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ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

ORGANISING DEPARTMENT

TYPE OF ACTIVITY'

ISSUING DEPT.

DOC. TYPE

REFER TO SECTION N.

PAGE.

OF

155

STAP TITLE

6160

DRILLING FLUIDS OPERATIONS MANUAL

DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities

NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:

28/06/99

B A @ ? >

Issued by

G. Ferrari 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D

C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D

A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D

The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

INDEX
1. MANUAL USERS GUIDE
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 GUIDE TO USING THE MANUAL 1.3 UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION

5
5 6 8

2. GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PROGRAMMING


2.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DRILLING FLUID PROGRAMME 2.2 CHOICE OF DRILLING FLUIDS 2.2.1 Non-Circulating, Start-Up Drilling Fluids 2.2.2 Circulating, Start-Up Drilling Fluids 2 2.2.3 Drilling Formations With Gradients Less Than 1.0kg/cm /10m 2.2.4 Drilling Fluids For Non-Reactive Formations 2.2.5 Drilling Fluids For Reactive Formations o 2.2.6 Drilling Fluids For Temperatures Greater Than 200 C 2.2.7 Inhibitive And/Or Environmentally Friendly Speciality Fluids 2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLUID SYSTEM 2.4 EXAMPLES OF DRILLING FLUID CHOICE 2.4.1 Concomitant Problems 2.4.2 Type Of Drilling Fluid Preferred 2.5 CHOICE OF THE FLUID SYSTEM (Dependent On Its Main Variables) 2.6 DRILLING FLUID CHARACTERISTIC PROGRAMMING 2.7 WATER-BASED FLUIDS 2.7.1 Optimum Values Of Marsh Viscosity, Solids And Gel 2.7.2 Optimum Values Of Plastic Viscosity And Yeld Point

9
10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 19

3. FLUID CHARACTERISTICS
3.1 NON-INHIBITIVE WATER BASED FLUIDS 3.2 INHIBITED WATER-BASE FLUIDS 3.3 OIL BASED FLUID 3.4 INHIBITED AND/OR ENVIRONMENTAL FLUIDS

20
20 37 50 55

4. FLUID MAINTENANCE
4.1 WATER BASED FLUIDS MAINTENANCE 4.1.1 Analysing Flow Chart For Water Based Fluid Reports 4.1.2 Maintenance Problems 4.1.3 Chemical Treatment of Contaminents 4.1.4 H2S Scavengers 4.1.5 Poylmer Structures/Relationship 4.2 OIL BASED FLUIDS MAINTENANCE 4.2.1 Analysing Flow Chart For Oil Based Fluid Reports 4.2.2 Maintenance Problems

72
73 73 74 77 78 79 80 80 81

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

5. SOLIDS CONTROL
5.1 SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS 5.2 STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLIDS 5.3 EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE 5.4 EQUIPMENT RECOMENDATIONS 5.4.1 Double Shale Shakers 5.4.2 Single Deck Shale Shakers 5.5 SCREEN SPECIFICATION 5.5.1 Nomenclature 5.6 CYCLONE SYSTEMS 5.7 CENTRIFUGE SYSTEMS 5.7.1 PrInciple Of Operation 5.7.2 Centrifuge Processing

84
84 84 84 85 86 87 88 88 89 90 90 91

6. TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
6.1 LOST CIRCULATION CONTROL TECHNIQUES 6.2 LOSSES IN VARIOUS FORMATION TYPES 6.3 CHOICE OF LCM SPOT PILLS 6.3.1 LCM Information 6.3.2 LCM Efficiency 6.4 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE 6.4.1 Loss Of Circulation With Water Based Fluids 6.4.2 Loss Of Circulation With Oil Based Fluids

92
93 94 94 95 95 96 96 98

7. STUCK PIPE TREATMENT/PREVENTITIVE ACTIONS


7.1 STUCK PIPE TREATMENT/PREVENTION

101
102

8. DRILLING FLUID TRADEMARK COMPARISONS


8.1 DRILLING FLUID PRODUCT TRADEMARKS 8.1.1 Weighting Materials 8.1.2 Viscosifiers 8.1.3 Thinners 8.1.4 Filtrate Reducers 8.1.5 Lubricants 8.1.6 Detergents/Emulsifiers/Surfactants 8.1.7 Stuckpipe Surfactants 8.1.8 Borehole Wall Coaters 8.1.9 Defoamers/Foamers 8.1.10 Corrosion Inhibitors 8.1.11 Bactericides 8.1.12 Lost Control Materials 8.1.13 Chemical Products 8.1.14 Oil Based Fluid Products 8.1.15 Base Liquids And Corrections

105
106 106 106 106 107 107 107 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 110 112

9. DRILLING FLUIDS APPLICATION GUIDE


9.1 APPLICATIONS GUIDE

113
114

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REVISION

10. DRILLING FLUID ANALYSIS


10.1 DRILLING FLUIDS 10.1.1 Density (Fluid Weight) 10.1.2 Marsh Viscosity 10.1.3 Viscosity, Yield Point, Gel Strength 10.1.4 API Filtrate 10.1.5 HPHT Filtrate 10.1.6 Oil, Water, Solids Measurement 10.2 WATER-BASED FLUIDS 10.2.1 Sand Content Estimate 10.2.2 pH Measurment 10.2.3 Methylene Blue Capacity Determination 10.2.4 Chloride Content Determination 10.2.5 Calcium Hardness Determination 10.2.6 Calcium And Magnesium Determination 10.2.7 Alcalinity, Excess Lime, Pf, Mf, Pm Measurment 10.2.8 Excess Gypsum Measurment 10.2.9 Semiquantitative Determination Of Sulphurs (Hatch Test) 10.2.10 Fluid Corrosivity Analysis 10.3 OIL BASED FLUIDS 10.3.1 Electrical Stability Determination 10.3.2 Fluid Alkalinity Determination 10.3.3 Fluid Chloride Determination 10.3.4 Calcium Determination

132
133 133 133 134 135 136 137 138 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 148 149 150 151

APPENDIX A - DRILLING FLUID CODING SYSTEM


A.1. A.2. CODE GROUPS EXAMPLE CODING

152
152 153

APPENDIX B - ABBREVIATIONS
B.1. FLUID CODE ABBREVIATIONS B.2. OTHER ABBREVIATIONS

154
154 155

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REVISION

1.
1.1

MANUAL USERS GUIDE


INTRODUCTION This manual is not a training document, but is intended to be instructional and aimed at engineers and technicians who are already familiar with drilling fluid technology. It is particularly intended to meet with Eni-Agips operational requirements. This manual addresses the Companys fluid operators, drilling engineers and all those involved in the supervision of the work carried out by contractor companies and in the planning or evaluation of the drilling fluids to be employed. However, it does not aim to be a comprehensive all encompassing document giving information on the entire subject, but aims to provide sufficient information to support the companys technicians in better use of fluid technology. Therefore, this manual does not instruct on how to prepare or maintain drilling fluids, but only to aid in these tasks by providing the information needed to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the various fluid systems, hence maximising drilling performance, reducing reservoir damage in an environmentally friendly and cost effective manner. This document does not describe the decision making process but summarises it through the use of flow charts and forms, organised in a logical sequence. The reader may select a single form or use the entire sequence in order to determine the best solution to their requirements. The method adopted herein, will be explained in the following Guide to Using the Manual. This document does not include standard industry calculations or charts relating to volumes and capacities or information relating to drilling fluids which are available in industry handbooks.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 1.2 GUIDE TO USING THE MANUAL This manual aims to: 1) 0

REVISION

Help in the choice of the most applicable drilling fluids necessary to meet with requirements for a well in a targeted area (Refer to section 2) and specifically its sub-sections relating to the different types of drilling fluids available. The flowchart below shows the selection process to be followed.

GATHER

INFORMATION AS PER THE FLOW CHART IN SECTION 2.1 IDENTIFY

THE TYPE(S) OF FLUID AS PER THE CHARTS IN SECTION 2.2 VERIFY

THE FEASIBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM IN SECTION 2.3 CHECK

THE CHOICE MADE FROM THE DESCRIPTION OF FLUIDS IN SECTIONS 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4

DEFINE

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS AS THE PER CHARTS IN SECTIONS 2.6, 2.7

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2) Provide practical guidelines for: 0

REVISION

Drilling fluid formulations: These are described in sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and relate to the description of those drilling fluids which are considered the most applicable and economic for use in various operating conditions. Particular operating conditions may entail modification to these fluid formulations, hence their characteristics, specifically the densities. Fluid Maintenance: This references the most important aspects of the specific fluid systems described and not any procedures relating to general maintenance common to all fluid systems. Contaminating Effects to Drilling Fluids: Other information on contanminants can be found in sections 4.1 Maintenance of Water Based Fluids and 4.2 Maintenance of Oil Based Fluids. Analysis of Daily Fluid Reports: Use the flow charts relating to the fluids described in sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 where drilling fluid maintenance problems are identified. These charts follow the general rules in problem solving summarised as follows in the analysis of daily fluid reports.

IS THERE A PROBLEM ?

YES/NO

IF YES, WHAT IS THE PROBLEM ?

ANSWER

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TO SOLVE IT ?

EVALUATE

WHAT ELSE CAN BE MADE TO SOLVE IT WHICH HAS NOT BEEN MADE YET ?

TAKE ACTION

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 3) 0

REVISION

4)

5)

6)

Provide information about solids removal equipment, which may aid in the choice of equipment type and the size. The solids removal equipment in the description of the fluid systems provides equipment recommend nations, see section 5. Describe problems relating to lost circulation and stuck pipe, section 6. Regarding lost circulation, a troubleshooting guide describes remedial actions for various types of losses, in addition to some information concerning lost control materials. For stuck pipe, recommendations on preventive measures are included and treatment to be undertaken. Provide information about drilling fluid products, section 8.1 Comparable Charts of Competitive Drilling Fluid Product Trademark compares similar products and their functional performances and consequently the various products, at different concentrations. This indicates the different product concentrations and costs. Therefore technical and/or economical analysis of these different products should be carried out the concentrations necessary in similar operational conditions and results. Provide analysis procedures in section 10 Drilling Fluid Analysis provides analysis procedures which complies with API RP 13B-1 regulations dated June 1, 1990. The procedures with state listed on order to simplify the execution of various analysis showing the results achieved the conversion factors.

1.3

UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION This manual is a live controlled document and, as such, it will only be amended and improved by the Corporate Company, in accordance with the development of Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates operational experience. Accordingly, it will be the responsibility of everyone concerned in the use and application of this manual to review the policies and related procedures on an ongoing basis. Locally dictated derogations from the manual shall be approved solely in writing by the Manager of the local Drilling and Completion Department (D&C Dept.) after the District/Affiliate Manager and the Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department in Eni-Agip Division Head Office have been advised in writing. The Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department will consider such approved derogations for future amendments and improvements of the manual, when the updating of the document will be advisable.

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REVISION

2.

GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PROGRAMMING


This section is integrated with the following sub sections and covers all the various types of drilling fluids.

GATHER

INFORMATION AS PER FLOW CHART SECTION

IDENTIFY

THE TYPE(S) OF FLUID AS PER CHARTS AT SECTION

VERIFY

THE FEASIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM AT SECTION

CHECK

THE CHOICE MADE FROM THE DESCRIPTION OF FLUIDS IN DOCUMENTS

DEFINE

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS AS PER CHARTS

The Eni-Agip codes are fully described in Appendix A.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DRILLING FLUID PROGRAMME 0

REVISION

GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION

DEPH LITHOLOGY CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES MINERALOHY

ON/OFF SHORE

LEGISLATION WASTE REMOVAL MODALITES DRILLING PROGRAMME GRADIENT DRILL TUBING PROFILES DEVIATION PROGRAM HYDRAULIC PROGRAM LENGTH TYPE OF PLANT LOGISTICS TYPE OF WATER

WASTE REMOVAL COSTS

TARGET WELL DATA

CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED PHYSICAL CHAR. SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT MIXING FACILITIES STORING AREAS SUPPLY

CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

LAB TESTING INTERACTIONS FORMATION/FLUID

TYPE(S) OF FLUID
FLOW LINES: MAIN IF REQUIRED AND/OR AVAILABLE

DRILLING FLUID PROGRAMME

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.2 2.2.1 CHOICE OF DRILLING FLUIDS Non-Circulating, Start-Up Drilling Fluids
Agip Code
FW-GELI+FW FW-GE+SW SW-GG

REVISION 0

Systems
Fresh Water Seawater

AVA
AVA Spud Mud SW Spud Mud AVAGUM

Bariod
FW+Gel Pills SW+H.VIS Pills LO-LOSS

Dowell
FW+Gel Pills SW+H.VIS Pills SM(X)

MI
FW+Gel Pills SW+H.VIS Pills LO-LOSS

BH Inteq
FW+Gel Pills SW+H.VIS Pills LO-LOSS

2.2.2

Circulating, Start-Up Drilling Fluids


FW-GE SW-GE AVAGEL AVAGEL Spud Mud Prehydrated Gel Spud Mud Prehydrated Gel Spud Mud Prehydrated Gel Spud Mud Prehydrated Gel

Fresh Water Seawater

2.2.3
Aerated

Drilling Formations With Gradients Less Than 1.0kg/cm2/10m


FW/SW-AT FW-SF AR-MM AR-SF AR-AR

Foam Base Mixed Air/FoamBase Air-Base

2.2.4

Drilling Fluids For Non-Reactive Formations


With Gradient Between 1.03 - 1.5kg/cm /10m
2

BentoniteBase

FW/SWGE-PO FW/SW-LS FW-LW

AVAGELPOL AVAFLUID AVABEX

Gel/Polymer Q-BROXIN X-TEND II

Gel/Polymer FCL Muds

Gel/Polymer Spersene GELEX Systems

Gel/Polymer UNI-CAL Low-Solid/ BENEX

With Gradient > 1.5kg/ cm /10m


BentoniteBase FW/SW-LSCL FW/SW-TA AVA Fluid/LIG Desco Q-Broxin /CC16 Desco FCL/CL Desco
o

Spersene /XP20 Desco

UNICAL/ LIGCO Desco

With Gradient >1.5 High Temperature (+/- 150-200 C)


BentoniteBase FW/SWCL-RX FW/SWCL-PC Oil-Base DS-IE AVAREX +POLICELL ACR AVOIL OC16/DUREN +THERMACHECK Invermul FCL/CL/HITEMP +POLYTEMP Interdril SPER/XP20/R ESINEX +POLY RX Versadril LIGCO/CHEM TRO-X +PYROTROL Carbodril

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.2.5 Drilling Fluids For Reactive Formations
Agip Code AVA Bariod Dowell
2

REVISION 0

Systems

MI

BH Inteq

With Gradient Between 1.03 - 1.5kg/cm /10m


Encapsulators FW-PK FW/SW-PA FW/SW-PC Inhibitors FW/SW-KC FW/SW-BR FW/SW-SS FW/SW-MR FW/SW-GY FW/SW-LI Oil-Base DS-IE AVA-Polysalt AVAKLM AVAFLUID/G YPS AVAFLUID /LIME AVOIL Salt Saturated KLM GYP/QBROXIN Lime Muds Invermul
2

AVAPAC Polivis AVA-PC

PAC Polymer EZMUD POT Chloride

FLR Polymer Muds ID-Bond K Chloride Salt Saturated KLM Gypsum Mud Lime Muds Interdril

Polypac Muds Polyplus K Chloride Salt Saturated KLM GYP/SPERSE NE Lime Muds Versadril

MIL-PAC Muds New-Drill K Chloride Salt Saturated KLM Gypsum Mud Lime Muds Carbodrill

With Gradient >1.5kg/cm /10m


Encapsulators Inhibitors FW/SW-PC FW/SW-KBPC FW/SW-MR FW/SW-SS FW/SW-GY FW/SW-LI Oil-Base DS-IE POLVIS K/POLIVIS AVAKLM AVAPOLYSA LT AVAFLUID/G YS AVAFLUID /LIME AVOIL Invermul Interdril Versadril
o )

EZ-Mud K/EZ-MUD KLM Salt Saturated GYP/Q BROXIN Lime Muds

ID-Bond K/ID-Bond KLM Salt Saturated Gypsum Mud Lime Muds

Polyplus K/ Polyplus KLM Salt Saturated Gyp/Spersene Lime Muds

New-Drill K/ New-Drill KLM Salt Saturated Gypsum Mud Lime Muds Carbotec

With Gradient >1.5 And High Temperature (150-200 C


Oil-Base DS-IE AVOIL Invermul Interdril

Versadril

Carbotec

2.2.6
Oil-Base

Drilling Fluids For Temperatures Greater Than 200oC


DS-IE AVOIL Invermul Interdril Versadril Carbotec

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.2.7 0

REVISION

Inhibitive And/Or Environmentally Friendly Speciality Fluids


Agip Code
FW/SW-K2 FW/SW-KA FW/SW-GL FW/SW-CT AVA-CAT AVOIL-LT CAT I Enviromul Baroid 50/50 Petrofree Novadriill Ultidrill
2

Systems
Inhibitors

AVA
AVA-PC2 AVA-PA

Baroid
K Carbonate K Acetate

Dowell
2

Mi
K Carbonate K Acetate Sansoil M CAT Versaclean

B.H.Inteq
K Carbonate K Acetate Biodrill Carbodril Sea Carb.Sea 50/50

Formations With Gradient Between 1.03 - 1.5kg/cm /10m


K Carbonate K Acetate HF 100 Interdril Nt Interdril 50/50

Oil-Base

LT-IE LT-IE-50 EB-IE OF-IE UT-IE

Formations With Gradient>1.5kg/cm /10m


Oil-Base LT-IE OF-IE UT-IE Ultidrill
o

AVOIL-LT

Enviromul

Interdrill Nt

Versaclean Novadrill

Carbotec Sea

Formations With Gradient>1.5 AND HIGH TEMPERATURE (150-200 C)


Oil-Base LT-IE OF-IE UT-IE Ultidrill
o

AVOIL-LT

Enviromul

Interdrill Nt

Versaclean Novadrill

Carbodril Sea

Drilling Fluids For Temperature More Than 200 C


BentoniteBase Polymer-Base Oil-Base FW/SW-HT-GE FW/SW-HT LT-IE AVAGELTERM AVATEX AVOIL-LT Thermadril Enviromul Polytemp Interdril Nt Duratherm Envirotherm Versaclean Pyro-Drill Pyro-Drill Carbotec Sea

2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLUID SYSTEM

The level of solids removal equipment as indicated in the Description of Fluid Systems refers to the equipment recommended in section 5.

BASE FLUID

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

ENV.

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

CHARACTERISTICS
maint. difference logisti difference cutting inhibition

OF THE FLUIDS SYSTEMS


non-dispersed alternative oil fresh water sea water dispersed

lubricant properties

formation inhibition

solids-removal eq.

LGS tolerance

temperature

CUTTINGS

convertible

density

COSTS

ARPO

LT oil

FW SW-GE SW-GG FW SW-GE-PO FW SW-LS FW-LW FW SW-CL FW-PK FW SW-PA FW SW-PC FW SW-KC FW-K2 FW-KA FW SW-SS FW SW-GL FW SW-CT FW SW-MR FW SW-GY

BENTONITE GUAR GUM SUSPENSION BENTONITICO-CMC LIGNOSOLFONATE LOW SOLIDS WITH BENT.EXTENDER CROMOLIGNIN AGIPAK (KCMC) PAC (DRISPAC) PHPA POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CARBONATE POTASSIUM ACETATE SALT SATURATED CLYCOL CATIONIC MOR-EX (KLM) GYPSUM

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X

T1

D1

MUD
B

SYSTEM

diesel

AGIP CODE

re-use

IDENTIFICATION CODE

B B M X B M M M (X) A A A A M A A X A

B B B B B B B

B A B A B B M

B B M B B M M M A M A A A A M

B B B B M M B A A A A A A A B

A M A B A A A B B B B M

M B A M A A A A A A A A A A

T1 T2 T1 T3 T1 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T3

D1 D4 D1 D4 D1 D1 D3 D3 D3 D3 D4 D3 D3 D4 D4

B B B B B B B B B B B A B B B

B B B B B M M A A A M A A A B

B B B B B B B M B B A B A B B

B M B M B B B A B B A B A M M

STAP -P-1-M-6160

X X X X X X X X X X X X X (X) (X) X X X X

M M/B M B M M/B M B A B M B B A A A

PAGE

REVISION

A M B ENV.

= HIGH = MEDIUM = LOW = ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPACT

TEMPERATURE

T1 T2 T3 T4

= 100 C MAX = 150 C MAX = 200 C MAX = 250 C MAX

DENSITY' Kg/l

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5

= 1.2 MAX = 1.5 MAX = 1.8 MAX = 2.1 MAX = 2.4 MAX

14 OF 155

The level of solids removal equipment as indicated in the Description of Fluid Systems refers to the equipment recommended in section 5.

BASE FLUID

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

ENV.

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

CHARACTERISTICS
logistic difference maint. difference cutting inhibition

OF THE FLUID SYSTEMS


non-dispersed alternative oil fresh water dispersed sea water

lubricant properties

formation inhibition

solids-removal eq.

LGS tolerance

temperature

CUTTINGS

convertible

COSTS

ARPO

diesel

LT oil

FW SW-LI FW SW-HT DS-IE LT-IE LT-IE-50 EB-IE OF-IE UT-IE DS-IE-100 LT-IE-100 .

LIME FOR T. MORE THAN 200 C DIESEL INVERT EMULSION LOW TOXICITY OIL I.E. E.I. 50/50 ESTER-BASE I.E. POLYOLEFINE I.E. ULTRA LT OIL I.E. 100% DIESEL I.E. 100% LT OIL I.E.

X X

X X X

M B

B B

A B

M A

B M

M A

M A

T2 T4

D4 D3

B B

B A

B B

MUD
M B

SYSTEM

re-use

AGIP CODE

density

IDENTIFICATION CODE

STAP -P-1-M-6160

X X X X X X X X

A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A

A A M A A A A A

M M A M M M M M

A A M A A A A A

B A M B M M A A

A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A

T4 T4 T2 T2 T3 T2 T4 T4

D5 D5 D2 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5

A A A A A A A A

B M M A A A A A

A M M B B B A A

A A A A A A A A

0
PAGE

REVISION

A M B ENV.

= HIGH = MEDIUM = LOW = ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPACT

TEMPERATURE

T1 T2 T3 T4

= 100 C MAX = 150 C MAX = 200 C MAX = 250 C MAX

DENSITY Kg/l

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5

15 OF 155

= 1.2 MAX = 1.5 MAX = 1.8 MAX = 2.1 MAX = 2.4 MAX

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.4 EXAMPLES OF DRILLING FLUID CHOICE (dependent on the drilling performance needs) Concomitant Problems
o

REVISION 0

2.4.1

High Deviation (>30 ) Very Reactive Formations High Differential Pressure Risk Of Lost Circulation High Density (>1.9 SG) High Temperature (>150 ) Risk Of Hydrated Gas Order of preference: 1>2>3. X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X

X X

X X

X X X

Vertical reading, i.e., high density, high temperature; 1st OBM, 2nd LS.

2.4.2

Type Of Drilling Fluid Preferred


1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 1

Oil-Base Fluid (DS, LT, EB, PO) Lignosulfonate Fluid Polymer-Base Fluids Inhibitive Fluids Order of preference: 1>2>3.

Vertical reading, i.e., high density, high temperature; 1st OBM, 2nd LS.

2.5

CHOICE OF THE FLUID SYSTEM (Dependent On Its Main Variables)


Inhibition
None

System
FW-GE FW-LS FW-CMC FW-PA FW-PC

Density Max. (kg/I)


1.2 2.2 1.2 1.6+ 1.8+ 1.2 2.1 2.1 1.8+ 2.1+ 2.4

Temperature o Max. ( C)
100 170 100 150 150 100 130 170 150 100 >250

Maintenance Difficulty
Low Low Low Medium Medium Low Medium Medium High High Medium

Cost
Low Low Low Medium Medium Low Low Low High High Low/Medium

I N C R E A S E

Encapsulative

Inhibitive

FW-PK FW-LI FW/SW-GY FW/SW-KCPC FW-MR DS-IE

Note: Note:

The systems examined above are only a portion of that available. The high, medium, or low cost is evaluated with consideration of the inhibition grade.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.6 DRILLING FLUID CHARACTERISTIC PROGRAMMING
Characteristics Main Problems Density Surface Phases Hole Cleaning Losses Minimum to avoid losses. Intermediate Phases Gradients Reactivity More than pore and/or collapse gradients, less than fracture.

