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Ch 1.3

Wkt

Hwa Chong Institution (High Sch Section)

Name:

(

)

Sec 2 Science

Class:

Date:

/

/ 12

Chapter 1.3: Chemical Bonding

Section A (Multiple-choice questions) Choose the correct answer and write its letter in the brackets provided.

1 Which atom has the same electronic configuration as the

strontium ion

?

Strontium is in Group II and 2 valence electrons in the outermost shell. Lose 2 electrons to become Strontium ion of charge +2 Now, the strontium ion has the same electronic configuration as krypton.

For your information: Electronic Configuration:

2,8,18,8,2

A

Calcium

B

Krypton
Krypton

C

Rubidium

D

Selenium

 

(

)

2 Which of the following compounds has the greatest number of electrons transferred to form ionic bonds?

A

Carbon dioxide Covalent Compound – sharing of electrons

 

B

Copper (II) oxide

 

2

electrons are transferred from copper to oxygen

 

C

Potassium fluoride 1 electron is transferred from potassium to fluorine

D

Iron (III) chloride

 

3

electrons are transferred from iron to chlorine

 
 

(

)

3 The symbol of a certain particle is Cu 2+ . This indicates that the particle has

 

Copper atom has lost 2 electrons to become copper ion of charge 2+

A

lost two protons.

 

B

lost two electrons.

 

C

gained two protons.

D

gained two neutrons.

 

(

)

Prepared by Mr Tan Hui Kuan

Chapter 1.3: Chemical Bonding| Page 1 of

4

Germanium (Ge) is used extensively as a semiconductor in the electronics industry. The electronic configuration of the germanium atom is shown below.

Ge (2.8.18.2)

What is the formula of the chloride of this element?

Ge 2+ and Cl

A

GeCl

B

Ge 2 Cl

C

GeCl 2
GeCl 2

D

Ge 2 Cl 2

 

(

)

5 In the manufacture of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide gas and air are passed through a catalyst V 2 O 5 which helps to increase the rate of reaction.

What is the charge of vanadium in this compound V 2 O 5 ?

Charge of vanadium ion = 5+ Charge of oxygen = 2-

A

2+

B

3+

C

5+
5+

D

10+

 

(

)

6 Which one of the following atoms, A, B, C or D, would readily form an ion with a charge of 1+?

Group I elements have one electron on the outermost shell and forms ions of charge 1+.

Mass Number

Atomic

Number

A 12

6

B 16

8

C
C
23
23
11
11

D

31

15

(

)

7

Element P has an electronic configuration of 2. 8. 6. Element R has an electronic configuration of 2. 8. 8. 1. What is likely to form if P and R combined?

R +1 and P 2-

A

ionic compound RP

B

ionic compound R 2 P

 

C

covalent compound RP

D

covalent compound R 6 P 6

 

(

)

8 Which of the following pairs of elements can combine to form an ionic compound?

Ionic compound is formed between metal and non-metal. Na + and F - Ionic compound formed: NaF

A

carbon and chlorine

B

fluorine and sodium

 

C

hydrogen and oxygen

 

D

oxygen and carbon

 

(

)

9 The table shows the electronic configuration of four elements.

Element

Electronic Configuration

W

2.6

X

2.8

Y

2.8.1

Z

2.8.7

Which of the following pair of atoms can combine to form a covalent compound? Element W – Non metal Element X – Noble gas Element Y – Group 1 Element (Alkali Metal) Element Z – Group 7 Element (Halogen)

A

two atoms of W

 

2 pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms of W.

B

two atoms of X

Not possible.

C

an atom of Y and an atom of Z

Ionic compound: YZ

D

an atom of W and an atom of X

Not possible. X is a noble gas.

Section B (Structured questions) Answer in the space provided.

(

)

1 The table below shows the atomic structure of six particles, represented by the letters E to J. The particles are either atoms or ions.

Particle

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

E

6

6

6

F

2

2

2

G

6

6

8

H

10

12

12

I

10

13

14

J

12

12

12

Use the letters E to J to answer the following questions.

(a)

Which two particles are ions?

H

and I

H is a positive ion of charge 2+ I is a positive ion of charge 3+

(b)

Which two particles are (i) an atom and (ii) an ion of the same element? J and H

 

For J:

 

No of electrons = 12 No of protons = 12 No of neutrons = 12

 

For H:

 

No of electrons = 10 No of protons = 12 No of neutrons = 12

(c)

Which two particles are isotopes of the same element?

E & G

For E:

No of electrons = 6 No of protons = 6 No of neutrons = 6

For G:

No of electrons = 6 No of protons = 6 No of neutrons = 8

(d)

Which particle has the highest nucleon number?

I

Nucleon number (Mass number)

= No of protons + No of neutrons

= 13 + 14 = 27

2 The ion of element Y contains eleven protons, twelve neutrons and ten electrons.

(a)

Which particles in this ion have

 

(i)

a positive charge?

Protons

(ii)

no charge?

Neutrons

(iii)

a negative charge?

Electrons

(b)

What is the nucleon number (mass number) of the ion?

23

(c)

Write the formula of the ion.

 

Y +

(d)

Write the electronic configuration of

the ion of element Y

2.8

(e)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the full electronic configuration in an

atom of Y

.

diagram to show the full electronic configuration in an atom of Y . Chapter 1.3: Chemical

3

Study the information below. Magnesium has an electronic structure of (2.8.2). Oxygen has an electronic structure of (2.6).

(a)

What is the chemical formula of the compound formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen? MgO Mg 2+ and O 2-

(b)

Using the compound as an example, explain what is meant by ionic bonds.

