CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVATOR AVG DACIA FELIX FELIC SAECV FELIC SAECVLI FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES EXERCITI FIDES MILI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FIDIS MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX GENIVS EXERCI GENIVS EXERCITI GENIVS ILLV GENIVS ILLVR IOVI CONSER 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) IOVI CONSERV IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IVCTORIA AVG LAETITIA AVG LIBERALIT AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS INVICTVS MART PACI MARTI INVICTO MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MINERVA AVG ORIEN AVG ORIENS AVG PACATOR ORBIS PACATOR ORIENTIS PANNONIAE PAX AETERNA PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVG PM TB P V II COS II PP PM TR P COS PM TR P COS PP PM TR P I PP PM TR P PP COS PM TR P VI COS II PP PM TR P VII COS II PP PM TR PP PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENT AVG RESTIT SAECVLI RESTITV ORIENT RESTITVT ORBIS RESTITVT ORIENT RESTITVT ORIENTIS 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) RESTITVT SAECVLI RESTITVTOR EXERCITI RESTITVTOR ORBIS RESTITVTOR ORIENT RESTITVTOR ORIENTIS RESTITVTORI GENTIS RESTITVTORI ORIENTIS ROMA AET ROMA AETER ROMAE AETER ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE AETERNE SAECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT AVG SEVERINA AVG SOLI CONSERVATORI SOLI INVICTO VBERITAS AVG VENVS FELIX VICTOR LEG VICTORIA AET VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GOTHIC VICTORIA PARTICA VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRT MILITVM VIRTVS AEQVIT VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS EQVIT VIRTVS ILLVRICI VIRTVS MILITVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) Aequitas standing right, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Annona standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia. Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre placed on rock. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre placed on rock. Apollo standing left, leaning on column, touching head and holding branch. Apollo standing left, leaning on altar, touching head and holding branch Aurelian advancing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Aurelian riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear Aurelian riding horse left; seated captive to left. Aurelian riding horse right over two barbarians. Aurelian standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing soldier to left, holding Victory and spear. Aurelian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Asia Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter and holding hand of kneeling Oriens to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Orbis to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Orbis to left; citizen kneeling in between. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Oriens to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Victory to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving globe from soldier to left, holding spear. Aurelian standing left on right, holding Victory and spear, facing soldier to left, holding spear and globe. Aurelian standing left on right, shaking hands with Severina to left; Sols radiate bust above and between them. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and scepter; Victory to right, crowning him. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and spear. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and spear; standard on either side. Aurelian standing left, holding scepter and crowning trophy; seated captive on either side of trophy. Aurelian standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Aurelian standing right on left, holding globe, facing Sol to right, stepping on captive, holding whip. Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, sacrificing over altar, facing Pietas to right, also sacrificing over altar Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Concordia to right. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip; captive on either side of Sol. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right, holding spear. Aurelian standing right, holding spear and parazonium. Aurelian standing right, holding spear and globe. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding standard in each hand. Concordia seated left, patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand.

345
42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Concordia standing left, two standards on either side Concordiae (2) each holding a standard and together holding a third standard in between. Dacia standing left, holding staff with donkey head atop Eagle Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding spear and standard. Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right. Hercules advancing left, holding bow and club. Hercules standing right, with hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Hercules standing, facing, holding bow and club. Hercules to right, stepping on captive, hand on club and receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter, eagle to left. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing right, holding patera and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Lion advancing left with thunderbolt in mouth Lion advancing right Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Mars standing left, holding branch and scepter. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing right on left, holding spear, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Minerva advancing left, holding branch and shield. Minerva standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding purse and cornucopia; globe by feet. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, holding globe. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, raising hand and holding scepter. Severina draped bust right Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding globe. Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive to right. Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding whip; seated captive to right. Sol advancing right, holding trophy and globe Sol advancing right, stepping on captive, holding branch and bow. Sol riding quadriga left, holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive to left. Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe; captive by feet. Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive on either side. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopia Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus advancing left, holding spear and shield; captive by feet. Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear with shield Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Cyzicus Lugdunum Mediolanum Roma Serdica Siscia Tripolis

346
AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B02, O10, R045, T106 B04, O10, R085, T099 B04, O22, R106, T072 B05, O10, R018, T038 B05, O15, R055, T073 B05, O22, R109, T072

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 374 RIC Vi 182 RIC Vi 166, C 41 RIC Vi 15, C 269

AE Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) B03, O04, R042, T028 Exe: *` B07, O04, R020, T030 Exe: `* B09, O04, R037, T057 B09, O04, R040, T028 Exe: S B09, O04, R042, T028 Exe: SERD B09, O04, R043, T063 Exe: `/SERD B11, O10, R097, T097 * in left field B11, O10, R097, T097 Exe: KA B11, O22, R035, T054 Exe: ` B13, O01, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O01, R058, T097 Exe: P B13, O01, R058, T097 Exe: VI B13, O01, R058, T100 Exe: S B13, O01, R078, T015 Exe: */KAB B13, O04, R015, T039 B13, O04, R019, T028 Exe: *C* B13, O04, R019, T030 Exe: B13, O04, R020, T030 Exe: S B13, O04, R020, T030 Exe: *T B13, O04, R033, T028 Exe: C* B13, O04, R035, T054 Exe: T B13, O04, R035, T054 Exe: *P B13, O04, R039, T057 Exe: */Q B13, O04, R039, T057 B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: B B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: *Q B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: *S B13, O04, R051, T075 B13, O04, R058, T090 Exe: VI B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: */ PXXI B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: ?XXI B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: `/XXI* B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: P B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: XXIP B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: XXI B13, O04, R058, T091 B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: B/XXIR B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: S B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: /XXIR B13, O04, R058, T096 B13, O04, R058, T097 Exe: P B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: S B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: XXI B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: XXIR B13, O04, R063, T080 * in left field and officina in right field B13, O04, R064, T029 Exe: T B13, O04, R078, T015 Exe: */KA B13, O04, R078, T015 Exe: ? B13, O04, R082, T020 Exe: B/XXI B13, O04, R083, T015 Exe: A/XXI B13, O04, R090, T034 Exe: Q B13, O04, R093, T036 B13, O04, R097, T091 Exe: XXIT B13, O04, R101, T107 B13, O04, R102, T104 * in left field andS in right field B13, O04, R103, T104 B13, O04, R107, T020 Exe: T B16, O04, R113, T020 Exe: T B13, O04, R113, T020 Exe: B13, O07, R078, T015 Exe: */KAB B13, O08, R040, T028 Exe: ` B13, O10, R018, T044 Exe: ` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: *` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: Q* B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: S/XXI` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: VII B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: XXIQ B13, O10, R023, T090 Exe: E B13, O10, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: QM B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: T B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: TXXT B13, O10, R058, T092 Exe: XXIT B13, O10, R058, T097 Exe: XXI

RIC Vi 345k C 113 RIC Vi 390, C 233 RIC Vi 390, C 233 RIC Vi 261f RIC Vi 248f, C 142 RIC Vi 248f, C 142 RIC Vi 135f, C 132 RIC Vi 290f RIC Vi 213f, C 32 RIC Vi 342f, C 23 RIC Vi 343f, C 26 RIC Vi 120f, C 61 RIC Vi 216f, C 61 RIC Vi 344f, C 92 RIC Vi 128f, C 95 RIC Vi 171f, C 94 RIC Vi 223f, C 103 RIC Vi 48f, C 105 RIC Vi 48f, C 105 RIC Vi 225f, C 108 RIC Vi 225f, C 108 RIC Vi 357f, C 123 RIC Vi 247f, C 140 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 251f, C 146 RIC Vi 279f, C 145 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 364f, C 154 RIC Vi 64f, C 159 RIC Vi 137f, C 154 RIC Vi 64f, C 159 RIC Vi 136f RIC Vi 134f, C 140 RIC Vi 249f, C 144 RIC Vi 63f, C 154 RIC Vi 63f, C 154 RIC Vi 232f, C 169 RIC V 138f, C 170 RIC Vi 289f, C 193 RIC Vi 53f, C 192 RIC Vi 366f RIC Vi 369f, C 209 RIC Vi 142f, C 220 RIC Vi 352f, C 223 RIC Vi 308f, C 236 RIC Vi 237f, C 248 RIC Vi 355f, C 259 RIC Vi 56f, C 261 C 286 RIC Vi 408f, C 285 RIC Vi 298f, C 197 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 215f, C 60 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 59f, C 60 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 384f, C 68 RIC Vi 259 RIC Vi 150f, C 153 RIC Vi 61f, C 153 RIC Vi 151f, C 153 RIC Vi 255f, C 158

347
82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) B13, O10, R058, T097 B13, O10, R074, T052 Exe: KA B13, O10, R074, T052 Exe: SXXT B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: B B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: */KA B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: */KAB B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: Z/XXI B13, O10, R083, T015 Exe: *B B13, O10, R083, T015 Exe: `C B13, O10, R083, T020 Exe: `C B13, O10, R097, T091 Exe: `XXT B13, O10, R097, T097 Exe: */KA B13, O11, R078, T015 Exe: */KA` B13, O14, R078, T015 Exe: */KA` B13, O21, R078, T015 Exe: */KA` B13, O22, R097, T092 Exe: XXI` B13, O24, R078, T015 Exe: */KA` B14, O04, R078, T015 Exe: ` B15, O16, R033, T050 B16, O04, R019, T030 Exe: ` B16, O04, R040, T028 Exe: ` B16, O04, R042, T028 Exe: *` B16, O04, R086, T017 Exe: ` B16, O04, R113, T012 Exe: *` B16, O10, R018, T041 ` in right field B16, O10, R102, T108 Exe: SERD B16, O16, R043, T063 B16, O17, R028, T048 B16, O20, R035, T055 B17, O04, R020, T030 Exe: *` B19, O04, R056, T077 B19, O04, R068, T069 Exe: COS B19, O04, R084, T017 Exe: *` B19, O04, R109, T020 Exe: ` B19, O04, R109, T111 B19, O10, R058, T097 Exe: XXI B19, O17, R035, T055 RIC Vi 360f, C 151 RIC Vi 284f, C 183 RIC Vi 152f, C 183 RIC Vi 347f, C 210 RIC Vi 389f C 194 RIC Vi 386f RIC Vi 349f RIC Vi 368f, C 210 RIC Vi 367f, C 207 RIC Vi 154f, C 234 RIC Vi 390f, C 232 RIC Vi 301f RIC Vi 295f, C 196 RIC Vi 292f RIC Vi 311f RIC Vi 328c, C 88 RIC Vi 343c, C 26 RIC Vi 129c, C 105 RIC Vi 227c, C 113 RIC Vi 242c, C 286 RIC Vi 192c RIC Vi 327c, C 77 RIC Vi 29c, C 97 RIC Vi 218 RIC Vi 334a RIC Vi 234a, C 201 RIC Vi 149a, C 276 RIC Vi 341a RIC Vi 360a, C 151 RIC Vi 331a, C 98

AE Denarius
119) B04, O04, R102, T107 Exe: ` 120) B04, O10, R085, T099

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 73, C 275

AE Sestertius
121) B04, O04, R102, T105 Exe: ` RIC Vi 1, C 1

AE As
122) B04, O04, R015, T021 Exe: ` 123) B05, O04, R015, T021 RIC Vi 80

348
Aurelian Busts

Aurelian Types

349
Aurelian Types (continued)

350

Severina
?-?