REVISION 0

Final Phases Formation Damage As low as possible compatibly with pore and/or collapse gradients, less than fracture gradient.

Plastic Viscosity Yield Point

This value depends upon density and fluid type. Maintain density as low as possible (in both technical and economic terms). Sufficiently high to clean the hole, but not so high to limit solids removal (+/- 10-15gr/100cmq). Sufficiently high to suspend cuttings and yield point. Formulate them to well conditions. Same parameters as initial phases (+/-6-10gr/100cmq). Same parameters as initial phases (+/- 3-8gr/100cmq).

Gels

Sufficient to avoid settling without stressing the formation while tripping. Carefully evaluate the formations and fluid density (average values 4-10 cc/30). As low as possible.

Sufficient to avoid settling without stressing the formation while tripping. Commonly low to limit seepage formation and damage.

Api Filtrate HP/HT Filtrate

Particular controls are not generally required (15-20cc/30), estimate for each case.

Cake

Suitable to support unconsolidated formations. Dependent on the system chosen, optimise HGS, LGS and MBT. Each system has a different solids tolerance.
3

Less damaging as possible. Use of non damaging weighting agents ( which can be acidfield) or brine is preferred. Maintain LGS values at minimum.

Solids%

Dependent on the system chosen, optimise HGS, LGS and MBT. Each system has a different solids tolerance.

MBT (kg/m ) pH Chemical Characteristics

Dependent on the minimum value and/or system tolerance to the drilling fluid chosen. 8<pH<12+; Value 8 min. helps reduce corrosion. The other values depend upon the fluid system chosen. Dependent on the drilling fluid chosen. Compatible to the fluids and shales of the reservoir.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.7 2.7.1 WATER-BASED FLUIDS Optimum Values Of Marsh Viscosity, Solids And Gel 0

REVISION

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 2.7.2 Optimum Values Of Plastic Viscosity And Yeld Point 0

REVISION

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

3.
3.1

FLUID CHARACTERISTICS
NON-INHIBITIVE WATER BASED FLUIDS This section contains descriptions of the various water based drilling fluids, their applications and limitations. The Eni-Agip codes, abbreviations and symbols used in this section are listed in Appendix A and Appendix B.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM BENTONITE BASED FLUID

AGIP CODE FW-GE

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Mainten. Difference Logistic Difference Solids-removal Eq.

ENV.

Non-dispersed

LGS Tolerance

Alternative Oil

Temperature

Fresh Water

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Cuttings B O/W ratio

Re-use

Diesel

LT Oil

Density

Cost

T1

D1

APPLICATION
- Drilling start-up; - Viscose pills; A clay base should be provided to more complex polymer-base fluid; - After prehydrating, sea water can be added; - Specific treatments may adapt characteristics to the needs; - Easily convertible to more complex systems.

LIMITATIONS
- Highly sensitve to chemical contaminants; - Low solids tolerance; - Unadequate characteristics for situations other than drilling start-up.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield point (gr/100cm2 ) Electrical stability (volt)

Funnel visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.3 1.15

40 60

6 10

5 10

1 3

6 15

12 20

8.5 9.5 320

FORMULATION

PRODUCTION
FRESH WATER BENTONITE (OCMA) CAUSTIC SODA

kg-l/m 3

40-70 1-2

MIXING TIME:

+/- 25 m 3 /hr

MBT(Kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Pf

Mf

30 50

Mud B

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE:
- Maintain an adequate solids percentage; - Use water and bentonite to control viscosity and/or vary pH.

Density

Filtrate

Pf / Pm

CONTAMINANTS

SAND GROUNDS

=/+

=/+

%Sand

REMEDIALS

Solids

Yield

NaCl

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

Ca

Mf

- DESANDERS

SHALES

=/--

--

--

=/--

- CENTRIFUGE - DILUTION - CONVERT TO FW-LS -SO - DILUTION 4 + - Na CARBONATE - CONVERT TO FW-LS - CONVERT TO FW-GY +

GYPSUM/ANHYDRITE

+/--

=/--

--

SALT

=/+ +/--

- DILUTION, CMC - CONVERT TO FW -SS - DILUTION - Na BICARBONATE

CEMENT

+/--

--

CO 2

--

--

--

- DEGAS - ALTERNATE TREATMENT WITH NaOH and Ca(OH)2

H S 2

--

--

--

--

STINKING SMELL GREEN OR BLACK COLOUR

- PREVENTIVE TREATMENT WITH SCAVENGER. - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE + NaOH. - DEGAS

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM GUAR-GUM SUSPENSION

AGIP CODE SW-GG

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition LGS Tollerance Solids-removal Eq. Lubricant Properties Logistic Difference Maint. Difference

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Re-use

Density

Diesel

LT Oil

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

T1

D1

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Drilling start-up - Viscose pills in sea water or in presence of electorlytes; - Can be used as Bentonite extender (in low concentrations); - Reduced logistical problems in drlling start-up.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Fresh water is needed for hydration; - Low cost; - Low concentration usage; - Fermention; - Non resistant to high temperatures; - Suitable for viscose pills only.f

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Density (SG)

1.03 100+

20

30

15

15

NC

FORMULATION

PRODUCT SEA WATER GUAR GUM BACTERICIDE

kg-l/m 3

10 as needed

MIXING TIME:

+/- 30 m 3 /hr

MBT(kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud B

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

PREPARATION
- Avoid adding NaOH to the system; - Use a bactericideif not used immediately; - For hydrations, stir at high speed for approx. 1hr; - 'Fish eyes' can be easily observed.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM BENTONITE-AND CMC-BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE FW-GE-PO

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Maint. Difference Lubricant Properties Logistic Difference LGS Tolerance Solids-removal Eq.

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Temperature

Fresh Water

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Cuttings B Excess Lime (kg/m3)

Diesel

LT Oil

Density

Re-use

T1

D1

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Drilling start-up when FW-GE characteristics are not sufficient; - Drilling non reactive formations with gradient <1.1 kg/cm2.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Easy maintenance and low cost; - Highly sensitive to chemical contaminants; - Low solids tolerance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

1.03 1.15

40 80

5 15

4 15

2 4

8 15

10 2

8.5 9.5

20 60

FORMULATION

PRODUCT
FRESH/SALT WATER BENTONITE CAUSTIC SODA CMC HV CMC LV +/- 25 m 3 /hr

kg-l/m 3

20 - 60 1-3 0-6 2 - 10

MIXING TIME:

MBT(kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Calcium (gr/l)

Density (SG)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

NaCl (gr/l)

Mud B

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE:
To control RHEOLOGY: - Increase: Bentonite, CMC HV; - Decrease: Solids-Removal, Dilution, Lignosulfonates. To control FILTRATE: - CMC LV and/or Bentonite.

Density

Pf / Pm

Filtrate

Solids

Yield

NaCl

CONTAMINANTS

%Sand

REMEDIALS

MBT

Gels

PV

Ca

pH

Mf

SAND GROUNDS SHALES

+ +

=/+ + +

=/+ =/---=/-+ +

- DESANDERS - CENTRIFUGE - DILUTION - CONVERT TO FW LS

GYPSUM/ANHYDRITE

+/--

=/--

--

-SO - DILUTION 4 + - Na CARBONATE - CONVERT TO FW-LS - CONVERT TO FW-GY + - DILUTION, CMC - CONVERTIRE IN FW SS - DILUTION - Na BICARBONATE - DEGAS

SALT CEMENT

=/+ +/-+/--

+ +

+ +

+ + + + -+

CO 2

--

--

--

H2 S

--

--

--

--

STINCKING SMELL GREEN OR BLACK COLOUR

- PREVENTIVE TREATMENT WITH SCAVENGER. - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE + NaOH - DEGAS

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM LOW-SOLIDS FLUID WITH BENTONITE EXTENDER

AGIP CODE FW-LW

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Alternative Oil Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Lubricant Properties Logistic Difference Maint. Diference LGS Tolerance Solids-removal Eq.

ENV.

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Density

Cost

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Re-use

Diesel

LT Oil

T1

D1

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Low density and high viscocity with a reduced solids-contents; - Reduced transportation problems; - Optimum for drilling start-up or when high mixing time is required.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Sensitive to chemical contaminants; - Sensitive to chlorides; - Low solids tolerance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2 ) Electrical Stability. (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.03

45

15

3 6

9.5

0.1

MAX MAX

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH WATER BENTONITE BENT. EXTENDER NaOH/KOH (CMC LV)

kg-l/m 3

30 0,12 1-1,2 2-10

MIXING TIME:

m3 /h

: 50

MBT(kg/m 3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE

- Prehydrate bentonite before adding extencer; - Extender should be prehydrated before adding to the active system; - Addition ratio is1 kg of extender every 250 kg of bentonite; - Control solids as per range indicated; - Efficiency of shale shakers and cyclones is important; - High quantity of extender is an energic encapsulating agent.

Density

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

SALT, SALT WATER +/+ + + + =/= = + CONVERT TO SW-PO

CaSO4

=/-

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

SODA ASH + EXTENDER

SOLIDS

ADD EXTENDER, DILUTE

EXCESS POLYMER

ADD. BENTONITE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM LIGNOSULPHONATE-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-LS

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Lubricant Properties Logistic Tolerance Maint. Tolerance LGS Tolerance Solids-removal Eq.

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Re-use

Density

Diesel

LTOil

Cost

T2

D4

DESCRIPTION

- Most versatile fluid. Ideal for exploration wells; - High solids-tolerance. Easy maintenance; - High tolerance to chemical contaminants; - Convertible to Lime or Gypsum-based fluids.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Environmental impact concerns; - Lignosulphonates are uneffective in salt saturated fluids; - Optimum pH is 10, this value helps shale dispersion; - Lignosulphonate stabilises the collidal dispersion of shale in water reducing the effectiveness of any encapsulators.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.1 2.1

38 60

5 45

2 12

1 2

5 15

10 2 10

7 40 60

9.5 10.5

1 3

0.5 0.7

20 70

FORMULATION

PRODUCT
FRESH (SALT) WATER BENTONITE FCL NaOH CMC LV / LIGNIN BARITE

kg-l/m 3

20 - 70 10 - 30 1-4 2-10 / 10 - 20 as needed

MIXING TIME:

+/- 20 m 3 /hr + weighting time

MBT(kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud M

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE:
- Dependent on the solids percentage; - Thanks to the system flexibility characteristics may be adapted according to the needs by simply adding additives; - For high temperature and/or high density, use lignin as an alternative to CMC to control filtrate.

Density

% Sand

Filtrate

Pf / Pm

Solids

Yield

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

REMEDIAL

Mf

SHALE

=/-

=/-

=/-

- SOLIDS CONTROL - TREATMENT WITH FCL+SODA

GYPSUM/ANHYDRITE

+/-

=/-

=/-

- FCL + SODA ASH - ADD CMC LV - CONVERT TO FW-GY

SALT

=/+

-FCL + SODA ASH -CMC LV -CONVERT TO SS

CO2

=/+

- FCL + C.SODA and/or LIME

CEMENT

+/-

=/-

+/=

-PRETR. WITH NaHCO3 - FCL+CMC

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM (CHROME)-LIGNIN-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-CL

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. Non-dispersed Logistic Difference Lubricant Properties Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Convertible

Dispersed

Temperature

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Diesel

Density

Re-use

LT Oil

(X)

T3

D4

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Development of Lignosulphonate-based fluids at high temperatures: To aid filtrate control add chrome Lignin which integrates the thinning effect of Lignosulphonate.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Versatile and economical system; - High solids tolerance; - Cr-Lignin is a less effective scavenger than lignosulphonate. Its effectivness is further reduced in sea water and becomes completely uneffective in presence of calcium; - Environmental impact concerns.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRILLING FLUIDS


2 Yield Point (gr/100cm ) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

NaCl (gr/l)

Pm

pH

1.08 2.1

40 60

8 40

5 8

1 1

4 10

10 2

30 10

8 40

9.5 11

1 3

0.3 0.7

0.5 1.5 kg-l/m 3 20-70 10-30 10-30 0.5-5 0-10 as needed

Mf

Pf

0.2 MAX

60 10

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH WATER BENTONITE FCL CL NaOH POLYMERS (CMC, PAC) BARITE

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m 3equiv.)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Ca (gr/l)

Mud M

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- High solids tolerance; - Up to 150C, deflocculant effect is due to FCL; over this temperature CL is most commonly employed; - Alkalinity control is highly important to guarantee Cr-Lignin solubility; - Dump if contamination from carbonates or bicarbonates is present.

- RHEOLOGY

- Decrease: add FCL/CL/ Soda, dilute only in case of excess solids; - Increase: add prehydrated and FCL protected Bentonite carefully. Evaluate the addition of polyacrylates.

- FILTRATE

- Maintain a reduced quantity of Bentonite, add CL, and HPHT polymers.

Density

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

SHALE

=/-

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

- CENTRIFUGE - +FCL + CL + NaOH - DILUTION =/+ - + NaHCO3 O Na2CO3 - + FCL + CL - + Na2SO4 E/0 NaOH - + FCL + CL - CONVER.IN FW-GY + - + FCL + CL - CONVER.IN FW-SS - FOR T. >150 C UTILIZZARE DS-IE - + LIME AND/OR C. SODA

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

+/-

=/+

SALT

=/+

+/-

CARBONATES/ BICARBONATES TEMPERATURE

=/-

+/-

+/-

- + FCL + CL - + DEFLOC. AT HT

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM P.A.C.- BASE FLUIDS (DRISPAC)

AGIP CODE FW/SW-PA

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Solids-removal Eq. Lubricant Properties Logistic Difference Maint. Diffrence LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Formation Inhibition

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Density

Re-use

Diesel

LT Oil

T2

D4

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Encapsulating system, optimum base for inhibitive polymer systems; - High concentrations may limit cutting dispersion; - Same application as FW-PO, but has a better efficiency at high concentrations of monovalent salts.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Encapsulating system which needs the addition of an inhibitive salt for inhibition; - High sensitvity to contaminations from polyvalent salts; - Low solids tolerance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUIDS


Funnel Visc. (sec/qt) Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2) Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 ) API Filtrate (cc/30') MBT(kg/m3 equiv.) API HTHP (cc/30') Electrical Stability (volt)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

1.05 45 1.5 60

10 20

6 10

3 5

10 15

8 2

6 16

8.5 9.5 kg-l/m 3

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

0.4

20

MAX 20

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH/SALT WATER BENTONITE P.A.C.(REGULAR) P.A.C.LV NaOH BARITE

20-40 2-5 0-5 1,0-1,5 as needed

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

25 + WEIGHTING TIME

Mud B

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Mainly encapsulating, this system needs an adequate concentration of polymer (>3 kg/m3) to limit cutting dispersion and high increase of viscosity; - Easily convertible to a Potassium-base system, both Polymer-base and dispersed; - If a density increase above optimum range is desired, convert the system to a more solids-tolerant one.

- RHEOLOGY

- Decrease: Deflocculate using a short chain polymer (i.e.: short chain CMC LV, PHPA); Dilute; add CL and/or FCL.
- FILTRATE

- Use PAC Regular/LV and/or CMC LV dependent on rheology desired. High salt content fluids can result economical if employed with starches.

Density

Filtrate

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Solids

Yield

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

SHALE

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

REMEDIAL

Mf

- DILUTION - CONV. TO A MORE INHIBITIVE SYSTEM + - PRETREAT WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE - ADD. SODA ASH. - CONV IN FW/SW GY - ADD FCL + - CONTAMINANT IS DEPENDENT ON OBM - CONV. TO FW/SW-SS

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

=/+

SALT

=/+

+/-

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM PHPA-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-PC

Formation Inhibition

LGS Tolerance

Logistic Difference

Maint. Difference

Cutting Inhibition

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Lubricant Properties

BASE FLUID
Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Solids-removal Eq.

ENV.

Temperature

Re-use

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Diesel

LT Oil

Density

Cost

T2

D3

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Pre-soluble polymers are required to viscosify and encapsulating cuttings; - High solids-tolerance; - Optimum base for a KCI-base fluid;

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Encapsulating system which needs the addition of an inhibitive salt for inhibition; - High sensitivity to contaminations from polyvalent salts; - Low solids tolerance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Funnel Visc. (sec/qt) Gel 10" (gr/100cm2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.03 45 1.8 60

10 30

5 15

2 5

15 20

8 2

27

8.5 10.5

0.4 MAX

50 20

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH/SALT WATER BENTONITE PHPA CMC LV (CL) NaOH/KOH BARITE

kg-l/m3

30 5 0-7 (10) 0.1-0.5 as nedeed

MIXING TIME:

m3/h

25 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE

- Encapsulating system: An adequate concentration of polymer (3>kg/M3) is needed to limit cutting dispersion and high increase of viscosity; - Easily convertible to a potassium-base system; - Polymer may be added wherever but not through the hopper to avoid foam formation; - Can tolerate up to 170C by using additives.

- RHEOLOGY

- Decrease: Deflocculate using a short chain polymer (i.e.: short chain CMC LV, PHPA); Dilute; If a more energic action is needed, them add CL and/or FCL.

FILTRATE

- Use the most adequate a filtrate reducer according to the usage: (temperature, density, salinity).

% Sand

Density

Pf / Pm

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

Gels

PV

SHALE

+/-

Ca

pH

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

- ADD PHPA - ADD. PHPA LMW. -INCREASE INHIBITION + - PRETREAT WITH NaHCO3 - ADD. Na2CO3 - CONV IN FW/SW GY - ADD FCL + - CONTAMINANT IS DEPENDENT ON MBT - CONV. TO FW/SW-SS

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

=/+

SALT

=/+

+/-

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

37 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 3.2 INHIBITED WATER-BASE FLUIDS 0

REVISION

This section contains descriptions of the various inhibited water based drilling fluids, their applications and limitations. Fluid formation herein described, relating to drilling fluids, are the most simple and economical. Particular operating conditions may greatly modify them, so characteristics are reffered to the density indicated. Suggestions relating to fluid maintenance only refer to the most important aspect of the system described and do not include those relating to the general maintenance which are common to all systems. Containment effects refer to the fluid type. Other information on contamination can be found in section 4.1 Water Based Fluid Maintenance.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

38 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM SALT SATURATED FLUID

AGIP CODE FW/SW-SS

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-Dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLUID


Logistic Difference Maint. Difference Lubricant Properties Solid-removal eq. LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Convertible

Temperature

CUTTINGS A O/W ratio

Formation Inhibition

Sea Water

Dispersed

COSTO

Re-use

Density

Diesel

LT Oil

T2

D4

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Conditioned with NaCl, generally saturated; - Mainly used to drill salt formations. More rarely as an inhibitive fluid in shale formations.; - Viscosified salt solutions are employed as W.O. fluid.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Lower cost and east availability of NaCl; - Na+ has an inhibition effect only in high concentrations. In low concentrations it helps shale dispersion; - Salt saturated fluid is a special discarding fluid; - High salt content will affect the product performance. Dispersants, i.e. FCL, are low-effective. Dilution is required tp maintain the system.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield point (gr/100cm 2 ) Electrical stability (volt)

Funnel visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2 )

10

1.2

38

10 50

4 10

0 2 15

5 1

2 38

8.5 9.5

320 320 Kg-l/m 3 40-60 3-6 10-20 350 (3-6) as needed

10 10

2.1 80

FORMULATION

PRODUCT BENTONITE PREIDRATATA SODA CAUSTICA AMIDO SALE (PAC REG, LOVIS) BARITE

3 MIXING TIME: m /h

15 +WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(Kg/m 3equiv.)

API filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

MUD

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

39 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Traditionally maintained with dilution; - In absence of Mg++ salts, keep Pf>1; - System maintenance may result more complex in drilling complex salt formations (i.e. zechstein). In this case contact expert technicians.

RHEOLOGY

- Prior to dilution, try to use small concentrations of short chain polymer (i.e. CMC LV), or FCL (prehydrated in fresh water) ; - Rheology is generally maintained by adding prehydrated protected Bentonite (with a polymer or Lignosulphate) and starch; If needed use a Bio-polymer.

FILTRATE

- Up to approx. 100 C Temperature, use starch; For hgiher temperatures, PAC and/or CMC; for temperatures more than 140 C, estimate the use of oil-based fluid.

Density

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- CENTRIFUGE - DILUTE

CEMENT

+/-

+/-

+/-

- PRETREAT WITH NaHCO3 - USE PRODUCT TOLERANT TO Ca ++ - AVOID DIRECT ADDITION OF ALKALINE AGENTS - IF DUE TO COMPLEX SALTS pH 8 IS MAX WITH MgO. DO NOT ADD ALKALINE AGENTS IN CIRCULATION.

Ca++

+/-

+/=

+/=

+/=

-/=

Mg++

HIGH TEMPERATURES

- USE PAC - SUBSTITUTE WITH OBM.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

40 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM AGIPAK (KCMC)-BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE FW-PK

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-Dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Logistic Difference Solid-removal eq. Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Formation Inhibition

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

COSTO

Re-use

Diesel

CUTTINGS B O/W ratio

Density

LT Oil

T1

D1

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- A certain inhibition grade is given to the system by replacing the sodium base with the potassium one; - Same applications as FW-PO; - May be used as a dispersed polymer and potassium-base system.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Slightly encapsulating and inhibitive system; - Can only be used in fresh water, as salt water affects the potassium-base effect; - Low-solid tolerance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield point (gr/100cm2) Electrical stability. (volt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Funnel visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.03 40 1.15 80

5 15

4 15

2 3

8 15

10 2

5 15

8.5 9.5

20 . _ . 60

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH WATER BENTONITE KCMC / AGIPAC HV KCMC / AGIPAK LV KOH

Kg-l/m 3

20-60 2-6 2-10 2-4

3 MIXING TIME: m /h

25

MBT(Kg/m3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

MUD

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

41 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE - Low-solids tolerance; - Good operating performance of the solids-removal equipment is needed to limit dilutions; - Easily convertible to a dispersed potassium and polymer base system.

RHEOLOGY

- Decrease: dilution, KCMC-LV has a light deflocculating effect; - Increase: addition of KCMC-HV.

FILTRATE

- Maintain a minimum quantity of bentonite, add KCMC-LV.

Density

Solids

% Sand

Filtrate

Pf / Pm

Yield

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

SHALE

=/-

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

REMEDIAL

Mf

- Dilute - Add K+ - Add FCL E/O CL + -Pretreat with KHCO3

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

=/+

- Add K2CO3 - + KCMC-LV - Convert to FW-GY + - Convert to SW-PO - Convert to FW-SS

SALT

=/+

+/-

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

42 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM POTASSIUM CHLORIDE- BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE FW/SW-KC

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Solid-Removal Eq. LGS Tolerance Logistic Difference Maint. Difference

ENV.

Non-Dispersed

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

dispersed

Re-Use

Density

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Diesel

LT Oil

(X)

B/M

T2

D3

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Conditioned with KCI, which is added preferably to polymer and non-dispersed; - Mainly employed in drilling shales like gumbo; - Drilling formations which, when hydrated have swelling and sloughing tendencies.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- KCl is an available and low-cost salt; - Inhibitive ion concentrations can be easily adapted to the formation reactivity; - K+concentration should be constantly monitored ; - High salt concentration may create disposal problems; - K+destabilises high caolinitecontent formations.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10' (gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.05 THE CHARACTERISTICS ARE THOSE TYPICAL OF THE BASE SYSTEM EMPLOYED. 1.8 kg-l/m 3

FORMULATION

PRODUCT

- The formulations are those typical of the base systems employed. - Product concentrations are traditionally higher. - A biopolymer is used as a base viscosifier to provide the system with adequate suspending characteristics.

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

25 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol.)

Oil (% in vol.)

Calcium (gr/l)

Funnel V isc. (sec/qt)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

NaCl (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

43 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Adequate concentration of KCI must be maintained and monitored through laboratory tests, as well as by observing the cuttings over the shale shakers; - Fluid maintenance is that of the system to which KCI is added; - System may be optimised by replacing the soda-base products with potassium-base ones; - In sea water higher concentrations of KCI are required.

