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# DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY MALAYA

## Lab 2 : Cantilever Shear Force Apparatus and Simply Supported Beams

Objective
The main objective of this experiment is to determine the shear force acting on a cantilever beam (fixed end beam) caused by the point at the free end of the cantilever beam. The objective of this experiment also including figure out the shear force acted on beam.

Introduction
A cantilever beam is a simple system where one end of the beam is fixed while another end is not fixed. Based on study of static, there are total 3 forces acting on the beam. Which are shear force, normal force, and also bending moment. Shear force is known as the force in the beam which acted directly perpendicular to its longitudinal axis (x-axis). Shear force is also known as the internal force in the beam which caused by external force acted tangent to the beam. Shear force are normally represented by a shear force diagram. Bending moment is the phenomenon occurred when force is applied to the beam to make the beam bend (rotate clockwise or anti-clockwise). The bending moment can be calculated by finding the product of force applied and the perpendicular distance of the force from the axis or rotation. Bending moment are represented by a bending moment diagram. In equilibrium state, the total sum of the force and the total sum of moments of the left hand side is equal to the total sum of force and the total sum of moments of the right hand side but in different direction. This is to cancel out the force and moments and therefore the system (beam) remains in equilibrium state. In other word, the algebraic sum of force and the algebraic sum of the moments are equal to zero. F=0 M=0

Equipment
1. Cantilever Shear Force Apparatus (LS-13004-SFA) 2. A set of weights with weight hanger.

Procedure
1. First of all, the Cantilever Shear Force Apparatus (LS-13004-SFA) is placed on a level table. 2. Right hand side of the Cantilever beam (cut cantilever beam)is adjust to ensure it is same level as the left hand side of the beam by adjusting the nut at the top and bottom of the right hand side beam. 3. The weight hanger is hanged at the right hand side of the beam. The reading is being recorded and is known as the initial reading. 4. After that, the 1N (100g) is slowly placed into the weight hanger. The reading from the spring weighting scale are taken and recorded into the lab sheet. 5. Step 4 is repeated until total of 5N are placed into the hanger. All the readings are taken and recorded into the lab sheet. 6. The experiment is repeated for 3 times in order to get an average result. (Step 1 to 5 is

repeated.) 7. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical result. 8. From the result, discussion will be made.

Results
Initial reading (N) = 1.0N Length of the beam = 0.33M Weighting Spring Scale Reading (N) Weight Applied (N) 1N 2N 3N 4N 5N Trail 1 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 Trail 2 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 Trial 3 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 Average 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0

*All the values for Trial 1, Trial 2 and Trail 3 are the values that already minus the initial reading. Calculations : To find the average For 1N, Average = For 2N, Average = For 3N, Average = For 4N, Average = For 4N, Average = (a) Force
1.0+1.0+1.0 3 2.0+2.0+2.0 3 3.0+3.0+3.0 3 4.0+4.0+4.0 3 4.0+4.0+4.0 3

= 1.0N = 2.0N = 3.0N = 4.0N = 4.0N of the beam are being analyzed

and

moment

(b) Force

and

moment

of

any

point

acted

on

the

beam

are

analyze

*The system are in equilibrium. *F=F (F is the force which is exactly the force F but different in the placed at which it acted on the beam) *X is the distance of the force F acted on the beam from the fixed end of the beam. *Range of X are 0.0M X 0.33M Force 1N Theoretical (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-1=0 FA=1N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=1(0.33) M=0.33Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.33-(1)(X) M=0.33-X When X=0m, M=0.33Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-2=0 FA=2N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=2(0.33) M=0.66Nm (B )M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.66-(2)(X) Experimental (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-1=0 FA=1N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=1(0.33) M=0.33Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.33-(1)(X) M=0.33-X When X=0m, M=0.33Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-2=0 FA=2N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=2(0.33) M=0.66Nm (B ) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.66-(2)(X) % of Errors Shear Force =|
11 1

| X100%

=0.0% Moments =|
0.330.33 0.33

| X100%

=0.0%

2N

Shear Force =|
22 2

| X100%

=0.0% Moments =|
0.660.66 0.66

| X100%

=0.0%

M=0.66-2X When X=0m, M=0.66Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm 3N (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-3=0 FA=3N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=3(0.33) M=0.99Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.99-(3)(X) M=0.99-X When X=0m, M=0.99Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-4=0 FA=4N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=4(0.33) M=1,32Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=1.32-(4)(X) M=1.32-4X When X=0m, M=1.32Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-5=0 FA=5N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=5(0.33) M=1,65Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX

