Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

PROJECT REPORT ON

500 KV GRID STATION

N.T.D.C, MULTAN

SUBJECT TITLE:

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

PRESENTED TO:

Engr. Tauheed Ur Rehman

PRESENTED BY:

Muhammad Arslan Yousaf

2008-EE-45

Ur Rehman PRESENTED BY: Muhammad Arslan Yousaf 2008-EE-45 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, BAHAUDDIN ZAKARIYA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, BAHAUDDIN ZAKARIYA UNIVERSITY, MULTAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content

Page

Acknowledgements

Executive Summary

Introduction to N.T.D.C

Grid Station

National Grid System of Pakistan

Functions of the Grid Station

Incoming and Outgoing Circuits of the 500 KV Grid Station, Multan

Essential Elements of the 500 KV Grid Station, Multan

Shunt Reactors

Power Line Carrier Line Traps

CCVT’s

Surge Arresters

Earthing System

Circuit Breakers

Paging System of The Grid Station

Air Plant System

Isolator Switch

Current Transformer

Power Transformers

Fire Protection System

Relays

SF6 Plant System

Bus Bars & Bus Couplers

Insulators

Switch Board & Control Room

References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all I will like to thank Allah, who blessed me with ability and wisdom to complete this project. I wish to express our heartiest gratitude to our lecturer, Engr. Tauheed Ur Rehman who was abundantly helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. And especially thanks to N.T.D.C organization who provided me an opportunity of enhancing my professional experience and her members and especially workers so that they have cooperated with me. It needs volumes to write about the personality of Mr. Muhammad Hanif Memon, But to put into nutshell, he is a unique man who waged a unique struggle in the establishment of a unique project. I wish to express my love and gratitude to my family and friends; for their understanding & endless love, and help they provide while preparing this report.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

An electrical grid station is an interconnection point between two transmission ring circuits, often between two geographic regions. They might have a transformer, depending on the possibly different voltages, so that the voltage levels can be adjusted as needed.

Grid station regulates and controls the power between interconnected transmission lines to increase the reliability of the power system. It receive power from the power station at extremely high voltage and then convert these voltage to some low levels and supplied electric power to the sub stations or to other grid stations at the same voltage level according to the requirements.

National grid system of Pakistan contains an interconnected group of transmission lines in a ring system. It covers most of the power stations of the country in this single ring and supplied electric power to the different areas of the country. Main function of the grid station is switching between the connected line stations and the load centers. This report comprises on the basics of the 500KV grid station. It includes the functions and necessary information about the elements of the 500 KV grid station, NTDC, Multan.

National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC):

National Transmission & Dispatch Company (NTDC) Limited was incorporated on 6th November, 1998 and commenced commercial operation on 24th December, 1998. It was organized to take over all the properties, rights and assets obligations and liabilities of 220 KV and 500KV Grid Stations and Transmission Lines/Network owned by Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA).The NTDC operates and maintains nine 500 KV Grid Stations, 4160 km of 500 KV transmission line and 4000 km of 220 KV transmission line in Pakistan.

Grid and the Sub Station:

An electrical power substation is a conversion point between transmission level voltages (such as 138Kv) and distribution level voltages (such as 11Kv). A substation has one or more step-down transformers and serves a regional area such as part of a city or neighborhood. Substations are connected to each other by the transmission ring circuit system by equipments.

An electrical grid station is an interconnection point between two transmission ring circuits, often between two geographic regions. They might have a transformer, depending on the possibly different voltages, so that the voltage levels can be adjusted as needed.

The interconnected network of sub stations is called the grid, and may ultimately represent an entire multi-state region. In this configuration, loss of a small section, such as loss of a power station, does not impact the grid as a whole, nor does it impact the more localized neighborhoods, as the grid simply shifts its power flow to compensate, giving the power station operator the opportunity to effect repairs without having a blackout.

National Grid System of Pakistan:

Electricity is generated at a voltage level of 11 KV at the largest hydral power station (Tarbela) of the Pakistan and it steps up to the voltage level of up to 500 KV by using a unit transformer. A complex distributed network of 500 KV transmission lines are present in the Pakistan (from Peshawar to Karachi), the output of the unit transformer is given to these lines which then supplied this power to all of the country with the help of their interconnected network of transmission and distribution lines. In summer season, ice is reached in the Tarbela and Mangla’s reservoirs after melting from northern areas. So in this season there is enough water for the production of required electrical power and the generated electrical power is travel from Tarbela to Karachi side. But in winter season, situation is opposite to the above. Water is not

enough to produce a required power, so the capacity of Tarbela station is somewhat reduced and to compensate this reduced energy, the flow of electric power through the interconnected network is changes its direction toward Tarbela from Karachi instead towards Karachi.

There is many station in our country but we consider only those have voltage level in between 220 and 500 KV. In National grid system of Pakistan, several power stations are connected in a ring system and they supplied electric power to different areas of the country under the supervision of WAPDA. All stations are transmitting their produced power to transmission line and from the ring main system; all regional grids supplied power to their own areas. By connecting several power stations into a single ring system, the system stability is increased.