RHEOLOGY AND FILTRATE

- Refer to the base-system used.

NOTE: KCl-BASE SYSTEM, ESPECIALLY IF POLYMERIC, TRADITIONALLY HAS HIGH RATES OF CORROSION.

Density

Filtrate

Solids

% Sand

Pf / Pm

MBT

Gels

PV

Ca

pH

CONTAMINANTS

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

Shale

+/-

Cl

- Add. K+ - Increase concentration (K+)

Cement

+/-

- Pretreat with KHCO3 - Use products tolerant Ca++

CaSO4

+/-

+/=

+/=

+/=

-/=

Salt

=/+

+/-

+/-

+/-

- Generally minimum contamination - Increase K+ - Convert to SS

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

44 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM GYPSUM-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-GY

BASE FLUID
Cutting inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant properties Formation inhibition Llogistic difference Solid-removal eq. Maint. difference LGS tolerance

ENV.

Non-dispersed

Alternative oil

Fresh water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea water

Dispersed

Density

Re-use

COSTO

CUTTING B 10 20 Excess lime (kg/m3)

Diesel

LT oil

(X)

T3

D4

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Used for drilling reactive shales and massive formations of CaSO4: - Gypsum is used as a Ca++ source; - Dispersed, Lignosulphonate base system; - The system may be more inhibitive if used in fresh water.

ADAVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- High solids and good cutting inhibition; - Can be weighted up to elevated values; - Can also be used at high temperatures; - Low cost; - Effectiveness can be enhanced by using KOH or Ca(OH)2 as alkaline agent; - Gelation problems may occur to high solids content fluid at high temperatures.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

1.1 40 2.1 60

10 45

3 8

1 1

5 15

8 2

5 35

9.5 10.5 15

0.2 0.5

1.2 0.6

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

70 30

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH/SALT WATER BENTONITE ALCALINE AGENT FC-LIGNOSOLFONATE GYPSUM CMC-LV/LIGNITE BARITE 3 m /h

kg-l/m

50 4 6-12 10-20 3-7 as needed

MIXING TIME

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m 3 equiv.)

MUD

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

45 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Maintain excess Gypsum ranging from 10 to 20 kg/m3, regulate soluble Ca++ by varying pH from 9 to 10.5. When pH is low, Ca++ is more soluble, and inhibition and maintenance difficulty become higher.

RHEOLOGY

- Use FCL as a thinning agent. If Ca++ is high, gelation problems may occur, especially with high-solids content and temperatures near the system limit (150 C).

FILTRATE

- CMC LV is an optimum filtrate reducer. The concentration of soluble Ca++ affects the quantity of filtrate reducer needed; - For elevated temperatures use lignite to control the filtrate.

Density

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

PV

Gels

pH

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- INCREASE CaSO4 EXCESS - DECREASE MBT

CEMENT

+/-

+/-

- ADD. FCL - DECREASE pH WITH NaHCO3 + - MODERATE CONTAMINATION - ADD FCL E CMC-LV - CONVERT TO FW-SS - DECREASE MBT. - DECREASE EXCESS GYPSUM - ADD LIGNIN

SALT/SALTED WATER

+/-

+/-

+/-

=/+

HIGH TEMPERATURE

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

46 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM LIME-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-LI

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance Non-dispersed

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Re-use

Density

Cutting B 23 Excess Lime (kg/m3) 5

Diesel

LT Oil

Cost

T2

D4

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Used for drilling reactive shale formations, even at high temperatures; - Lime is used as the source of Ca++; - Dispersed, lignosulphonate-base system; - Two basic formulations: Low-Lime content and high-Lime content, varying from 5 to 20 kg/m3 of excess Lime respectively.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- High-solids tolerance and medium cutting inhibition; - Can be weighted up to high values; - Fairly good resistance to chemical contaminants; - Low cost; - Reduced calcium inhibitive effect due to the pH dispersing action; - Gelation problems may occur near temperature limit (130 C).

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUIDS


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.1 2.15

38 65

8 55

4 10

1 1

3 15

10 2

5 40

12

2 5

0,1 0,4 kg-l/m 3 70-120 3-8 6-12 8-30 20/7 as needed

12.5 20

20

FORMULATION

PRODUCT WATER BENTONITE ALCALE FC-LIGNOSOLFONATE LIME STARCH/CMC-LV BARITE

MIXING TIME: m3/h

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m3 equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

70

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

47 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Excess lime to be used depends on the formation reactivity; - The relationship betwen Pm/Pf with Pm>3Pf is vital as it provides exact indication of excess lime.

RHEOLOGY

- Increase: Prehydrated, lignosulphonate protected bentonite; - Decrease: Maintain excess lime within optimum values, add lignosulphonate, dilute.

FILTRATE

- CMC LV is an optimum filtrate reducer. The concentration of soluble Ca++ affects the quantity of filtrate reducer needed; - For elevated temperatures use lignite to control the filtrate.

Density

Filtrate

Solids

% Sand

Pf / Pm

Yield

MBT

Gels

PV

CONTAMINANTS

REMEDIAL

pH

Ca

Mf

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- INCREASE EXCESS Ca(OH)2 - REDUCE MBT

CEMENT

+/=

-/=

- MODERATE CONTAM.

SALT/SALT WATER

+/-

+/-

+/-

=/+

- MODERATE CONTAM. - ADD FCL AND STARCH - CONVERT TO FW-SS - REDUCE MBT. - RED. Pm AND Pf. - ADD. CMC LV AND LIGNIN

HIGH TEMPERATURE

GYPSUM

-/+

-: ADD. NaOH - COVERT TO FW-GY

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

48 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM MOR-REX-BASE FLUID (KLM)

AGIP CODE FW/SW-MR

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance Non-dispersed Lubricant Properties Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Temperature

Dispersed

Convertible

Density

Cuttings B 10 15 Excess Lime (kg/m3)

Re-use

Diesel

LT oil

(X)

T1

D4

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Used for drilling reactive shale formations, even at high temperatures; - Calcium and Potassium are added as KOH and Ca(OH)2, while Morex as a deflocculant and calcium chelant polymer; - Optimum application is in freshwater fluids with high ROP and density, but not too high temperatures.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- High solids tolerance and ;ood cutting inhibition; - Can be weighted up to high values; - Complex system, expert technicians are needed for maintenance; - Several products are needed for its formulation and maintenance, this may create supply problems; - Gelation problems may occur in high solids content fluids near temperature limit (130 C).

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.1 40 2.1 55

15 50

4 8

1 3

2 15

10 6

5 35

12.5 15 12.5 15

2-3 2-3

2-4 2-4

0.4 0.8

60 MAX

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH/SALT WATER PREHYDRATED BENTONITE (BIOPOLYMER) MOR-REX KOH LIME MOD. STARCHES/LIGNITE BARITE

kg-l/m 3 40 (1-3) 6-12 3 12-17 10-15 as needed

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

15 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

49 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE

- System with floculation controlled by the balance between two salts and a polymer: Highly important to maintain the balance between Pf, Pm and Morex; - Always add Lime and Morex simultaneously in a ratio of 4/2 and 3/2 dependent on the characteristics desired and temperature.

RHEOLOGY

- Flocculation control is due to the ratio Lime/Morex. Do not use dispersers; - Keep MBT below 10%; For high densities and temperatures > 135 C, do not exceed 4-6%.

FILTRATE

- Use starch as main filtrate reducer up to a temperature of 100 C, for higher temperatures use starch and lignite in a ratio of 2/1 and 1/1; - Do not add alkaline agent to starch simultaneously as it may cause an increase of viscosity. Pre-solubilised lignite may be convienvent.

Density

Pf / Pm

% Sand

Filtrate

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

Ca

CONTAMINANT

Solids

REMEDIAL

Yield

Mf

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- Ca++ AND MOR-REX - DECREASE MBT

CEMENT

- ADD. LIME + MOR-REX + WATER + LIGNITE + +KOH. - IF Ca++ > 1200 ppm ADD. K2CO3 - CONV. TO FW-GY + - CONV. TO FW-SS

CaSO4

-/+

SALT

+/-

HIGH TEMPERATURE

- DECREASE MBT. - ADD. LIGNITE FOR FILTRATE.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

50 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 3.3 OIL BASED FLUID 0

REVISION

This section contains descriptions of the oil based fluids systems, their applications and limitations.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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51 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM DIESEL INVERT EMULSION FLUID

AGIP CODE DS-IE

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Formation Inhibition

Density

Re-use

Cuttings A Excess Lime (kg/m3) 6 13

Diesel

LT Oil

T4

D3

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Water emulsion in Oil with Oil as the filtrate; - Used for drilling shales, high temperatures, salt formations, deviated wells, water-damaging reservoir, completion fluid; - High density drilling fluids used when fluid recovery and re-use is advantageous.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- The emulsion has a nonionic continuous phase and does not interact with shale layers and the most common chemical contaminants; - Due to high environmental restrictions, the zero charge is needed; - Compared to other drilling fluids or zero discharge areas, it has the advantage of a low dilution ratio and the possibility to be re-used; - Lost circulation control, and Gas kick detection and maintenance may create some problems.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Electrical Stability (volt) 600 2000

Solids (% in vol.)

Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

1.2 2.2

40 60

15 42

5 8

2 1.5

5 6

0 0

10 3

8 40

64 54

28 6

3 8

30 30

70/30 90/10

FORMULAtion

PRODUCT DIESEL EMULSIFIER/S LIME FILTRATE REDUCER (IF REQUIRED) BRINE (20-30% CaCl2) VISCOSIFIER WETTING AGENT (IF REQUIRED) BARITE

kg-l/m 3 FORMULATIONS AND QUANTITIES DEPEND ON DENSITY, OIL/WATER RATIO AND SERVICE COMPANY'S FORMULATIONS. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTION IN THE SPECIFIC MANUAL.

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

15 + WEIGHTING TIME

O/W Ratio

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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52 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- An Oil-base fluid is traditionally easy to maintain. Pay attention to record dilutions and product quantities required in order to keep correct concentrations; - To avoid problems, constantly monitor any modifications of the characteristics, especially the electrical stability and HPHT filtrate. If any modifications, determine the possible causes and take prompt remedial actions.

RHEOLOGY

- Should be determined at a temperature of 120 or 150oF. Do not use marsh viscosity for maintenance; - Water is the principle viscosifier of Oil-base fluids. Its percent will vary depending on the characteristics required. Other viscosifiers enhance yield point and Gels. Viscosity is also given by solids, thus it is essential to decrease the water content in the fluid by increasing density.

FILTRATE

-The main filtrate reducer is given by the quality of emulsion. Other filtrate reducers may be needed for high temperatures or for very low HPHT filtrate values.

EL. STAB.

F. HPHT

Wetting

Cuttings

Density

CaCl2

Water

Aspect

Yield

Gels

PV

0/W

CONTAMINANTS

POM

REMEDIALS

SOLIDS

++

=/-

(?)

(PLASTIC) - ADD.WETTING AGENT - DILUTE - IF O/W OK, + EMULSION. IF O/W K.O., + OLIO X OK

WATER

-/+

(+)

(PLAST.)

CaCl2 > 35%

+/-

+/-

=/+

(PLAST.)

- LIGHT CONTAM. - CONV. TO DS/LT-IE

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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53 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160
)

REVISION 0

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM DIESEL INVERT EMULSION, FILTRATE RELAXED FLUID

AGIP CODE DS-IE-RF

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Logistic Difference Solid-removal Eq. Maint. Difference

ENV.

Alternative Oil

LGS Tolerance

Non-dispersed

Temperature

Fresh Water

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Density

LT Oil

Cuttings A Excess Lime (kg/m3) 6 13

Re-use

Diesel

Cost

T4

D3

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Water emulsion in Oil with Oil as the filtrate - Same applications as the conventional Oil-base fluid. Thanks to its characteristics of high filtrate it helps improve penetration rates in permeable formations.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Same advantages as a conventional Oil-base fluid with higher penetration rates; - Due to a minor emulsion concentration, the range of temperature is limited to max 350 F; - Same environmental restrictions as DS-IE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Electrical Stability. (volt) 600 1000

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

1.2 2.2

40 60

15 42

5 8

2 1.5

5 6

2 8

15 20

8 40

64 54

28 6

3 8

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

30 30

80/20 90/10

FORMULATION

PRODUCT DIESEL EMULSIFIER/S LIME FILTRATE REDUCER (IF REQUESTED) BRINE (20-30% CaCl2) VISCOSIFIER WETTING AGENT (IF REQUIRED) BARITE

kg-l/m 3 FORMULATIONS AND QUANTITIES DEPENDS ON DENSITY, WATER/OIL RATIO AND ON THE SERVICE COMPANY'S FORMULATIONS. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS IN THE SPECIFIC MANUAL.

MIXING TIME:

m3/h

15 + WEIGHTING TIME

O/W Ratio

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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54 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM 100% DIESEL INVERT EMULSION FLUID

AGIP CODE DS/LT-IE-100

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Density

Cuttings A Excess Lime (kg/m3)

Diesel

Re-use

LT Oil

T4

D5

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- 100% Diesel or low toxiticity Oil, Oil-base fluid; - A small quantity of emulsifier helps tolerate up to 10% water invasion; - Non-damaging Oil-base fluid system, purposely designed for coring and drilling Oil mineralised formation.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- The lack of water and energic emulsifiers limits damages to the Oil-mineralised formation; - Easily convertible to a simple Oil-base fluid or to a packer-fluid; - Purposely prepared, it is not possible to recover the original oil-based fluid, because of the high concentrations of surfanctants; - If prepared with Diesel it shows the same environmental restrictions as DS-IE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F


Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Electrical Stability (volt) 2000+

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

2 Gel 10'(gr/100cm )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

1.4

12

10

18

82

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

100/0

FORMULATION

PRODUCT DIESEL/LT OIL EMULSIFIER/S LIME FILTRATE REDUCER WETTING AGENT VISCOSIFIER BARITE / CaCO3 3 m /h

kg-l/m3 FORMULATIONS AND QUANTITIES DEPEND ON DENSITY, AND SERVICE COMPANY'S FORMULATIONS. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS ON THE SPECIFIC MANUAL.

MIXING TIME:

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

O/W Ratio

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

55 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 3.4 INHIBITED AND/OR ENVIRONMENTAL FLUIDS 0

REVISION

This section contains descriptions of inhibited and environmentally friendly fluid systems, their applications and limitations.

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56 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM POTASSIUM CARBONATE-BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE FW-K2

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Logistic Difference Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance Solids-removal Eq. Lubricant Properties

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Diesel

Cuttings B O/W Ratio

Density

Re-use

LT Oil

Cost

T2

D3

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Conditioned with non-dispersed K2CO3 which has been added to KCMC and KPAC; - Used for drilling reactive shales; - Drilling formations which, when hydrated, have sloughing and/or swelling tendencies; - Can be used as a completion fluid or as a no-solids drilling fluid up to a density of 1,58 sg.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Non-corrosive; - No environmental limitations as per KCl; - At >100 C CO2 is freed; - Can interfere with the cement plug; - If used as a W.O. fluid, then avoid using in presence of Lime waters; - K+ has a destabilising effect on caolinic formations.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

1.1 1.8

40 50

8 36

4 8

1 2

4 12

0 25

10.5 11.5 kg-l/m 3 40 4-6 5-7 20-30

MAX

FORMULATION

PRODUCT FRESH WATER BENTONITE (K)PAC (K)CMC K2CO3 BARITE (BIOPOLYMER)

as needed as needed

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m 3equiv.)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

30

Mud

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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57 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE

- Encapsulating system: An adequate concentration of polymer (3>kg/M3) is needed to limit cutting dispersion and high increase of viscosity; - Easily convertible to a potassium-base system; - Polymer may be added wherever but not through the hopper to avoid foam formation; - Can tolerate up to 170C by using additives.

- RHEOLOGY

- Decrease: Deflocculate using a short chain polymer (i.e.: short chain CMC LV, PHPA); Dilute; If a more energic action is needed, them add CL and/or FCL.

FILTRATE

- Use the most adequate a filtrate reducer according to the usage: (temperature, density, salinity).

% Sand

Density

Pf / Pm

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

Gels

PV

SHALE

+/-

Ca

pH

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

- ADD PHPA - ADD. PHPA LMW. - INCREASE INHIBITION + - PRETREAT WITH NaHCO3 - ADD. Na2CO3 - CONV IN FW/SW GY - ADD FCL + - CONTAMINANT IS DEPENDENT ON MBT - CONV. TO FW/SW-SS

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

=/+

SALT

=/+

+/-

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IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

58 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM POTASSIUM ACETATE-BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE FW-KA

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Difference LGS Tolerance Lubricant Properties

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Formation Inhibition

Temperature

Convertible

Dispersed

Diesel

Cutings B O/W Ratio

Density

Re-use

LT Oil

(X)

T3

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Conditioned with K-Acetate, preferably to polymers and non-dispersed; - K can be also added to high density and HT systems; - Safe alternative to KCI in environmental sensitive areas; - Same applications as KCl.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- KAC is a high cost salt (5-6 times KCl); - Less corrosive than KCl; - Disposal difficulties due to a high COD; - Same K+ concentrations as KCI addition of +KAC (+30%) is required.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLUIDS


Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.05 2.0 FORMULATION

THE CHARACTERISTICS ARE TRADITIONALLY THOSE OF THE BASE SYSTEM USED. Pf AND Pm EVALUATIONS ALTERED BY ACETATE. kg-l/m 3

PRODUCT

- FORMULATIONS ARE TRADITIONALLY THOSE OF THE BASE SYSTEMS USED; - PRODUCT CONCENTRATIONS ARE GENERALLY HIGH; - A BIOPOLYMER IS OFTEN USED AS A VISCOSIFIER TO PROVIDE THE SYSTEM WITH ADEQUATE SUSPENDING CHARACTERISTICS. MIXING TIME: 3 m /h 25 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m 3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

ARPO

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59 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- More than other K+ base system, it is particulary designed for use in dispersed high density and/or high temperature fluids; - Estimate the the cuttings over shale shakers and adapt K+ concentrations.

- RHEOLOGY AND FILTRATE

- Controlled as per the base fluid system used.

DENSITY

FILTRATE

SOLIDS

% SAND

YIELD

GELS

Pf / Pm

MBT

PV

SHALE

=/-

Mf

Ca

pH

CONTAMINANTS

NaCl

REMEDIAL ACTIONS

- Increase K+ concentration. - Deflocculate or disperse. - Dilute. + - Pretreat with KHCO3

CEMENT

+/-

CaSO4

+/-

+/-

=/-

- Add K2CO3 - Use polymers resistant to CA++. + - Adapt K+. - Convert to KCl. - Convert to FW/SW-SS - Reduce MBT, - Disperse with CL/FCL

NaCl/SALT WATER

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

HIGH TEMPERATURES

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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM HIGH TEMPERATURE (> 200 C) WATER-BASE FLUIDS

AGIP CODE FW/SW-HT

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-Dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. LGS Tolerance Logistic Difference Maint. Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Lubricant Properties

Density

Re-use

Diesel

Cutting B Excess Lime (kg/m3)

LT Oil

T4

D3

AA

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Designed for elevate temperatures and/or geothermic wells; alternative to DS-IE. - The basic formulation depends on the use of bentonite and a deflocculant polymer (SSMA) suitable for elevate temperatures; - Lower costs and difficulties to control filtrate compared to systems employing sepiolite and/or polymer as viscosifiers.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Safe alternative to Oil-base fluids in environmental sensitive areas; - Lower maintenance costs compared to HT water-base formulations; - Can also be employed in salt saturated fluids, and in presence of biavelent ions.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

1.1 38 1.8 50

10 55

4 8

1 1

5 12

10 2

30 10

5 30

9.5 10.5

0.3 0.7 kg-l/m 3 30-35 3-4 1-2 10-30 1-5 as needed

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

30 30

FORMULATION

PRODUCT WATER BENTONITE (no peptine added) NaOH SSMA POL. LIGNITE HT POLYMER MIXTURE BARITE m3/h

MIXING TIME:

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(kg/m 3equiv.)

Mud

ARPO

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61 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Solids control is highly important, therefore always monitor solids percentage, reactivity, and size by means of adequate analyses; - Verify rheology at 120 F; - Maintain the fluid chemical parameters within the values. At high temperature all reactions may result accelerated.

RHEOLOGY

- Increase: Prehydrated and SSMA protected bentonite; - Decrease: Dilution.

FILTRATE

- Filtrate reducers must be chosen according to temperature and ionic environment, such as: Chromelignin, HT polymer mixture (i.e. Resinex), polyacrylates and polyacriyamides. In case of high concentrations of bivalent ions, use copolymers based on amps.

Density

Filtrate

Pf / Pm

Solids

% Sand

MBT

Gels

PV

pH

Ca

CONTAMINANTS

Yield

REMEDIAL

Mf

SOLIDS

=/-

+/-

Cl

- DILUTE

CEMENT

- CONTAMINATION DEP. ON POLYMERS USED - ADD. Na2CO3

SALT/SALT WATER +/-

+/-

+/-

=/+

- LIGHT CONTAMINATION - CONV. TO DS/LT-IE

HIGH TEMPERATURE

+/=

+/-

- REDUCE MBT - REDUCE Pf AND Mf TO VALUES EQUIVALENT TO OH- IN THE FLUID.

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62 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM CATION-BASE FLUID BASE FLUID


Cutting Inhibition

AGIP CODE FW/SW-CT ENV.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Maint. Tolerance Non-dispersed Logistic Difference LGS Tolerance Solids-removal Eq.

Alternative Oil

Temperature

Fresh Water

Dispersed

Convertible

Sea Water

Lubricant Properties

Density

Re-use

Cutting A O/W Ratio

Diesel

LT Oil

T2

D3

AA

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Fluid with cationic polymers which, thanks to their positive charge, are inhibitive and flocculant; - It inhibits the reactive shales without using an inhibitive salt.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Inhibition is due to the absorption of polymers on the shale surface; - Cationic polymers, though toxic, have fewer environmental restrictions than conventional water-base fluids; - Cationic polymers are not compatible with conventional anionic polymers. Therefore, maintain some anion concentrations (Cl-, from NaCl or KC) in the fluid in order to overcome incompatibility. Always verify incompatibility.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm 2)

API Filtrate (cc/30')

1.1 1.8

45 60

10 40

2 10

1 2

2 10

7 3

30 12

10 30

9 MAX

(50) (MIN.) ()FOR SOME FORMULATION ONLY kg-l/m3 FORMULATIONS ARE STRICTLY DEPENDENT ON THE CATIONIC POLYMERS CHOSEN. EACH COMPANY HAS A SPECIFIC FORMULATION.

FORMULATION

PRODUCT VISCOSIFIER ALKALINITY AGENT CATIONIC POLYMER FILTRATE REDUCER DEFLOCCULANT WAIGHTING INHIBITIVE SALT 3 m /h 15 + WEIGHTING TIME

MIXING TIME:

MBT(kg/m3equiv.)

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

NaCl (gr/l)

Ca (gr/l)

Pm

pH

Mf

Pf

Mud

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63 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Tolerance between cationic and conventional (anionic) polymers should be verified. Tolerance is traditionally possible for formulations with a certain content of chloride ion; - Never use lignosulphonates or other anionic polymers, even in presence of chlorides. Do not increase pH above 9.5 value.

RHEOLOGY

- System maintenance may be difficult due to the poor availability of compatible products with cationic polymers; - Generally a biopolymer and/or HEC is used as a viscosifier; - Solids control is highly important.

FILTRATE

- The most used filtrate reducers are: Modificated starches, kaolinte, prehydrated and PVA (Polyvinil alcohol) protected bentonite; - PAC can be employed in presence of electrolytes.

Density

Pf / Pm

Filtrate

%Sand

Solids

Yield

PV

pH

Ca

Mf

CONTAMINANTS

MBT

Gels

REMEDIAL

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- ADD.CATIONIC POLYMER - DILUTE + - ADD. CH3COOH - ADD. NaHCO3 - NO CONTAMINATION

CEMENT

CaSO4

SALT/SALT WATER +/-

- NO CONTAMINATION

HIGH TEMPERATURE

- REDUCE MBT. - DEFLOCCULATE

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64 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM GLYCOL-BASE FLUID

CODICE AGIP FW/SW-GL

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Tolerance LGS Tolerance Alternative Oil

ENV.