Severina was the wife of Aurelian and made Augusta in or around the year 274. When her husband was killed in battle it's believed that she ruled, if only nominally, during the interregnal period before Tacitus was nominated the next emperor.

Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Perhaps less than 5% of the coins made during Aurelians reign were earmarked to bear her name and portrait. Still, because of the sheer numbers struck that still leaves lots of her coins available today. Not surprising by now, the coinage is almost entirely made up of the silvered Antoninianus with very few Aurei or proper AE denominations. There is, curiously, a Denarius which is so identified based on the lack of the crescent on the Ant and the slightly smaller coin size. While not very rare they are considerably less frequently available and are worth a premium. Why Aurelian made some of these symbolic Denarii is unclear since it must have been clearly known at the time there was next to no difference in terms of intrinsic value between the two denominations. The typically preserved Severina will cost around $20 with well-silvered specimens costing up to ten times that much.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) SEVERINA AVG SEVERINA AVGVSTA SEVERINA PF AVG SEVERINAE AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIAE MILITVM IVNO REGINA LAETITIA AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENTIA DEORVM VENVS FELIX

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera over peacock and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Severina standing right on left, shaking hands with Aurelian standing to right Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum 4) 5) 6) Roma Serdica Siscia 7) Ticinum

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B2, O1, R3, T7, M4 Exe: `XXIR B2, O1, R3, T7, M5 Exe: */KA` B2, O1, R3, T7, M5 Exe: */KA` B2, O1, R4, T2, M2 Exe: XXI B2, O1, R4, T2, M4 Exe: `/XXIR B2, O1, R4, T2, M4 Exe: R/`/XXI B2, O1, R4, T2, M7 Exe: `XXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: `XXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: YXXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: XXT B2, O3, R2, T7, M1 Exe: `/XXI B2, O4, R4, T2, M6 Exe: `/XXI B2, O4, R4, T2, M6 Exe: `XXI

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 3, C 2 RIC Vi 16, C 2 RIC Vi 16, C 2 RIC Vi 18, C 7 RIC Vi 4, C 4 RIC Vi 4, C 4 RIC Vi 8, C 7 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 19, C 1 RIC Vi 13, C 8 RIC Vi 13, C 8

AE Denarius
14) 15) B1, O1, R9, T8, M4 Officina in right field B1, O1, R9, T8, M4 Exe: ` RIC Vi 6, C 14 RIC Vi 6, C 14

AE As
16) B1, O1, R5, T5, M4 Exe: ` RIC Vi 7, C 9

351
Severina Busts

Severina Types

The story of Zenobia is a fascinating account of rebellion. Her husband, an Egyptian general named Odenathus, distinguished himself by recruiting an army, without consent nor funds from Rome. He then set out to meet the plundering army of Shapur, the King of Persia ?-? who had just defeated the army of Valerian and taken him hostage. With an intense hatred towards Shapur his small army attacked as best it could the victorious and far larger army of the Persian king. He managed to recover part of the looted treasures of various sacked cities as well as captives and, apparently, cut short their rampage. For his valor the Senate and people of Rome pressed Gallienus to recognize his patriotism. The emperor granted him no less than with the position of Augustus of the East. Together with Zenobia the two turned out to rule wisely and were beloved in the various eastern provinces.

Zenobia

But one of the sons of Odenathus held imperial ambitions and managed to kill his father as well as a half-brother while the two were being entertained at a banquet. Zenobia, rather than simply mourn her husband's death, immediately sent for the errant son's arrest and had him executed. She thus continued to rule with the assumed title of Augusta, a title, of course, not granted her by Gallienus nor the Senate. As soon as Aurelian, who was by now emperor, heard of this usurpation he set out with a large army to depose her. Personally leading her own army the two of them met in battle and, despite her initial courage, was eventually defeated by the superior skills of Aurelian. She was forced to flee back to her palace in Palmyra. Aurelian then gave chase and besieged the city and again she fled but this time was apprehended and brought alive to Aurelian. The emperor spared her life but saw fit to raze Palmyra to the ground because its inhabitants refused to recognize him. Several months later Aurelian paraded her through the streets of Rome bound in golden chains (along with Tetricus) and was subsequently pardoned and given an estate outside of Rome. She, and her son Vabalathus, went on to live in peace and become part of the Roman nobility. Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Obverse:
1) S ZENOBIA AVG

Given that this was an age when millions of Antoniniani were being made every year a collector might be forgiven for expecting a coin of hers to be easily available. Theyre not. In fact, theyre nearly impossible to find. A handful have gone to private auction and reached several thousand dollars each.

Reverse:
1) IVNO REGINA

352
Types:
1) 2) Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left Pietas seated left, holding hand of child and scepter.

Mint:
1) Palmyra

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R1, T1 * in left field

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 2

As the power of the kingdom of Palmyra rose, the ruins of which are in what is now Syria, Vabalathus appropriated for himself the title of Augustus. Behind him his mother Zenobia was the mastermind of a series of battles won against various Roman detachments sent to depose this usurper. Aurelian finally took Augustus 271-272 command of the situation and feigned a truce while launching a concerted attack against Egypt which was under Palmyra's control. When Egypt fell Palmyra lost its valuable trade routes and it was then a simple matter to regain control of the Syrian province. Both Vabalathus and Zenobia were captured and taken back to Rome but it's not recorded whether they were executed.

Vabalathus

Bust:
1) a) Radiate, draped bust right Aurelian radiate, cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) IM C VHABALATHVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG

Technically speaking, the one readily available coin of Vabalathus is properly attributed to Aurelian. It features Vabalathus on one side and Aurelian on the other. The problem is that in this case if we go by the legends Aurelian is shown as Augustus while Vabalathus is a mere associate ruler. Furthermore, the coins denomination, an Antoninianus, is represented by the ruler wearing a radiate crown symbolically equating him with the sun god Sol. Vabalathus gets lesser billing with a laurel wreath. Still, it is featured here rather than on the chapter on Aurelian because the few other coins available of Vabalathus, those with his own radiate portrait and legend ending in AVG made during his brief rebel rule, are so rare that their acquisition would be out of the reach of most collectors. This being said, the Ants featuring both emperors are somewhat common and may be found on the internet for around $100 and often less if poorly preserved.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG IOVI STATORI IVENVS AVG IVVENTVS AVG VABALATHVS VCR IM D R VENVS AVG VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding apples. Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe. Vabalathus laureate bust right Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield.

353
6) 7) 8) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mint:
1) Antioch

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R4, T2 * in left field B1, O1, R9, T8 * in right field Ba, O2, R6, T4 Exe: `

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 4, C 3 RIC Vii (Aurelian) 381, C 1

Vabalathus Busts

Vabalathus Types

354
After the assassination of Aurelian who had left no heir, the Praetorian Guard took the unusual step of asking the Senate to nominate their next leader. Several months passed without an Augustus and then they chose fellow Senator Tacitus who was advanced in age. He died soon after before making many Augustus 275-276 headlines for himself. However, in his brief tenure he set in motion important events that were to follow for the next couple of years. First, he named his half-brother Florian Praetorian Prefect and next-in-line to Tacitus. He was then sent off to fight barbarian invaders. Secondly, he appointed another relative, Maximinus, to the post of Governor in Syria. Maximinus proved to be wildly unpopular and was murdered. There are two theories on as to what happened next. The first holds that those who murdered Maximinus arranged for Tacitus's own murder for fear of retaliation and the second, more plausible, that he simply died of old age.

Tacitus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter with eagle on top Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter with eagle on top and mappa Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over left shoulder Radiate, draped bust right

Despite the brief rule, Tacitus coins are readily available in all grades. That is, so long as you dont expect anything more than Antoniniani. Coinage in other metals and denominations are considerably more difficult to find. But the Ants are common enough and even turn up in bulk lots of uncleaned lots with some regularity. A cheap coin of this emperor, with at least readable legend, may cost less than $10 and while fully silvered gems are not exactly a dime a dozen a choice example may run $100$200. The generally easy availability of coins of this emperor are due solely to the hyperactive mints during his reign which placed millions of Antoniniani in circulation during the mid to late 200s. Tacitus coins are straddled by the even more prolific coins of Aurelian preceding him and Probus succeeding.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) IMP C CL TACITVS AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS INVICT AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS P AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS PF AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS PF AVG VIRTVS IMP C M CLA TACITVS AVG IMP C M CLA TACITVS P AVG IMP C M TACITVS INVICTVS PF AVG IMP C TACITVS INVICTVS AVG IMP C TACITVS PF INVICTVS AVG IMP C TACTIVS AVG IMP CL TACITVS AVG IMP CL TACITVS PF AVG IMP TACITVS INVICTVS AVG M CL TACITVS P AVG M CL TACITVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI CLEMENTIA TEMP CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONSERVAT MILIT CONSERVATOR AVG CONSERVATOR MILITVM FELIC TEM FELIC TEMP FELICIT TEM FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMP FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA FVND LAETITIAE FVND LETITIA TEMP LIBERTAS AVG MARS PACIF 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX PERPETVA PAX PVBLICA PM T B P VI COS II PP PM TR P CONSVL PM TR POT COS DES II PROVID AVG PROVID DEOR PROVIDD AVG PROVIDE AVG PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENT DEOR PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA DEORVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETER ROMAE AETERNAE SALS PVBLI SALVS AVG SALVS PVBLI

355
55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) SALVS PVBLICA SECVRIT PVBLICA SECVRIT PERP SECVRITAS PR SPES AVG SPES PVBLICA TEMPORVM FELICITAS TRANQVILLITAS AVG VBERITAS AVG 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GOTHICA COS II VICTORIA GOTTHI VICTORIA PERPETVA AVG VICTORIA PONTICA AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS MILITVM VOTIS X ET X

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Clementia standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding caduceus. Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor on globe. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, leaning on column, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing right on left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Providentia standing right on left, holding standard, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Roma seated left, holding globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding scepter Securitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, touching head. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Tacitus riding horse right, holding spear. Tacitus seated left on globe being crowned by Victory, holding shield. Tacitus seated left, holding globe and spear. Tacitus standing left on right, being crowned by Mars, facing Victory to left, seated right, holding shield reading VOTIS XX Tacitus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving globe from Clementia to left, holding scepter. Tacitus standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm. Tacitus standing right on left, holding spear and receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Tacitus standing right on left, holding standard and receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Tacitus standing right on left, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Tranquilitas standing left, holding dolphin and scepter. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath; shield on either side. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to right. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Antioch Gaul Roma Serdica Siscia Ticinum

