Sei sulla pagina 1di 15

Extremely Heavy and Incredibly Light

Performative Assemblies in Dynamic Environments

STDELSCHULE ARCHITECTURE CLASS Architecture and Performative Design 2011-12

Contents
Agenda Brief
Topological Interlocking Assemblies Bell Kite Assemblies

Essay

On Assemblies

APD Master Theses


Adaptive Geometric Integration
Donlaporn Chanachai

Diversity in Similarity
Fenny Diana Lauren

Ascent

Nasim Delkash

Evolving Frames
Niranjan Warrier

Performance Fields
Philipp Mecke

Interlocked & Interwoven


Rhea DSilva

Four Legged Yet Three Winged


Youngjae Chung

APD 2012

STDELSCHULE ARCHITECTURE CLASS Architecture and Performative Design


Architecture and Performative Design (APD) is informed by a range of material, constructional, manufacturing and environmental considerations and technologies. The performance of an architectural design is conceived as its ability to incorporate various requirements resulting from programmatic, functional, structural and environmental aspects in a synergetic fashion. APD specialization focuses on how computational techniques and processes are changing the methodological and strategic make-up of architectural design by linking projective and analytical phases informed by technical data in the work process.

ADP Studio

Visiting Professor Mirco Becker Visiting Professor Oliver Tessmann Structural Design Consultant: Mark Fahlbusch - Bollinger Grohmann

APD 2012

Extremely Heavy and Incredibly Light

Performative Assemblies in Dynamic Environments


The studio seeks design-innovation by research in systems that are not yet part of the architectural ecosystem. The potential for architectural applications is explored by mapping out their performative characteristics and developing their spatial and programmatic potential through conscious design moves. Architectural structures are mostly assemblies of parts. From ancient constructions to contemporary material systems the issue of modularity and subsequently questions of joints, seams, and interfaces have always been present. The notion however changed over time. For a long period generic details were developed and continuously optimised to cater for a limited number of well defined cases. Systems such as the space frame and the curtain-wall facade fall under that type of modularity. Computational design and digital fabrication can be considered as the latest paradigm shift that changed the way we conceive modular systems. With its advent in the late 90s differentiation replaced repetition. Initially, the geometrical complexity of form was the vehicle to test, explore, and convey this novel paradigm. This again is shifting towards a model where performance becomes the driver for overall morphology as well as local articulations. The body of design-research on assemblies addresses performance driven differentiation and part-to-whole relationships. It is framed by investigating two very different systems. Firstly, Topological Interlocking Assemblies, assemblies of solid parts where the structural integrity of the overall relies on each element being kinematical constraint by its neighbours. In the most narrow definition these parts are topologically identical and of convex shape, thus ruling out any mechanical jointing detail. Secondly, Bell Kites, similar in topology but fundamentally different in performance these kites are made of clusters of tetrahedrons. Compared to the first system these structures are super light and their performance is dominantly driven by wind force rather than gravity. These two instances formulate the opposing ends of a spectrum in which a new system, one that is capable of covering the full range of performance, is developed and re-conceptualized in architectural context.

APD 2012

Topological Interlocking Assembly (TI) Topological Interlocking Assemblies are systems that unfold structural capacity by kinematically constraining and interlocking solid elements. Masonry is a simple example of an interlocking system: Bricks form a stable structure by brickwork bonds. Nevertheless, without mortar binding the bricks such wall only withstands in-plane forces. Assemblies with intricately interlocking modules in contrast can take these forces. They constrain their elements exclusively by contact along aligned faces without any binding agent or connector detail, resulting in a very specific class of geometries. TI were developed in material science. Here they are studied in order to explore their inherent design opportunities as a heavy weight system of geometrically differentiated, force-locked elements. This includes certain digital and analogue analysis and fabrication methods: Rigid body dynamics to digitally simulate behaviour, moulding and casting techniques to prototype parts, physical test to verify digital simulation and assumptions, computational design to integrate knowledge.