Fresh Water

Temperature

Formation Inhibition

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Density

Re-use

Diesel

Cutting B O/W Ratio

LT Oil

T2

D2

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Polymer-base fluid conditioned with glycol which may contain inhibitive ions; - Designed as an environmentally safe alternative to conventional oil-base fluid and as a shale formation inhibitor; - May help with problems relating to the formation of 'Hydrated gases'. N.B. This system is being developed.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- In product usage percentages of 3-5%. It behaves as a lubricant, in percentages varying from 10 to 40%. It is comparable to FW-KC for its inhibition characteristics; - Very high costs, considering low solids tolerance; - Not a competitive alternative to oil-base fluid, and even when OBM cannot be employed, preferably estimate to use other systems before choosing the glycol-base fluid.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLUID Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Electrical Stability (volt)

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

NaCl (gr/l)

Pm

1.1 1.8

CHARACTERISTICS, ESPECIALLY THE PV, ARE DEPENDENT ON THE % OF GLYCOL AND BASE SYSTEM USED (TRADITIONALLY PHPA).

FORMULATION

PRODUCT BENTONITE CAUSTIC SODA PHPA and/or PAC GLYCOL MODIFIED STARCH and/or Na POLYACRYLATES BIOPOLYMER BARITE

Mf

Pf

kg-l/m 3 10-30 3 8/3 10-400 6/2 2 as needed

MIXING TIME: m3/h

20 + WEIGHTING TIME

MBT(g/m3 equiv.)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Ca (gr/l)

pH

Mud

ARPO

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65 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Fluid maintenance is that of the base system used; - Determination of glycol content may result difficult; - If glycol percentage increases, Then PV increases dramatically, thus limiting the solids content allowed in the system (density and LGS limits).

RHEOLOGY

- Prior to dilution, try to use small concentrations of short-chain polymer (i.e. CMC LV), or chrome-free lignosulphonate.

FILTRAT

- Use starch up to approx. 100 oC, for higher temperatures PAC and/or CMC for temperatures more than 140-150 oC, Napolyacrylate is recommended.

N.B.This system is being developed. The information given is general and subject to modification.

Density

Pf / Pm

%Sand

Filtrate

Solids

MBT

PV

Gels

CONTAMINANTS

Yield

REMEDIAL

pH

Ca

Mf

SHALE

=/-

Cl

- DEFLOCCULATE - DILUTE

CEMENT

- PRETREAT WITH NaHCO3 - USE PRODUCT TOLERANT Ca++ - ADD. Na2CO3 + - CONTAMINATION DEPEND ON BMT, AND POLYMER TYPE.

CaSO4

SALT/SALT. WATER

+/-

+/-

+/-

HIGH TEMPERATURE

- USE HT BASE SYSTEM - REDUCE MBT.

ARPO

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PAGE

66 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM LOW TOXICITY OIL, INVERT EMULSION DRILLING FLUID BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Alternative Oil Non-dispersed

AGIP CODE LT-IE ENV.


Lubricant Properties

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Formation Inhibition Logistic Difference Solids-removal Eq. Maint. Tolerance LGS Tolerance Temperature

Fresh Water

Sea Water

Dispersed

Convertible

Re-use

Cuttings M A 6 Excess Lime (kg/m3) 600

LT Oil

Density

Diesel

T4

D3

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Exactly the same as DS-IE, except for the mineral oil base fluid which is low-aromatic, hydrocarbon content, and low toxiticity.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- May be more advantageous than DS-IE if used in some areas where off-shore discharge is allowed for the max percentage of cuttings from traditional oil-base fluids; - In areas where disposal percentage is near zero or 'zero', LT oil-base fluid is not convenient; - Higher product concentrations compared to DS-IE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F


Yield Point (gr/100cm 2 ) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Funnel Visc. (sec/qt) Gel 10" (gr/100cm 2 ) 2 Gel 10'(gr/100cm ) API Filtrate (cc/30') Electrical Stability (volt) 1500

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

CaCl2 (%)

1.2 2.2

40 60

15 42

5 8

4 1.5

5 6

0 0

10 3

8 40

64 54

28 6

3 10

30 30 kg-l/m 3

70/30 90/10

O/W Ratio

pH

Mf

Pf

FORMULATION

PRODUCT LOW-AROMATIC CONTENT MINERAL OIL EMULSIFIER/S LIME FILTRATE REDUCER (if required) BRINE (20-30% CaCl2) VISCOSIFIER WETTING AGENT (if required) BARITE

FORMULATION AND QUANTITIES DEPEND ON DENSITY, WATER/OIL RATIO, AND SERVICE COMPANY'S FORMULATIONS IN THE SPECIFIC MANUAL.

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

15 + WEIGHTING TIME

Cost

13

Mud

ARPO

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67 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Refer to DS-IE for maintenance procedures; - Control if oil percentage of cuttings from oil-base fluid is within the values to allow the discharge. Take all actions to maintain this percentage low; - Optimise solids-removal equipment; - Maintain the lowest oil/water ratio, compatible to the characteristics required.

HPHT F.

El. Stab.

Density

Cuttings

Wetting

CaCl2

Water

Aspect

Yield

Gels

PV

0/W

CONTAMINANTS

POM

REMEDIAL

SOLIDS

++

=/-

(?)

(PLAST.)

- ADD. WETTING AGENT - DILUTE

WATER

-/+

(+)

(PLAST.) -IF O/W IS OK, THAN RESTORE ADDITIVE PERCENTAGE -IF O/W IS NOT OK THAN ADD LT OIL+ ADDIT. %

OIL

-IF O/W IS OK, THEN RESTORE ADDITIVE PERCENTAGE - IF O/W IS NOT OK THEN ADD WATER + ADDIT.%

CaCl2 > 35%

+/-

+/-

(+)

(PLAST.) - ADD. FRESH WATER - ADD. WETTING AGENT

HIGH TEMPERATURE

- ADDEMULSIFIERS - ADD FILTRATE REDUCERS

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68 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM 50/50 O/W INVERT EMULSION DRILLING FLUID

AGIP CODE LT-IE-50

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Tolerance LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Diesel

Density

Re-use

Cuttings M Excess Lime (kg/m3) 4 +/-

LT Oil

T2

D2

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- LT-IE fluid, purposely designed with a high water content to reduce cuttings from oil-base fluids and discharge them offshore within the limits allowed; - Used in off-shore areas where discharge of fluid is allowed with +/- 10% residual oil.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- Easier control of low-residual oil from cuttings compared to conventional LT-IE ; - Highest inhibition grade of any water-base fluid ; - Difficult maintenance as it is not possible to decrease density above 1.4 - 1.5 values when solids tolerance is low; - Unstable to high temperatures.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120F


Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Electrical Stability (volt) 500

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2 )

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

1.45 +/80

40 50

10 15

4 8

10

0 0

8 10

20 25

40

40

1 2.5

20 25

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

50/50

O/W Ratio

10

FORMULATION

PRODUCT LOW AROMATIC CONTENT, MINERAL OIL EMULSIFIER/S LIME BRINE (20-25% CaCl2) VISCOSIFIER BARITE

kg-l/m3 FORMULATIONS AND QUANTITIES DEPEND ON DENSITY, WATER/OIL RATIO, AND SERVICE COMPANY'S FORMULATIONS. REFER TO INSTRUCTION IN THE SPECIFIC MANUAL.

MIXING TIME:

3 m /h

15 + WEIGHTING TIME

Mud

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

MAINTENANCE
- Generally maintained as an oil-base fluid; - Unstable due to the high water percentage and more difficult to maintain than a conventional oil-base fluid; - Low electrical stability. Emulsion quality is evaluated from HPHT filtrate by verifying the absence of water.

RHEOLOGY

- Very high rheology; - High viscosity may allow a high percentage of residual fluid, and oil from cuttings. To reduce viscosity, increase the O/W ratio. However, this may also increase oil from cuttings, find a right balance between the two factors.

FILTRATE

- HPHT filtrate provides stability to the system. Its maintenance is highly important. Avoid overtreatment with emulsifiers or filtrate reducers for excessive viscosity.

F. HPHT

EL. Stab.

Density

Wetting

CaCl2

Cuttings

Aspect

Water

POM

Yield

Gels

PV

0/W

CONTAMINANTS

REMEDIAL

SOLIDS

++

=/-

= (?)

(PLAST.) - ADD. WETTING AGENT - DILUTE

WATER

-/+

(+)

(PLAST.) -IF O/W RATIO IS OK, THEN RESTORE ADDITIVE%.

-IF THE O/W IS NOT OK, THEN ADD LT OIL + ADDITIVE%. - IF O/W IS OK, THEN RESTORE ADDITIVE %.

OIL

-IF THE O/W IS NOT OK, THEN ADD WATER + ADDITIVE %.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM INVERT EMULSION, ESTER-BASE FLUID BASE FLUID


Cutting Inhibition Alternative Oil Non-dispersed

AGIP CODE EB-IE ENV.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Logistic Difference Maint Diffrence LGS Tolerance Solid-removal Eq. Temperature

Fresh Water

Formation Inhibition

Sea Water

Convertible

Dispersed

Lubricant Properties

Diesel

Cuttings B Excess Lime (kg/m3) 4 8

Density

Re-use

LT Oil

T2

D3

AA

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Ester-base emulsion; - Thanks to no-aromatic content and biodegradability, cuttings can be discharged as per water-base fluids; - In off-shore areas where discharge of cuttings from oil-base fluids is restricted as well as for the high costs on-shore transportations, it is a valid alternative to water-base fluids.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- All advantages of an oil-base fluid but lower environmental restrictions; - Can be used up to 150 C and a max density of 1,8 kg/l; - High cost.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F


Yield Point (gr/100cm2) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Funnel Visc. (sec/qt) 2 Gel 10" (gr/100cm ) 2 Gel 10'(gr/100cm ) API Filtrate (cc/30') API HTHP (cc/30') Electrical Stability (volt) 600 1000

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density (SG)

Plastic Visc. (cps)

+/1.5 80 FORMULATION 35 13 2 10 0

2 5 PRODUCT ESTER WATER EMULSIFIER FILTRATE REDUCER (if required) LIME VISCOSIFIER THINNER/S CaCl2 BARITE 3 m /h 15 + WEIGHTING TIME

1 2

15 80/20 25 kg-l/m 3 613 148 25 25 6 6 6 65 c.n.

MIXING TIME:

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

O/W Ratio

Mud

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IDENTIFICATION CODE

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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM INVERT EMULSION, POLIOLEFINE-BASE FLUID

AGIP CODE PO-IE

BASE FLUID
Cutting Inhibition Non-dispersed

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM


Lubricant Properties Formation Inhibition Solids-removal Eq. Logistic Difference Maint. Tolerance LGS Tolerance

ENV.

Alternative Oil

Fresh Water

Temperature

Convertible

Sea Water

Dispersed

Diesel

Cuttings B Excess Lime (kg/m3)

Density

Re-use

LT Oil

T3

D4

AA

Cost

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION


- Polyolefine-base emulsion; - Thanks to no-aromatic-content and biodegradability, cuttings can be disposed of 'zero' discharge; - In off-shore areas where discharge of cuttings from oil-base fluids is restricted as well as for the high costs on-shore transportations, it is a valid alternative to water-base fluids.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


- All advantages of an oil-base fluid but lower environmental restrictions; - Better compatility to rubber parts compared to DS/LT-IE; - Can be used up to 180 C an max density of approx. 2.2 kg/l; - High cost; - H igher viscosity than a conventional DS/LT-IE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRILLING FLUID @ 120 F


Yield Point (gr/100cm2 ) Pom (cc H2SO4 N/10) Electrical Stability (volt) +/600 Kg-l/m3 580 275 15 6 17 6 AS NEEDED AS NEEDED 15 + WEIGHTING TIME

Funnel Visc. (sec/qt)

Gel 10" (gr/100cm2)

Gel 10'(gr/100cm2 )

API Filtrate (cc/30')

API HTHP (cc/30')

Plastic Visc. (cps)

Solids (% in vol.)

Water (% in vol.)

Sand (% in vol)

Oil (% in vol.)

Density(SG)

1.32 +/70

30

CaCl2 (%)

pH

Mf

Pf

25

70/30

FORMULATION

PRODUCT POLIOLEFINE BRINE (CaCl2)) EMULSIFIER WETTING AGENT LIME VISCOSIFIER FILTRATE REDUCER BARITE

MIXING TIME:

m3/h

O/W Ratio

Mud

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IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

4.

FLUID MAINTENANCE
In this section are flow charts related to the reading of water based fluid daily drilling reports. These charts are should be read according to the general decision process as follows:

IS THERE A PROBLEM ?

YES/NO

IF YES, WHAT IS THE PROBLEM ?

ANSWER

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE TO SOLVE IT ?

EVALUATE

WHAT ELSE CAN BE MADE TO SOLVE IT WHICH HAS NOT BEEN MADE YET ?

TAKE ACTION

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.1 4.1.1 WATER BASED FLUIDS MAINTENANCE Analysing Flow Chart For Water Based Fluid Reports 0

REVISION

GELS

PROGRESSIVE (es.: 1/15)

FLAT (es.: 2/4) and/or as per Programme

FLASH ( es.: 6/12)

ESTIMATE: YIELD POINT + PV DENSITY % SOLIDS LGS/HGS MBT

FILTRATE =/CAKE =/-

FILTRATE + CAKE +

SOLIDS CONTAMINATION EXCESS VISCOSIFIER CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

ESTIMATE: ESTIMATE: pH PM,PF,MF ClCa++ Mg++ etc.... - READ COMMENTS - ANALIZE WELL PROBLEMS - MATERIALS USED - ANALIZE ANY VARATIONS OF CHARACTERISTICS WITHIN 24 HOURS.

Solids Removal Equipment and notes on Dilution

Note:

Inadequate characteristics may cause well problems. It is important to understand what and how many variations are needed to solve any problems occur . LEGEND: ( + increase; - decrease; = unchanged.)

4.1.2

MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS OF WATER-BASE FLUIDS

DENSITY

EFFECT ON FLUID
GELS pH/Pf IONS

CAUSE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

PV

YIELD

FILTRATE

SOLIDS

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

+ Ca OH

Maintenance Problems

HIGH VISCOSITY WITH FLOCCULATED FLUID. POLYMER-BASE FLUIDS MAY HAVE A STRONG VISCOSITY. + + +

OTHER

ARPO

CEMENT AND/OR LIME PRETREAT OR TREAT WITH BICARBONATE; CONTAMINATED BARITE POLYMER-BASE FLUIDS NEED PRETREATMENT. MONITOR EXCESS LIME TO CONTROL CONTAMINATION REMOVAL, DO NOT RELY ONLY ON Ca++. USE DESANDERS OR CENTRIFUGE TO REMOVE CONTAMINANT PARTICLES; ADD DEFLOCCULANTS AND FILTRATE REDUCERS. DILUTE; DUMP THE CONTAMINATED PILL, IF FLOCCULATION CANNOT BE CONTROLLED. CONVERT TO LIME FLUID. IN SOME CASES (i.e. CaCl2 SOLUTIONS AND POLYMERS) USES ACIDS SUCH AS HCl. SODIUM CARBONATE CAN ALSO BE USED, BUT REMOVES CALCIUM AND NOT OH-.

IDENTIFICATION CODE

STAP -P-1-M-6160

HIGH VISCOSITY WITH PROGRESSIVE INCREASE. + Ca SO4 + GYPSUM/ANHYDRIDE

PRETREAT/TREAT WITH SODIUM CARBONATE IF REDUCED QUANTITIES; CONVERT TO A FLUID TOLERANT OF GYPSUM: FW-GY, FW-SS, DS-IE.

+ Cl

HIGH VISCOSITY WITH OR WITHOUT PIT VOLUME INCREASE. + + (+)

NaCl, FORMATION: SALT DOME, SALT LEVELS, FORMATION OR MAKE-UP WATER.

PAGE

DILUTE WITH FRESH WATER. USE THINNERS AND FILTRATE REDUCER FOR SALINE ENVIRONMENT. CONVERT TO SALT FLUID OR SALT SATURATED FLUID. ESTIMATE TO DUMP IF CONTAMINATION IS LIMITED TO A PILL.

REVISION

74 OF 155

MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS OF WATER-BASE FLUIDS

DENSITY

EFFECT ON FLUID
GELS pH/Pf IONS

CAUSE

REMEDIAL

PV

YIELD

FILTRATE

SOLIDS

OTHER

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

ARPO

VISCOSITY INCREASE WITH/WITHOUT VOLUME INCREASE. DIFFICULTY TO MAINTAIN pH. + -/Cl MgCl2, FROM FORMATION: WATER WITH MgCl2 COMPLEX SALTS, SEA WATER. Mg +

TREAT WITH CAUSTIC SODA FOR LIGHT CONTAMINATION AND MAINTAIN pH >/= 10. CONVERT TO A FLUID TOLERANT OF MAGNESIUM (SALT SATURATED, LOW pH, MIXED SALT SATURATED OR OIL-BASE FLUID) IF CONTAMINATION IS SEVERE. ATTENTION: CONTINUED ADDITIONS OF Mg(OH)2 TO THE SYSTEM WILL RESULT IN A GREAT VISCOSITY INCREASE.

IDENTIFICATION CODE

STAP -P-1-M-6160

HIGH VISCOSITY, PARTICULARLY YIELD AND GELS AT 10". UNEFCETVE TREATMENTS. + =/+

CONTAMINATION DIFFICULT TO RECOGNIZE, ESPECIALLY IN COLORED FILTRATES. INCREASE pH WITH NaOH, IF CONTAMINATION IS DUE TO HCO3 AND Ca++ IS PRESENT THE FLUID; USE Ca(OH)2, IF Ca++ IS NOT PRESENT OR USE CaSO4 IF pH INCREASE IS NOT DESIRED; USE cACl2 FOR BRINE OR CHLORIDE CONTENT FLUIDS. ATTENTION: DUMP ALL CONTAMINANTS THOROUGHLY, AS SMALL CONCENTRATION MAY CREATE PROBLEM TO FLUID MAINTENANCE, AVOID OVERTREATING WITH SEQUESTRING ION (Ca++). PAY ATTENTION TO HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH DENSITY AND/OR POLYMER-BASE FLUID.

Mf+ FORMATION CO2: THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS: CONTAMINATED BARITE, OVERTRATMENT WITH BICARBONATE OR CARBONATE, NaCO3 ADDED BENTONITE.

PAGE

REVISION

75 OF 155

MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS OF WATER-BASE FLUIDS

DENSITY

PV

YIELD

GELS

FILTRATE

pH/Pf

SOLIDS

IONS

OTHER

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

EFFECT ON FLUID

CAUSE

REMEDIAL

ARPO

STINKING WELL VISCOSITY INCREASE. + + s--

H2S FROM FROMATION IF FROM FROMATION,TREAT WITH SCAVENGERS;IN RISKY THERMAL OR BACTERIAL AREAS PRETREAT AND/OR MAINTAIN ALKALINITY. IF FROM THE THERMAL DEGRADATION, REPLACE PRODUCTS. DEGRADATION IF FROM BACTERIAL DEGRADATION, PRETREAT WITH BACTERICIDE.

STAP -P-1-M-6160

IDENTIFICATION CODE

DIFFICULTY TO CONTINUE DRILLING AFTER TRIPPING, DIFFICULTY TO RUN TOOLS IN HOLE, HIGHLY GELATINIZED BOTTOM PILL. HIGH TEMPERATURE

+ + + -/-

REDUCE DILL SOLIDS CONCENTRATION; INCREASE DISPERSER CONCENTRATION; USE FILTRATE REDUCERS ADEQUATE TO TEMPERATURE, BY KEEPING HPHT FILTRATE AT VALUES SUFFICIENT TO PREVENT FLUID DEHYDRATION WHILE TRIPPING. DISPLACING A PRETREATED FLUID PILL IN THE OPEN HOLE MAY RESULT CONVENIENT.

VISCOSITY INCREASE (DESITY INCREASE FOR UNWEIGHTED FLUIDS) INERT SOLIDS

=/ + +

SOLIDS-REMOVAL EQUIPMENT, DILUTION ANS/OR INHIBTION NOT ADEQUATE TO PENTRATION RATES, REMEDIAL ACTIONS a) ADEQUATE ABOVE PARAMETERS; b) USE A SOLIDS-TOLERANT FLUID; c) REDUCE PENETRATION RATES.

PAGE

REVISION

VISCOSITY INCREASE (DESITY INCREASE FOR UNWEIGHTED FLUIDS) + +

=/ +

MBT CLAY GROUNDS

SOLIDS-REMOVAL EQUIPMENT, DILUTION AND/OR INHIBITION NOT ADEQUATE TO FROMATION OR PENETRATION RATES. REMEDIAL ACTION: AS PER SOLIDS-CONTROL, MOREOVE IT IS IMPORTANT TO PROVIDE OR ADEQUATE FLUID INHIBITION.

76 OF 155

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.1.3 Chemical Treatment of Contaminents 0

REVISION

Contaminants

Contaminant Ion

Corrective Scavengers

Quantitative (kg/M ) To Remove 1gr/L Of Contaminant Ion 2.64 2.77 2.09 2.77 2.09 3.3 2.65 Refer to indication given for each product.

Gypsum Or Anhydrite

Calcium (Ca++)

Soda Ash (Na2CO3) SAPP (Na2H2P207) Sodium Bicarbonate (Na2CO3)

Cement/Lime Hard Water

Calcium (Ca++) + Hydroxil (OH-) Magnesium (Mg++) Calcium (Ca++)

SAPP Sodium Bicarbonate A) NaOH and increase Ph To 10.5 B) Soda Ash Maintain Ph Above 10.5 Zinc Oxide (Zn0) Zinc Carbonate (ZnCO3) Chelate Zinc Ironite Sponge (Fe304)

H2S

S--

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Carbonates (CO3--)

Gypsum (CaSO4) Lime

2.85 1.23 1.21

Bicarbonates (HCO3-) Lime (CaOH2)

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.1.4 H2S Scavengers 0

REVISION

Product Description Fe based H2S Scavenger

AVA Ironite Sponge 1.35gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 30kg/m

Bariod Ironite Sponge 1.35gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 30kg/m Zinc Carbonate 5gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 5-8kg/m Coat-RD 20gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 5-10kg/m

Dowell Ironite Sponge 1.35gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 30kg/m Zinc Carbonate 4gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 4-8kg/m IDZAC L 13gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 14-29kg/m IDZAC L 8gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 14-23kg/m

MI Ironite Sponge 1.35gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 30kg/m Zinc Carbonate 5gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 5-8kg/m SV-120 13gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 3-6kg/m Fer-Ox

BH Inteq Ironite Sponge 1.35gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 30kg/m Mil-Gard 6gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 6-9kg/m

Zinc Carbonate

Zinc Carbonate 5gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 5-8kg/m

*Zinc Chelate (liquid)

*Zinc Chelate (powder)

Milgard R 19gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 23-24kg/m

Zinc Oxide (Polvere)

Oxide Zinc 2.3gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 3-6kg/m

Sulf-X 2.3gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 3-6kg/m

Zinc Mixture

No-Sulf Pre-treatment 3 5-15kg/m

Oil Dispersant Scavenger

SOS 200 14gr/1grH2S Pre-treatment 3 6-12kg/m

Note:

1ppm = 1mgr/1,000gr: 1gr/1,000kg. etc. Treatment is referred to H2S determined in drilling fluid (not to ppm but to detector). * for non-viscofied fluids.