Advantages of the Grid System

Any time electricity is available for the consumers at lower cost.

Flow of electrical energy is continuous and sure.

It is possible to fulfill the emergency demand of power.

Better regulation of the voltages.

Improved power factor

It is possible to govern the generator according to the load.

Safe transmission system.

Reduced fault timings.

Controlled frequency range.

Disadvantages of the Grid System

Cost of the control system is increased and their maintenance is complicated.

Power system is affected from the environmental factors.

This system is unsafe during the war.

Extended system is going to complexity.

Due to the expensive equipments, additional load occurred on the consumers.

During short circuit condition it is impossible to maintain the continuity of power.

High initial and maintenance cost.

During load shedding, capacity of industries connected with the grid is reduced which cause to industrial development problem.

For maintenance, qualified staff is required and for that reason our country has to spend more money to call expert engineers from other countries.

Locations of the Interconnected 500 KV Grid Stations of Pakistan

Functions of a Grid Station:

A Grid Station has the following functions…

1 - Supply of required electrical power.

2 - Maximum possible coverage of the supply network.

3 - Maximum security of supply.

4 - Shortest possible fault-duration.

5 - Optimum efficiency of plants and the network.

6 - Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits, (49.5 Hz and 50.5 Hz).

7 - Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits.

8 - Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost.

An important function performed by a grid station is switching, which is the connecting and disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to and from the system. Switching events may be "planned" or "unplanned".

A transmission line or other component may need to be de energized for maintenance or for new

construction; for example, adding or removing a transmission line or a transformer. To maintain reliability of supply, no company ever brings down its whole system for maintenance. All work to be performed, from routine testing to adding entirely new substations, must be done while keeping the whole system running. Perhaps more importantly, a fault may develop in a transmission line or any other component. Some examples of this: a line is hit by lightning and develops an arc, or a tower is blown down by a high wind. The function of the grid station is to isolate the faulted portion of the system in the shortest possible time. There are two main reasons: a fault tends to cause equipment damage; and it tends to destabilize the whole system. For example, a transmission line left in a faulted condition will eventually burn down, and similarly, a transformer left in a faulted condition will eventually blow up. While

these are happening, the power drain makes the system more unstable. Disconnecting the faulted component, quickly, tends to minimize both of these problems

Incoming and outgoing circuits of the 500 KV grid station, NTDC, Multan:

Grid input

At the generating plants the energy is produced at a relatively low voltage between about 2.3 kV and 30 kV, depending on the size of the unit. The generator terminal voltage is then stepped up by the power station transformer to a higher voltage (115 kV to 765 kV AC, varying by country)

for transmission over long distances. Grid station receives power from the generating stations that are located too far from the grid at an extremely high voltage. 500KV grid station, NTDC Multan receives power at the voltage level of 500 KV from the following generating stations…

Guddu Power station (2 Circuit)

Muzaffar Garh power Station (1 Circuit)

Rousch Power Station (1 Circuit)

Gatti Grid Station (1 Circuit)

Yousafwala Grid Station (1 Circuit)

Transmission Grid Exit

In the grid station the voltages are somewhat decreased by using the step down transformers and then power is supplied to the sub stations. At the substations, transformers reduce the voltage to a lower level for distribution to commercial and residential users. This distribution is accomplished with a combination of sub- transmission (33 kV to 132 kV) and distribution (3.3 to 25 kV). Finally, at the point of use, the energy is transformed to low voltage 220V or 440V. 500KV grid station, NTDC Multan has delivers/receive power at a voltage level of 220KV to or from the following stations…

Kot Addu Power Station (4 Circuit)

Muzaffar Garh power Station (2 Circuit)

Vehari Substation (2 Circuit)

N.G.P.S Multan (2 Circuit)

Nishatabad (2 Circuit)

Additional (2 Circuit)

Essential Elements of the 500 KV Grid Station

Shunt Reactor:

Transmission cables have much higher capacitance to earth than overhead lines. Long submarine cables for system voltages of 100 KV and more need shunt reactors. The same goes for large urban networks to prevent excessive voltage rise when a high load suddenly falls out due to a failure. Shunt reactors contain the same components as power transformers, like windings, core, tank, bushings and insulating oil and are suitable for manufacturing in transformer factories. The main difference is the reactor core limbs, which have non-magnetic gaps inserted between packets of core steel.

To stabilize the line voltage the line inductance can be compensated by means of series capacitors and the line capacitance to earth by shunt reactors. Series capacitors are placed at different places along the line while shunt reactors are often installed in the stations at the ends of line. In this way, the voltage difference between the ends of the line is reduced both in amplitude and in phase angle. In this situation, the capacitance to earth draws a current through the line, which may be capacitive. When a capacitive current flows through the line inductance there will be a voltage rise along the line.

3-phase reactors can also be made. These may have 3- or -5-limbed cores. In a 3-limbed core there is strong magnetic coupling between the three phases, while in a 5-limbed core the phases are magnetically independent due to the enclosing magnetic frame formed by the two yokes and the two unwound side-limbs. The neutral of shunt reactor may be directly earthed, earthed through an Earthing-reactor or unearthed.