Bell Kite Assembly (BK) Bell Kites are space-frame like structures based on a tetrahedral cells. These cells can be cluster homogeneously or fractal-like into various forms including plates, bars, cubes, rings. Alexander Graham Bell invented these structures during his research into maned flight between 1895 and 1910. He challenged the notion of kites at the time which had the shortcoming of getting over-proportionally heavier when increasing the surface area thus putting an absolute limit on the size of kites. He discovered a concept of a cellular kite that overcame this problem and gave way for carrying payload resulting in the first manned flight on a structure that was heavier than air. In the context of this project they are studied as a counterpart of the TI to explore other aspects of performance and open up even more design opportunities. The methods to investigate and explore this system partly overlap. Additional techniques required were: Nonlinear simulation, flight testing, cut-patterning, optimising towards lightness.

Interlocking assemblies in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions 8

Image: Oliver Tessmann

Man carrying Bell Kite 9

APD 2012

On Assemblies

The work of THEVERYMANY / Barkow Leibinger / Toms Saraceno

Logistics The work of THEVERYMANY exhibits a similar appeal for entirely different reasons. It promotes a new model of the master builder. Someone that is mastering complexity by handling a vast number of unique parts and thereby requires control over the entire process form design to fabrication to assembly. The installation Labrys Frisae is made of 10.000 CNC cut aluminum parts and stitched together with around 100.000 rivets. This means the detailing of the joint is as important as the design of the actual assembly process. The final product does not necessarily celebrate the process but has it clearly inscribed in its texture. Poetics In a very different domain but still strangely familiar is the work of Toms Saraceno. His fascination with natural phenomena such as clouds, spiderwebs, foam and the ambition to experience these structures in a bigger than life fashion calls for scientist and Trutec - Barkow Leibinger Image: Christian Richters engineers not only to execute but to collaborate on the work. What often seems to be an utopian project in the beginning becomes a poetic one as these assemblies have the potential to transgress scale changes by carrying their own frame of reference. Animated and inhabited by the artist, spectators, and visitors they go far beyond the patterned textures we see in the architectural references.

Labrys Frisae at Art Basel Miami 2011

Image: theverymany / Dustin Mattiza

Aesthetics Undeniably there is a human fascination with large numbers of elements that exhibit some kind of order. This goes form man made artefacts such as the knots in a carpet to wind rippled surface of sand-dunes. One can easily extend on that and might find personal or cultural preferences, as much as it seems to be an universal human condition it follows certain trends and plays along with the zeitgeist. In architecture such change surely happened when we look at the Seagram Building. The perfection in mass produced elements arranged in a uniform almost texture like fashion made it a masterpiece in the late 50s. It is very difficult to imagine such a structure gaining any design attention today. We are rather drawn towards less uniform notions of order. Barkow Leibingers Trutec Building in Seoul is a fine example of how the classic notion of a curtain wall facade could be reinterpreted. Although it mainly uses two different panels it creates a progression and a sense of complex order which gets even more pronounced by the reflectivity of the glass and its faceted nature.
10 APD 2012

Image: Tomas Saraceno

Image: Tomas Saraceno 11

APD Master Theses


Adaptive Geometric Integration

Donlaporn Chanachai
Diversity in Similarity

Fenny Diana Lauren


Ascent

Nasim Delkash
Evolving Frames

Niranjan Warrier
Performance Fields

Philipp Mecke Rhea DSilva

Interlocked & Interwoven Four Legged Yet Three Winged

Youngjae Chung

12

APD 2012

13

Adaptive Geometric Integration


Donlaporn Chanachai
The project is approached by the analysis of a solid structure -topological interlocking- and lightweight system -tetrahedral kites- with a special interest in axis-transition. The found system takes advantage of the interface between each module as it is deployed. It anticipates its behaviour to correct the structural stability considered as the specific requirement of directionality and response to the range of environmental context. The orientation of each module becomes instrumental in modulating the structural capacity for the overall system. The project sets out a logic that will guide the performance of the architectural proposal which is located at Pointe de la Jonction, Geneva. The site is an area of a dynamics flux where two river confluence. It encourages various types of fluid control and provides the integration between the solid and dynamic structure. It performs harmoniously to inform human habitation and natural dynamics