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IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.1.5 Poylmer Structures/Relationship 0

REVISION

POLYMERS: STRUCTURE/FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP


FUNCTION MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

VISCOSITY VISCOSITY AND THIXOTROPY VISCOSITY IN BRINE SOLUTIONS DEFLOCCULANT, DISPERSER, FLOCCULANT SURFANCTANT FILTRATE REDUCER

HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND MIXED STRUCTURE OR CROSS-LINKING HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT, NON IONIC OR ANIONIC, CAN BE EASILY REPLACED LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT WITH ALCALINEpH, NEGATIVE CHARGE HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT WITH IONIC CHARGES ABSORBABLE FROM SHALES LYOPHIL OR HYDROPHIL GROUP IN THE SAME MOLECULE COLLOIDAL PARTICLE FORMATION AND/OR SOLIDS BRIDGING ACTION

FUNZIONI
FLOCCULANTI RID. FILTRATO

EXTENDER

TYPE OF POLYMER
STARCH GUAR GUM BIOPOLYMERS CMC HV CMC LV HEC PAC REGULAR PAC LOVIS PHPA PHPA LMW POLYACRYLATES VAMA SSMA

DEFLOCCULAN.

VISCOSIZZANTI

RACCOMENDED TREATMENT 3 Kg/m

LIMITATIONS NOTES

S P P P

10-20 10 1.5-6

TEMP. MAX 12O C ,+ BATTERICIDA TEMP MAX 100 C + BATTERICIDA pH< 10.5 Ca++ < 1200 ppm Ca++ < 1200 ppm TEMP.. MAX 95 C Ca++ < 2000 ppm Ca++ < 2000 ppm Ca++< 400 ppm Ca++ < 400 ppm Ca++ < 400 ppm Ca++ < 400 ppm DEFLOCCULANT FOR T. UP 260 C

S P

1.5-6 1.5-6 3-4

P S S P P P P P P S S P P P S P

1.5-6 1.0-6 0.7-4.5 0.6-4.5 0.7-6 0.14-0.9 3-9

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.2 4.2.1 OIL BASED FLUIDS MAINTENANCE Analysing Flow Chart For Oil Based Fluid Reports 0

REVISION

WELL PROBLEMS

MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS

VARIATION OF CHARACTERISTICS

NOTES ON SOLIDS TREATMENTS

ADDITIVES USED TO MAINTAIN CHARACTERISTICS

The stability of oil based fluid characteristics does not allow the same evaluation of contaminants carried out on water based fluids. Problems are dealt with through a comparison of the characteristics by recording changes on a consumption basis, as for example: dry and fragile cuttings, salinity fall and/or excessive additions of CaCl2 to maintain salinity, water content increase and/or additions of oils and emulsifiers to maintain W/O ratio at correct levels which may indicate an excessive salinity. However, evaluation is simplified by the limited amount of problems encountered.

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IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 4.2.2 Maintenance Problems 0

REVISION

Effect On Fluid
Dull, grainy appearance of fluid. High HP/HT filtrate fluid with water. Barite settling Blinding of shaker screens. Extreme cases can cause water wetting of solids.

Problems
Low emulsion stability

Cause
1) Low emulsifier content. 2) Super-saturated with CaCl2. 3) Water flows.

Remedial Actions
1) Add emulsifier with lime. 2) Dilute with fresh water if needed. Add secondary emulsifier. 3) Add emulsifiers and lime if needed recover o/w ratio. 4) Maximise agitation. Check electrolytes content, the higher the contents, the harder the emulsifier is to form

4) Fluid from mud plant or wrong make up.

Flocculation of barite on sand-content test. Sticky cuttings on the shaker screens. Blinding of the shaker screens. Barite settling. Dull, grainy appearance of fluid. Low electrical stability. Free water in HP/HT filtrate. High HP/HT filtrate with water. Low ES. Fill on bottomhole. Sloughing shale.

Water wetting of solids.

1) Inadequate emulsifiers. 2) Water-base fluid contamination. 3) Super-saturated with CaCl2.

1) Add secondary emulsifier for water wetting of solids or wetting agents. 2) As indicated in point 1. 3) Dilute with fresh water and add secondary emulsifier.

High filtrate

1) Low emulsifier content. 2) Low concentration of filtrate reducer. 3) High bottom hole temperature

1) Add emulsifier and lime. 2) Add adequate filtrate reducer. 3) Increase concentration of emulsifier if a relaxed filtrate system, convert to a conventional system.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Effect On Fluid
High PV, high yp, increase of solids and/or water.

Problems
High viscosity

Cause
1) High solid percentage

Remedial Actions
1) Dilute with oil; optimise solids-removal equipment; add emulsifiers. 2) Add emulsifiers. 3) Dilute with oil.

2) Water contamination 3) Overtreatment with emulsifiers, especially primary emulsifier. Fill at drill pipe change and after tripping; torque and drag Increase of cuttings over shakers Sloughing Shales 1) Drilling underbalance. 2) Excessive filtrate.

3) Activity too low.

4) Inadequate hole cleaning. Low YP and gels, barite settling in the viscometer cup. Barite settling 1) Poor oil wetting of barite. 2) Too low gels.

1) Increase fluid weight. 2) Increase emulsifier content, add filtrate reducers. 3) Increase CaCl2 contents to match formation activity. 4) Add viscosifiers.

1) Add secondary emulsifier and/or wetting agent; slow addition of barite. 2) Add most adequate viscosifier. 1) Add mica or granulars. Never add fibrous or synthetic materials (i.e. Nylon). 1) Maximise shear. 2) Lengthen mixing time. 3) Slow addition of barite. If not sufficient increase percentage of secondary emulsifier. 1. Dilute with fresh water. Once emulsion is formed, adjust CaCl2 if needed.

Pit volume decrease. Return losses.

Lost Circulation

1) Hydrostatic pressure is more than formation pressure.

Problem of mixing fluid.

Low settling of barite. Very thin fluid with no yield or gels. Dull, grainy fluid.

1) Inadequate shear. 2) Very cold. 3) Poor wetting of barite.

4) CaCI2 >350,000 ppm.

ARPO

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Effect On Fluid
Soft cuttings, blinding tendencies of shaker screens. Decrease of water content.

Problems
Too low activity can result in hole instability.

Cause
1) Too low concentration of CaCl2.

Remedial Actions
1) Allow concentration to balance by itself if not severe, report CaCl2 in percentage. Report where water migration stops as the balance point. Recover the correct o/w ratio with the above percentage.

Dry and fragile cuttings fall of salinity and/or excessive additions of CaCI2 to maintain salinity, water content increase or several additions of oil to keep O/W ratio.

Too high activity. Embrittlement of cuttings helps the build up of fine solids. Formation can be weakened.

1) Excessive concentration of CaCI2.

1) Allow concentration to balance by itself if not severe, add oil and surfactants until balance point has been reached.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

5.

SOLIDS CONTROL
This section provides information relating to solids removal equipment aiding to the selection of choice and size of equipment required.

5.1

SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS


Hole Diameter 26" 1 17 /2" 1 12 /4" 1 8 /2 Max. ROP +/- 30m/hr +/- 30m/hr +/- 30m/hr +/- 15m/hr Feed Rate Of Fluid To Be Processed +/- 4500ltr/min +/- 3800ltr/min +/- 3000ltr/min +/- 1500ltr/min Drilled Solids Of Fluid To Be Processed 25-40t/hr 12-30t/hr 5-12t/hr 0.5-1t/hr

5.2
% Solids 100

STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLIDS

CENTRIFUGE 80 CYCLONES SHALE SHAKERS 60

40

20 Total solids 0% 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 Solids Size (Micron) Drill solids Barite

Figure 5.A - Statistical Distribution Of Solids 5.3 EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE


Centrifuge
Feature Barite Recovery Centrifuge Barite Recovery, LGS Removal 500-700 High Volume Large Volumes High Speed Liquid Phase Recovery 2100-3000

D-Silter
Cone Feed Rate Size (per unit l/min) 2 4 60-80 180-340

D-Sander
Cone Feed Rate Size (per unit l/min) 5 300 6 370 8 500 10 1900 12 1900 Screen Mesh 20 x 20 30 x 30 30 x 40 40 x 36

Shale Shaker
Cut Point Microns 465 541 381 300 279 234 178 140 117 104 74 Processed Volume (l/min) 3800 3600 3400 3000 2800 2650 2300 1500 950 750 450

Usage

+/- 800

Cut Point Microns Feed Rates l/min RPM

6-10 per LGS, 4-7 per HGS 40-80 1600-1800

5-7

2-5

50 x 50 60 x 60 80 x 60 100x100 120x120 150x150 200x200

380-750 1900-2200

150-300 2500-3300

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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.4 EQUIPMENT RECOMENDATIONS
SOLIDS-REMOVAL EQUIPMENT
FROM WELL

REVISION 0

SCALPING SHALE SHAKERS

HIGH PERFORMANCE SHALE SHAKERS (PREMIUM)

D-GASER

D-SANDER

D-SILTER
(MUD CLEANER)

CENTRIFUGE/S

MAIN

ALTERNATIVE

LOW GRAVITY WATER-BASE FLUIDS (<1.3 s.g.)

HIGH DENSITY WATER-BASE MUD (> 1,3 )

POLYMER-BASE FLUIDS WITH INHIBITIVE SALTS

LOW DENSITY OIL-BASEFLUIDS

SOLIDS-REMOVAL RECOMMENDED EQUIPMENT PER FLUID TYPE

POLYMER FLUIDS

STANDARD SHALE SHAKERS PREMIUM SHALE SHAKERS D-GASER D-SANDER D-SILTER MUD CLEANER CENTRIFUGES: -BARITE RECOVERY - HIGH VOLUME - HIGH SPEED

x (*) (x) x x x (x)

x* x x x

x* x x x

x * x x x

x * x x

x * x x

x x

x x

x (x)

x x

()

SCALPING SHALE SHEKERS NOT OBLIGATORY

HIGH DENSITY OIL-BASE FLUIDS

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.4.1 Double Shale Shakers 0

REVISION

COARSE SCREEN

COARSE SCREEN

BACKFLOW PLATE

FINE SCREEN

FINE SCREEN

Figure 5.B - No Backflow Plated Shale Shaker Description: Two-layer screen shale shaker with a course upper screen and a fine lower screen. Advantages: Simple and economical to use and maintain coarse screen removes most of the cuttings, thus limiting the wearing out of the fine screens. Limitations: Fluid losses from the lower screen. Wet cuttings due to the short stay on screens. Recommended for: Marginal well plants, with low cost water base fluids and lower costs of waste discharge. Same as scalping shale shaker used in single deck, high performance configurations.

Figure 5.C - Backflow Plated Shale Shaker Description: Two-layer screen shale shaker with an inclined plate located between them which allows fluid to flow back to the beginning of the fine lower screen. Advantages: Same as the no-backflow plated shale shaker with better use of the lower finer screen. Cuttings removed by the fine lower screen are drier than those of the no-backflow plated shale shaker system. Fairly good performance with reduced sizes Limitations: Replacement of the lower screens may be difficult. Cuttings are not as dry of a single deck shale shaker integrated with a scalping shale shaker. Recommended for: As a primary shale shaker, especially for water based fluids and noncascading plants (scalping, single deck, premium shale shaker).

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.4.2 Single Deck Shale Shakers 0

REVISION

COARSE SCREEN

FINE SCREEN

Figure 5.D - Multiple Screens Description: Single deck, linear shaker with two more screens of different weave placed sequentially from the finer to the coarser. The screens can be positioned forwards or backwards. Advantages: Efficient and especially reliable with cuttings from hard formations or oil based fluids. If used properly, cuttings discarded are dry. Limitations: All cuttings are processed by the fine screen which wears out more often, especially if cuttings are plastic (drilled clays with water based fluid). This problem can be solved by using a another shale shaker placed in front in sequence acting as a scalping shale shaker. Recommended for: Use as a primary shale shaker for oil based fluids. With the use of very fine screens their efficiency can be exploited by using a bank of shale shakers sufficient for the capacity required. This processes the volume of fluid an efficient cost.

Figure 5.E - Underflow Screens Description: Single deck, single screen with the initial section completely underflowed by fluid. Screen vibration allows cuttings to overflow up the final inclined section. Advantages: Designed to obtain very dry cuttings. 8-30 sized screens are installed when it is used as a scalping shaker. Limitations: Is solely a speciality shale shaker to reduce residual oil, from cuttings. If used with water based fluids and plastic formations, the screens can be easily plugged. Recommended for: Exclusive use with oil based fluids and when cutting discharge is allowed with an oil residue percentage which can be achievable.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.5 SCREEN SPECIFICATION
Mesh Per Inch Wire Diameter (ins) Square Mesh Screens S10 S20 S40 S80 S120 S150 S200 B20 B40 B60 B80 B100 B120 10 X 10 20 X 20 40 X 40 80 X 80 120 X 120 150 X 150 200 X 200 8 X 20 20 X 30 20 X 40 20 X 60 40 X 60 40 X 80 0.025 0.017 0.010 0.0055 0.0037 0.0026 0.0021 Rectangular Mesh Screens 0.032/0.02 0.015/0.015 0.014 0.013/0.009 0.009 0.0075 762 X 3362 465 X 89 310 X 910 190 X 1037 200 X 406 457 X 140 1905 X1905 838 X838 381 X 81 178 X 78 117 X 17 105 X 5 74 X 4 Mesh Opening (Microns)

REVISION 0

Type Of Screen

Flow Area (%) 56.3 43.6 36.0 31.4 30.9 37.9 33.6 45.7 39.1 36.8 34.0 31.1 35.6

5.5.1

Nomenclature
Derrick Nomenclature SWG PWP GBG Pyramid Screen DC DF DX HP SCGR 3 layered, derrick standard screens, non-repairable. 3 layered screens mounted on a rigid support, repairable with fitted plugs or silicon. The support takes up 35% of the flow area. 3 layered screens bonded to a non-rigid support, temporarily repairable. The support takes up 10% of the flow area. Corrugated screens on a rigid support gives approx. a 50% increase in flow area. Coarse mesh screens. Fine mesh screens. Extra fine mesh screens High performance screens. Rectangular mesh screens

Description

Panel

Example:

GBG HP 200 - Multiple, high performance screen mounted on a non-rigid support. 200 indicates that the equivalent mesh size does not correspond exactly to mesh number.

Derrick Description BLS BXL S B

Nomenclature 3 layered screens with plastic strips between the coarse screen and the others. 3 layered screens mounted on a plastic grid. Square meshed screens. Rectangular meshed screens.

Example:

The letter designation is followed by a number which, as in BLS, BXL and S screens, indicates the mesh number. For B designation, it is the sum of the mesh in both directions.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.6 CYCLONE SYSTEMS
VISCOSITY/CYCLOPE PERFORMANCE (4") PV 6 cps, YP 1 gr/100cm2 100 PV 25 cps, YP 5 gr/100cm2 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

REVISION 0

EFFICIENCY GRADE (%)

80

90

SOLIDS SIZE (MICRON)

Figure 5.F - Typical Viscosity/Cyclone Performance (4)


Equipment Desander Desilter Mud-Cleaner Treatment Capacity Required 1.25 (Max. Perf. Q) 1.5 (Max. Perf Q) 1.5 (Max. Perf. Q) Weight Difference Entrance/Discharge 0.3-0.6kg/l 0.3-0.4kg/l 0.3-0.4kg/l Feed Pressure 30-45psi 30-45psi 30-45psi Volume Discharged From Equipment 3 +/- 1.5m /h 3 +/- 3.5m h 3 +/- 1m /h

SPRAY DISCHARGE

DROP DISCHARGE

NO DISCHARGE

EXCESSIVE OPENING

PROPER FUNCTIONING

EXCESSIVE CLOSING

Figure 5.G - Calibration Of Water Discharge Cyclones

'B'

'B'

'A'
SPRAY DISCHARGE

'C'

AIR CONE PROPER FUNCTIONING WASHING AWAY


-CONE HOLED IN "A" - PARTIALLY PLUGGED CONE IN "B" - TOO HIGH IN "C".

FLOOD
- CONE OR COLLECTOR PLUGGED IN "B".

DRY DISCHARGE
- HIGH SOLIDS PERCENTAGE - CLOSED DISCHARGE.

Figure 5.H - Typical Cyclone Malfunctions

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.7 CENTRIFUGE SYSTEMS 0

REVISION

DECANTATION OF SOLIDS (POND)

DEHYDRATION OF SOLIDS (BEACH)

LIQUID DISCHARGE

SOLIDS DISCHARGE

FEED PIPE

ROTATING BOWL

SCROLL

OVERFLOW PORTS

SOLIDS DISCHARGE

FLUID FEED

Figure 5.I - Centrifuge Operating Principle

5.7.1

PrInciple Of Operation a) b) c) d) Fluid to be processed is delivered to the centrifuge through the feed pipe. The rotating bowl creates a very high centrifugal force which increases the gravitational separation effects of the of fluids and solids. The solids being heavier gather on the drum walls and when build up are moved by the scroll to the solids discharge port. The liquids move through the unit to the liquid discharge port nozzles.

The liquids decanting effect and solids dehydration depends on the following:
Increasing Feed Capacity RPM RPM Difference Between Rotor/Scroll Height Of Underflow Ports

g centrifugal force. Settling time of the solids on the drum.


Feed Rate/H + = = = G = + = = Micron Solids + = + Solids Fluid % + + +

Table 5.A- Effects Of Variables

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 5.7.2 Centrifuge Processing 0

REVISION

FLUID TO BE PROCESSED

LGS DISCHARGE

LGS DISCHARGE

PROCESSED FLUID

Figure 5.J - Unweighted Fluid-Parallel Processing

LOW "G" FLUID TO BE PROCESSED

HIGH "G"

BARITE RECOVERY

LGS DISCHARGE

PROCESSED FLUID

Figure 5.K - Weighted Fluid-Sequential Processing

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

6.

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
This section is a troubleshooting guide which addresses loss of circulation, describing remedial actions to be taken for the various types of losses and includes some information on the use of LCM and the appropriate procedures.

6.1

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

SEEPAGE LOSS less than 50% ALMOST TOTAL more than 50% TOTAL HYDRAULICALLY-INDUCED FRACTURES

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SURFACE AREAS FRACTURES FRACTURES CAVERNS

HIGHLY PERMEABLE LOW DENSITY FLUIDS

FRACTURES

HIGH DENSITY FLUIDS

LOST CIRCULATION CONTROL TECHNIQUES

HIGH VISCOSITY FLUID AND HIGH GELS

HIGH VISCOSITY FLUID

SPOT PILLS WITH LCM GEL-CEMENT SLURRIES

HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURE

SET TIME LOW LOADING

FLUID THINNING AND/OR UNWEIGHTING

STAP -P-1-M-6160

- LCM IN CIRCULATION HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURE CEMENT/GEL CEMENT SLURRIES

IDENTIFICATION CODE

- HIGH FILTRATION FLUID

CEMENT + GELSONITE

HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURE

HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURE

SPOT PILL WITH LCM DOBC

Figure 6.A - Lost Circulation Control Flow Chart


GEL CEMENT DOBC DOBC DOB DOBC AERETED FLUIDS STIFF-FOAM AERETED FLUIDS STIFF-FOAM AERETED FLUIDS STIFF-FOAM

PAGE

HIGH/VERY HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURE

REVISION

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 6.2 LOSSES IN VARIOUS FORMATION TYPES 0

REVISION

Loss Determination In Various Formation Types Unconsolidated Formations Sands, gravel beds, etc. Gradual increase in loss which may develop and increase with penetration. If permeability is less than 4/5 darcy, the loss is maybe due to formation fracture. Natural Fractures Cavernous Or Macrovugular Formations Every type of elastic rock. Limestones, dolomites, reef, volcanic rocks. Gradual increase in losses which may develop and increase with penetration Sudden and severe, to complete loss, of returns. The bit may fall from a few centimetres to some metres at the moment of loss. Perforations may be 'disturbed' before the losses. Induced Fractures May occur to all formations. It is likely to occur to preferred plans of fractures. Sudden and sever to complete losses. Fluids with density more than 1.3 SG may help create fractures. Fracture may occur during, or subsequent, to rough drilling. If it occurs in one single well and does not occur to the nearby wells, fracture may be the cause

6.3

CHOICE OF LCM SPOT PILLS

RESULTS
GOOD IF USED WITH... GOOD NO GOOD NONE

CEMENT

"PLASTIC" PLUGS

PERLITE

GRANULAR

(COTTON) FLAKE

FIBROUS

CELLOPHANE

MICA MACROFRACTURES/CARSIMS FRACTURES GRAVEL SAND PORES

Figure 6.B - LCM Spot Pill Selection Chart

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 6.3.1 LCM Information 0

REVISION

Materials

Type

Granulometry (mm) 50% @ +/- 0.05 50% @ +/- 0.1 50% @ +/- 0.6 a3 0.16 - 0.5 0.5 - 1.6 1.6 - 5 2-3 4-6 5 - 15 10 - 20

Seepage Loss X

Partial Loss X X X X X X

Total Loss

Can Be Acidised X X

Can Be Used In OBM X X X X X

CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 Fine Nuts Medium Nuts Coarse Nuts Fine Mica Coarse Mica Vegetal Fibres Cellophane

Granular Granular Granular Granular Granular Granular Lamellar Lamellar Fibrous Lamellar

X X X X

X X X

X X

X X X X

6.3.2

LCM Efficiency

60

60

50

50

Kg/m3 OF LCM

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

FRACTURE WIDTH (mm)


FIBROUS LAMELLAR GRANULAR

Figure 6.C - Fracture Dependent Efficiency Of LCM

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 6.4 6.4.1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE Loss Of Circulation With Water Based Fluids
Treatment Stand-By/Set Time High Viscosity Fluids Add contaminants (lime, salt, etc.) to circulating fluids (lime, salt, etc.) by increasing viscosity and filtrate. Approximately: Formulation

REVISION 0

Operational Remarks Allow 4-8 hours set time. Plan further action to be taken. Viscosity at +/- 100sec.

LCM In Circulation

Shale shakers max., 10-12 mesh.

High Filtration Fluids

Spot Pills With LCM

Bentonite 5% Caustic Soda/Lime 10% Diatomite 10% Filtrate 30-50 cc 3 Volume, from 15 to 80 m of high filtration fluid conditioned with 68% of LCM adequate for loss.

Fine mica 2% Fine granulars 2%


Do not use with unstable formations.

Displace loss zone if there is excessive solids loading in the annulus. Squeeze slowly with a low pressure (50psi). Displace by means of bit with no nozzle or with nozzles >14/32". RIH or EDP on top loss, squeeze with low pressure (starting with +/50psi @ 150ltr/min). Do not exceed fracture pressure and maintain for 6-8hrs.

High Filtration Mixtures (200-400cc API)

Attapulgite 3-6% (bentonite 1.5-6%) Lime 0.15% Diatomite 15% *Mica 1-1.5% *Granular 1-2.5% *Fibrous 0.3-1% *(chosen dependent on loss). Diatomite 30% Lime 15% Attapulgite 0-4% *Granular 1-2.5% *Fibrous 1% *Lamellar 1% *(chosen dependent on loss)

Very High Filtration Slurries (>600cc API)

Same application procedure as high filtration slurries with o temperature >60 C. It may develop mechanical resistance.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Treatment Diaseal M (Filtrate >1000cc API)

Formulation Formulation for the preparation of 3 1m final Diaseal M Density Diaseal kg/l sacks 1.08 6 1.45 5 1.80 4 2.15 3 Barite t 0 0.2 1.0 1.5 Water 3 m 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

Operational Remarks Same application procedure as high filtration slurries.

GEL Cement (Prehydrated Bentonite)

Formula for preparing slurries ('G' cement)


Bent % 0 2 3 4 Water weight% 44 84 104 112 Slurry Yield l/100kg 75.7 116.5 136.9 157.25

A higher slurry must be prepared. The percentages Density indicated, provide mechanical resistance. Formation of slurries with higher percentages of kg/l Bentonite may improve LCM 1.9 characteristics while decreasing 1.6 mechanical resistance
1.51 1.45

Cement Gilsonite

Formulation for preparing slurries ('G' cement)


Bent % 0 50 100 200 Water weight% 44 61 78 112 Slurry Yield l/100kg 75.7 139.5 203.9 330.25

Good mechanical resistance associated with material control action of gilsonite. As for Density cement plugs, it is advisable to drill the loss zone and carry out kg/l the remedial procedure when 1.9 finished. 1.51 WOC for at least 8hrs.
1.37 1.25

DOBC Squeeze (Diesel Oil Bentonite)

Materials required for final vol. 1 3 m 3 Diesel 0.72m Cement 450kg Bentonite 450kg Materials required for final vol. 3 1m 3 Diesel 0.70m Bentonite 800kg

Apply DOBC/DOB squeeze procedure. RIH or EDP on top of loss zone. Plastic plug volume to equal, or be greater than, the hole below the loss zone first and second plug, both 3 about 1m diesel. When plug exits drill string, close annular preventer and pump fluids into annulus while displacing the plug from the DP. Drillpipe/ annulus ratio is 2:1, about 600 l/min from drillpie and 300 l/min from annulus. After displacing half the plug, reduce pump rate by half. After displacing 3/4 of the plug, attempt a 'hesitation squeeze pressure' with 100-500psi. Underdisplace plug by one barrel, POOH, allow 8-10hrs set time.

