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mechanistic model Organizational design emphasizing importance of achieving high levels of production and efficiency through extensive use

of rules and procedures, centralized authority, and high specialization of labor. To achieve the maximum benefits of the bureaucratic design, Weber believed that an organization must have the following characteristics: 1. All tasks will be divided into highly specialized jobs. Through specialization, jobholders become expert in their jobs, and management can hold them responsible for the effective performance of their duties.

2. Each task is performed according to a system of abstract rules to ensure uniformity and coordination of different tasks. The rationale for this practice is that the manager can eliminate uncertainty in task performance due to individual differences. 3. Each member of the organization is accountable for job performance to one, and only one, manager. Managers hold their authority because of their expert knowledge and because its delegated from the top of the hierarchy. An unbroken chain of command exists. 4. Each employee of the organization relates to other employees and clients in an impersonal, formal manner, maintaining a social distance with subordinates and clients. The

purpose of this practice is to assure that personalities and favoritism do not interfere with

efficient accomplishment of the organizations objectives.

5. Employment in the bureaucratic organization is based on technical qualifications and is protected against arbitrary dismissal. Similarly, promotions are based on seniority and achievement. Employment in the organization is viewed as a lifelong career, and a high degree of loyalty is engendered. These five characteristics of bureaucracy describe the kind of organizations Fayol believed to be most effective. Both Fayol and Weber described the same type of organization, one that functions in a machinelike manner to accomplish the organizations goals in a highly efficient manner. Thus, the term organizations.
organic model Organizational design emphasizing importance of achieving high levels of flexibility and development through limited use of rules and procedures, decentralized authority, and relatively low degrees of specialization.

mechanistic model

aptly describes such

The Organic Model

The organic model of organizational design stands in sharp contrast to the mechanistic model due to its different organizational characteristics and practices. The most distinct differences between the two models are a consequence of the different effectiveness criteria each seeks to maximize. While the mechanistic model seeks to maximize efficiency and production, the organic model seeks to maximize satisfaction, flexibility, and development. The organic organization is flexible to changing environmental demands because its design encourages greater utilization of the human potential. Managers are encouraged to adopt practices that tap the full range of human motivations through job design that stresses personal growth and responsibility. Decision-making, control, and goal-setting processes are decentralized and shared at all levels of the organization. Communications flow throughout the organization, not simply down the chain of command. These practices are intended to implement a basic assumption of the organic model that states that an organization

will be effective to the extent that its structure is

such as to ensure a maximum probability that in all interactions and in all relationships with the organization, each member, in the light of his background, values, desires, and expectations, will view the experience as supportive and one which builds and maintains a sense of personal worth and importance.

An organizational design that provides individuals with this sense of personal worth and motivation and that facilitates satisfaction, flexibility, and development would have the following characteristics: 1. Its relatively simple because of its deemphasis of specialization and its emphasis on increasing job range. 2. Its relatively decentralized because of its emphasis on delegation of authority and increasing job depth. 3. Its relatively informal because of its emphasis on product and customer as bases for departments. A leading spokesperson and developer of ideas supporting applications of the organic model is Rensis Likert. His studies at the University of Michigan have led him to argue that organic organizations (Likert uses the term System 4 ) differ markedly from mechanistic organizations (Likert uses the term System 1 ) along a number of structural dimensions.