interlocking module

interlocking orientatation

interlocking transition

rigid frame : thematic module

dynamic frame : thematic module

interlocking module

interlocking orientatation

interlocking transition

rigid frame : thematic module

dynamic frame : thematic module

105.62

105.62

60.45

60.45

14

APD 2012

15

Diversity in Similarity
Fenny Diana Lauren
Development of the research is based on topological interlocking concept by Yuri Estrin. Cubes are used as the principle geometry in a hexagon-based interlocking system which creates planar surfaces. This research looks at the potential of difference in surface quality created by a modular system. Curvature is controlled by changing the units directionality, adjusting the interface area or modifying the boundary. In a second phase of development a similar interlocking behaviour is applied to the tetrahedron kite system. Transformation from solid/heavy system into frame/ light system is creating the different surface qualities. Homogenous modules are creating the different surface conditions, as the formula to generate different spatial qualities. The modular techniques and its performative qualities are assimilated into a project of a reading garden. The project located in Gili Trawangan, Indonesia which has the characteristics of tropical climate. It considers the static factors (urban context and culture) and dynamic factors (sun, wind, water) to generate diversity in modular units in micro scale and space quality in macro scale.

16

APD 2012

17

Ascent

Nasim Delkash Engaging Transitive Hexadecagon Assembly in Manarola Train Station


The Transitive Assembly is evolved from the research done on the Interlocking Hexadecagon Assembly and its derivative Hexadecagon Kite System. Based on the geometrical similarities of the two systems, a transitional system has been developed that seizes the performances of both systems at their extreme level without compromising to equilibrium. The system gets lighter, yet structurally remains stable. The transition was possible through defining two mediator modules and material differentiation within the system. The Transitive Assembly can serve both as skin and bone in architecture, thus brings up the opportunity of integrating them and interpreting architecture as a totality and not as combination of abstract solutions. The architectural and dynamic performances of the system have been employed in designing a train station in the tourist attractive site of Cinque Terre, Italy. The proposal takes advantage of the sites unique positioning with respect to static cliff and dynamic wind flowing off the sea.
interlocking modular system SOLID zone of TRANSITION dismantable modular system LIGHT

2 3 1

mass / hollow

hollow + sti edges

rods + shell

light rods + fabric

MASS

HOLLOW INTERFACE JOINT

REGULAR

LIGHTENED

BONE structural stability

SKIN breathing

2 3 1

18

APD 2012

19

Evolving Frames
Niranjan Warrier
The initial research in topological interlocking tetrahedrons lead to a strategy of simplifying a solid module into frames. During a sequence of design iterations a set of adaptive modules was found. These frames or base tetrahedron fit various tectonic applications. Each variation adapts to the dynamic environment it is assigned to, from the heavy floor planters, light frame work, porous roof modules, dynamic openable modules and the wind driven kite modules. The adaptable frame assembly with its boundary properties form the basis of a productive Urban Shelter unit. It generates food, energy and living space. The unit can be easily assembled and customized by the user based on his environment. The continuous repetition of the interlocking modules and their change in structure, form, orientation and direction is the basis of design.

20

APD 2012

21

Performance Fields
Philipp Mecke
The project deals with the subject of gradually changing field like structure and its influence on the surrounding area. For this purpose a modular assembly method is developed. The modules are linked by topological interlocking and as a Bell kite system. The goal of the research is to minimize the modules to such a degree that they allow for a transition between open and closed conditions while the structure still functions as an interlocking assembly. This differentiated surface controls the environmental factors via its gradual openings and thus creates a heterogeneous space. The ambition of the project is to control environmental factors with the help of a modular assembly system and to create different spatial situations under constant factors.
Top Formwork