DOB Squeeze

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 6.4.2 Loss Of Circulation With Oil Based Fluids
Treatment Additions Of Colloid Formulation Reduce HP/HT filtrate with asphalt filtration control additives. Add CaCO3 to +/- 5-15 microns. Volume, from 5 to 10m , added with LCM adequate for the loss and compatibility with the oil based fluid with a percentage varying from 5 to 10%.
3

REVISION 0

Operational Remarks Seepage loss is commonly due to low colloid contents of oil based.

Spot Pills With LCM

Diaseal M (Filtrate >1000 cc API)

Plastic Plug With Organophil Clay

Displace loss zone if there is excessive solids loading in the annulus, squeeze slowly with low pressure (50psi). Displace by means of bit with no nozzles or with nozzles >14/32". Formulation for preparing final Spot pill volume is double3 the hole 3 volume and at least 1.5m . To vol. 1m of Diaseal M 3 avoid contamination 3-4m , Density Diaseal Barite Water separating pills are advisable after 3 kg/l sacks t m and before. 1.08 5 0.2 0.9 Final pressure should be equivalent 1.45 4 0.7 0.8 to the max. density. 1.80 3 1.1 0.7 If the pill viscosity is too high, add 2.15 2 1.6 0.6 wetting agent. LCM may be added. Formulation for preparing final Spot pill volume should be double 3 the hole volume or at least 1.5m . vol. 1m3 3 To avoid contamination, 3-4m , Density 1.2 1.45 2.15(kg/l) separating pills in front and behind Water 0.67 0.72 0.54 (m3) are advisable. FCL 9 7 7 (kg) Final pressure should be equivalent NaOH 4 4 4 to the max. density. Org.clay 550 712 285 (kg) If the pill viscosity is too high, add a Barite 1540 (kg) wetting agent. LCM may be added.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Treatment Fresh Water Barite Plug

Formulation Formulation for preparing 1m3

Operational Remarks

Determine the height of the plug, commonly 130-150m is Density 2.16 2.4 2.64(kg/l) sufficient. Water 0.64 0.57 0.5 (m3) Choose the desired density, the SAPP 2 2 2 (kg) lower the density, the faster the NaOH 0.7 0.7 0.7 (kg) setting time. *(FCL) (6) (6) (6) *(NaOH)(1.4) (1.4) (1.4) Calculate the plug volume by Barite 1530 1850 2155 adding 10 barrels. Calculate the amount of * as alternative to SAPP and materials required. Soda. Evaluate displacement Mix with cement unit. Use bit with nozzles. Under displace leaving two barrels. Pull out above plug and Circulate as long as you can, in order to allow plug to settle. Note: The use of fresh water is advisable, as sea water does not allow a proper settling. Maintain mix water pH at 8-10. For preparing a pumpable fluid, follow the indications herein given using galena.

Oil Based Fluid Barite Plug

Formulation for preparing 1m


Density Oil EZ MUL Water Barite 2.4 0.51 20 27 1930 2.64 kg/l 0.49 (m3) 17 (kg) 26 (L) 2530 (kg)

Water Based Fluid With Galena

Formulation for preparing 1m3


Density Water Bent Na2CO3 SAPP Galena Barite 2.88 0.58 23 4 2 1325 955 3.36 0.51 8 5 2 1995 838 3.84 kg/l 0.51 (m3) 5 (kg) 5.7 (kg) 5.7 (kg) 3320 (kg) ....... (kg)

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Treatment Oil Based Fluid With Galena

Formulation Formulation for preparing 1m Base Fluid (Invermul) Oil 0.85 (m3) Water 0.15 (m3) Driltreat 35 (kg) Suspentone 52 (kg) Gelitone II 10 (kg) Duratone HT 35 (kg)
3

Operational Remarks

Formulation for preparing 1m3


Density Base Fluid Driltreat 3.36 0.59 --3.6 0.55 --4.32 kg/l 0.43 (m3) 14 (kg)

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

7.

STUCK PIPE TREATMENT/PREVENTITIVE ACTIONS


This section gives recommendations on preventive measures to avoid stuck pipe in addition to appropriate treatments to solve the problem.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 7.1 STUCK PIPE TREATMENT/PREVENTION 0

REVISION

STUCK PIPE
PARAMETERS
FREE DRILLSTRING

DOWN IN HOLE

OUT OF HOLE

CIRCOLATION

DIFFRENTIAL PRESSURE

YES

ROTATING

STUCKPIPE TYPE

CAUSE

TREATMENT/PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

NO

NO

NO - HIGHLY PERMEABLE FORMATIONS - EXCESSIVE CAKE - DRILL STRING JAMMED - DEPLETED LEVELS.

TREATMENT
- WORK DRILL STRING UP AND DOWN CLAY-BASE WATER FLUIDS: - DENSITY UP TO 1.35 Kg/l, USE DIESEL OR LT OIL CONDITIONED WITH SURFANCTANT (PIPELAX, OR PRESANTIL ETC..); - DENSITY MORE THAN 1.35 Kg/l, PREPARE A SPOT PILL WITH WEIGHTED OIL (EZ-SPOT, PRESANTIL W, ORGANOPHIL CLAY PILLS, ETC...);

EZ SPOT FORMULATION FOR PREPARING 1 m3 DENSITY Kg/l EZ SPOT GASOLIO ACQUA BARITE 0,9 80 650 270 -1,2 80 580 260 396 1,44 80 540 220 710 1,68 80 490 210 995 1,92 80 510 110 1310 2,16 80 440 100 1620

POLYMER-BASE FLUIDS: - IN ORDER TO DISGRAGATE THE CAKE, USE SOLUTIONS OF CaCl2 AND/OR NaOH (pH>12);

IF NEEDED ADD 1% SURFANCTANT (i.e. PRESANTIL)

ORGANOPHIL CLAY PILLS FOR PREPARING 1 m3 DENSITY Kg/l DIESEL ORGANOPHIL CLAY BARITE SURFANCTANT (i.e. PRESANTIL) 1,4 790 70 640 30 1,5 770 50 780 30 1,6 740 45 900 30

OIL-BASE FLUIDS: - MECHANICAL RELATED TREATMENT. IF POSSIBLE, LOWER THE FLUID GRADIENT BY UNWEIGHTING THE FLUID OR DECREASING THE HYDROSTATIC LOAD BY MEANS OF UNWEIGHET PILLS OR OPEN HOLE PACKER AND A VALVE TESTER.

OPERATIONAL REMARKS MINIMUM VOLUME= 2.3 TIME DC-HOLE VOLUME (Vi)

PREVENTIVE ACTIONS:
DISPLACEMENT PROCEDURE: - DISPLACE 1ST SEPARATING PILL + 1.3 Vi; - ALLOW 40-60 MINUTES SET TIME; - DISPLACE 1/2 Vi. - ALLOW 2-3 HOURS SET TIME. N.B.REDUCED STUCKPIPE BROBLEMS WITH: OIL-BASE FLUIDS, BUT INCREASED TREATMENT DIFFICULTIES IN DISGREGATING CAKE. - MINIMIZE THE FLUID WEIGHT AT THE LOWEST VALUE ALLOWED; - REDUCED SURFACE CONTACT BETWEEN DRILLPIPE AND FORMATION (SPIRAL DC, HIGHLY STABILIZED DRILL STRING ASSEMBLY, etc.); - MAINTAIN THE CAKE THICKNESS BY ADEQUATE FILTRATE AND SOLIDS PERCENTAGE.

- REPEAT TREATMENT IF NEEDED; - MAX NUMBER OF TREATMENTS ALLOWED = 4 (STATISTICAL FIGURE).

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

STUCK PIPE
PARAMETERS
FREE DRILL STRING

DOWN IN HOLE

OUT OF HOLE

CIRCOLATION

ROTATING

STUCK PIPE TYPE

CAUSE

TREATMENT/PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

COLLAPSING NO

NO

NO

NO

- SHALE SWELLING; - STRESSED BRITTLE SHALES; - UNSUFFICIENT FLUID WEIGHT; - FLUID AND/OR DRILL STRING MECHANICAL EFFECT.

TREATMENT - RE-ESTABLISH CIRCULATION WITH PRESSURE PEAKS AND DRILL STRING MOVEMENTS. CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED TO AVOID FRACTURES TO THE FORMATION BELOW THE STUCK POINT; - ONCE CIRCULATION IS RE-ESTABLISHED, PUMP VISCOUS PILLS BY WORKING DRILL STRING UP/DOWN; - DOG LEGS CANNOT BE USED; - IF CIRCULATION CANNOT BE RE-ESTABLISHED, THEN UTILIZE WASHING PIPES. PREVENTIVE ACTIONS - REDUCE FILTRATE; - ADD ASPHALT COATERS; - REDUCE TURBOLENT FLOW AGAINST WALLS; - EMPLOY FORMATION INHIBITION FLUIDS; - INCREASE INITIAL GELS WHILE DECREASING FINAL ONES; - SLOWLY INCREASE DENSITY. IF INSTABILITY IS NOT DUE TO OVERPRESSURE, THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT WILL BE TEMPORARY.

COLLAPSING NO DUE TO ACCUMULATION OF CUTTINGS

NO

NO

- POOR HOLE CLEANING - LOADING/RHEOLOGY NOT ADEQUATE PENETRATION RATES: - IT MAY OCCUR IN HIGH ANGLE HOLES (35-60 DEGREES).

TREATMENTS AS A COLLAPSING PREVENTIVE ACTIONS - UTILIZE HIGH FEED RATES; - MAINTAIN ADEQUATE RHEOLOGY, ESPECIALLY FOR HIGH ANGLE HOLES WHERE VISCOSITY SHOULD BE LOW ENOUGH AND SHARE SPEEDS SHOULD BE EQUIVALENT TO THE ANNULUS BY MAINTAING FAST/FLAT GELS IN ORDER TO LIMIT CUTTING SETTLING AT THE MOMENT OF CIRCULATION ARREST. BY MEANS OF EXAMPLE: LOW READINGS AT 100 RPM; HIGH READINGS AT 6 AND 3 RPM AND GELS AT 10". - EVALUATE SOLIDS-REMOVAL GRADE IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE CORRECT VALUES OF READING. THEREFORE, ANALIZE SOLIDS RECOVERY ON THE SURFACE DEPENDENTKY ON HOLE VOLUME, BY CONSIDERING THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED WHILE TRIPPING AS THE INDEX OF CUTTING QUANTITY INTO THE BOREHOLE.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

STUCK PIPE
PARAMETERS
FREE DRILL STRING

DOWN IN HOLE

OUT OF HOLE

CIRCOLATION

KEY SEAT

YES YES (YES) NO - INCLINATION VARIATIONS; - DEVIATED WELLS; - SLOW ROP.

ROTATING

STUCK PIPE TYPE

CAUSES

TREATMENT/PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

TREATMENT - WORK DRILL STRING UP AND DOWN; - DISPLACE A PILL: A) FLUID CONDITIONED WITH 5-6% LUBRICANT OR 10-20% EXAUST OIL OR DIESEL. B) ACID PILL IF CARBONATE FORMATION.

PREVENTIVE ACTIONS - RE-RUN WITH KEY SEAT WIPER OR UNDERGAUGE STABILIZER ON THE TOP DC. - RE-RUM DOWN IN HOLE WHERE THE KEY SEAT IS PRESUMABLY LOCATED; - ADD LUBRICANTS TO THE FLUIDS. DOG LEGGING YES YES NO NO - SUDDEN VARIATIONS OF INCLINATION; - TRIPPING DOWN IN HOLE WITH A MORE RIGID DRILL STRING. TREATMENT - AS PER KEY SEATING PREVENTIVE ACTIONS: - SLOWLY RUN IN HOLE AVOIDING WEIGHT LOSS OF DRILL STRING. RE-RUN IF NEEDED; - ADD LUBRICANT TO THE FLUID. YES NO NO NO INTERVENTO - AS PER KEY SEATING PREVENTIVE ACTIONS: - CHECK STABILIZER BIT DIAMETER; - RE-RUN THE DRILLING ZONE. (YES) NO NO NO - TOO THICK CAKE TREATMENT - WORK DRILL STRING UP/DOWN; - RE-ESTABLISH CIRCULATION - USE AN ANTI-STUCK PIPE PILL IN ORDER TO DESGREGATE THE CAKE, IN ADDITION TO LUBRICANTS.

UNDEGAGE HOLE

- UNDERGAGE DRILL STRING

PREVENTIVE ACTIONS - CONTROL CAKE THICKNESS AND QUALITY. (YES) NO NO NO - PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF SALINE FORMATIONS OR GUMBO SHALES. TREATMENT - WORK DRILL STRING UP/DOWN; - RE-ESTABLISH CIRCULATION; - USE ANTI-STUCK PIPE PILL IN ORDER TO DISGREGATE THE CAKE, IN ADDITION TO LUBRICANT.

PREVENTIVE ACTIONS - MAINTAIN AN ADEQUATE FLUID WEIGHT.

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REVISION

8.

DRILLING FLUID TRADEMARK COMPARISONS


Comparison of similar products and functional performances are compared in this section. This comparison evaluates the various products with the differing concentrations required against their relevant costs. Technical and/or economical analyses of all differing products should be carried out with the concentrations required in similar operational conditions and results.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 8.1 DRILLING FLUID PRODUCT TRADEMARKS 0

REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.1
0101 0105 0107 0108

Weighting Materials
Barite Siderite Calcium Carbonate Ematite AVACARB AVAEMATITE Barite Baroid Baraweight Baracarb Barodense Ca Carbonate Id-Wate Barite M-I Bar Siderite Lo-Wate Fer-Ox WO 30 Mil-Dense Mil-Bar

8.1.2
0201 0203 0204 0413 0415

Viscosifiers
Bentonite Attapulgite Sepiolite HEC Biopolymers Biopolymers PUR Bentonite Extender PHPA HM Weight AVAGEL Dolsal B Dolsal Natrasol 250 Visco XC 84 Baravis Barazan Aquagel Zeogel Bentonite Salt Gel Geltemp Idhec Idvis M-I Gel Salt Gel Durogel HEC XC-Polymer Flo-Vis AVABEX Polivis X-Tend II EZ-Mud DV 68 Id-Bond Gelex Poly-Plus Benex New Drill WO 21 XC Polymer Mil-Gel Salt Water Gel

0420 0423

8.1.3
0501 0502 0503 0506 0507 0508 0509 0510 0511 0512

Thinners
Fe-Cr Lignosulfonate Modified Lignite Cr-Free Lignite Caustic Lignite Lignite Potassium Lignite Cr Lignite Phosphates Tannins Cr Tannins Cr-Free Tannins AVATHIN AVAK-LIG AVALIG AVASAPP AVARED Desco Desco-CF Polifluid AVAZER-5000 Lignox Rheomate Thermathin ID Thin 500 Barafos Quebracho Desco Desco AVAFLUID-NP Q-B II CC 16 Carbonox K-Lig Chrome Lignite STP Chrome-Free LS Spersene CF Caustilig Tannathin K-17 XP-20 Phos/SAPP Quebracho Desco Desco CF Tackle Desco Desco CF New-Thin Mil-Temp Aquathinz STP Uni-Cal CF Ligcon Ligco AVAFLUID G71 Q-Broxin FCL Spersene Uni-Cal

0424 0513

PHPA LMW HT Deflocculants Ca Modified LS

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.4
0401 0403 0405 0407

Filtrate Reducers
Technic CMC HV/LV Semipurif. CMC HV/LV Purified CMC HV/LV K-CMC LV/HV K-PAC R/LV CMC CMC-S CMC-P Agipak Agipak Visco 83 Policell Policell ACR Victogel AF PAC Barpol Polyac Impermex IDF-FLR IDPAC Polytemp IDFLO LT SP 101 MY-LO-Gel Flo-Trol Victosal AVATEMP Dextrid IDFLO IDFLO HTR Polysal Thermpac UL Burastar Permalose HT Polypac Drispac Milpac New-Trol Milstarch Cellex CMC S CMC P CMC CMC CMC S CMC P Driscose CMC

0409 0411 0416 0418

Purified PAC R/LV Semi Purified PAC R/LV Na Polyacrylates Pregelat. Starches Non-Ferm. Starches HT Starches

0417 0419

0421

HT Polyster Mixture

AVAREX

Baranex

IDF HI-Temp

Resinex

Filtrex

8.1.5
0301

Lubricants
Envir. Friendly Lubricant. EP Lubricants Various Lubricants Ecolube Tork Trim II Stick Less AVALUB EP AVA GreenLube EP Mudlube Lubrabeads Easy Drill Idlube Lube 167 Lube 100 EP Lube Graphite Lubrifilm Walnut Shells Mil-Lube

0303 0302

8.1.6
0307 0308 0309

Detergents/Emulsifiers/Surfactants
Detergents Non-ionic Emulsifiers non-ionic Surfactant. Anionic Surfactant AVADETER TCS 30 AVAENION Condet Aktaflo E Aktaflo S Trimulso Clay Seal Drilling Deter. IDMULL 80 Hymul DD DME DMS Salinex MD DME DMS Atlosol

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.7
0310 0618

Stuckpipe Surfactants
Oil-Soluble Surfanc. Oil Fluid Concentrate. Spotting Oilfree AVATENSIO AVATENSIO W Skotfree Envirospot IDFREE (UW) IDFREE Pipe-Lax Pipe-Lax W Mil-Free Black Magic

Pipe-Lax Env

8.1.8
0303

Borehole Wall Coaters


Oil-Dispersable Asphalt WaterDispersable Asphalt Sulphonate Asphalt Gilsonite Stabilube AK 70 BXR-L AVATEX Barotroll Holecoat II Protectomagic M Soltex Soltex Asphalt Stabihole Protectomagic

0304

0306

Soltex AVAGILS-W

Soltex Barbalok

IDTEX W IDTEX

Soltex

8.1.9
0909 0912 0911 0913

Defoamers/Foamers
Stereate Al Silicon Defoamers Alcohol Defoamers Foamers Stearal AVASIL AVADEFOAM AVAFOAM SDI Baradefoam W300 Quik-Foam IDF Antifoam S IDF Defoamer HI Foam 440 Defoam X Magconol
LD 8

WO Defoam Ampli foam

8.1.10
0901 0907 0918

Corrosion Inhibitors
PO Scavenger Fe-Base Hydr. Sul. Sc. Zn-Base Hydr. Sul. Sc. Filming Amines Filming DP Sodium Sulphite Ironite Sponge Zinc Carbonate Incorr Incorr-Q5 AVA AS-1 Barascav D Ironite Sponge No-Sulf Barafilm Barafilm Idscav 210 Ironite Sponge Idzac Idfilm 220 Idfilm 120 Oxygen Scavanger Ironite Sponge Sulf X Conqor 303 Conqor 202 Noxigen Ironite Sponge Milgard Aquatec Amitec

0903

Anti-Scale

Refer to specific literature

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.11
0914 0915

Bactericides
Paraformaldeide Liquid Bactericide Paraformaldeide AVACID F25 Paraformaldeide Aldacide G Paraformaldeide IDCIDE Paraformaldeide Bacbane III Paraformaldeide Mil-Bio

8.1.12
0701 0702 0703 0704 0705 0706 0707 0708

Lost Control Materials


Granular Mica Fibrous Cellophene Mixed High Filtration Diatomite Acidified Intamix Diascal M Diatomite Intasol Baracarb Granular AVAMICA Lintax Wallnut Micatex Fibertex Jel-Flake Baroseal Diaseal M Wallnut Shells Mica Mud-Fiber Cellophene Flakes ID Seal Diaseal M IDF D-Plug Calcio Carbon Nut Plug Mica Fiber Flake Kwik-Seal Diaseal M Mil-Plug Mil-Mica Mil-Fiber Mil-Flake Mil-Seal Diaseal M

8.1.13
1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014

Chemical Products
Caustic Soda Caustic Potassium Hydrated Lime Sodium Carbonate Potassium Carbonate Barium Carbonate Sodium Bicarbonate Potassium Bicarbonate. Gypsum Sodium Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Bromure Calcium Bromure Common to all suppliers.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.14
0601 0602 0603 0605 0608

Oil Based Fluid Products


System Name Primary Emulsifiers Secondary Emulsion Wetting Agents Organophil Clays Asphalt Filtrate Reducers Non-Asphalt Filtrate Reducers AVAOIL AVAOIL-PE AVAOIL-SE AVAOIL-WA AVABENTOIL AVAOIL-FRHT AVAOIL-FC AVAOIL-TN AVAOIL-VS Invermul Invermul EZ-Mul Driltreat Geltone II AK 70 Duratone OMC RM-63 Interdrill Emul FL OW Vistone S NA Defloc IDF Truvis Versadril Versamul Versacoat Versawet Versagel Versatrol Versalig Versathin Versamod Charbo-Thix Carbo-Drill Carbo-Tec Carbo-Mull Surf-cote Carbo-Gel Carbo-Trol Carbo-Trol (A9)

0610

Thinners Rheology Modifiers

System Name 0601 0602 0603 Primary Emulsifiers Secondary Emuls. Wetting Agents Organophil Clays 0605 0608 Organophil Clays/HT Asph. Filtr. Reducers Non-Asph. Filtr. Red. 0610 Thinners Rheology Modifiers

AVAOIL-LT AVAOIL-PELT AVAOIL-SELT AVAOIL-WALT AVABENTOIL

Enviromul Invermul NT EZ-Mul NT Driltreat Geltone II

Interdrill NT Emul FL OW Vistone

Versaclean Versamul Versacoat Versawet Versagel Versagel HT

Carbo-SEA Carbo-Tec Carbo-Mull Surf-cote Carbo-Gel

AK 70 AVAOIL-FCLT AVAOIL-TNLT AVAOIL-VSLT Duratone OMC RM-63

S NA Defloc IDF Truvis

Versatrol Versalig Versathin Versamod

Carbo-Trol Carbo-Trol (A9)

Charbo-Thix

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REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

System Name 0601 0602 0603 0605 0608 Primary Emulsifiers Secondary Emuls. Wetting Agents Organophil Clays Asph. Filtr. Reducers Non-Asph. Filtr. Red. 0610 Thinners Rheology Modifiers

AVA Core

Baroid 100 EZ Core

Trudrill Trumul Trusperse Trusperse

Versacore Versamul

Carbo-Core Carbo-Tec Carbo-Mull

AVAOIL-SE AVAOIL-WA AVABENTOILHY AVAOIL-FRHT AVABIOFILHT Geltone III AK 70 Baracarb

Versa SWA VG 69 Versatrol LoWate/Fazegel Carbo-Gel Carbo-Trol Carbo-Trol (A9)

Truvis Trudrill S Truloss Defloc

AVAOIL-VS

Truplex

Versa HRP

Carbo-Vis HT

System Name 0601 0602 0603 0605 0608 Primary Emulsifiers Secondary Emuls. Wetting Agents Organophil Clays Asphalt Filtrate Reducers Non-Asphalt Filtrate Reducers 0610 Thinners Rheology Modifiers

AVABIOL AVABIO PRI. AVABIO Sec. AVABIO Wet AVABIO Bent

Petrofree EZ Mul NTF

Ultidrill Ultimul Ultimul II Ultisperse

Novadrill Novatec-P Novatec-S Novawet VG 69 Vestrol

Geltone II

Ultitone

AVABIOFILHT AVABIO Thin AVABIO VIS-

Duratone HT OMC 2/42

Ultiflo

Versalig

Ultivis

Novamod

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REVISION

Code

Description

AVA

Bariod

Dowell

MI

BH Inteq

8.1.15
0801 0802 0803 0804 0811 0812 0813 0814 0815 0816

Base Liquids And Corrections


Fresh Water Sea Water Brine

Diesel Fuel Oil Exhaust Oil Low Toxicity Oil Glycol GP Glycol CP Lamium/ AVAOIL base AVABIOLUBE AVAGLICO Gem-GP Gem-CP Staplex Lamium BFF. HF 100 N Gliddrill-LC Aquacol TM Aquacol TM-D Aquacol TM-S Lamium

0817 0818 0819 0820

Oil Base Synthetic Base

AVAOIL base Synthec

KLA-Cure Clay Inhibitor KLA-Gars

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REVISION

9.