When the reactor neutral is directly earthed, the winding are normally designed with graded insulation in the earthed end. The main terminal is at the middle of the limb height, & the winding consists of two parallel-connected halves, one below & one above the main terminal. The insulation distance to the yokes can then be made relatively small. Sometimes a small extra winding for local electricity supply is inserted between the main winding & yoke.

When energized the gaps are exposed to large pulsation compressive forced with a frequency of twice the frequency of the system voltage. The peak value of these forces may easily amount to 106 N/m2 (100 ton /m2). For this reason the design of the core must be very solid, & the modulus of elasticity of the non-magnetic (& non-metallic) material used in gaps must be high (small compression) in order to avoid large vibration amplitudes with high sound level consequently. The material in the gaps must also be stable to avoid escalating vibration amplitudes in the end. Testing of reactors requires capacitive power in the test field equal to the nominal power

In AC networks, shunt reactors and series reactors are widely used in the system to limit the overvoltage or to limit the short-circuit current. With more high-voltage overhead lines for long transmission distance and increasing network capacity, both types of reactors play an important role in the modern network system. For extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines, due to the long distance, the space between the overhead line and the ground naturally forms a capacitor parallel to the transmission line, which causes an increase of voltage along the distance. Depending on the distance, the profile of the line and the power being transmitted, a shunt reactor is necessary either at the line terminals or in the middle. The advanced design and production technology will ensure the product has low loss and low noise level. The need for large shunt reactors appeared when long power transmission lines for system voltage 220 kV & higher were built. The characteristic parameters of a line are the series inductance (due to the magnetic field around the conductors) & the shunt capacitance (due to the electrostatic field to earth). An equivalent diagram for a line is show in the figure below Both the inductance & the capacitance are distributed along the length of the line. So are the series resistance and the admittance to earth. When the line is loaded, there is a voltage drop along the line due to the series inductance and the series resistance. When the line is energized but not loaded or only loaded with a small current, there is a voltage rise along the line (the Ferranti-effect)

Shunt reactors carry out different types of tasks:

They compensate the capacitive reactive power of the transmission cables, in particular in networks with only light loads or no load.

They reduce system-frequency overvoltage when a sudden load drop occurs or there is no load.

They improve the stability and efficiency of the energy transmission.

Made for every requirement:

Our oil-filled shunt reactors are manufactured in two versions:

With an iron core divided by air gaps Without an iron core, with a magnetic return circuit.

Shunt reactors offer individual solutions:

They satisfy all the specified requirements regarding voltage, rating, type of operation, low-noise and low-loss levels, connection method and type of cooling, as well as transportation and installation. The windings, insulation, tank, monitoring devices and connection method are practically the same as those found in the construction of transformers. However, shunt reactors have some special features with regard to their design and their mastery of certain physical

properties .Oil-filled shunt reactors are generally made with ONAN cooling systems and, for high ratings also with ONAF cooling systems.

Power line carrier line Traps:

Power line carrier communication (PLCC) is mainly used for telecommunication, tele- protection and tele-monitoring between electrical substations through power lines at high voltage, such as 110 kV, 220 kV, and 400 kV. PLCC integrates the transmission of communication signal and 50/60 Hz power signal through the same electric power cable. The major benefit is the union of two important applications in a single system.

In a PLCC system the communication is established through the power line. The audio frequency is carried by a carrier frequency and the range of carrier frequency is from 50 kHz to 500 kHz. The modulation generally used in this system is amplitude modulation. The carrier frequency range is allocated to include the audio signal, protection and the pilot frequency. The pilot frequency is a signal in the audio range that is transmitted continuously for failure detection.

The voice signal is converted/compressed into the 300 Hz to 4000 Hz range, and this audio frequency is mixed with the carrier frequency. The carrier frequency is again filtered, amplified and transmitted. The transmission of these HF carrier frequencies will be in the range of 0 to +32db. This range is set according to the distance between substations.

PLCC can be used for interconnecting PBXs. The electricity board in India has an internal network PLCC between PBXs.

Transmitting information along high- voltage lines (PLC) has been one of the main and certainly the most economic means of communication in electric power systems for more than 50 years.

The purpose of PLC line traps

Provision of defined high voltage line impedances regardless of the configuration of the primary system switchgear.

Prevention of signal losses due to propagation into other lines.

Attenuation of RF signals from other parts of the power system, thus permitting multiple uses of the same frequency bands.

PLC line traps are connected in series with the high-tension lines and must therefore be rated for the maximum continuous load current and be able to withstand the maxi- mum fault current at the place of

Installation. DLTC line traps fulfill all the RF requirements as well as all the power system requirements of the latest IEC and ANSI recommendations.

Main advantages of PLC line traps

All versions available for either pedestal mounting or suspended installation.

Wide choice of pedestals suitable for mounting on insulator posts, coupling capacitors and instrument transformers.

Provision for nearly every type of conductor terminal.

Solid construction permits high mechanical loads on terminals.