AU Binio
1) 2) 3) B10 O02 R51 T28 B10 O02 R71 T34 B11 O02 R51 T27

Reference(s)

AU Aureus
4) B4 O02 R36 T16

356
5) 6) 7) 8) B4 O02 R51 T27 B4 O02 R51 T28 B4 O04 R51 T27 B5 O02 R32 T19 RIC 75 C 112

AE Antoninianus
9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) B08 O02 R05 T03 Exe: `/XXI B08 O02 R23 T11 Exe: XXI` B09 O05 R70 T49 B10 O02 R01 T01 Exe: `/XXI B10 O02 R06 T44 Exe: ` B10 O02 R22 T12 Exe: ` B10 O02 R30 T14 Exe: ` B10 O02 R33 T20 Exe: P B10 O02 R42 T23 Exe: ` B10 O02 R54 T32 Exe: ` B10 O04 R48 T24 Exe: ` B10 O07 R01 T01 Exe: ` B12 O01 R70 T49 B12 O02 R01 T01 Exe: `/XXI B12 O02 R01 T01 Exe: XXI/` B12 O02 R04 T02 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T03 Exe: XXI B12 O02 R05 T03 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R05 T14 Exe: /KA B12 O02 R05 T14 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T40 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T40 Exe: `/XXI B12 O02 R08 T42 Exe: `/KA B12 O02 R10 T41 Exe: ` B12 O02 R14 T05 Exe: ` B12 O02 R15 T04 Exe: ` B12 O02 R23 T11 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R33 T20 Exe: P B12 O02 R44 T25 Exe: /KA` B12 O02 R44 T25 Exe: KA` B12 O02 R47 T24 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R48 T24 Exe: ` B12 O02 R53 T29 Exe: ` B12 O02 R53 T31 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R57 T34 Exe: ` B12 O02 R60 T41 Exe: `/KA B12 O02 R67 T49 Exe: ` B12 O04 R44 T25 Exe: KA` B12 O05 R06 T44 Exe: XXI` B12 O05 R17 T05 Exe: C in left field, in right B12 O05 R33 T19 Exe: /III B12 O05 R61 T04 Exe: /I B12 O07 R04 T02 Exe: ` B12 O05 R61 T04 Exe: in left field, in right B12 O14 R31 T19 Exe: B in right field, in right B12 O05 R44 T25 Exe: /KA` B12 O07 R17 T06 Exe: ` B12 O07 R22 T12 Exe: ` B12 O07 R33 T20 Exe: ` B12 O13 R28 T18 B in right field, in right B12 O13 R35 T21 B12 O13 R55 T31 C in left field, in right B12 O13 R61 T04 A in right field B12 O13 R61 T04 in left field, A in right B14 O02 R20 T08 Exe: BA B14 O02 R20 T08 Exe: XXI` B14 O02 R60 T41 Exe: ` B14 O13 R20 T07 Exe: BA

Reference(s)
RIC 89k RIC 67, C 171 RIC 180f RIC 130f, C 24 RIC 145f, C 60 RIC 150f RIC 152f, C 90 RIC 160f, C 126 RIC 153f, C 105 RIC 82c, C 8 RIC 82c, C 8 RIC 124c, C 13 RIC 84c, C 16 RIC 84c, C 16 RIC 214c, C 20 RIC 206c, C15 RIC 126c, C 19 RIC 193c, C 25 RIC 134c RIC 140c RIC 136c RIC 89c, C 52 RIC 150c, C 72 RIC 195c RIC 195c RIC 92c, C 100 RIC 155c RIC 93c, C 123 RIC 163c, C 121 RIC 207c, C 140 RIC 172c, C 157 C 21 RIC 21 RIC 43c, C 77 RIC 63 RIC 125c, C 14 RIC 63 RIC 34 RIC 138c RIC 151c, C 75 RIC 30c RIC 44c RIC 58c RIC 65c RIC 25a, C 46 RIC 87a, C 45 RIC 167a RIC 27a

Tacitus Busts

357
Tacitus Types

358

Florian
Augustus 276
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Florian was the half-brother of Tacitus who became ever-so-briefly the sole Senate-ratified emperor. While Tacitus was still alive, he sent Florian with a large army off to confront Probus, self-proclaimed emperor. Probus outsmarted Florian on the battlefield and emerged triumphant. Together with Florian's former army, Probus then resumed his march towards Rome.

Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) IMP ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG IMP C AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C FLORIANVS AVG IMP C FLORIANVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS PF AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS PIVS F AVG IMP C M ANN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C M ANN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP C M ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG IMP CM AN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP FLORIANVS AVG IMP M AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP M ANN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP M ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG VIRTVS FLORIANI AVG

Sandwiched between the coin-filled reigns of Aurelian and Probus are the short reigns of Tacitus and Florian. Although Florian was emperor only briefly, a couple of months maybe, that was still enough time to get the various mints to pump out literally millions of coins to pay the loyalist armies. And its a numbers game, of course. The more that were made back then the more that can be expected to have survived to this day. And collectors will be pleased to find that Florian Antoniniani are routinely available for only a few dollars. Condition of these coins is usually somewhere between deplorable to good enough. However, fully-silvered Ants do exist and are not outrageously expensive (when available). Expect these to cost anywhere from $100-$300.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG CLEMENTIA TEMP CLEMENTIA TEMPORVM CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA EXERCI CONCORDIA MILITVM CONSERVATOR AVG FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SEACVLI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVC FORTVNA REDVX INDVLGENTIA AVG IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA FVND MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI MONETA AVG PACATOR ORBIS PAX AETERNA 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) PAX AVGVSTI PERPETVIT AVG PERPETVITA AVG PERPETVITATE AVG PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PROVIDE AVG PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENTIA AVG REDITVS AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SALVS PVBLI SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS SAECVLI TEMPORVM FELICITAS VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA PERPET VICTORIA PERPETVA VICTORIAE AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and rudder. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and scepter. Clementia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard Fides standing, facing, holding a standard in each hand. Florian advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Florian riding horse right, spearing enemy. Florian standing left, holding globe and scepter. Florian standing right, holding spear and globe.

359
14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Florian standing to left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Roma seated to right, holding cornucopia. Florian standing to left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Roma seated to right, holding spear; shield to side. Florian standing to left, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Florian standing to right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; shield to side. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victories (2) standing, holding together shield reading VOT / X Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm reading XXX

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Cyzicus Lugdunum Roma Serdica Siscia Ticinum

AU Aureus
1) B1, O17, R51, T26

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 24, C 106

AE Medallion
1) B2, O09, R24, T27 Gnecchi 2

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) B4, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */` B4, O05, R06, T05 Exe: VITI B4, O05, R35, T32 */` B4, O06, R11, T06 Exe: ` B4, O06, R33, T30 Exe: III B5, O11, R35, T33 Exe: */KA` B6, O02, R17, T19 Exe: TTI B6, O03, R01, T01 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R12, T09 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R20, T23 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R36, T31 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R49, T13 Exe: XXI` B6, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */` B6, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */KAB B6, O05, R31, T12 Exe: `TI B6, O05, R36, T31 Exe: III B6, O05, R36, T31 Exe: XXI` B6, O05, R51, T10 Exe: IIII B6, O06, R10, T06 B6, O07, R25, T40 Exe: III B6, O09, R51, T25 B6, O06, R42, T37 Exe: XXI` B6, O11, R13, T09 Exe: */KA` B6, O13, R07, T17 Exe: ` B6, O16, R30, T39 B7, O03, R39, T35 Exe: XXI` RIC Vi 112f, C 72 C 13 RIC Vi 62f, C 22 RIC Vi 82f, C 64 RIC Vi 71c, C 32 RIC Vi 25c, C 1 RIC Vi 30c, C 25 RIC Vi 33c, C 39 RIC 37c RIC Vi 47c, C 97 RIC Vi 112c, C 72 C 61 RIC Vi 10c RIC Vi 37c RIC Vi 16c RIC Vi 61c RIC Vi 7c, C 47 Tom Mullally collection RIC Vi 116c, C 1552 RIC Vi 77c RIC Vi 40a, C 83

360
AE As
27) B2, O09, R41, T37

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 53, C 85

Florian Busts

Florian Types

361
Coming from a military background under Valerian, Probus ascended the throne as usurper against Florian, under pretext that he appropriated the imperial title without the Senate's consent. Florian advanced against Probus and on first appearance it looked like his own army would be no match Augustus 276-282 against Florian's so he gambled that by artificially prolonging a direct confrontation between the two he could frustrate the enemy. The tactic paid off and within days Florian was killed by his own troops and the two armies joined as one to march into Rome.

Probus

Probus then spent the next two years quelling numerous border wars and domestic rebellions. He was highly successful in these regards and, having few wars left to fight retired to Rome. His glory days came to an end partly due to his own military successes. Without battles to fight, the army felt increasingly alienated by Probus who was now spearheading several civic projects meant to strengthen the empire. Malcontents in the army noted cynically that they were soldiers, not peasants. His life thus came to a violent end during a minor moment of strife initiated by some soldiers who had been ordered to clear a swamp. These drew their swords and gave fatal chase to the emperor. Carus, the Praetorian Prefect, may or may not have incited the mutiny but either way Probus's assassins named him emperor only to hear their death sentence as their reward. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left of Probus, holding spear and shield, over radiate bust of Sol Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left holding Victory and shield; spear over right shoulder Helmeted, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate bust facing away, head looking left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust right, raising hand and holding Victory on globe Helmeted, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Laureate, bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Probus, holding spear and shield, over Sol radiate bust right. Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with Victory atop Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe Radiate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield reading VOTIS / X ET XX Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding globe Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding scepter Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Grab a handful of Antoniniani at random and chances are several of them will be of Probus. Along with Aurelian, Probus is king of this silverwashed coin that succeeded the Denarius as the mainstay of the Roman economy. And there were literally millions of these made during the six years he was emperor. Plenty of time to amass a myriad different reverse types and try on the latest military gear that his mint artists could fit on his head and shoulders. Most of these Ants, of course, have not come down through the ages in very good shape. They turn up frequently, for instance, among uncleaned coins sold in bulk and with nary a trace of silvering or, for that matter, anything else left but a faint part of the PROBVS on the legend. But, on the other hand, there are many that were lost or buried shortly after coming from the mint and given just the right conditions remain with their full coat of silvering intact or nearly so. These beauties, needless to say, will cost significantly more than their more corroded brethren. An ordinary Probus of an ordinary reverse design which is spectacularly well preserved will still cost a couple hundred dollars where the same coin type with no silvering and/or for whatever reason is unattractive may have no buyers at a humble price tag of just $5. Collectors specializing in Probus will seek out the rarest bust types and unusual legends. Its hard to gauge the cost for these because of their rarity but Antoniniani have been known to fetch north of a cool grand at auction. And thats to say nothing of gold issues or exotic denominations.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) AVR PROBVS AVG BONO IMP C PROBO AVG BONO IMP C PROBO INVICTO AVG BONO IMP C PROBO PF INVICT AVG BONO IMP PROBO AVG COMIS PROBI AVG DEO ET DOMINO PROBO INVICTO AVG IMP C M AVR PROBO AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII IMP C M AVR PROBVS INV AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS INVICT AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG

362
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF INVICT AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF INVICTVS AVG IMP C M AVR PROBVS PIVS AVG IMP C M AVREL PROBVS PF AVG IMP C M PROBVS INVICT AVG IMP C M PROBVS INVICT P AVG IMP C PROBVS AVG IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS IIII IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS V IMP C PROBVS AVG COS IMP C PROBVS AVG COS II IMP C PROBVS AVG COS III IMP C PROBVS CONS II IMP C PROBVS INV AVG IMP C PROBVS INVICTVS AVG IMP C PROBVS INVICTVS P AVG IMP C PROBVS P AVG IMP C PROBVS PF AVG IMP C PROBVS PIVS F AVG IMP DEO ET DOMINO PROBO AVG 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) IMP M AVR PROBVS PF AVG IMP PROBO INVICTO AVG IMP PROBVS AVG IMP PROBVS AVG CONS III IMP PROBVS INV AVG IMP PROBVS INVICTVS AVG IMP PROBVS P AVG IMP PROBVS PF AVG IMP PROBVS PIVS F AVG PERPETVO IMP C M AVR PROBO AVG PERPETVO IMP C PROBO AVG PERPETVO IMP C PROBO INVICT AVG PERPETVO IMP PROBO AVG PERPETVO IMP PROBO P AVG PROBVS AVG PROBVS P AVG PROBVS PF AVG SOL COMES AVG SOL COMES PROBI AVG VIRTVS PROBI AVG VIRTVS PROBI INVICTI AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADLOCVTIO AVG ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGVSTI ADVENTVS PROBI AVG AEQVITAS AVG AERCVLI PACIF AETERNITAS AVG AETERNITATI AVG CALLIOPE AVG CLEMENTIA TEMP COMES AVG COMITI PROBI AVG CONCOR MIL CONCOR MILI CONCORD AVG CONCORD MIL CONCORD MILI CONCORD MILIT CONCORD MILITV CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA EXERCI CONCORDIA EXERCIT CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIA MILITV CONCORDIA MILITVM CONSERVA AVG CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVATO AVG ERCVLI PACIF ERCVLI PACIFER ERCVLI PACIFERO FELICIA TEMPORA FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS AVG N FELICITAS SAE FELICITAS SAECV FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS SEC FELICITAS SECV FELICITAS TEMP FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FIDES VICTOR FORTVNA REDVX HERCVLI ARCADIO HERCVLI ERYMANTHIO HERCVLI INMORTALI HERCVLI PACIF HERCVLI PACIFERO HERCVLI ROMANO AVG HVMANITAS AVG IMP PROBVS CONS II INDVLGENTIA AVG IOVI CONS AVG IOVI CONS PROB AVG IOVI CONS PROBI AVG 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATO IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N LAETITIA AVGVSTI LAETITIA FVND MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI AVG ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGVSTI ORIGINI AVG PACATOR ORBIS PACI PERPETVAE AVG PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PERPETVIT AVG PERPETVITA AVG PERPETVITATE AVG PIAETAS AVG PIETAS AVG PM TR I P PM TR I P COS PM TR I P COS II PP PM TR I P COS III PP PM TR P COS III PM TR P COS PP PM TR P V COS PM TR P V COS IIII PP PM TR P VI COS V PP PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROV PROBI AVG NOSTRI PROVIDE AVG PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENTI AVGVSTI PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG N PROVIDENTIA AVGVSTI RESTIT ILLVRICI RESTITVT ORBIS RESTITVT SAEC RESTITVT SAECVLI RESTITVT SEC RESTITVT SECVLI RESTITVTOR EXERCITI RESTITVTOR ORBIS RESTITVTOR S AVG RESTITVTOR SECV RESTITVTOR SECVL RESTITVTOR SECVLI 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) RESTITVTOR VRBIS ROMA AETER ROMA AETERN ROMA AETERNA ROMAE AETER ROMAE AETERN ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SALVS MILITVM SALVS PVBLI SALVS PVBLIC SALVS PVBLICA SECVRIT PERP SECVRIT PERPE SECVRIT PERPET SECVRITAS ORBIS SECVRITAS PERPETVA SECVRITAS SAECVLI SISCIA PROBI AVG SOLI INVI COM AVG SOLI INVICTO SOLI INVICTO A SOLI INVICTO AVG SOLI INVICTO COMITI SOLI INVICTO COMITI AVG SPES AVG SPES AVG N SPES AVGVSTI NOSTRI SPES PROBI AVG TEMP FELICITAS TEMPOR FELIC TEMPOR FELICI TEMPOR FELICIT TEMPORVM FELICITAS TRI POT COS VBIQVE PAX VICT PROBI AVG VICT PROBI AVG NOSTRI VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG N VICTORIA GER VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GOTHIC VICTORIA PROBI AVG VICTORIAE VICTORIAE AVG VICTORIAE AVGVSTI VICTORIOSO SEMPER VIRT PROBI AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVGVSTI N VIRTVS INVIC AVG VIRTVS INVICTI AVG VIRTVS PROBI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOTA SOLVTA X

363
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Calliope standing right, playing lyre Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding a standard in each hand Concordia standing right on left, holding standard in each had, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand Fides standing, facing, holding scepter and standard. Fortuna seated left, holding wand and cornucopia Four seasons frolicking Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing left, raising hand over trophy and holding club with lion skin. Hercules standing right, hand on hip and leaning on club with lion skin. Hercules standing right, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing right, wrestling Cerberus Hercules standing right, wrestling deer Hercules standing, facing, holding boar Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Lion advancing left (with thunderbolt in mouth) Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Probus riding horse left over enemy. Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; seated captive to left. Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; two captives under horse. Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; two standards behind and soldier to right. Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; Victory to right. Probus riding horse left, spearing barbarian; shield under horse Probus riding horse right, spearing barbarian; shield under horse Probus riding quadriga left, holding branch and being crowned by Victory; one soldier and right and another on left leading horses Probus riding quadriga left, holding branch Probus riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter Probus riding quadriga right, raising hand and holding scepter with eagle atop. Probus seated left on right, being crowned by Victory, receiving globe from Mars to left; soldier and two standards behind them Probus standing left on platform, raising hand, accompanied by lictor to right and multitude of soldiers all around Probus standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Orbis to left, holding wreath Probus standing left on right, holding spear, receiving globe from soldier to left, holding spear. Probus standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Orbis to left Probus standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Victory to left. Probus standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Probus standing left, holding globe and spear with shield; seated captive by feet. Probus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Probus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; standard on either side. Probus standing left, raising hand and holding spear; two supplicants on either side. Probus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Probus standing left, stepping on captive, holding spear and parazonium; seated captive to right. Probus standing left, touching trophy and holding spear; seated captive to left of trophy Probus standing left, touching trophy and holding spear; seated captive on either side of trophy Probus standing right on left with assistant soldier holding standard, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right; standard in background. Probus standing right on left, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Probus standing right on left, holding scepter with eagle atop, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Probus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Probus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Probus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right, holding spear Probus standing right on left, shaking hands with Concordia to right Probus standing right on left, stepping on captive, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Probus standing right on left, stepping on captive, holding globe and spear, being crowned by Sol to right, holding whip Probus standing right, holding spear and globe Probus standing right, raising hand and holding scepter; standard on either side. Probus standing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and parazonium; seated captive to left. Probus standing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Probus standing right, touching trophy and holding spear; two captives on either side of trophy. Probus standing, facing, raising hand and holding scepter; standard on either side Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing right on left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated right, feeding snake on altar.

364
87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas seated left, holding scepter and touching head Securitas standing left, holding scepter and touching head Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, touching head Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding globe and scepter. Siscia seated left, holding opened wreath with both hands, river god on either side, water below. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive on either side. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol radiate bust right Sol riding oncoming quadriga, raising hand Sol riding oncoming quadriga, raising hand and holding whip Sol riding oncoming quadriga, raising hand and holding whip with globe Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding globe Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding whip on globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive on either side Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing, facing, stepping on captive, holding whip and bow. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (6) columns, Roma seated within, holding Victory and scepter. Temple with (6) columns, Sol standing within, raising hand and holding whip. Trophy, seated captive on either side. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, shaking hands; palm behind. Victories (2) holding shield on palm reading VOT X, captive on either side. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy; seated captive on either side. Victory crowning trophy to left, holding scepter; seated captive on either side of trophy. Victory crowning trophy to right, holding palm; seated captive on either side of trophy. Victory riding biga left Victory riding biga right, holding palm. Victory riding biga right, holding whip. Victory riding quadriga left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side. Victory standing, facing, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus Women (2) standing, facing, each holding a standard and raising skirt. Wreath, VOTIS / X ET XX / FEL within Wreath, VOTIS / X PROBI / AVG ET / XX within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum Roma 5) 6) 7) 8) Serdica Siscia Ticinum Tripolis

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B02, O09, R161, T123, M5 Exe: AVG B05, O15, R084, T047 Exe: COS III B11, O15, R048, T022 B13, O09, R028, T106 B15, O09, R187, T062 B15, O35, R155, T125 B15, O45, R164, T058 Exe: = B16, O09, R134, T090 B16, O09, R134, T090, M6 B16, O09, R134, T090, M6 Exe: SIS B16, O14, R066, T030, M5 B16, O15, R028, T106 B16, O15, R134, T090, M6 Exe: SIS

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 831, C 781

RIC Vii 12 RIC Vii 143, C 794 RIC Vii 896 RIC Vii 594, C 629 RIC Vii 824, C 331 RIC Vii 891, C 175 RIC Vii 593, C 631

AU Quinarius
14) B15, O52, R044, T012 RIC Vii 147

AE Antoninianus
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) B06, O57, R050, T016, M7 Exe: `XXT B07, O15, R171, T029, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O05, R073, T128, M6 Exe: XXI` B08, O07, R100, T079, M7 Exe: Q/*/`XXI B08, O09, R011, T065, M5 Exe: */KA` B08, O09, R100, T079, M6 Exe: XXI` B08, O09, R137, T100, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O09, R171, T038, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O14, R003, T037, M6 Exe: XXI` RIC Vii 376, C 284 RIC Vii 810g RIC Vii 701g RIC Vii 491g, C 486 RIC Vii 838g RIC Vii 719g RIC Vii 862g RIC Vii 887g, C 926 RIC Vii 629g, C 50