DRILLING FLUIDS APPLICATION GUIDE


This document is an extract from a more comprehensive guide published by World Oil relating to some of Eni-Agip's most important contractors, namely AVA, Baroid, Baker Hughes Inteq, MI, Schlumberger, Dowell and IDF. The product functions and systems, for which these products are employed, contained in this section, are provided by the contractors named above.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 9.1APPLICATIONS GUIDE
APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS

REVISION 0

FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

AIR-AERATED

LOW SOLIDS

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

ACTIGUM AKTAFLO-S ALDACIDE-C ALL-TEMP ALLUMINIUM STERATE AMITEC AMPLI-FOAM ANTIFOAM-S AP-21 AQUA-MAGIC AQUA-SEAL ASPHALT ATTAPULGITE AVAGUM AVALIG AVA PVA AVAREX AVASIL AVATENSIO AVOIL-FC AVOIL-PE AVOIL-SE AVOIL-TN AVOIL-VS AVOIL-WA BACBAN III BARA-B466 BARABLOK BARA BRINE DEFOAM BARABUF BARACARB

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X

X X

SH SU B TH

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

SH

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

FL D LU FO D LU FO

D LU FO D FI LU SH SH V

X X

X X X X X

LU FI LU SH SH TH

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

V TE SH FI D P

SU FI SH SH

X X X

X X X

TE

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

FI E E TH V SU B B SH D A CO

FI FI FI E CO LU

SU SU TE

FI

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY
LU FI FI

POLYMERS

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS PRODUCTS


NON DISPERSED MUD SYSTEMS POLYMER-BASE FUNCTIONS

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

SALT SATUR.

LIME-BASE

BARACAT BARACOR-95 BARACOR-100 BARACOR 113 BARACOR 129 BARACOR 450 BARACOR 700 BARACOR 1635 BARACTIVE BARA-DEFOAM-C BARADEFOAM W-300 BARAFILM BARAFLOC BARAFOAM BARAFOAM-K BARAFOS BARA-KLEAN BARANEX BARAPLUG X, XC BARARESIN GRANULE BARARESIN-VIS BARASCAV-D BARASCAV-L BARASCRUB BARAVIS BARAWEIGHT BARAZAN BARAZAN L BARITE BARODENSE

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X

SH CO CO CO CO CO CO CO PA D D CO FL FO FO TH SU FI

TE

TE

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

CA TE

LO LO V CO CO SU V W V V W W

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCT NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER-BASE FUNCTIONS

SALT SATUR.

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

BARO-DRILL 1402 BAROFIBRE BAROID BARO-LUBE BARO-SEAL BARO-SPOT BAROTHIN BARO-TROL BENTONITE BIO-LOSE BIO-PAQ BIO-SPOT BIO-SPOT II BLACK SPOT MAGIC BLACK SPOT MAGIC CLEAN BLACK MAGIC LT BLACK MAGIC SFT BRINE-PAC BROMIMUL BROMI-VIS BRINE-PAC BROMIMUL BROMI-VIS BX-L CANE FIBER CARBO CORE CARBO-GEL CARBO-GEL 2 CARBO-GEL N

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X

X X

SH LO W LU LO P TH SH V

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

LU

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X

SH LU SH FI

FI E

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

FI FI P P P P P P CO E V CO E V SH LO E V V V

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X X

X X X X

FI

FI

X X X X

FI

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY
FI

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCT NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER-BASE FUNCTIONS

LOW SOLIDS

SALT SATUR.

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

CARBO-MIX CARBO-MUL CARBO-MUL A CARBO-MUL HT CARBONOX CARBOSAN-EF CARBO-TEC CARBO-TEC HW CARBOTHIX CARBO-TROL CARBO-TROL A-9 CARBO-TROL A9 HT CARBOVIS CARBO-SEAL CAT-300 CAT-GEL CAT-HI CAT-LO CAT-THIN CAUSTILIG CC-16 CELLEX CELLOPHANE FLAKES CHEK-LOSS CHEMTROL X CHROMEX CHROME FREE II CLAY-SEAL CMO-568

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

E E E E TH B E E V FI FI FI V LO FI FI FI FI TH TH TH FI LO LO FL TE TH

SU

SU FI

TE E

FI FI

TE

LO

LO

X X

TE FI FI V

TE TE

X X X X X

X X

X X

X X X X

TE TH FI SH

TH FI

LU

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER-BASE FUNCTIONS

SALT SAURATED

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

NON DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

CON-DET CONQOR 101 CONQOR 202 CONQOR 303 CONQOR 404 CONQOR 505 DCP-208 D-D DE-BLOCK/S DEFOAMER DEFOAM-X DENSIMIX DEXTRID DIASEAL M/DIEARTH DIATOMITE DI-PLUG DOLSAL DOLSAL B DRILFOAM DRILLING PAPER DRILTREAT DRYOCIDE DURATONE HT DUROGEL ECOL LUBE ENION ENVIRO SPOT

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

SU CO CO CO CO CO SH SU E D D W FI LO LO LO V V

X X

LU E LU

FI LU P

X X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

FO LO E B FI V LU E P

LU FI

TE FI SU LU FI

FI SU

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

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APPLICATION GIUDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON-DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS FUNCTION

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

DRYOCIDE DURATONE HT DUROGEL EASY DRILL ECOL LUBE ENION ENVIRO SPOT ENVIRO THIN ENVIRO TORQ E.P. LUBE E.P. MUDLUBE EZ-CORE EZ-MUD EZ MUD DP EZ MUL-NT EZ MUL-NTE FER-OX FERROCHROME FIBERTEX FILTER-CHECK FILTREX FLAKE FLO-TROL FLO-VIS FLOXIT FOAM-BLASTER

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X

B FI V LU LU E

TE SU FI SU LU FI

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

FI SH SU

P TH LU LU LU E X V SH E E W TH LO FI FI LO V V FL D

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

SH V SU

FI FI

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X

FI

X X X X X X X X

V TH

X X X X X

X X

SH SU

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON- DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

GELEX GELITE GEL SUPREME GEL TEMP GELTONE GELTONE II GELTONE III GEM-GP GEM-GP GL 1 DRILL LC GRANULAR HF 100-N HOLECOAT H.T.P. IDBOND IDBOND P IDBRIDGE CUSTOM IDBRIDGE L IDBRINE P IDCAP IDCARB 75 IDCARB 150 IDCARB CUSTOM IDCIDE L IDCIDE P IDFAC IDF ANTIFOAM S

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X

V V V V V V V SH SH SH LO SH SH FI SH SH FI FI CO SH W FI FI B B SU D

FL FI FI SH FI

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

TE

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

LU LU LU LU FI V

FI FI FI LU

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

LO LO A FI FI LO LO W W

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

ARPO

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APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEM FUNCTION

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

IDF DEFOAMER IDF DI-PLUG IDF DRILL. DETERGENT IDF DV-68 IDF FLOPLEX IDF FLR IDF FLR XL IDF GEL TEMP IDF HI-FOAM 440 IDF HI-TEMP IDF HI-TEMP II IDF HYMUL IDFILM 120 IDFILM 220X IDFILM 520X IDFILM 620 IDFILM 820X IDF INSTAVIS IDF KWICKCLEAN IDFLO IDFLOC IDFLOC C IDFLO HTR IDFLO LT IDF MUD FIBER IDF POLYLIG IDF-POLYTEMP IDF PTS-100 IDF PTS-200

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X

D LO SU V FL V FI V X FO FI FI SU CO CO X CO CO CO V SU FI FL FL FI FI LO LO FI TE TE TH A A E FL

X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X

B FI

X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X

X X

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

FI

SU TH

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCT NON-DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEM FUNCTION

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

IDF PTS-300 IDFREE IDFREE (UW) IDF RHEOPOL IDF SAFEDRIL CONC. IDF SAFELUBE IDF SEAL IDF SM X IDF TRUDRILL S IDF TRUFLO 100 IDF TRUFLO 100 IDF TRULOSS IDF TRUMUL IDF TRUPLEX IDF TRUVIS HT IDF TRUVIS IDF ULTRADRIL OIL IDF VISPLEX IDHEC IDHEC L IDLUBE IDMUL 80 IDPAC IDPAC XL IDPLEX 100 IDPLEX K IDSCAV 110 IDSCAV 210

X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X

TE P P FI SH LU LO V FI FI FI FI E V V V V

A SU

V LU D

FI

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

V V LU E FI FI SU SU CO CO

FI

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON-DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER-BASE FUNCTIONS

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

SALT SATURATED

DISPERSED

LIME-BASE

IDSCAV 310 IDSCAV 510 IDSCAV ES IDSPERSE XT IDSURF IDTEX IDTEX W IDTHIN IDTHIN 500 IDVIS IDVIS L IDWATE IDZAC IDZAC L IMPERMEX INTAMIX INTASOL INTERDRILL DEFLOC INTERDRILL EMUL INTERDRILL EMUL HT INTERDRILL ESX INTERDRILL FL INTERDRILL LO FL INTERDRILL LOMULL INTERDRILL LO RM INTERDRILL NA INTERDRILL NA HT X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X

CO CO

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X

TH SU SH SH TH TH

FL FI FI FI FI FI FI

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

V V W CO CO FI LO LO TH E E E FI FI E V FI FI

X X X X X X X X X X X

FL TE E E V

TE FI

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

AIR AIREATED

LOW SOLIDS

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

INTERDRILL OW INTERDRILL RM INTERDRILL S INTERDRILL VISTONE INTERDRILL VIST. HT INTERSOLV H INTERSOLV XFE INVERMUL-NTL JELFLAKE K-17 K-52 KLA-CURE KLA-GARD KLEEN-UP K-LIG KWUIKSEAL KWUICK-THK LD-8 LIGCO LIGCON LIGNO-THIN LIGNOX LINTAX LIQUI-VIS NT LO-WATE LUBE-106 LUBE-100

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

SU V FI V V CA * E LO TH SH SH SH SU TH LO V D FI FI TH TH LO V W LU LU

TH

SH

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

FI

FI

SH

X X X

FI

X X X X

X X X X X X X

FI

FL

X X X X X X

TH TH FI SH

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

FI SU

LO SH

*
Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO = = = = = = = = = = Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

barite solvent.

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL BASE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCT NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

AIR AIREATED

LOW SOLIDS

LIME-BASE

LUBE-153 LUBE 167 LUBRA BEADS LUBRI-FILM LVO-69 MAGNA-FLUSH MAGNE-SET MCAT MCAT-A MD TM MELANEX T M-I BAR MICA MICATEX M-I CEDAR FIBER M-I GEL MIL-BAR MIL-BEN MIL-CEDAR FIBER MIL-CLEAN MIL-FIBER MIL-FLAKE MIL-FREE MIL-GARD MIL-GARD L MIL-GARD R MIL-GEL

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

LU LU LU LU V

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

SU

SH

*
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X LO SH SH DT TE W LO LO LO X X V W V LO SU LO LO P CO CO CO V FI FI V FI

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

DT TH

DT FI

X X X X X X X

X X X X

FI

* FOR CLEANING UP WELL TUBULARS

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

WORKOVER

OIL BASE

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCT NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEM FUNCTION

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER-BASE

AIR AEREATED

LOW SOLIDS

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

MIL-GEL NT MIL-KEM MIL-LUBE MIL-PAC MIL-PAC LV MIL-PAC T MILPARK CSI MILPARK MD MILPARK SSI MIL-PLUG MIL-POLIMER 354 MIL-REZ MIL-SEAL MIL-SPOT 2 MIL-STARCH MIL-TEMP MIL-THIN M-I LUBE M-I LUBE ENV M-I QUEBRACHO M-I X II MY-LO-JEL N-DRILL N-DRILL-O N-DRILL-HI N-DRILL-HT NEW-DRILL NEW DRILL HP NEW-DRILL PLUS

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

V TH LU FI FI FI CO SU CO LO V FI LO P FI TE TH LU LU TH

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

FI FI

V E

V FI

TH

X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

FI FI

X X

LO FI FI FI FI FI

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X

SH SH SH

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY
E

WORKOVER

OIL BASE

ARPO

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS FLUID SYSTEMS NON DISPERSED FUNCTIONS

POLYMER BASE

SALT SATURATED

AIR-AEREATED

LOW SOLIDS

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

NEW-THIN NEW-TROL NEW-VIS NF-2 NO-SULF NOVAMOD NOVAMUL NOVASOL NOVATEC-P NOVATEC-S NOVAWET NOXYGEN N-PLZ-X N-SQUEEZE N-VIS-O N-VIS-HI N-VIS-P OIL FAZE BASE OIL FOS OMC OMC-42 OMNI COTE OMNI MIX OMNI MUL OMNI PLEX OMNI TEC OMNI COTE OXIGEN SCAVENGER

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

TH FI V I CO V E TH E SU SU CO LO LO FI V V E TH TH TH X X X X X X TH E E V E FI CO I I

X X X X X X X

SU SU E E

FI

TH

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

FI FI

V FI

TH E E V E FI

E E V E

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER BASE FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

AIR-AEREATED

LOW SOLIDS

SECONDARY

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

PAC-L PAC-R PARA-TEQ PENETREX PERFLOW DIF PERFLOW 100 PERMA-LOSE HT PETROFREE PHOS PIPE LAX PIPE LAX ENV POLYLIG PYROTROL Q-BROXIN RESINEX RHEOPOL RHEOSTAR RHEOMATE RM-63 RV-310 SAFE-BLOCK SAFE-KLEEN SAFE-LINK SAFE-TROL SALINEX SALT GEL SAPP SCALE-BAN SDI SHALE-BOND

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X X

FI FI LU LU FI FI

SH SH LU LU FI FI V

E V LU LU FI FI

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

FI CA P P TH FI TH FI FI TE TE RM FL FI SU V FI E V TH CO D SH

LU FI TH FI V TH TH

E TH

X X X

X X X X X X X

LO

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

FI FI FI TH LU

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X

SU LU

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

RALLAPPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS POLYMER BASE FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

LOW SOLIDS

AIR-AIREATED

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

SHALE-CHEK SI-1000 6-UP SM-(X) SOLUFLAKE SP-101 SPERSENE SPERSENE CF STAPLEX STABIL HOLE STABILITE STABILUBE STEARALL STEARALL LQD STICK-LESS SULF-X SUPER COL SURF COTE SUSPENTONE TACKLE TANNATHIN TCS/30 THERMA-BUFF THERMA -CHEK THERMA-CHEK LV THERMA-THIN THERMA-THIN DP THERMA-VIS

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

SH CO V V LO FI TH TH SH

FI SH SH LO SH FI FI LU LU SU SH

TH

LO TE E E E FI FI

X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X

SH TH LU D D LU CO V SU V TH TH SU TE FI FI TH TH V

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

FI FI

LU

FI

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY
E

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED

FLUID SYSTEMS

FUNCTIONS

POLYMER BASE

SALT SATURATED

LOW SOLIDS

AIR-AIREATED

DISPERSED

LIME BASE

THERMPAC UL TORQ-TRIM 22 TORQ-TRIM II TRIMULSO ULTIMUL UNI-CAL UNI-CAL CF VEN-FYBER VERSACOAT VERSADUAL VERSAGEL-HT VERSAGARD VERSA-HRP VERSALIG VERSAMOD VERSAMUL VERSAPRO VERSA-SWA VERSATHIN VERSATRIM VERSATROLL VERSATROLL NS VERSAWET

X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X

FI LU LU P E TH TH X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X LO E SU V SU V FI V E E SU TH SU FI FI SU FI SU E V TE TE SU FI FI SU E TE E TE TH TH LU

X X X X

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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REVISION

APPLICATION GUIDE TO DRILLING FLUID PRODUCTS


PRODUCTS NON DISPERSED FLUID SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS

SALT SATURATED

POLYMER BASE

LOW SOLIDS

AIR AIRATED

SECONDARY

DISPERSED LIME BASE

VG-69 VICTOGEL AF VICTOSAL VISCO 83 VISCO SL VISCO XC/84 VISPLEX VISGEL WALLNUT SHELLS W.O. 21 W.O. 21L W.O. 30 W.O. DEFOAM WONDERSEAL XCD POLYMER X-CIDE 207 XP 20 X-TEND II X-VIS ZEOGEL

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

V FI FI SH FL SH V V LO V V W D SH V

V V SH V SH FL FI FI

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

LU

FI

X X

B TE FL V V

TH V FI

FI

X X X X

Legend A B CA CO D E FI FL FO LO

= = = = = = = = = =

Alkaline Agent Bactericide Ca Precipitant Corrosion Inhibitor Defoamer Emusifier Filtrate Reducer Flocculant Foamer Loss Control Agent

LU P PA SH SU TE TH V W

= = = = = = = = =

Lubricant Pipe Freeing Agent Polar Activator Shale Inhibitor Surfactant HT Stabilising Agent Thinner Viscofier Weighting Agent

SECONDARY

WORKOVER

OIL-BASE

PRIMARY

ARPO

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

10.

DRILLING FLUID ANALYSIS


The contents of this section comply with specification API RP 13B-1 dated June 1st, 1990.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.1 10.1.1 DRILLING FLUIDS Density (Fluid Weight)
Equipment Required: Fluid balance Pressurised balance o Thermometer 0-105 C Calibration: With fresh water at 21 C = 1kg/l Procedure:
o

REVISION 0

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Result:

Level with the instrument base. Fill the balance cup with the drilling fluid to be tested. Put on the cap and make sure some of the fluid is expelled through the hole. When using the pressurised balance, use pump to add fluid into the cup under pressure. Wash the fluid from outside of the balance. Place the balance on the support. Move the rider so that the bubble is on the centre. Read the density value at the side of the rider toward the support. Report the density to the nearest 10gr (0.1lbs/gal). 3 The balance provides the reading in ft and the gradient in psi per 1,000ft depth.

10.1.2

Marsh Viscosity
Equipment Required: Marsh Funnel Chronometer o Thermometer 0-105 C Calibration: With fresh water at 21 C, /4 gallon = 26(+/- 0.5) secs. Procedure:
o 1

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Results:

Record the temperature of the sample. Keep the funnel upright. Close the orifice with a finger. Pour non-gelatinised fluid through the screen. Remove the finger and measure the number of seconds required for fluid to fill the 1 receiving vessel, commonly /4 gallon (946 cc).

Viscosity is recorded in seconds. API regulations indicate /4 gals (946). Eni-Agip generally specifies 1 litre (1,000cc).
1

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.1.3 Viscosity, Yield Point, Gel Strength
Apparent Viscosity Plastic Viscosity Yield Point Equipment Required: Rotational viscosimeter (Fann) (2) Thermostatic cup Calibration:
(1)

REVISION 0

Gels Strength K (Consistency Index) n (Flow Index) Chronometer o Thermometer 0-105 C

With fluids of known viscosity (Silicon Oils) (3) With a suitable mechanical calibration kit Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Record the fluid sample point. Place the sample in a suitable container. Place the rotor exactly at the scribed line. Record the temperature of the sample. With the rotor rotating at a speed of 600 RPM, wait for reading to become a steady value. Change to 300 RPM, and again wait for reading to reach a steady value. Stir the fluid at high speed for 10 secs. Allow the fluid to stand undisturbed for 10 secs. Shift to 3 RPM and record the maximum reading. Re-stir the fluid at high speed for 10 secs. Allow the fluid to stand undisturbed for 10 secs. At 3 RPM again, record the maximum reading.

Alternative Steps For Oil Based Fluids: 1) 2) 3) Results: Place the fluid sample in the thermostatic cup. Place rotor exactly at the scribed line. (4) Adjust the thermostat to the pre-selected temperature , and record on the report. = = = = = = (Reading at 600rpm) /2 (Reading at 600rpm) - (Reading at 300RPM) (Reading at 300rpm) - (Plastic Viscosity) (Reading at 3rpm) after 10 and at 10 3.32 log of reading at 600rpm/Reading at 300rpm (Reading at 600rpm/1020)
2

Apparent Viscosity (cP) Plastic Viscosity (cP) Yield Point (lbs/100sqft) Gels Values (lbs/100sqft) at 10 and 10 n (Dimensionless) . n K (lbs S /100sqft) Conversion Factors: /2 = lbs/100ft n 2 lbs* s /100ft *4.79 = 2 lbs100ft *0.48 = Preferably at six speeds. Must be used with oil based fluids Recommended if used at the rig site. o o 120 +/- 2 F, 150 +/-2 F.
2

+/- (g/100 cm ) n 2 (dyne*s /cm ) Pa (pascal)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.1.4 API Filtrate
Equipment Required:

REVISION 0

Filter press with internal diameter of 3", filter area of 7.1 +/- 0.1 in Paper filter, Whatman No 50 or S&S No 576 diameter 90mm 30min timer 10 or 25cc graduated cylinder Calibration:

Verify the accuracy of the filter press manometer and filtrate area. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Result: Record the fluid temperature at the start. Report the filtrate volume in cc. Report the thickness of the filter cake in ?/32". 2 If filtrate area is 3.5in , double the filtrate volume. Pour the fluid into the dry filter press until it is /2 inch from the top. Place the cylinder at the filtrate exit. Apply a pressure of 100 +/- 5 psi for 30secs. After 30 ins, measure the volume of filtrate and release the pressure. Remove the paper from filter and wash the filter cake .
1

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.1.5 HPHT Filtrate
Equipment Required: A complete HP/HT filter press with a filter area of 3.5 or 7.1in ; CO2 source (not AOTE, only CO2) Paper filter, Whatman No 50 or S&S No 576 diameter 90mm Pressurised connection cell 30 min timer 25 or 50cc graduated cylinder
2

REVISION 0

High speed stirring unit


o

Procedure to Test at Max. Temperature of 300 F: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Pre-heat the heating jacket to 10 F above the selected test temperature. Stir the fluid at a high speed for 10mins. 1 Fill the cell up to /2" from the top. Place filter paper. Complete the assemble of the cell. Place the cell into the heating jacket with both the top and bottom valves closed. Place the pressurised cell to collect the filtrate. Apply pressure of the top with not less than 100psi with valves closed. Open the top valve and apply a pressure to the fluid while heating it to the selected temperature. Note: Total time of heating should not exceed 1hr. When the sample pressure reaches the set temperature, increase the pressure of the top pressure to 600psi. Open the collector valve to start the filtration. Collect the filtrate for 30mins. o Maintain the pre-selected test temperature to within +/- 5 F. If back pressure increases over 100psi, reduce the pressure by draining some filtrate from the graduated cylinder. At the end of the test, close both valves of the filter press. Recover all the filtrate in the graduated cylinder. Bleed the pressure from both regulators. Allow sufficient time for the cell to cool before draining the internal pressure and open the cell.
o

19)
Results :
(6)

Recover the cake and wash it with a gentle stream of water .


Record temperature and test pressure. Report the filtrate volume in cc. Report the thickness of the filter cake in ?/32".

(6)

If filtrate area is 3.5 ins , double the filtrate volume.