High voltage withstand of tuning units ensures high reliability. Tuning units are tuned for either broadband blocking or damped single frequency blocking.

Transient overvoltage protection by metal oxide arresters with better characteristics than arc- gap arresters. Only arresters with a rating of 10 kA are used.

Integrates optimally in the overall PLC network, because ABB not only supplies the line traps, but everything else for PLC systems.

Quality assurance according to ISO 9001.

Modern production techniques ensure consistent product quality.

Backed by 50 years of experience in the design, manufacture, and operation of PLC line traps

Capacitance Coupled Voltage Transformer:

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the line frequency, and transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least

four terminals: a terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal, and two secondary terminals which connect to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, capacitor C1 is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This provides a large voltage drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across C2. The CVT is also useful in communication systems. CVTs in combination with wave traps are used for filtering high frequency communication signals from power frequency. This forms a carrier communication network throughout the transmission network.

communication network throughout the transmission network. Capacitance Coupled Voltage Transformer Surge Arresters:

Capacitance Coupled Voltage Transformer

Surge Arresters:

Each piece of electrical equipment in an electrical system needs to be protected from voltage surges. To prevent damage to electrical equipment, surge protection considerations are paramount to a well- designed electrical system. Modern metal oxide arresters provide exceptional overvoltage protection of equipment connected to the power system. The proper selection and application of the arrester, however, involves decisions in several areas, which will be discussed in the paper. The original lightning arrester was nothing more than a spark air gap with one side connected to a line conductor and the other side connected to earth ground. When the line-to-ground voltage reached the spark-over level, the voltage surge would be discharged to earth ground. The modern metal oxide arrester provides both excellent protective characteristics and temporary overvoltage capability. The metal oxide disks maintain a stable characteristic and sufficient non-linearity and do not require series gaps. Due to the broad nature of this subject, this paper will concentrate on the application of the gapless metal oxide arrester to circuits and systems rated 1000 V and greater.

A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for

power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

Arrester Selection

The objective of arrester application is to select the lowest rated surge arrester which will provide adequate overall protection of the equipment insulation and have a satisfactory service life when connected to the power system. The arrester with the

minimum rating is preferred because it provides the greatest margin of protection for the insulation. A higher rated arrester increases the ability of the arrester to survive on the power system, but reduces the protective margin it provides for a specific insulation level. Both arrester survival and equipment protection must be considered in arrester selection. The proper selection and application of lightning arresters in a system involve decisions in three areas:

1. Selecting the arrester voltage rating. This decision is based on whether or not the system is grounded and the method of system grounding.

2. Selecting the class of arrester. In general there are three classes of arresters. In order of protection, capability and cost, the classes are:

Station class, Intermediate class and Distribution class. The station class arrester has the best protection capability and is the most expensive.

3. Determine where the arrester should be physically locate

Arrester Classes

The class of lightning arrester to be applied depends upon the importance and value of the protected equipment, its impulse insulation level and the expected discharge currents the arrester must withstand. Station class arresters are designed for protection of equipment that may be exposed to significant energy due to line switching surges and at locations where significant fault current is available. They have superior electrical performance because their energy absorption capabilities are greater, the discharge voltages (protective levels) are lower and the pressure relief is greater. The value of the protected equipment and the importance of uninterrupted service generally warrant the use of station class arresters throughout their voltage range. Industry standards dictate the use of both station class and intermediate class arresters for equipment protection in the 5-to 20- MVA size ranges. Above 20 MVA, station class arresters are predominately used. Intermediate class arresters are designed to provide economic and reliable protection of medium voltage class power equipment. Intermediate arresters are an excellent

choice for the protection of dry-type transformers, for use in switching and sectionalizing equipment and for the protection of URD cables. Traditional applications include equipment protection in the range of 1 to 20 MVA for sub stations and rotating machines. Distribution class arresters are frequently used for smaller liquid-filled and dry-type transformers 1000 KVA and less. These arresters can also be used, if available in the proper voltage rating, for application at the terminals of rotating machines below 1000 KVA. The distribution arrester is often used out on exposed lines that are directly connected to rotating machines. All of the system parameters need to be considered while choosing an arrester classification. If the actual arrester energy duties are not known and a transient study cannot be performed, then it is suggested that Station class arresters be applied. This is a conservative approach that reduces the chances of misapplication

Earthing System:

In electrical engineering, ground or earth may be the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.

Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent contact with a dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails. Connections to ground limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices. In some telegraph and power transmission circuits, the earth itself can be used as one conductor of the circuit, saving the cost of installing a separate return conductor. For measurement purposes, the Earth serves as a (reasonably) constant potential reference against which other potentials can be measured. An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability in order to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. Where a real ground connection has a significant resistance, the approximation of zero potential is no longer valid. Stray voltages or earth potential rise effects will occur, which may create noise in signals or if large enough will produce an electric shock hazard. The use of the term ground (or earth) is so common in electrical and electronics applications that circuits in portable electronic devices such as cell phones and media players as well as circuits in vehicles such as ships, aircraft, and spacecraft may be spoken of as having a "ground" connection without any actual connection to the Earth. This is usually a large conductor attached to one side of the power supply (such as the "ground plane" on a printed circuit board) which serves as the common return path for current from many different components in the circuit.