365
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) B08, O14, R137, T103, M6 Exe: XXI` B08, O14, R171, T029, M6 Exe: XXI` B08, O14, R171, T038, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O14, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O15, R005, T038, M2 Exe: ` B08, O15, R028, T106, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O15, R078, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O15, R137, T103, M6 Exe: XXI` B08, O15, R171, T038, M2 Exe: `/XXIMC B08, O15, R171, T038, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O15, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O16, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B08, O22, R019, T005, M7 Exe: E/`XXI B08, O22, R123, T109, M4 Exe: R*` B08, O34, R124, T089, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O35, R021, T004, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O40, R003, T038, M4 Exe: R*` B08, O40, R118, T109, M4 Exe: R*` B08, O40, R123, T109, M4 Exe: R*` B08, O40, R155, T115, M4 Exe: R= B08, O45, R021, T004, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O57, R005, T038, M2 Exe: ` B08, O57, R028, T106, M7 Exe: `XXT B08, O57, R040, T007, M7 Exe: `XXT B08, O57, R068, T027, M7 Exe: `XXT B08, O57, R078, T034, M7 Exe: T/*/`XXI B08, O57, R124, T089, M6 Exe: `/XXI B08, O57, R124, T089, M7 Exe: V/*/`XXI B08, O57, R129, T092, M6 Exe: `XXI B08, O57, R129, T092, M7 Exe: */I/`XXI B08, O57, R166, T029, M7 Exe: `XXT B08, O58, R124, T089, M7 Exe: V/`XXI B08, O58, R129, T092, M7 Exe: I/`XXI B10, O57, R005, T038, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O09, R028, T106, M7 Exe: `XXT B20, O09, R137, T100, M5 Exe: KA` B20, O09, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B20, O14, R011, T065, M6 Exe: over `/KA B20, O14, R024, T069, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O14, R077, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O14, R137, T100, M5 Exe: KA` B20, O14, R171, T029, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O15, R005, T038, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R011, T065, M5 Exe: */KA` B20, O15, R019, T069, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O15, R077, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O15, R123, T109, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R137, T101, M2 Exe: CM/XXIQ B20, O15, R137, T101, M2 Exe: CM/XXIT B20, O15, R137, T101, M2 Exe: CXXIM B20, O15, R137, T101, M4 Exe: R` B20, O15, R137, T101, M5 Exe: KA` B20, O15, R137, T101, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R137, T103, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R171, T029, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R171, T042, M6 Exe: XXI` B20, O15, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B20, O22, R019, T005, M7 Exe: E/*/`XXI B20, O22, R068, T027, M7 Exe: `XXI B20, O22, R068, T027, M7 Exe: I/`XXI B20, O22, R100, T079, M7 Exe: Q/*/`XXI B20, O22, R124, T089, M7 Exe: V/*/`XXI B20, O22, R137, T103, M4 Exe: R)` B20, O23, R028, T106, M7 Exe: `XXT B20, O35, R030, T016, M7 Exe: `XXT B20, O35, R035, T007, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O35, R129, T092, M7 Exe: */I/`XXI B20, O35, R171, T029, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O40, R118, T109, M4 Exe: R=` B20, O40, R137, T103, M4 Exe: R*` B20, O40, R137, T103, M4 Exe: R=` B20, O45, R010, T003 B20, O45, R078, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B20, O45, R118, T109, M4 Exe: R)` B20, O45, R118, T109, M4 Exe: R=` B20, O45, R137, T103, M4 Exe: R)` B20, O54, R118, T109, M4 Exe: RV` B22, O09, R001, T001, M3 B22, O09, R166, T084, M3 Exe: IIII B28, O03, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O04, R003, T038, M4 Exe: R)Z B28, O09, R006, T002, M4 Exe: `/XXI B28, O09, R019, T069, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O09, R028, T106, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O09, R028, T106, M7 Exe: `XXT B28, O09, R035, T010, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O09, R043, T012, M7 Exe: `XXT RIC Vii 774g, C 659 RIC Vii 816g, C 894 RIC Vii 888g, C 927 C 912 RIC Vii 903g, C 56 RIC Vii 670g RIC Vii 711g, C 425 RIC Vii 767g, C 663 RIC Vii 913g, C 928 RIC Vii 886g, C 928 RIC Vii 877g, C 912 RIC Vii 882g RIC Vii 481g, C 126 RIC Vii 194g RIC Vii 660g RIC Vii 157g, C 39 RIC Vii 186g, C 532 RIC Vii 195g, C 546 RIC Vii 214g RIC Vii 661g RIC Vii 904g, C 69 RIC Vii 351g, C 200 RIC Vii 361g RIC Vii 472g RIC Vii 517g, C 427 RIC Vii 746g, C 569 RIC Vii 500g, C 584 RIC Vii 758g, C 622 RIC Vii 526g RIC Vii 430g, C 807 RIC Vii 501g, C 586 RIC Vii 572g, C 618 RIC Vii 634 RIC Vii 348h, C 180 RIC Vii 862h, C 574 RIC Vii 878h, C 911 RIC Vii 643h, C 91 RIC Vii 709h RIC Vii 864h RIC Vii 816h, C 895 RIC Vii 632h, C 57 RIC Vii 838h RIC Vii 650h RIC Vii 704h, C 92 RIC Vii 737h RIC Vii 911h, C 683 RIC Vii 911h, C 683 RIC Vii 911h, C 683 RIC Vii 204h RIC Vii 776h RIC Vii 767h, C 663 RIC Vii 810h, C 904 RIC Vii 818h, C 931 RIC Vii 877h, C 917 RIC Vii 480h, C 121 RIC Vii 507h, C 356 RIC Vii 508h, C 352 RIC Vii 490h, C 478 RIC Vii 499h, C 577 RIC Vii 201h RIC Vii 352h RIC Vii 375h RIC Vii 683c RIC Vii 525h, C 612 RIC Vii 812h, C 886 RIC Vii 185h, C 531 RIC Vii 202h, C 644 RIC Vii 202h, C 644 RIC Vii 713h, C 416 C 533 RIC Vii 183h, C 533 RIC Vii 200h, C 648 RIC Vii 187h, C 528

RIC Vii 155f, C 40 RIC Vii 150f, C 74 RIC Vii 671f, C 180 RIC Vii 348f, C 180 RIC Vii 676f, C 215 RIC Vii 364f

366
111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) B28, O09, R043, T013, M4 Exe: XXI B28, O09, R044, T012, M3 Exe: III B28, O09, R064, T025, M3 Exe: IIII B28, O09, R066, T029, M3 Exe: II B28, O09, R071, T105, M3 Exe: I B28, O09, R089, T057, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O09, R102, T080, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O09, R102, T081, M3 Exe: II B28, O09, R124, T088, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O09, R150, T011, M3 Exe: I B28, O09, R167, T075, M3 Exe: IIII B28, O09, R171, T029, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O09, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O14, R106, T050, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O15, R106, T050, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O15, R137, T101, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O15, R171, T029, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O16, R137, T100, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O18, R137, T101, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O22, R077, T034, M7 Exe: `XXI B28, O22, R129, T092, M7 Exe: `XXI B28, O35, R001, T001, M3 Exe: IIII B28, O35, R001, T001, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O35, R002, T049, M6 B28, O35, R003, T037, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O35, R013, T033, M3 Exe: I B28, O35, R019, T005, M7 Exe: `XXI B28, O35, R024, T069, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O35, R040, T007, M7 Exe: `XXT B28, O35, R044, T012, M3 Exe: III B28, O35, R050, T016, M7 Exe: `XXT B28, O35, R059, T066, M7 Exe: `XXT B28, O35, R064, T025, M3 Exe: IIII B28, O35, R066, T029, M3 Exe: II B28, O35, R066, T029, M3 Exe: III B28, O35, R068, T027, M7 Exe: `XXI B28, O35, R073, T128, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O35, R077, T034, M3 D in left field B28, O35, R077, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O35, R082, T035, M3 Exe: III B28, O35, R086, T026, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O35, R087, T026, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O35, R100, T079, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O35, R102, T078, M3 Exe: III B28, O35, R124, T088, M3 B in right field B28, O35, R124, T089, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O35, R127, T089, M7 Exe: `XXI B28, O35, R142, T108, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O35, R148, T011, M3 Exe: I B28, O35, R149, T011, M3 B in right field B28, O35, R149, T011, M3 Exe: B B28, O35, R150, T011, M3 Exe: II B28, O35, R166, T084, M7 Exe: `XXT B28, O40, R003, T038, M4 Exe: R` B28, O40, R118, T109, M4 Exe: R*` B28, O42, R035, T010, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O42, R103, T080, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O45, R011, T066, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O45, R021, T004, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O45, R024, T069, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O45, R044, T012, M4 Exe: R=` B28, O45, R058, T024, M4 Exe: R)` B28, O45, R078, T034, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O45, R112, T050, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O45, R124, T089, M6 Exe: `/XXI B28, O45, R137, T103, M6 Exe: XXI` B28, O45, R155, T115, M4 Exe: R) B28, O46, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B28, O54, R003, T038, M4 Exe: R)Z B28, O54, R008, T106, M4 Exe: RIZ B28, O54, R044, T012, M4 Exe: R)` B28, O54, R057, T024, M4 Exe: R)` B28, O54, R068, T031, M4 Exe: RQ` B28, O54, R102, T079, M4 Exe: RT` B28, O54, R155, T115, M4 Exe: RT B28, O54, R158, T111, M4 Exe: RA` B30, O14, R137, T101, M5 Exe: KA` B32, O14, R123, T109, M4 Exe: R B35, O03, R137, T101, M5 Exe: KA` B35, O09, R011, T065, M1 Exe: `/XXI B35, O09, R011, T066, M6 Exe: `/XXI B35, O09, R019, T069, M6 Exe: XXI` B35, O09, R019, T069, M7 Exe: /`XXT B35, O09, R026, T053, M2 Exe: `/XXIMC B35, O09, R077, T034, M3 ( in right field B35, O09, R106, T050, M5 Exe: */KA` B35, O09, R171, T029, M6 Exe: XXI` B35, O09, R171, T111, M6 Exe: XXI` RIC Vii 151f, C 248 RIC Vii 28f, C 256 RIC Vii 31f, C 329 RIC Vii 37f RIC Vii 44f, C 388 RIC Vii 607f RIC Vii 725f, C 497 RIC Vii 47f RIC Vii 744f, C 567 RIC Vii 52f, C 729 RIC Vii 56f, C 869 RIC Vii 811f, C 888 RIC Vii 878f, C 910 RIC Vii 731f RIC Vii 861f RIC Vii 810f, C 898 C 686 RIC Vii 865f, C 684 RIC Vii 547f, C 399 RIC Vii 525f, C 611 RIC Vii 17f, C 1 RIC Vii 619f RIC Vii 626f, C 51 RIC Vii 69f, C 106 RIC Vii 531f RIC Vii 665f, C 164 RIC Vii 360f, C 227 RIC Vii 29f RIC Vii 375f RIC Vii 387f, C 310 RIC Vii 32f, C 328 RIC Vii 38f, C 334 RIC Vii 84f RIC Vii 541f, C 353 RIC Vii 701f RIC Vii 119f RIC Vii 706f, C 402 RIC Vii 93f C 447 RIC Vii 616f, C 457 RIC Vii 720f, C 477 RIC Vii 46f, C 496 RIC Vii 124f, C 567 RIC Vii 747f, C 579 RIC Vii 567f, C 599 RIC Vii 787f RIC Vii 104f RIC Vii 129f, C 727 C 727 RIC Vii 53f, C 728 RIC Vii 436f, C 817 RIC Vii 157f, C 37 RIC Vii 185f RIC Vii 679f, C 216 RIC Vii 727f, C 500 RIC Vii 647f, C 101 RIC Vii 661f RIC Vii 666f, C 161 C 306 RIC Vii 713f, C 417 RIC Vii 734f, C 506 RIC Vii 748f, C 572 RIC Vii 770f, C 647 RIC Vii 213f, C 744 RIC Vii 158f RIC Vii 168f, C 78 C 252 C 305 RIC Vii 177f, C 350 RIC Vii 181f, C 493 RIC Vii 215f, C 740 RIC Vii 223f, C 766