HP/HT filtrate is commonly carried out at 500psi (35atm) and at 300oF (149oC). It aims to evaluate the filtrate reducer performance at a temperature where most of the cellulose polymers degrade, thus allowing the use of appropriate filtrate reducers. As for oil based fluids, HP/HT filtrate represents an important index of emulsion stability.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.1.6 Oil, Water, Solids Measurement
Equipment Required: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Results: Volume percent water Volume of oil: Volume percent solids
(7) (7)

REVISION 0

10 to 20cc retort (required accuracy +/- 5%) 10 or 20cc collection cylinder (required accuracy 0.1 and 0.2cc respectively) Fine steel wool Silicon grease Spatula with a blade shaped to fit inside the dimensions of the retort sample cup Defoamer Pipe cleaner Thoroughly check that retort is clean, dry and operating. Collect a sample of fluid filtered through a 20 mesh screen on the marsh funnel. If the fluid sample is aerated, add some defoamer to about 300cc of the fluid and slowly stir for 2-3 mins. Lubricate the threads. Fill the retort with fluid. Allow an overflow of the sample through the hole in the lid. Wipe the overflow from the sample cup and lid. Screw the retort cup onto the retort chamber by positioning a ring of steel wool into the chamber. Heat the retort and collect the fluid into the dry liquid receiver. Continue heating for 10mins after the last recovered fluid. Note: If the recovered fluid contains solids, the test must be repeated . = = = 100 (volume of water in the fluid)/volume of the sample 100 (volume of oil in the fluid)/volume of the sample 100 - (vol. percent water + vol. percent oil)

The solids percentage, as calculated above, is the difference between the volume of water and volume of oil and the total volume of the sample. The calculation does not make any difference between the solids and salts which may have been dissolved. To correct solids from NaCl, for every 10gr/l, deduct 0.3% from the solids calculated by means of the retort.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2 10.2.1 WATER-BASED FLUIDS Sand Content Estimate
Equipment Required:

REVISION 0

A sand screen set consisting of a 200 mesh sieve of 2.5" diameter, a funnel to fit the screen, a glass measuring tube with indicated marks relating to the quantity of fluid and water to be reached. In addition, the tube must have graduations from 0% to 20% which immediately allows the reading of sand percentage .

Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) Fill the glass measuring tube to the indicated mark with the fluid. Add water to relating mark. Close the tube and shake vigorously. Pour the mixture into the screen and discard the fluid. Repeat until the wash water passes through clear. 5) Wash the sand retained on the screen. 6) Fit the funnel on the screen. 7) Turn upside down the funnel and the screen onto the tube. 8) Wash the sand into the tube by collecting water and solids in the tube. 9) Allow sand to settle. 10) Read the percent by volume of the sand from the graduation . Results: Report the sand contents of the fluid in percent by volume. Report where the fluid was caught.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.2 pH Measurment
Equipment Required:

REVISION 0

pH paper test strips which permit estimation of pH to 0.5/0.2 units (9) Glass-electrode pH meter Buffet solutions according to the indications supplied with the instruments . Procedure:
(8)

Using paper test strips: 1) Place a 2cm strip on the indicator paper on the surface of fluid. 2) Allow it to remain until the fluid has wetted the surface of the paper (+/-30"). 3) Compare the colour standards provided on the side of the strip with the test strip. Glass-electrode pH meter. 1) Make the necessary adjustment to standardise the meter with the solutions (10) according to the directions supplied with the instrument . 2) Insert the electrode into the fluid contained in a beaker. 3) Stir the fluid around the electrode by rotating the beaker. 4) After the meter reading becomes constant, record the pH .

Results: As for pH determination with paper test strips, record the fluid pH to the nearest 0.2/0.5 units. As for pH determination with glass-electrode pH-meter, record pH to the nearest 0.1 unit. The paper strip method may not be reliable if salt concentration of the sample is high. The electrometric method is subject to error in solutions containing high concentrations of sodium ions, unless a special glass electrode is used. Suitable correction factors must be applied. For accurate pH readings, the test fluid, buffet solutions and reference electrode must all be at the same temperature.

(8) (9)

(10)

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.3 Methylene Blue Capacity Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: 1cc syringe. 250cc Erlenmeyer flask. 1cc Serological (graduated) pipette. 50cc graduated cylinder. Glass stirring rod. Hot plate. Paper filter, Whatman No. 1 or equivalent, 11cm in diameter .

REVISION 0

Methylene blue solution, 1cc = 0.01 milli-equivalents. Hydrogen peroxide, 3% solution. Sulphuric acid, 5N . Procedures: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Place 1cc of fluid or more (or suitable volume to require 10cc of blue methylene) in the Erlenmeyer flask. Add 15cc of Hydrogen peroxide. Add 0.5cc of sulphuric acid. Stir. Boil for 10mins. Add blue methylene solution. After each addition of 0.5cc, swirl the content for about 30secs. Remove one drop of fluid with the glass stirring rod and place it on the filter paper. The end point is reached when the dye appears as a blue ring surrounding the dyed solids placed on the filter paper. When the situation as described in step 8 occurs, shake the flask for an additional 2mins and repeat step 7. If the ring is again evident, the end point has been reached. If the ring does not appear, repeat steps 6 and 7. Continue shaking the flask for 2mins until a drop shows the blue tint. Record the number of cc of blue used to reach the end step . = =
3

10) 11) Results:

Cation exchange capacity (CEC) MBT (Bentonite equivalent) in lbs/bbl MBT (Bentonite equivalent) in kg/m

cc of methylene/cc of fluid CEC X 5 CEC X 14.25

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.4 Chloride Content Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Results: Chloride gr/l NaCl gr/l = = cc AgNO3 (normality of solutions) 35.453 cc AgNO3 (Normality of solution) 58.443
(11)

REVISION 0

1cc pipette. 1cc serological (graduated) pipette. 100-150cc beaker (or a white vessel). Glass stirring rod . Silver nitrate solution with known titration. Potassium chromate indicator solution. Sulphuric acid: N/50. Phenolphthalein indicator solutions . Place 1cc (or more) of filtrate into the beaker. Add 2 or 3 drops of phenolphthalein. If the indicator turns pink, add sulphuric acid drop by drop until the colour is discharged. dilute with 25-50cc of distilled water. Add 5-10 drops of potassium chromate. Titrate with the addition of silver nitrate until colour changes from yellow to orange/red and persists for 30secs. Record the number of cc of silver nitrate required to reach the end point. If over 10cc of silver nitrate are required to reach the end point, repeat the test with a smaller sample of filtrate . /(cc of filtrate)

(12)

/(cc of filtrate)

Solutions and Conversion Factors: Concentration of AgNO3 commonly required:


(11) (12)

0.1N 0.282N 0.0282 N = =

Chlorides (Cl-) gr/l Salt (NaCl) gr/l Chlorides (Cl-) gr/l Salt (NaCl) gr/l Chlorides (Cl-) gr/l Salt (NaCl) gr/L = =

= = = = = =

(cc AgO3 x 3.545) / (cc of filtrate) (cc AgNO3 x 5.844) / (cc of filtrate) 10 x cc AgNO3 / (cc of filtrate) 10 x cc AgNO3 x 1.65 / (cc of filtrate) cc AgNO3 / (cc of filtrate) cc AgNO3 x 1.65 / (cc of filtrate)

PM Cl PM Cl

PE Cl PE Cl

35.45 58.443

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.5 Calcium Hardness Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: 1cc pipette 1cc graduated pipette 1cc serological (graduated) pipette 100-150cc beaker Glass stirring rod *Two 10cc graduated pipettes *Hot plate 0.01 Molar EDTA solution Buffer solution, pH 10 Hardness indicator (Black Eriochrome T or similar) (13) Sodium Hypochlorite, solution at 5.25% (14) *Galcial acetic acid *pH paper strip * equipment and reagents required if filtrate is coloured Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
(15 )

REVISION 0

Place 1 cc (or more) of filtrate into the beaker Dilute to 30-40 cc with distilled water Reach pH 10 with buffet solutions Add an adequate quantity of indicator Titrate with EDTA until colour changes from pink-red to light blue-blue.
(16)

Procedure for Filtrate Coloured 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Results: Total hardness (gr/l Ca++)


(13) (14) (15) (16)

Place 1cc of filtrate into the beaker. Add 10cc of sodium ipochlorite and mix. Add 1cc of acetic acid and mix. Boil for 5mins. Maintain the volume by adding distilled water. Verify if hypochlorite is totally discharged with the pH paper strip. If the paper strip becomes white, boil for longer. Cool the solution. Continue as indicated from step 3 in the normal procedure . = cc 0.01 M EDTA x 0.4/cc of filtrate.

In the same cases, ipochlorite can be contaminated by calcium, verify. Avoid all contact with your skin. It is used only if coloured filtrate does not allow the evaluation of colour change. The analysis must be carried out in a well ventilated placed. Do not breathe in vapours.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.6 Calcium And Magnesium Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: 1cc pipette 5 cc graduated pipette 100-150cc beaker Glass stirring rod 10cc serological (graduated) pipette

REVISION 0

0.01 Molar EDTA solution Buffer solution: pH 10 NaOH drops or solution Total hardness indicator (Black Eriochrome T or similar ) Procedure for Determining Calcium: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Results: b Calcium (gr/l Ca++) a -b Magnesium (gr/l Mg++)
(17)

Determine the total hardness as described in the related procedure. Record as a the number of cc required. Place a volume of filtrate identical to that required for determining the total (17) hardness . Dilute to 30-40cc with distilled water. Increase pH to 12 by using NaOH. Add the calcium indicator (with calcine or calver II). Titrate with 0.01 M EDTA until colour changes from green to pink-brown in case of calcine, otherwise from pink to blue in case of Calver II. Record as b the number of cc required . = = = = cc of EDTA required for calcium b x 0.04/cc of filtrate cc of EDTA required for magnesium a - b x 0.243/cc of filtrate

Also in this case, coloured filtrates may be applied.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.7 Alcalinity, Excess Lime, Pf, Mf, Pm Measurment
Equipment Required: Reagents: 100-150cc pottery or plastic vessel 1cc pipette 2cc syringe 10cc graduated pipette Glass stirring rod 10 cc serological (graduated) pipette

REVISION 0

Sulphuric acid, N/50 (0.02 N) Phenolphthalein indicator solution (18) Methyl orange (or bromocresol blue) indicator solution Procedure: Pf 1) 2) 3) 4) Mf 1) 2) 3) Pm 1) 2) 3) 4) Place 1cc of filtrate into the vessel. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein solution. If the indicator turns red, add sulphuric acid until the colour disappears (pH 8.3). Report as Pf the number of cc of N/50 sulphuric acid required. To the sample which has been titrate to the Pf end point, add 2-3 drops of methyl orange (or bromocresol blue). Titrate with N/50 sulphuric acid until colour changes (pH 4.3) from yellow to pink with methyl orange or from violet to yellow with bromocresol blue. Report as Mf the total of cc N/50 sulphuric acid required to reach phenolphthalein (Pf) end point, and methyl orange (Mf) end point. Place a syringe of 1cc of fluid into the vessel. Dilute the sample with 25-50cc of distilled water. Add 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein. If sample turns red, titrate by adding N/50 sulphuric acid until the colour disappears (Ph 8.3). Report as Pf the number of cc N/50 sulphuric acid required .
(19)

5) Interpretation:

Alkalinity Pf = 0 2Pf < Mf 2Pf = Mf 2Pf > Mf Pf = Mf

mg/l of OH 0 0 0 340 (2Pf - Mf) 340Mf kg/m lbs/bbl


3

CO3 HCO3 0 1220Pf 1200Pf 1200 (Mf-Pf) 0 = =

1220 Mf 1220 (Mf-2Pf) 0 0 0


(20)

(18) (19) (20)

Excess lime:

0.742 x (Pm - Fw x PF) 0.26 X (Pm - Fw x PF)

It is required for deeply coloured filtrates and the colour will change from violet to yellow. Quantity can be measured with Garret Gas train. Fw represents the liquid fraction measured with a retort.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.8 Excess Gypsum Measurment
Equipment Required: Reagents: 1cc pipette 5 cc graduated pipette 100-150cc beaker Calibrated floating-ball or graduated cylinder: 250 cc Glass stirring rod 10cc serological (graduated) pipette

REVISION 0

0.01 Molar EDTA solution NaOH drops or solution Calcium indicator (with calcine or calver II ) Procedures: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Results: Place 5cc of filtrate into the ball, dilute to 250cc with distilled water. Mix the solution for 15mins. Filtrate with an API standard filter press. Collect only clear filtrate. Place 10cc of filtrate obtained into the beaker. Increase pH to 12 by adding NaOH. Add calcium indicator (with calcine or calver II). Titrate with 0.01 M EDTA until colour changes from green to pink brown in case of calcine, or from pink to blue in case of calver II. Record the volume of EDTA required as Vt. Place 1cc of filtrate into the vessel. Dilute with 30-40cc of distilled water. Increase pH to 12 by adding NaOH. Add calcium indicator (with calcine or calver II). Titrate with 0.01 M EDTA until colour changes. Record as Vf the number of cc required . Total gypsum (lbs/bbl) 3 (kg/m ) (lbs/bbl) (kg/m3) = = = = 2.38 x (Vt) 6.78 x (Vt) 2.38 x (Vt) - 0.48 x (Vf x Fw) 6.78 x (Vt) - 1.37 x (Vf x Fw)
(21)

(21)

Excess gypsum

Fw represents the liquid fraction measured with a retort.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.9 Semiquantitative Determination Of Sulphurs (Hatch Test)
Equipment Required: Reagents:

REVISION 0

The apparatus consists of a sample chamber provided with a holed cap for positioning the lead acetate paper disks Lead acetate paper disks 25cc graduated cylinder 5cc graduated syringe.

Sulphuric acid, N/10 Alkaseltzer (or sodium bicarbonate) Defoamer. Procedures: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Results: Results are compared against the hatch paper and be multiplied by 10. Values are in mg/l of H2S. Garret gas train can also be applied for quantitative evaluation. Complete gas kits are available. Soluble sulphurs are determined with filtrate analysis, while total sulphurs with fluid analysis. Coloration is altered if cement is present in fluid. In this case the test may result positive even in absence of H2S. Calculations of the concentration must be carried out on the dilutions made. Using the syringe take away 2.5cc of fluid filtrate . Place the sample into the chamber by diluting with 22.5cc of fresh water. Position a lead acetate paper disk on the top cap of the chamber. Wet the chamber walls with a film of defoamer. Add 1cc of N/10 sulphuric acid. (25) Place a tablet of Alkaseltzer (or a bit of sodium bicarbonate ). Screw the cap containing the lead acetate paper disk. Allow the tablet to be completely dissolved. Compare the colours of lead acetate paper disk with the hatch colour standards. If (25) colours are too dark, the test must be repeated with a diluted sample .
(24)

(22) (23) (24) (25)

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.2.10 Fluid Corrosivity Analysis 0

REVISION

FLUID CORROSIVITY ANALYSIS


EQUIPMENT Corrosion rings pre-weight 4.5 (AISI 4140) Drill string Insert a corrosion ring into the tool joint closest to the drill bit. Insert rings at halfway and at the top end of the drill string. To keep in situ at least 40 hrs and max. of 10 days. Recover the test pieces, dry them off with a cloth. Notice the original weight and serial number. For each corrosion ring, record : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Phase and depth of the ring. Seria number and original weight. Date and time of installation in the string Date and time of recovery Mud type, pH, Temperature in/out, flow rate. Description of any treatment with corrosion inhibitors.

PROCEDURE

Send the test pieces to and the report data to: Eni-Agip/Corm RESULT <1 1-2 2-5 >5 Speed corrosion mm/year <0.6 0.6 - 1.2 1.2 - 3.1 > 3.1 Interpretation Low Moderate High Severe lbs/ft3/year

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.3 10.3.1 OIL BASED FLUIDS Electrical Stability Determination
Equipment Required: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Results:

REVISION 0

Electrical stability meter, 0-200 volt range, optimum operating frequency of 330-350 hertz at 1500 volts, 61 microamps of current at emulsion break. Electrode probe with space of 1.59mm (0.061 in.) o o 0-150 C (32-220 F) thermometer Heating cup Glass or plastic beaker Place a sample of the filtrated fluid from the screen of the marsh funnel into the heating cup. o o Heat sample at 50 C (120 F). Put the sample into a plastic or glass container. Position the electrode probe into the fluid sample. Stir the sample with electrode probe for 15-30secs. Be sure that the electrode probe is completely covered by the sample. It must not touch the bottom or sides of the container. Push test button and start from zero by rotating the PO tentsionmeter clockwise with increments of 100-200 v/sec. (Most models start up automatically.) Record the ES value displayed on the readout device (which is lit at the passage of current). Record the reading and reset potentiometer. Clean the electrode probe with a tissue paper. Repeat test and evaluate accuracy. Re-stir the sample for 30secs and repeat from step 4 to step 9 .
(27)

Electrical stability = 2 (reading of potentiometer) . (27) Some emulsion testers, i.e. Bariods testers, provide the value of electrical stability directionally.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.3.2 Fluid Alkalinity Determination
Equipment: Reagents: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Results: Fluid Alkalinity: Pom Pom = = cc 0.1N sulphuric acid/cc fluid sample. cc 0.1N sulphuric acid/2. Half litre glass jar with lid. 5cc syringe. 5cc graduated pipette. Magnetic stirrer with 38mm stirring bar (1.5in) . Xilene/Hysopropanole mixture: 50/50. Distilled water. Phenolphthalein. Sulphuric acid: 0.1 regular (N/10) .

REVISION 0

Add 100cc xilene/hysopropanole mixture to half litre jar. Add 2cc fluid with the syringe. Swirl the mixture until it is homogenous. Add 200cc distilled water. Add 15 drops of phenolphthalein. Slowly titrate with 0.1 N sulphuric acid, while stirring rapidly with magnetic stirrer. Titrate until red colour just disappears for 1min. Let the sample stand for 5mins, if no red colour re-appears, the end point has been reached. If colour reappears, titrate until it disappears again. Repeat steps 6,7,8. If a third titration is necessary, call the total value of acid the end point, even if the colour re-appears a fourth time .

Excess Lime: lbs/bbl kg/m


3

= =

1.3 Pom. 3.7 Pom.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.3.3 Fluid Chloride Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Results: Fluid chloride (mg/l) Whole fluid chloride (mg/l)
(28) (29)

REVISION 0

Half litre glass jar with lid. 5cc syringe. 5cc graduated pipette. 10cc graduated pipette. Magnetic stirrer with 38mm stirring bar (1.5in) . Xilene/Hysopropanole mixture, 50/50. Distilled water. Phenolphthalein. Sulphuric acid: 0.1 regular (N/10). Potassium chromate indicator. 0.282N silver nitrate . Lead the alkaline test as indicated in the previous form. Be sure acqueous solution pH is less than 7 by adding 1-2 drops of N/10 sulphuric acid. (28) Add 10 to 15 drops of potassium chromate indicator . (29) While stirring rapidly, slowly titrate with silver nitrate . When the pink salmon colour stabilises for at least 1min, then the end point has been reached . = = 1000 (cc AgNO3 * PM Cl-)/cc fluid sample required. (31) 10000 (cc AgNO3 0.282N )/2.
(30)

(30) (31)

A further addition of potassium chromate may be required. Rapid stirring is required. It may be necessary, however that the stirring is stopped to allow separation of the two phases to occur. Pm Cl = PE Cl = 35.45. The normal 0.0282 N reagent is calculated as follows: 1cc AgNO3 equals 10g/l Cl.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 10.3.4 Calcium Determination
Equipment Required: Reagents: Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Results: Half litre glass jar with lid; 5cc syringe 5cc graduated pipette 10cc graduated pipette Magnetic stirrer with 38mm stirring bar (1.5in ) Xilene/Hysopropanole mixture, 50%/50% Distilled water 1N hydroxide sodium (NaOH) 1N Calcium indicator (Calver II) (32 ) 0.1M EDTA

REVISION 0

Add 100cc of 50/50 xilene/hysopropanol mixture. Add 2cc of fluid with syringe. Shake vigorously, until the mixture is homogeneous. Add 200cc distilled water. Add 3cc 1N NaOH. Add 0.1 - 0.25gr calcium indicator (Calver II). Shake vigorously for 2mins. Let the sample stand to allow the separation of the two phases to occur. If a reddish colour appears in the aqueous phase, calcium is present. Place the jar on the magnetic stirrer and drop in the stir bar. Titrate with 0.1 M EDTA. When the colour changes to blue-green, the end point has been reached. Record the number of cc of 0.1M EDTA required . = 1000 (cc EDTA Normal EDTA PMCa++)/cc of fluid

Fluid calcium (mg/l) sample Whole fluid calcium (mg/l)


(32)

= 1000 (cc EDTA * 0.1 40/2cc = 4000 (cc EDTA) 2cc This EDTA solution is ten times more concentrated than the solution required for water based fluids.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPENDIX A - DRILLING FLUID CODING SYSTEM


This coding system describes the Eni-Agip drilling fluid coding system currently in use and how the system can be used for further developments of drilling fluids. A.1. CODE GROUPS There are three groups in the system: 1 2 3

The first grouping represents the base fluid, such as fresh water, sea water, diesel, etc. The base fluid must be included in the full code. The second grouping represents the base fluid system, such as lignosulfonate, gels, polymers, invert emulsion, etc. The base system again must be included. The third grouping describes the base system more precisely by providing further information: i.e. the water/oil ratio in an invert emulsion, the type of salt in a brine and underlining the specific treatment, such as addition of polymers, soltex, lignosulfonates. The third group is included only if relevant information is applicable.

If there is one or more special treatments, only the most significant of these will be included. For example, DS-IE 80 signifies a diesel base, invert emulsion drilling fluid, with a WO ratio of 80/20. If this drilling fluid is relaxed, the code would be DS-IE RF, as 'Relaxed Fluid' is to be considered a more significant characteristic than the W/O ratio.

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 A.2. EXAMPLE CODING Consider the development of a drilling fluid, as follows: 1) The code for sea water fluid with prehydrated bentonite is: SW 2) GE 0

REVISION

During drilling, if the fluid is treated with light additions of lignosulfonate, its code will be: SW GE LS

3)

Again during drilling, the addition of lignosulfonate will characterise the fluid further and the code will be: SW LS

4)

Finally, if lubricants are added, the code will be: SW GE LU

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STAP -P-1-M-6160 0

REVISION

APPENDIX B - ABBREVIATIONS
B.1. FLUID CODE ABBREVIATIONS 1 Base Fluid
AR Air Fresh Water Sea Water Brine Water Diesel Low Toxicity Oil Ester Poltolefine Olio Ultra LT AR AT BR CL CT DE DF GE GL GY HT IE K2 KA KC KF LI LS LW FW SW BW DS LT EB OF UT Air Aerated Brine Chromelignin Cationic Polymers Modified Tannins (Desco) Drilling Fluid Bentonite-Base Guar Gum Glycol-Base Gypsum-Base High Temperature Invert Emulsion Potassium Carbonate Potassium Acetate Potassium Chloride Potassium Formiate Lime-Base Lignosulfonate-Base Low-Solids Mud-Misting Morex-Base Oil Base Polyanionic Pol.(PAC) PHPA Agipak (K-PAC, K-CMC) Generic Polymers (CMC) Quebracho-Base Foam-Base Salt Saturated (NaCl) XCD Polymer

2 Base System
(- -) CA CB CC CL KA KB KC KF GL LI LS LU NC NB PA PN PC PK PO RF RX SX TA XC VB ZB -

3 Specific Treatment
Non Specific Calcium Carbonate Calcium Bromide Calcium Chloride Chromelignin Potassium Acetate Potassium Base (KOH) Potassium Chloride Potassium Formiate Glycol-Base Lime Lignosulfonate Lubricants Sodium Chloride Sodium Bromide Polyanionic Pol.(PAC) Na Polyacrylates PHPA Agipak (K-CMC/PAC) Generic Polymers (CMC) Relaxed Filtrate Rheology Modifiers Ht Pol. Mixtures Soltex Tannins XCD Polymer Viscosity Base Zinc Bromide

GG -

MM MR OB PA PC PK PO QU SF SS XC -

RM -

NOTE:

The oil/water ratio of a fluid with an oil numeric value, such as O/W = 70/30, will be expressed only by the first ratio, i.e. 70, omitting the later 30 ratio.

ARPO

IDENTIFICATION CODE

PAGE

155 OF 155

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division


STAP -P-1-M-6160 B.2.
AC AF B C CC CI E F FP FR LC LU P pH S S SA SH SU TH TR TS V W -

REVISION 0

OTHER ABBREVIATIONS
Antiscale Antifoam Bactericide Chelant Diesel Low Toxicity Oil Ester Poltolefine Olio Ultra LT Filtrate Reducer Loss Circulation Material Lubricant Primary pH Control Secondary Solvent Suspension Agent Shale Stabiliser Surfactant Thinner Tracer Temperature Stability Agent Viscofier Weighting Material