Requirement of Good Earthing

Good earth should have low resistance

It should stabilize circuit potential with respect to ground and limit overall potential rise.

It should protect men material from injury or damage due to over voltage.

It should provide low impedance path to fault currents to ensure prompt and consistent operation of protective relays, Surge arrester etc.

It should keep maximum potential gradient along the surface of the sub- station within safe limits during ground fault.

Factors Influence the Condition of Earth

The following factors in the earth should be maintained within the limit irrespective of seasons so that the earth should fulfill the above requirements.

Factors

Kind of Soil – Soil resistivity

Moisture Content

Salt Content

Condition of Electrode

Temperature Co-efficient

Classification of Earthing

Earthing can be classified into the following categories based on the purpose for which the part of the equipment connected to the general mass of earth. System Earthing Equipment Earthing Reference Earthing Discharge Earthing

System Earthing

Earthing associated with current carrying parts of the equipment is called system Earthing. The system security, reliability, performance, voltage stabilization, all relied only on the system Earthing. Earthing Neutral of Transformer, Surge arrester Earthing are its examples.

System Earthing Methods

Solid Earthing

Resistance Earthing

Reactance Earthing

Through Grounding Transformer

Earthing Practices

Transmission lines

E.H. T. lines: For 110 KV lines one aerial earth wire through the towers and for 230 KV lines and two earth wires are run. As per I.S. code, the aerial ground wire is to be connected to earth at least in 4 towers in every mile.

H. T. Lines: These towers (each) are earthed through earth pipes. The earth rods are driven at the base of the tower if the earth resistance is less than 15 Ohms. If it is not possible, two rods are driven within} a distance of 200feet, where in again the resistance is not to exceed 25 Ohms.

L.T. lines: All stay wires are provided with guy shackles at a height not less than3 meters from the ground. The cross arms are also earthed at specified intervals.

Major sub-stations

Earthing of equipment’s in the major sub-stations is taken much care. The various Earthing are discussed below.

Power transformers

The transformer body or tank is directly connected to earth grid. In addition, there should be direct connection from the tank to the earth side of the lightning arresters.

The transformer track rail should be earthed separately.

The neutral bushing is earthed by a separate connection to the earth grid. Clearer to the tank sell and collars.

Potential and current transformers

The bases of the CTs and Pts. are to be earthed. All bolted cover plates of the bushing are also to be connected the earth grid.

Lightning arresters

The bases of the Lightning arresters are to be earthed with conductors as short and straight as Possible (for reducing impedance). The earth side of the Lightning arresters is tube connected directly the equipment to be protected. Each Lightning arrester should have individual earth rods, which are in turn connected to earth grid.

Circuit breakers

The supporting structures, C.T. chambers, P.T. tanks, Cable glands etc., are to be connected to earth

Circuit Breakers:

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

Operation

All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power source. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained

within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion due to interrupting the arc. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts are worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including:

Lengthening of the arc

Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)

Division into partial arcs

Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second for 50Hz and 120 times per second for 60Hz AC)

Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits

Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.

Arc interruption

Miniature low-voltage circuit breakers use air alone to extinguish the arc. Larger ratings will have metal plates or non-metallic arc chutes to divide and cool the arc. Magnetic blowout coils deflect the arc into the arc chute. In larger ratings, oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. Gas (usually sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the strength of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to quench the stretched arc. Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2–3 mm). Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts. Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc, or alternatively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very quickly: typically the arc is extinguished between 30 ms and 150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped, depending upon age and construction of the device.

High-voltage circuit breakers

Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage breakers. The definition of high voltage varies but in power transmission work is usually thought to be 72.5 kV or higher, according to a recent definition by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC). High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing protective operated through current transformers. In substations the protective relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and busses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault.

High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc.

Bulk oil

Minimum oil

Air blast

Vacuum

SF 6 Some of the manufacturers are ABB, GE (General Electric) , AREVA, Mitsubishi Electric, Pennsylvania Breaker, Siemens, Toshiba, BHEL and CGL.

Due to environmental and cost concerns over insulating oil spills, most new breakers use SF 6 gas to quench the arc.

Circuit breakers can be classified as live tank, where the enclosure that contains the breaking mechanism is at line potential, or dead tank with the enclosure at earth potential. High-voltage AC circuit breakers are routinely available with ratings up to 765 kV. 1200KV breakers are likely to come into market very soon.

High-voltage circuit breakers used on transmission systems may be arranged to allow a single pole of a three-phase line to trip, instead of tripping all three poles; for some classes of faults this improves the system stability and availability.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) high-voltage circuit-breakers

A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold climates, supplemental heating or de-rating of the circuit breakers may be required due to liquefaction of the SF 6 gas.