M=0.66-2X When X=0m, M=0.66Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-3=0 FA=3N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=3(0.33) M=0.99Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=0.99-(3)(X) M=0.99-X When X=0m, M=0.99Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-4=0 FA=4N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=4(0.33) M=1.32Nm (B )M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX M=1.32-(4)(X) M=1.32-4X When X=0m, M=1.32Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm (A) Since F = 0, Thus, FX=0, FY=0 FA-4=0 FA=4N(Shear Force) +M=0 MA-M=0 MA=M=Fd=4(0.33) M=1,32Nm (B) M-M-FX=0 M=M-FX Shear Force =|
33 3

| X100%

=0.0% Moments =|
0.990.99 0.99

| X100%

=0.0%

4N

Shear Force =|
44 4

| X100%

=0.0% Moments =|
1.321.32 1.32

| X100%

=0.0%

5N

Shear Force =|
54 5

| X100%

=20.0% Moments =|
1.651.32 1.65

| X100%

=20.0%

M=1.65-(5)(X) M=1.65-5X When X=0m, M=1.65Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm For 1N (Theoretical)

## M=1.32-(4)(X) M=1.32-4X When X=0m, M=1.32Nm When X=0.33m, M=0Nm

For 1N (Experimental)

For 2N (Theoretical)

For 2N (Experimental)

For 3N (Theoretical)

For 3N (Experimental)

For 4N (Theoretical)

For 4N (Experimental)

For 5N (Theoretical)

For 5N (Experimental)

Discussion
1. Errors (a) There is possibility that parallax error will occur during taking reading from the Spring weighting scale. (b) Zero error also might occur if the cut cantilever beam is not in the same level as the left hand side. 2. Precaution (a) Position of eyes must be directly perpendicular to the scale of the spring weight scale during taking the reading in order to avoid parallax error. (b) The cut and left hand side of the beam should be adjust until the spring weight scale give 0N reading to avoid zero error. (c) The weights must be handled with carefully as it can cause injury especially to foot if the weight is accidentally dropped down. 3. Throughout the whole experiment, there is only a slightly percentage of error when comparing the experimental result with the theoretical result which is only 20%. This error might be because of the spring inside the spring weighting scale had reach it limit of the extension or might also because of the parallax error and zero error when conducting the experiment. 4. The shear force is supposed to be directly proportional to the weight applied, F according to the theory. From the result, we can conclude that there is not much deviation of experimental results when compared with theoretical result.

Conclusion
As conclusion, the shear force acting on the cantilever beam due to the point load at the free end of the beam is determined. By understanding the concept of the bending moment, it can widely use in the engineering field especially in mechanical and also civil engineering.

References
1. Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas Ph.D. (1989). Mekanik Kejuruteraan Statik. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Pustaka. 2. R. C. Hibbeler, Engineering Mechanics Statics. 12th Edition. Singapore. 2010

Assignment

Draw the Shear Force Graph and Bending Moment Diagram. Since the system is in equilibrium, thus F = 0 Fy = 0 Fx = 0(since there is a reaction acted from the fixed end, F = 5 + 10 thus there is no net force acted at te x-axis) F = 15kN (shear force)

## When X = 0, there is total of 15kN of shear force acting on the beam

When X = 1, there is only 10kN of shear force acted on the beam. When X = 2, there is no shear force acted on the beam. As X is in the range of 0X1 and 1X2, there is no external force acted on the beam. Thus the shear force is constant.

X+1

Ma

Mb

M = 0 Ma 5k(1) 10k(2) = 0 Ma = 25kN For 0X1, +M = Ma Mb 15X = 0 Mb = Ma 15X Mb = 25kN 15X When X = 0, Mb = 25kN When X = 1, Mb = 10kN For 1X2, M = 0 Ma = Mb 5(X-1) + 15(X) 25 = Mb 5x + 5 + 15X Mb = 20 10X Ma = 5 + 20 + 25 + 15(2) When X=1, Mb = 10kNm When X=2, Mb = 0kNm