RIC Vii 921c RIC Vii 644c, C 87 RIC Vii 651c RIC Vii 332c, C 137 RIC Vii 908c, C 172 C 404 RIC Vii 851c, C 507 RIC Vii 810c RIC Vii 821c, C 937

367
199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) B35, O09, R172, T061, M4 Exe: R B35, O14, R106, T050, M5 Exe: */KA` B35, O14, R137, T100, M5 Exe: KA` B35, O15, R011, T065, M8 Exe: */XXI B35, O15, R011, T067, M1 Exe: `/XXI B35, O15, R099, T082, M5 Exe: */KA` B35, O15, R106, T050, M6 Exe: `/XXI B35, O15, R106, T050, M8 Exe: `/XXI B35, O16, R112, T066, M5 Exe: MS/KA` B35, O17, R099, T082, M5 Exe: */KA` B35, O34, R106, T050, M5 Exe: */KA` B35, O35, R001, T001, M3 Exe: IIII B35, O35, R024, T069, M6 Exe: `/XXI B35, O35, R106, T050, M6 Exe: */XXI` B35, O35, R142, T108, M3 & in left field B35, O42, R019, T069, M6 Exe: B/XXI B35, O42, R019, T069, M6 Exe: /XXI B35, O42, R105, T129, M6 Exe: XXI B35, O45, R011, T067, M6 Exe: `/XXI B35, O45, R026, T053, M2 Exe: `/XXI B35, O45, R137, T103, M6 Exe: XXI` B36, O09, R011, T065, M2 Exe: `/XXI* B36, O09, R011, T065, M6 Exe: `/XXI B36, O09, R012, T033, M3 A in left field B36, O09, R035, T009, M6 Exe: `/XXI B36, O09, R035, T010, M6 Exe: `/XXI B36, O09, R043, T012, M7 Exe: `XXT B36, O09, R066, T029, M3 B36, O09, R097, T079, M6 Exe: `/XXI B36, O09, R099, T081, M7 Exe: `TI B36, O09, R118, T068, M7 Exe: `XXT B36, O09, R166, T084, M7 Exe: `XXT B36, O15, R011, T067, M1 Exe: `/XXI B36, O15, R137, T101, M6 Exe: XXI` B36, O15, R171, T043, M5 Exe: KA` B36, O35, R028, T106, M7 Exe: `XXT B36, O35, R099, T082, M5 Exe: */KA` B36, O35, R106, T050, M6 Exe: */XXI` B36, O42, R144, T108, M6 Exe: XXI B38, O45, R155, T111, M4 Exe: R)` RIC Vii 854c RIC Vii 864c, C 677 RIC Vii 927c RIC Vii 922c RIC Vii 844c RIC Vii 731c, C 509 RIC Vii 925c RIC Vii 858c RIC Vii 855c RIC Vii 17c, C 1 RIC Vii 733c RIC Vii 128c, C 701 RIC Vii 657c, C 147 RIC Vii 657c, C 147 RIC Vii 730c RIC Vii 647c, C 101 RIC Vii 907c RIC Vii 770c, C 647 RIC Vii 907a RIC Vii 644a, C 87 RIC Vii 115a RIC Vii 675c, C 214 RIC Vii 674a RIC Vii 364a RIC Vii 83a RIC Vii 716a, C 467 RIC Vii 319a, C 470 RIC Vii 407a RIC Vii 435a, C 819 RIC Vii 920a RIC Vii 776a, C 677 RIC Vii 877a, C 917 RIC Vii 349a, C 193 RIC Vii 846a, C 471 RIC Vii 733a RIC Vii 791a, C 706 RIC Vii 217f, C 40

AE Medallion
239) B17, O43, R054, T044

Reference(s)

AE Quinarius
240) B04, O57, R155, T126 241) B14, O40, R071, T103 C 391

368
Probus Busts

Probus Types

369
Probus Types (continued)

370
Probus Types (continued)

371
A very obscure usurper hailing from Alexandria, Egypt, all that is known for sure is that he was promoted to the position of emperor by a mutinous army detachment formerly loyal to Probus. Saturninus must have been either a commander or a high-ranking civil servant. Speculation can point to Probus's Augustus c.280 decision to partially demobilize the army and put them to work in civic projects as a likely reason that spurred the seditious troops to name an emperor of their own. In any event, Saturninus is said to have been very reluctant in becoming a usurper. Pollio, a historian of the age, quotes him as greeting his new subjects "You have lost a useful commander and gained a wretched emperor". His premonition proved correct as his reign ends soon afterwards. Whether murdered or died of natural causes, again, is left to speculation but the safe bets have the money on the more violent outcome.

Saturninus

Perhaps the greates of all rarities in ancient Roman coinage, there is only one Aureus struck with his name known to numismatics. And, given the lack of any other coins of his, RIC even will only go so far as to state that its authenticity is likely. There is anecdotal evidence of another usurper by the same name (and same region) during the reign of Gallienus. No coins of this other Saturninus are known. Bust:
1) Laureate, cuirassed bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP C IVL SATVRNINVS AVG

In 1991 the coin pictured below was sold at auction for $180,000. It was a bargain. Barring a miracle find of more coins bearing his name, Saturninus will remain hopelessly out of reach for even the wealthiest of collectors.

Reverse:
1) VICTORIAE AVG

Type:
1) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch

Mint:
1) Alexandria

AU Aureus
1) B1 O1 R1 T1

Reference(s)
RIC 1

372
The short reign of this emperor is clouded with differing accounts of his life. Whether he instigated a successful revolt that ended with the death of Probus or that he was simply named emperor upon hearing of his death is unsure. Either way, his accession was ratified by the Senate. He promptly set out with his armies to Augustus 282-283 counter recent tribal invasions along the empire's Germanic borders and from there led a successful campaign against the Persians. What happened next is also unsure but Carus died under suspicious conditions. Supposedly he was stricken by lightning but this sounds too convenient and it can be suspected that because of the timing an aspiring general may have played a role.

Carus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) a) Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right Sol radiate, draped bust right facing Carus radiate, cuirassed bust left

Carus had a brief but active minting period while he was emperor. Still, his coins are somewhat undervalued for how often they turn up. These by and large will again be the familiar silver-washed Antoninianus and most are found in rather shabby condition. As is the case with other coins of this age a handful are breathtaking gems with intact silvering. Because of the condition more so than anything else you should expect to see such coins sell for several hundred dollars. For the rank and file Ants though, a $20 coin should at least be presentable enough and $100 should buy an outright beauty with the understanding that it may be quite some time before such a coin is available.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) DEO ET DOMINO CARO AVG DEO ET DOMINO CARO INVIC AVG DIVO CARO DIVO CARO AVG DIVO CARO PARTHICO DIVO CARO PERS DIVO CARO PIO IMP C CARVS AVG IMP C CARVS PF AVG IMP C KARVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR CARVS AVG IMP C M AVR CARVS P AVG IMP C M AVR CARVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR KARVS AVG IMP C M AVR KARVS PF AVG IMP C M AVREL CARVS AVG IMP CAESAR M AVR CARVS AVG IMP CARVS AVG IMP CARVS P AVG IMP CARVS PF AVG IMP M AVR CARVS AVG IMP M AVR CARVS PF AVG VIRTVS CARI AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) ABVNDANT AVG ABVNDANTIA AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNIT IMPERI ANNONA AVG CLEMENTIA TEMP CONSECRATIO CONSECRATIOAVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS REIPVBLICAE FIDE MILITVM FIDES MILIT FORTVNA AVG IOVI VICTORI MARS VLTOR 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) MARTI PROPVGNATORI MONETA AVGG ORIENS CARI AVG PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PAX AVGVSTORVM PAX EXERCITI PERPETVITATE AVG PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PROVIDE AVGG PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENT AVGG PROVIDENTIA AVG 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) PROVIDENTIA AVGG RESTITVT ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SECVRITAS PVBLICA SPES PVBLICA VICTORI AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG FEL VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGGG VIRTVS CARI INVICTI AVG

Types:
1) 2) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia.