Other breakers

The following types are described in separate articles. Breakers for protections against earth faults too small to trip an over-current device:

Residual-current device (RCD, formerly known as a residual current circuit breaker) — detects current imbalance, but does not provide over-current protection. Residual current breaker with over-current protection (RCBO) — combines the functions of an RCD and an MCB in one package. In the United and Canada, panel-mounted devices that combine ground (earth) fault detection and over-current protection are called Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) breakers; a wall mounted outlet device providing ground fault detection only is called a GFI. Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) — this detects earth current directly rather than detecting imbalance. They are no longer seen in new installations for various reasons. Autorecloser — A type of circuit breaker which closes again after a delay. These are used on overhead power distribution systems, to prevent short duration faults from causing sustained outages. Poly switches (polyfuse) — a small device commonly described as an automatically resetting fuse rather than a circuit breaker.

Paging System of the Grid Station:

Paging system is uses in the large size switch yard area of the grid station for open communication purposes. It is used to convey message to the other person in the switch yard in normal and emergency conditions. In switch yard, several small size units are attached with the poles in the different locations within the switch yard area. Its signal is also connected with the control room.

Air Plant System:

During repairing of different elements of grid station, air plant system is used. Air plant system m contains a small size cylinder in which the air is stored after compression by the small size compressor. During maintenance and routine cleaning of the different elements, compressed air is through on the external surface of the particular element.

Isolator Switch:

In electrical engineering, isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energized for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is only used for isolation. Isolator switches have provisions for a padlock so that inadvertent operation is not possible (see: Lock and tag). In high voltage or complex systems, these padlocks may be part of a trapped-key interlock system to ensure proper sequence of operation. In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter-connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated. The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an isolator is an off- load device intended to be opened only after current has been interrupted by some other control device. Safety regulations of the utility must prevent any attempt to open the disconnect or while it supplies a circuit. Standards in some countries for safety may require either local motor isolators or lockable overloads (which can be padlocked).

Current Transformer:

In electrical engineering, a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage transformers (VT) (potential transformers (PT)), are known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.

Usage Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the [[power grid]]. Along with voltage leads, revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service and single-phase services greater than 200 amp.

The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses. For example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs to provide isolation between metering and protection circuits, and allows current transformers with different characteristics (accuracy, overload performance) to be used for the different purposes.

Accuracy

The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including:

Burden

Burden class/saturation class

Rating factor

Load

External electromagnetic fields

Physical configuration.

The selected tap, for multi-ratio CTs

For the IEC standard, accuracy classes for various types of measurement are set out in IEC 60044-1, Classes 0.1, 0.2s, 0.2, 0.5, 0.5s, 1, and 3. The class designation is an approximate measure of the CT's accuracy. The ratio (primary to secondary current) error of a Class 1 CT is 1% at rated current; the ratio error of a Class 0.5 CT is 0.5% or less. Errors in phase are also important especially in power measuring circuits and each class has an allowable maximum phase error for specified load impedance. Current transformers used for protective relaying also have accuracy requirements at overload currents in excess of the normal rating to ensure accurate performance of relays during system faults.

Safety precautions

Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary, as the transformer secondary will attempt to continue driving current across the effectively infinite impedance. This will produce a high voltage across the open secondary (into the range of several kilovolts in some cases), which may cause arcing. The high voltage produced will compromise operator and equipment safety and permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.

Transformer:

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit through inductively conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying field

through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

(Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: B y a p

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC)voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

Discovery

long distance transmission economically practical. Discovery The by Mich the credit between and mag now referred

The

by Mich

the credit between and mag now referred to as "Faraday's law of induction":

phenomenon

discovered

independently

between coils of wire

1831.

However, Faraday was the first to publish

results of his experiments and thus receive

for

electromotive (EMF) or "voltage" netic flux was formalized in an equation

relationship

the

discovery. The

electromotive (EMF) or " voltage " netic flux was formalized in an equation relationship the discovery.

.

Where Faraday performed the first experiments on induction between coils of wire, including winding a

Where

Faraday performed the first experiments on induction between coils of wire, including winding a

pair of coils around an iron ring, thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.

the magnitude of the EMF in volts and ΦB is is the magnetic flux through the circuit.

Basic principles

The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism), and, second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. An ideal transformer An ideal transformer is

An ideal transformer

An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils.

Induction law

The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday’s, which states that:

coils. Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday’s, which

Where Vs is the instantaneous voltage, Ns are the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals

the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for

Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage

Classification

for stepping up or stepping down the voltage Classification Transformers can be classified in many different

Transformers can be classified in many different ways; list is:

By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA;

By frequency range: power-, audio-, or radio frequency;

By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts;

By cooling type: air-cooled, oil-filled, fan-cooled, or water-cooled etc…

By application: such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, or circuit isolation;

By purpose: distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.;

By winding turns ratio: step-up, step-down, isolating with equal or near-equal ratio, variable, and multiple windings.

By Supply: Single and three Phase transformers.

By special application: current and Voltage transformer.