4 Stick connection, optinal 5 stick connection

Displaycers

4 Stick connection, optinal 5 stick connection

Modul axonometrie

modul axonometrie
Bottom Formwork

4 Stick connection, optinal 5 stick connection

modul templates

A B A
Front view Bottom view

Top view

minimum opening
Left view

Top view

Left view

maximum opening
Front view Bottom view

minimum opening

maximum opening

minimum opening

22

APD 2012

23

Interlocked & Interwoven


Rhea DSilva
The interlocked rigid modular system attempts to use the same logic as the original tetrahedral assembly, while reducing the mass and rigidity of the overall assembly. The mass of the original tetrahedron is carved away thus drastically reducing the contact surfaces and weight of the module. This enables the system to be more porous, allowing openings and changes of density within. This porosity is further accentuated by changes within the module and adjacent modules to create gradients of opening sizes. In practice these have to be planned according to requirements of program, light, ventilation, etc. The system provides these transitions through repetition and variation of individual modules. The interwoven dynamic modular system is geometrically derived from the same interlocking tetrahedron system, and consists of flexible modules that form a dynamic partition and shading system. Individual modules allow for expansion and contraction, and a predetermined range of rotation between adjacent modules. By varying these local parameters, the overall system assembly can be altered and reconfigured to suit changing spatial and programmatic requirements.
DYNAMIC KITE MODULE: DYNAMIC KITE ASSEMBLY: [PLAN]/[Layer 1] Angle Range 30* - 160* DYNAMIC KITE ASSEMBLY: [PLAN]/[Layer 1] Angle Range 30* - 90*

INTERLOCKING TETRAHEDRON GEOMETRY

DYNAMIC KITE GEOMETRY

PLAN

STEP #1

STEP #2

STEP #3
1 DYNAMIC KITE MODULE 2

INTERLOCKING MODULE GEOMETRY INTERLOCKING MODULE

DYNAMIC KITE MODULE FRAMES + JOINTS

1
3 3

2 3

INTERLOCKING MODULE + CONTACT FACES

MOULD 2 MODULES [PLAN]

MOULD 2 MODULES [SECTION]

MOULD 4 MODULES [PLAN]

MOULD 4 MODULES [SECTION]

DYNAMIC KITE SECTION [Layer 1] Angle Range 30*- 160*

C] X Joints [ fixed ] DYNAMIC KITE SECTION [Layer 2] Angle Range 30*- 90*

A] Frame + Joints

B] Frame + Joints + Membrane

D] Y Joints [ flexible ] DYNAMIC KITE SECTION [Layer 1 + Layer 2] Angle Range 30*- 160*

DYNAMIC JOINT ROTATION: [Mean Angle 90*]

DYNAMIC KITE ELEVATION [Layer 1] Angle Range 30*- 160*

A] Module Section DYNAMIC KITE ELEVATION [Layer 2] Angle Range 30*- 90*

A] Module Plan

A] Module Elevation

DYNAMIC KITE ASSEMBLY: [PLAN]/[Layer 1 + Layer 2] Angle Range 30* - 160*

DYNAMIC KITE ELEVATION [Layer 1 + Layer 2] Angle Range 30*- 160*

24

APD 2012

25

Four Legged Yet Three Winged - The Uncubed


Youngjae Chung
Through study of a tetrapod, a french coast stabilization design, a primitive module consisting of six diamond shaped faces is developed. Thickness of faces controls compressive strength, which enables a designer to add more material where MODULE PRODUCTION FORMWORK it is need in the overall modular system. As tetrahedrons emerge from strategic locations, the system performs topological interlocking, increasing stability and ability to span horizontally. Interlocking modules operates in two scales ; as architectural elements and mega scaled volumes placed on site. When constrained by tension, they form horizontal and/or vertical freestanding surfaces for open air applications. When realised as a space frame with membranes, they interact with different wind speeds by adapting its surface curvature, thus becoming a field research tool to target specific aerodynamic performance for application such as light weight roof structure. In general, each module stays identical thus every module just as replaceable as one another.

ASSEBLY DETAIL

reciprocal frame allows linear movement within axial direction of individual linear elements
STRUCTURE EXTENSION LENGTH - moderate WING SURFACE AREA - moderate RADII - thickened STRUCTURE EXTENSION LENGTH : extended WING SURFACE AREA - minimal RADII - thin

STRUCTURE EXTENSION LENGTH - minimal WING SURFACE AREA - maximum RADII - thickened

WIND CATCHMENT SURFACE TEMPLATE

HALF SCALE & FULLSCALE ASSEMBLY

detail variation flexibility index

26

APD 2012

27

STDELSCHULE ARCHITECTURE CLASS Staatliche Hochschule fr Bildende Knste-Stdelschule Drerstrasse 10 60596 Frankfurt am Main T +49 69 6050 0869 F +49 69 6050 0878 www.staedelschule.de/architecture