373
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) Altar Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Carus standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Orbis to left, holding wreath. Carus standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Victory to left, holding wreath Carus standing right on left, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Eagle perched on globe Eagle standing left Eagle standing right. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Galley sailing left Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; eagle to left. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by their feet Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax advancing left, holding wreath and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and standard Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding wreath and scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield on base Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory riding biga left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum Roma Siscia Ticinum Tripolis

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B05, O20, R13, T13 B06, O22, R35, T33 B07, O13, R37, T38 B08, O01, R37, T38 B08, O13, R16, T18 B08, O13, R18, T32 Exe: B08, O13, R30, T25 B08, O13, R37, T37 Exe: B08, O13, R40, T35 B08, O13, R44, T15 Exe: K

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 33 RIC Vii 64 RIC Vii 95, C 86 RIC Vii 96, C 86 C 66 RIC Vii 98 RIC Vii 117, C 118

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
11) B05, O20, R13, T13 RIC Vii 1, C 33

AE Medallion
12) B06, O13, R17, T20 C 41

AE Antoninianus
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) B01, O23, R38, T39 A in left field B02, O11, R21, T23 D in left field B02, O11, R38, T39 A in left field B11, O11, R38, T39 A in left field B11, O13, R04, T31 Exe: KA` B11, O13, R05, T04 Exe: R` B11, O13, R14, T17 Exe: KA` B11, O13, R29, T26 Exe: `K B11, O13, R31, T26 RIC Vii 25 RIC Vii 13 RIC Vii 18, C 88 RIC Vii 24f RIC Vii 35f RIC Vii 37f, C 12 RIC Vii 38f, C 37 RIC Vii 42f, C 69 RIC Vii 43f

374
22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) B11, O13, R32, T05 Exe: * over II/XXI B11, O13, R38, T36 Exe: KAA B11, O13, R42, T40 Exe: R` B11, O20, R02, T01 Exe: TXXI B11, O20, R04, T31 Exe: KA` B11, O20, R24, T24 Exe: `XXI B11, O20, R24, T24 Exe: VIXXI B11, O20, R35, T33 Exe: `XXI B11, O20, R41, T40 Exe: `XXI B11, O20, R42, T40 Exe: KA` B12, O13, R42, T07 Exe: `/XXI B12, O13, R43, T07 Exe: `/XXI B13, O13, R37, T34 Exe: ` Ba, O02, R10, T11 Exe: .X.I.I. RIC Vii 106f, C 114 RIC Vii 45f, C 114 RIC Vii 36f RIC Vii 75f, C 56 RIC Vii 74f, C 58 RIC Vii 82f, C 79 RIC Vii 91f, C 106 RIC Vii 46f, C 110 RIC Vii 124c, C 116 RIC Vii 125c, C 117 RIC Vii 120a, C 93 RIC Vii 99, C 28

AE Antoninianus (Posthumous)
36) 37) B10, O04, R07, T10 Exe: `/XXI B10, O05, R08, T03 Exe: XXI`

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 126k, C 16 RIC Vii 110k, C 23

Carus Busts

375
Carus Types

376
Carinus became Caesar along with his brother Numerian soon after their father, Carus, arrived to the throne. When war broke out with the Persians, Carus elevated both sons and all three held the same title. Carus took Numerian along with him to war and both perished leaving him as the sole surviving emperor. He was a Augustus 283-285 hated emperor with sources citing unprovoked murders within the Senate and various sadistic practices. Soon a usurper arose, Diocletian, whom he confronted in battle and just as he seemed to emerge victorious he was slain by one of his own soldiers who had an unrelated score to settle with him.

Carinus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter with eagle atop Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Laureate head right Laureate head right right over Numerian laureate, draped bust right Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left, holding spear Radiate, draped bust right

In the dynasty that was to include his Dad Carus, brother Numerian, wife Magnia Urbica and son Nigrinian, Carinus is the most prominent member featured on coins. Among these, as usual, the vast majority will be the silvered Antoninianus which is long by now the workhorse of the economy. The Aureus is also struck and the predominantly militaristic themes on the reverses, paired with equally militaristic busts on the obverses, hints strongly at their intended duty: the soldiers pay. The Ants themselves are scarcer than those of Aurelian and Probus but not much more expensive.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) CARINVS AVG CARINVS CAES CARINVS ET NVMERIANVS AVGG CARINVS N CAES CARINVS NOBIL CAES CARVS ET CARINVS AVG IMP C CARINVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG IMP C M AVR CARINVS NOB C IMP C M AVR CARINVS P AVG IMP C M AVR CARINVS PF AVG IMP C MAVR CARINVS NOB C IMP CAESAR M AVR CARINVS IMP CARINVS AVG IMP CARINVS P AVG IMP CARINVS PF AVG IMP M AVR CARINVS AVG 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) IMP M AVR CARINVS NOB C IMP M AVR CARINVS PF AVG IMPP CARVS ET CARINVS AVGG KARVS ET KARINVS AVGG M AVR CARINVS M AVR CARINVS C M AVR CARINVS CAES M AVR CARINVS N CAES M AVR CARINVS NOB C M AVR CARINVS NOB CAE M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES M AVR CARINVS NOBIL CAES M AVR CARINVS PF NOB CAES M AVR KARINVS NOB CAE MAGNIA VRBICA AVG NVMERIANVS AVG VIRTVS CARINI NOB CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) ABVNDANTIA AVG ABVNDANTIA AVGG ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGG NN AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNIT AVG AETERNIT AVGG AETERNITAS AVGG CLEMENTIA TEMP CONCORDIA AVG FEDES MILITVM FELICI PVBLICA FELICIT PVBLICA FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS REIPVBLICAE FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVGG FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVX GENIVS EXERC GENIVS EXERCITI IOVI CONSER 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA FVND LIBERALITAS AVGG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI VICTORI MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG PAX AETERNA PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PAX AVGVSTORVM PAX EXERCITI PIETA AVG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PM TR I P COS PP PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTI PRINCIPIS IVVENTVTI PROVIDE AVGG PROVIDENT AVGG 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVGG SPES AVG SPES AVGG VENERI VICTRICI VICTOR CARO VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM VICTORIA CAESARIS VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIAE AVGG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGGG VIRTVS AVGVSTOR VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTI AVGG VOTA PVBLICA VICTORIAE AVGVSTT SPES PVBLICA

377
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe and raising skirt. Carinus and Carus standing, facing each other, holding Victory together Carinus and Carus standing, facing each other, holding Victory together who crowns them both. Carinus and Carus standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; two standards in background. Carinus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Carinus riding horse right over enemy Carinus riding quadriga right, holding branch. Carinus standing left, being crowned by Victory, reaching for two kneeling captives to left. Carinus standing left, holding globe and spear. Carinus standing left, holding globe and spear; seated captive to left. Carinus standing left, holding globe and standard Carinus standing left on right, being crowned by Hercules, facing Carus to left, being crowned by Sol Carinus standing left, holding scepter; two standards to right. Carinus standing left, holding spear and globe. Carinus standing left, holding spear; two standards on either side. Carinus standing left, holding standard and scepter Carinus standing left, holding wand and spear Carinus standing left, holding wand and spear; two standards to right. Carinus standing right on left, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Carinus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Carus to right, holding scepter Carinus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Carinus standing right on left, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Carinus standing right, holding spear and globe Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter Pax advancing left, holding branch and standard. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter Roma seated left, holding wreath and scepter. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Sol advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Venus standing left, holding Cupid and apple Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory riding biga left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and trophy. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Alexandria Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum 5) 6) 7) 8) Roma Siscia Ticinum Tripolis

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B02, O16, R57, T56 B04, O03, R58, T58 B06, O07, R58, T56 B06, O12, R62, T59 Exe: SMA B06, O16, R63, T33 B06, O28, R57, T62 B07, O28, R29, T38

Reference(s)

RIC Vii 312, C 133 RIC Vii 233, C 160 RIC Vii 190, C 139 RIC Vii 188, C 50

378
8) 9) 10) B07, O28, R50, T48 B08, O30, R59, T22 B09, O28, R60, T60 Exe: K RIC Vii 189, C 114 RIC Vii 193, C 156 RIC Vii 201

AE Medallion
11) B06, O11, R31, T41

Reference(s)

AE Antoninianus
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) B11, O05, R44, T11 ( in left field B11, O05, R51, T25 ( in right field B11, O16, R51, T25 D in right field B12, O07, R64, T23 Exe: `/XXI B12, O09, R64, T23 Exe: `/XXI B12, O11, R24, T21 Exe: `/SMSXXI B12, O11, R64, T21 Exe: * over TR/XXI B12, O11, R64, T21 Exe: `/XXI B12, O11, R69, T06 Exe: SMSXXI` B12, O16, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R18, T29 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R18, T29 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R18, T29 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R25, T35 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R25, T35 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R26, T36 Exe: KA` B12, O16, R32, T52 Exe: K B12, O16, R40, T40 Exe: K` B12, O28, R43, T19 Exe: * over `/XXI B12, O28, R43, T20 Exe: */XXI` B14, O05, R51, T25 ( in right field B14, O08, R06, T02 Officina in right field B14, O08, R06, T02 Exe: KA` B14, O08, R08, T02 Exe: KA` B14, O08, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B14, O08, R51, T25 D in right field B14, O08, R52, T50 D in right field B14, O11, R17, T29 Exe: KA` B14, O11, R23, T31 Exe: KA` B14, O11, R68, T32 Exe: KA` B14, O11, R69, T06 Exe: SMSXXI` B14, O16, R14, T27 Exe: `XXI B14, O16, R18, T29 Exe: KA` B14, O16, R18, T29 Exe: KA` B14, O16, R21, T30 Exe: `XXIT B14, O16, R23, T31 B14, O16, R44, T12 Exe: `XXI B14, O16, R68, T32 Exe: KA` B14, O19, R10, T23 Exe: `/XXI B14, O24, R44, T18 Exe: KA` B14, O26, R41, T44 Exe: KA` B14, O26, R44, T11 Exe: `KA B14, O26, R44, T13 Exe: `XXI B14, O26, R44, T18 Exe: VIXXI B14, O26, R45, T20 Exe: VIXXI B14, O28, R41, T44 Exe: `AK B14, O28, R43, T19 Exe: KA` B14, O28, R43, T20 Exe: */XXI` B14, O28, R44, T19 Exe: R` B14, O28, R49, T46 Exe: VI/XXI B16, O11, R10, T24 Exe: `/XXI B16, O12, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B16, O12, R08, T03 Exe: KA` B16, O19, R10, T24 Exe: `/XXI RIC Vii 150, C 92 RIC Vii 152, C 117 RIC Vii 215 RIC Vii 326f RIC Vii 206f, C 177 RIC Vii 314f, C 41 RIC Vii 329f, C 184 RIC Vii 325f RIC Vii 315f, C 194 RIC Vii 244f, C 10 RIC Vii 244f, C 10 RIC Vii 244f, C 10

RIC Vii 258f, C 45 RIC Vii 257f, C 44 RIC Vii 261f RIC Vii 262f RIC Vii 264f, C 72 RIC Vii 197f, C 89 RIC Vii 198f, C 87 RIC Vii 152c, C 115 RIC Vii 212c, C 8 RIC Vii 238c, C 8 RIC Vii 247c, C 16 RIC Vii 243c, C 11 RIC Vii 214c, C 120 RIC Vii 216 RIC Vii 251f, C 31 RIC Vii 254c, C 39 RIC Vii 271c, C 191 RIC Vii 295c, C 24 RIC Vii 253f, C 28 RIC Vii 253f, C 28 RIC Vii 298c, C 34 C 37 RIC Vii 302c, C 99 RIC Vii 272c, C 192 RIC Vii 202c, C 19 RIC Vii 160c, C 102 RIC Vii 156c, C 75 RIC Vii 161c, C 91 RIC Vii 182c, C 98 RIC Vii 177c, C 84 RIC Vii 183c, C 107 RIC Vii 155c, C 74 RIC Vii 158c, C 83 RIC Vii 158c, C 83 RIC Vii 323a, C 21 RIC Vii 248f, C 14 RIC Vii 248f, C 14 RIC Vii 324a, C 20

AE Denarius
68) B06, O16, R58, T57 Exe: SMS

379
Carinus Busts

Carinus Types

380
Carinus Types (continued)

Magnia Urbica
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Carinus.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) MAGNIAE VRBICAE AVG MAGNIA VRBICA AVG MAGN VRBICA AVG MAG VRBICA AVG VRBICIA MAGNA AVG

The coins of Magnia Urbica are fairly difficult to obtain. On very rare occasions low grade Antoniniani may be found among common uncleaned Roman bronzes as offered on the Internet but given the infrequency one is better off arranging with a dealer to locate one. Prices are generally in the low- to midhundreds depending on quality.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) CONCORDIA AVGG IVNO REGINA PVDICITIA AVG SALVS PVBLICA VENERI VICTRICI VENVS CELEST VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICTRIX

Aurei have shown up with relative frequency


among the more exclusive auction houses. For these, prices begin at about $10,000.