Fire Protection System:

Fire protection system is used in the electrical grid station to overcome the fire produced by any cause, so the equipments will work under the safe condition and the chances of burning of the electrical and other equipments used in the grid station is reduced. When the fire is produced by any electrical or environmental reason, fire protection system will enables to control the produced fire. Different methods are used to make combustion impossible in the grid station, but in 500 KV grid station, NTDC, Multan, water is primarily used in the fire protection system.

Nature of Fires

Three essentials are needed for the fire

Fuel

Oxygen

Heat To bring fuel to its ignition point

Classification of Fires

Four classes of fires are…

Class A Paper, wood, textiles and rubbish

Class B Liquids such as alcohol, oil and grease

Class C Electrical

Class D Occur in certain metals like magnesium, sodium, potassium and titanium.

Principles of Extinguishing Fires

Cool the fuel below its ignition point

Remove the oxygen supply

Separate the fuel from the oxygen

Extinguishing Agents

Class A Respond best to water or water type which lower the fuel below its ignition point.

Class B Respond to carbon dioxide, halogenated hydrocarbons, and dry chemicals, all of which displace the oxygen supply making combustion impossible.

Requirements for Fire Protection Systems

Fire warning system must provide an immediate warning of fire or overheat by means of a red light and an audible signal in the flight deck.

The system must accurately indicate that a fire had been extinguished and indicate if the fire re-ignites.

The system must be durable and resistant to damage from all the environmental factors that may exist in the location where it is installed.

The system must include an accurate and effective method for testing to assure system integrity.

The system must be easily inspected, removed and installed.

The system and components must be designed so the possibility of false indications is unlikely.

Goals of the Fire protection System

Fire protection system has three major goals, these are…

Continuity of operations - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent the interruption of critical services necessary for the public welfare.

Property protection - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent area wide conflagrations. At an individual building level, this is a regulatory requirement.

Life safety - the minimum standard used in fire and building codes

Relays:

A relay is a device that “detects” the fault and “directs” the circuit breaker to isolate the faulty part/equipment from the system.

Function of Relay

A relay performs three functions.

Sensing.

Comparing.

Tripping.

It senses the “fault”. This is done by the relay to “respond” to the change if any, in the currents passing through it. It compares the current through it with the designed value of current. It responds only if the current through it is different from its designed current rating. If the current through it is different from its designed current rating, it sends information to the circuit breaker for tripping.

Qualities of a Good Relay

In order to perform its function successfully, a relay should have the following qualities.

Selectivity.

Speed.

Sensitivity

Reliability

Simplicity.

Economical.

Relays Applications

Ground fault

Phase fault

Bus protection

Transformer protection

Generator & motor protection

Auxiliary

Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Plant:

This plant contains a small size system with cylinder for feeding and sucking the SF6 gas to or from the electrical equipments which are gas associated. SF6 plant is used in the grid station for feeding the gas in the gas associated equipments such as Sf6 circuit breakers and during the repair and the maintenance of such devices their gas is recovered by using the SF6 plant and after maintenance the gas is again filled by this plant. During recovery, some gas is wasted and some additional gas is supplied to compensate the gas loss and to fulfill the required gas for the gas associated equipments.

Bus Bars and Bus Coupler:

In electrical power distribution, a bus bar is a thick strip of copper or aluminum that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation or other electrical apparatus. Bus bars are used to carry very large currents, or to distribute current to multiple devices within switchgear or equipment. For example, a household circuit breaker panel board will have bus bars at the back, arranged for the connection of multiple branch circuit breakers. An aluminum smelter will have very large bus bars used to carry tens of thousands of amperes to the electrochemical cells that produce aluminum from molten salts.

When a number of generators or feeders operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically, bus bars are used as the common electrical component. The size of the bus bar is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried. Bus bars can have a cross-sectional area of as little as 10 mm² but electrical substations may use metal tubes of 50 mm in diameter (1,963 mm²) or more as bus bars.

A bus bar may either be supported on insulators, or else insulation may completely surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal earthed enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach. Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus bars may be enclosed in a metal housing, in the form of bus duct or bus way, segregated-phase bus, or isolated-phase bus. Bus bars may be connected to each other and to electrical apparatus by bolted or clamp connections. Often joints between high-current bus sections have matching surfaces that are silver-plated to reduce the contact resistance. At extra-high voltages (more than 300 kV) in outdoor buses, corona around the connections becomes a source of radio-frequency interference and power loss, so connection fittings designed for these voltages are used. Following bus bar schemes are used in the field of electrical power system…

Single bus bar scheme

Sectionalizing bus bar scheme

Double bus bar scheme

Terminal section scheme

Main and transfer bus scheme

Ring bus scheme

In bus bar scheme, between the bus bars a bus coupling circuit breaker followed by the isolator on both sides is used to transfer a load from one bus bar to the other bus bar without interrupting the supply. This bus coupling circuit breaker is known as bus bar coupler.