In the compound formed,

2 electrons

from

one atom magnesium

are

transferred

to

one atom of element oxygen

.

The ionic bond is the

electrostatic force of attraction

between the

positively charged magnesium ion

and the

negatively charged oxide ion

4

The information comes from website about salt.

4 The information comes from website about salt. ( a ) The website uses element and

(a)

The website uses element and compound. Explain what these words mean. element:

An element is a

pure substance

that

cannot be split up into 2 or more

 

simpler substances

by chemical process or by electricity.

 

compound:

 

A compound is a substance that contains

2 or more elements

that are

chemically bonded

.

(b)

Explain why the lattice structure of sodium chloride causes the crystal to be very hard and have regular shapes.

The

strong electrostatic forces

held the sodium and chloride ions tightly in a

fixed position.

 

(c)

Sodium chloride conducts electricity when dissolved in water but does not conduct electricity in the solid state. Explain why.

Water molecules can them to dissolve.

Then the

dissolved in water. However, when sodium chloride is in the solid state, the and thus cannot conduct electricity.

separate the sodium ions from the chloride ions

and thus able to

the sodium ions from the chloride ions and thus able to causing ions are free to

causing

ions are free to move

conduct electricity when

ions are not free to move

5

Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram to show the bonding in the following compounds. Your diagram should show the full electronic configuration.

(a)

sodium fluoride (NaF)

( a ) sodium fluoride (NaF) ( b ) fluorine gas (F 2 ) ( c

(b)

fluorine gas (F 2 )

sodium fluoride (NaF) ( b ) fluorine gas (F 2 ) ( c ) magnesium oxide

(c)

magnesium oxide (MgO)

fluoride (NaF) ( b ) fluorine gas (F 2 ) ( c ) magnesium oxide (MgO)

(d)

sodium oxide (Na 2 O)

( c ) magnesium oxide (MgO) ( d ) sodium oxide (Na 2 O) Chapter 1.3:

6

Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram to show the bonding in following compounds. You only need to draw the electrons in the outer shells.

(a) iodine molecule (I 2 ) (b) ethane (C 2 H 6 )
(a)
iodine molecule (I 2 )
(b)
ethane (C 2 H 6 )
in the outer shells. (a) iodine molecule (I 2 ) (b) ethane (C 2 H 6

7

The diagram below shows the valence shell electrons of an atom of element Y.

shows the valence shell electrons of an atom of element Y . ( a ) To

(a)

To which group of the Periodic Table does Y belong?

VI

(b)

Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram to show the bonding in the compound of Y with carbon. Your diagram should show the valence electrons only.

with carbon. Your diagram should show the valence electrons only. ( c ) State the structural

(c)

State the structural formula of compound Y.

Y = C = Y

“=” to represent double covalent bond.

.

Extra Practice Question

Symbols of common ions

You are not expected to know all the names and symbols of common ions, but you should be able to work out the formulae of ionic compounds. The names and symbols of some ions are shown below.

The names and symbols of some ions are shown below. The table below is a compilation

The table below is a compilation of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions) to help

you to write the ionic formula. Fill the table. The first one is done for you.

   

negative ions (anions)

 

Cl

-

OH -

NO 3

-

O

2-

SO 4

2-

S

2-

CO 3

2-

PO 4

3-

Chloride

Hydroxide

Nitrate

Oxide

Sulphate

Sulphite

Carbonate

Phosphate

 

Na +

NaCl

NaOH

NaNO 3

Na 2 O

Na 2 SO 4

Na 2 S

Na 2 CO 3

Na 3 PO 4

Sodium

K

+

KCl

KOH

KNO 3

K

2 O

K 2 SO 4

K

2 S

K

2 CO 3

K

3 PO 4

Potassium

     

H

+

HCl

H + H Cl H NO 3   H 2 SO 4 H 2 S H

HNO 3

 

H 2 SO 4 2 SO 4

H

2 S

H

2 CO 3

H

3 PO 4

Hydrogen

     

positive ions (cations)

NH 4

+

NH 4 Cl

NH 4 OH

NH 4 NO 3

 

(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 4 ) 2 SO 4

(NH 4 ) 2 S

(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3

(NH 4 ) 3 PO 4

Ammonium

Mg 2+

Mg(Cl) 2

Mg(OH) 2

Mg(NO 3 ) 2

MgO

MgSO 4

MgS

MgCO 3

(Mg) 3 PO 4

Magnesium

Ca 2+

Ca(Cl) 2

Ca(OH) 2

Ca(NO 3 ) 2

CaO

CaSO 4

CaS

CaCO 3

(Ca) 3 PO 4

Calcium

Zn 2+

Zn(Cl) 2

Zn(OH) 2

Zn(NO 3 ) 2

ZnO

ZnSO 4

ZnS

ZnCO 3

(Zn) 3 PO 4

Zinc

Cu 2+

Cu(Cl) 2

Cu(OH) 2

Cu(NO 3 ) 2

CuO

CuSO 4

CuS

CuCO 3

(Cu) 3 PO 4

Copper(II)

 

Fe 2+

Fe(Cl) 2

Fe(OH) 2

Fe(NO 3 ) 2

FeO

FeSO 4

FeS

FeCO 3

(Fe) 3 PO 4

Iron (II)

Al 3+

 

Al(Cl) 3

Al(OH) 3

Al(NO 3 ) 3

Al 2 O 3

Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

Al 2 (S) 3

Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3

AlPO 4

Aluminum

Fe 3+

Fe(Cl) 3

Fe(OH) 3

Fe(NO 3 ) 3

Fe 2 O 3

Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3

Fe 2 (S) 3

Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3

Fe PO 4

Iron (III)