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter

381
6) 7) 8) Venus standing left, holding helmet and cradling scepter; shield to right. Venus standing left, holding helmet and holding scepter; shield to left. Venus standing right, pulling dress off shoulder and holding scepter

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Lugdunum Roma Siscia Ticinum

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O2, R7, T5 B1, O2, R5, T8 B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 336, C 10 RIC Vii 340, C 8 RIC Vii 348, C 1

AE Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) B2, O3, R7, T5 D in left field B2, O3, R8, T7 Exe: KA B2, O3, R8, T7 Exe: KA B2, O3, R8, T7 Exe: KA B2, O3, R8, T7 Exe: KA B2, O3, R8, T7 Exe: KA B2, O2, R8, T6 Exe: T/SXXI B2, O2, R8, T6 Exe: SXXIT B2, O1, R4, T4 Exe: A/SMSXXI RIC Vii 337, C 11 RIC Vii 343, C 17 RIC Vii 343, C 17 RIC Vii 343, C 17 RIC Vii 343, C 17 RIC Vii 343, C 17 RIC Vii 347, C 15 RIC Vii 347, C 15 RIC Vii 349, C 7

Magnia Urbica Busts

Magnia Urbica Types

382

Nigrinian
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) Radiate bust right Radiate head right

Son of Carinus.

Obverse:
1) DIVO NIGRINIANO

These posthumous issues struck by Carinus in memory of his son are pretty rare. They seem to sell in the neighborhood of $1,000 in decent condition but even a marginal one will not cost considerably less. Due to the rarity, one can speculate that Carinus ordered the minting of these coins not long before he was defeated in battle.

Reverse:
1) CONSECRATIO

Types:
1) 2) Altar Eagle standing, facing

Mint:
1) Roma

AE Antoninianus (Posthumous)
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O1, R1, T2 Exe: KA` B2, O1, R1, T1 Exe: KA` B2, O1, R1, T2 Exe: KA` B2, O1, R1, T2 Exe: KA

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 472, C 2 RIC Vii 474, C 3 RIC Vii 472, C 2 RIC Vii 472, C 2

Nigrinian Busts

Nigrinian Types

383
Son of Carus and brother of Carinus, Numerian's brief stint as emperor started when he along with his father set out for war against the Sassanians in Persia (Iran). Under mysterious circumstances Carus was incinerated in his tent just prior to the military encounter of the two armies. The official Augustus 283-284 explanation was that the tent had been stricken by lightning but this has been interpreted as much too convenient. As the battle was called off and the army was returning Numerian, too, was found dead in his quarters. This time a hasty investigation was started and the Praetorian Prefect, a certain Aper, was killed on the spot by Diocletian. He then proclaimed himself emperor and renouncing Carinus. With the suspicious death of Numerian the report of Carus's death made for a more compelling story that the Prefect had had a hand in their deaths. It is likely that Diocletian had engineered a sophisticated conspiracy using Aper as the central pawn and then scapegoat.

Numerian

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust right holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right Radiate head right

Numerians Antoniniani are not very rare despite the short stay at the top. Condition more than anything will determine the going rate for the coins with fully-silvered pieces costing upwards of $100 each. There are a few other denominations, including the Aureus, but are all very rare and expensive.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) DIVO NVMERIANO DIVO NVMERIANO AVG IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS AVG IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS PF AVG IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG IMP C NVMERIANVS PF AVG IMP NVMERIANVS AVG IMP NVMERIANVS PF AVG M AVR NVMERIANVS C M AVR NVMERIANVS CAES M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C NVMAERIANVS NOB CAES NVMERIANVS NOB CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) ABVNDANTIA AVGG ADVENTVS AVGG NN AEQVITAS AVGG CLEMENTIA TEMP CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVGGG CONSERVATOR AVGGG FELICITAS AVGG FIDES EXERCIT AVGG IOVI VICTORI MARS VICTOR MARTI PACIFERO ORIENS AVGG PACATOR ORBIS 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) PAX AVG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PM TR P COS PP PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PROVIDENT AVGG PROVIDENTIA AVGG ROMAE AETERN ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVGG SECVRIT AVG SPES AVGG 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) SPES PVBLICA VENERI VICTRI VENERI VICTRICI VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA CAESARIS VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGGG VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM VNDIQVE VICTORES VOTA PVBLICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Eagle standing, facing Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus. Fides seated left, holding patera; two standards to left and one to right Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and leaning on club with lion skin on rock Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Numerian and Carinus riding horse right, hands raised.

384
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) Numerian and Carinus standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; two standards in background Numerian and Carinus standing, facing each other, together holding Victory on globe who crowns both. Numerian standing left, being crowned by Victory to right; one standing and one kneeling captive to left Numerian standing left, holding branch and scepter Numerian standing left, holding globe and scepter Numerian standing left, holding globe and spear; seated captive to either side. Numerian standing left, holding spear; two standards on either side. Numerian standing left, holding standard and spear; two standards to right Numerian standing left, holding wand and globe Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right Numerian standing right on left, holding scepter and receiving globe from Carus to right, holding scepter. Numerian standing right on left, holding scepter and receiving Victory on globe from Carus to right, holding scepter. Numerian standing right on left, holding scepter and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Numerian standing right, spearing enemy Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, holding purse and caduceus Pietas standing right, raising hands over altar Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Roma seated left on shield, holding patera and spear Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and scepter Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, touching head. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol radiate, draped bust right Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt Venus standing left, holding Victory and apple. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory riding chariot left Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; two captives on either side. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm Virtus riding horse right, spearing enemy Virtus riding horse right, spearing two enemies Virtus standing left, holding Victory on globe and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing, facing, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum Roma 5) 6) 7) Siscia Ticinum Tripolis

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B03, O03, R13, T40 B03, O08, R32, T48 B04, O04, R06, T39 Exe: SMA B04, O08, R30, T43 B04, O08, R36, T07

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 381 RIC Vii 373 RIC Vii 405, C 93 RIC Vii 408

AE Antoninianus
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) B07, O06, R16, T29 B in left field B07, O08, R16, T29 B in left field B08, O06, R11, T10 C in right field B08, O06, R16, T29 B in left field B08, O06, R18, T31 Exe: C/LVG B08, O07, R09, T06 Exe: `/SMSXXI B08, O07, R18, T11 Exe: KA` B08, O08, R10, T08 Exe: KA` B08, O08, R39, T18 Exe: KA` B08, O09, R10, T08 Exe: KA` B08, O09, R22, T32 Exe: VXXI B08, O10, R36, T24 Exe: * over TR/XXI B10, O03, R16, T29 B in right field B10, O07, R04, T26 Exe: `/XXI B10, O07, R09, T06 Exe: `/SMSXXI B10, O07, R36, T25 Exe: `/XXI B10, O07, R40, T13 Exe: SMSXXI` B10, O08, R13, T37 Exe: KA` B10, O08, R18, T11 Exe: KA` B10, O08, R39, T18 Exe: KA` B10, O09, R21, T22 Exe: VIXXI B10, O10, R18, T11 Exe: KA` B10, O10, R20, T17 Exe: KA` B10, O10, R20, T22 Exe: KA` B10, O10, R21, T22 Exe: VIXXI RIC Vii 394 RIC Vii 395, C 49 RIC Vii 388f, C 22 RIC Vii 394 RIC Vii 396 RIC Vii 460f, C 15 RIC Vii 414f, C 60 RIC Vii 410f, C 16 RIC Vii 423f RIC Vii 409f, C 17 RIC Vii 447f, C 81 RIC Vii 380f, C 111 RIC Vii 393c RIC Vii 463c, C 8 RIC Vii 460c, C 15 RIC Vii 467c, C 110 RIC Vii 461a, C 122 RIC Vii 195 RIC Vii 416f RIC Vii 423c RIC Vii 444c, C 79 RIC Vii 360c, C 66 RIC Vii 362c, C 77 RIC Vii 366c, C 69

385
31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) B10, O12, R13, T38 B10, O12, R21, T22 Exe: KA` B11, O03, R16, T29 B in left field B11, O07, R09, T06 Exe: `/SMSXXI B11, O08, R13, T37 Exe: KA` B11, O09, R22, T32 Exe: VXXI B11, O10, R36, T25 Exe: `/XXI C 40 RIC Vii 361c, C 76 RIC Vii 393a RIC Vii 460a, C 15 RIC Vii 412a, C 37 RIC Vii 447a, C 81 RIC Vii 377a, C 104

AE Antoninianus (Posthumous)
38) B12, O01, R05, T04 Exe: KA` RIC Vii 424, C 10

AE Quinarius
39) B04, O08, R16, T28 Exe: ` RIC Vii 435, C 53

Numerian Busts

386
Numerian Types

387

Julian I
Augustus c.284-285

Often referred to as "Julian of Pannonia", Julian is one of the lesser-known usurpers. He was elevated as emperor by his own troops during the reign of Carinus and the two met in battle with the latter emerging victorius and the former killed.

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rare but not hopelessly so, the coins of this usurper are offered for sale several times a year from major auction firms and a few regular ancient coin dealers as well. They come in two flavors, the gold Aureus which is hopelessly rare and expensive and the Antoninianus which sells in the $500-$1,000 range.

Obverses:
1) 2) IMP C IVLIANVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) FELICITAS TEMPORVM IOVI CONSERVAT LIBERTAS PVBLICA PANNONIAE AVG VICTORIA AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Pannoniae (2) standing left, raising hand Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Siscia

AU Aureus
1) B2, O1, R3, T3 * in right field

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 3

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) B5, O2, R1, T1 Exe: S/`/XXI B5, O2, R4, T4 Exe: S/XXI B5, O2, R5, T5 Exe: S/`/XXI RIC Vii 2, C 1 RIC Vii 4, C 6 RIC Vii 5, C 7

Julian I Busts

Julian I Types

Interessi correlati