Bus coupler is used in sub-station for changing the source of supply without interrupting the transmission. Let we have two source feeders A1 (132KV) & A2 (132KV). And initially A1 is connected via transfer bus, main bus, and bus coupler 1 to transformer. Now we want to change source feeder A1 with A2, the Bus coupler comes into play. 1st we connect all three phases of feeder A2 to Transfer bus which in turn connected to main bus in parallel to transfer bus of feeder A1.Since both are in parallel so there neither be any damage nor any interruption in supply takes place. Thus we have same value (132KV) supply from combined sources in our main bus. Now we connect the bus coupler of A2 and disconnect bus coupler of A1. Next, we remove the transfer bus connection of A1 from main bus. Now our supply is completely through feeder A2 and bus coupler 2.

Insulators:

Materials that do not have any free electrons. Because of this fact, they do not tend to share their electrons very easily and do not make good conductors of electrical currents.

Electrical insulation is the absence of electrical conduction. Electronic band theory (a branch of physics) says that a charge will flow if states are available into which electrons can be excited. This allows electrons to gain energy and thereby move through a conductor such as a metal. If no such states are available, the material is an insulator. Most insulators have a large band gap. This occurs because the "valence" band containing the highest energy electrons is full, and a large energy gap separates this band from the next band above it. There is always some voltage (called the breakdown voltage) that will give the electrons enough energy to be excited into this band. Once this voltage is exceeded, the material ceases being an insulator, and charge will begin to pass through it. However, it is usually accompanied by physical or chemical changes that permanently degrade the material's insulating properties.

Materials that lack electron conduction are insulators if they lack other mobile charges as well. For example, if a liquid or gas contains ions, then the ions can be made to flow as an electric current, and the material is a conductor. Electrolytes and plasmas contain ions and will act as conductors whether or not electron flow is involved

Insulators suffer from the phenomenon of electrical breakdown. When the electric field applied across an insulating substance exceeds in any location the threshold breakdown field for that substance, which is proportional to the band gap energy, the insulator suddenly turns into a resistor, sometimes with catastrophic results. During electrical breakdown, any free charge carrier being accelerated by the strong electric field will have enough velocity to knock electrons from (ionize) any atom it strikes. These freed electrons and ions are in turn accelerated and strike other atoms, creating more charge carriers, in a chain reaction. Rapidly the insulator becomes filled with mobile carriers, and its resistance drops to a low level. In air, "corona discharge" is normal current near a high-voltage conductor; an "arc" is an unusual and undesired current. Similar breakdown can occur within any insulator, even within the bulk solid of a material. Even a vacuum can suffer a sort of breakdown, but in this case the breakdown or vacuum arc involves charges ejected from the surface of metal electrodes rather than produced by the vacuum itself. Different types of insulators are being used in the power transmission system and in the grid stations. In grid stations, at extra high voltage, the bushing type insulators are mostly used.

Switch board and Control Room:

An electric switchboard is a device that directs electricity from one source to another. It is an assembly of panels, each of which contains switches that allow electricity to be redirected. The operator is protected from electrocution by safety switches and fuses.

There can also be controls for the supply of electricity to the switchboard, coming from a generator or bank of electrical generators, especially frequency control of AC power and load sharing controls, plus gauges showing frequency and perhaps a synchroscope. The amount of power going into a switchboard must always equal to the power going out to the loads. Inside the

switchboard there is a bank of bus bars - generally wide strips of copper to which the switchgear

is connected. These act to allow the flow of large currents through the switchboard, and are

generally bare and supported by insulators.

A control room is a room serving as an operations centre where a facility or service can be

monitored and controlled.

A control room can, at times, be designated as an area of refuge, particularly in high risk

facilities, such as a nuclear power station or a petrochemical facility, as an accidental fire can

have severe repercussions to the surrounding environment. As is typical for all areas of refuge, occupants must be provided with guaranteed life support and guarantee of functionality of the items they are intended to control for the anticipated design-basis fire event.

It is not unusual to provide control rooms with gaseous fire suppression systems to safeguard its

contents and occupants. The primary equipment in control rooms is housed in multi-function cabinets. Since the control equipment is intended to control other items in the surrounding facility, it follows that these (often fire-resistance rated) service rooms require many penetrations. Due to routine equipment updates, penetrates, such as cables are subject to frequent changes. It follows that an operating control room maintenance program must include vigilant fire stop maintenance

for code compliance and for gaseous fire suppression systems to work as well. Due to the nature

of the sensitive equipment inside control room cabinets, it is useful to ensure the use of "T-

rated" fire stops, that are massive and thick enough to absorb penetrate heat in an effort to reduce heat transmission to the inside of the control room. It is also not uncommon to place control rooms under positive air pressure to prevent smoke from entering. To put into nutshell, function

of the control room is to monitor, control, switching of the electrical power and to protect the

whole system from any harmful problem with the help of the associated electrical equipments inside the control room.

Components of the Control Room

Protection Relays

Auto Transformer Bank (ATB) Panel

Bus Bar Panel

Shunt Reactor Panel

Rectifier’s

Fire Extinguisher

Battery Room

Isolator control panel

Circuit breaker control panel

Tape changer control panel

Lay out drawings

REFRENCES

Principles of Electrical Power System V.K MEHTA ROHIT MEHTA

Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Power System GULAM MUHUDDIN