Sei sulla pagina 1di 133

B. Pharm.

First Year

Sr. No.

Subject Theory

Minimum Sessional Theory Total marks 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

Maximum marks

1T-1 Pharmaceutics-I (General & Dispensing) 1T-2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic) 1T-3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II(In-organic) 1T-4 Pharmaceutical Biochemistry 1T-5 Pharmacology-I (Physiology, Anatomy & Health Education) 1T-6 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry - I 1T-7 Statistics and Computer application in Pharmacy Practical 1P-1 Pharmaceutics-I 1P-2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic) 1P-3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II(In-organic) 1P-4 Pharmacology-I 1P-5 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry - I

20 20 20 20 20

80 80 80 80 80

100 100 100 100 100

50 50 50 50 50

PHARMACEUTICS-I (General and Dispensing) 1T-1) (60 Hours) Pharmaceutical Literature and Ethics : Historical Background. Importance of various pharmacopoeias with special reference to those which are official in India. General introduction to code of pharmaceutical ethics. 1. Pharmacological Terms and Dosage Form: Routes of drug administration, introduction to important pharmacological terms. Introduction and classification of various pharmaceutical dosage forms. Latin terms related with prescription. 2. Principles of dispensing: Prescription and its parts, handling of prescription, labeling and packing, prescription containers and closures, pricing the prescription. 3. Pharmaceutical calculation : Calculation of dosage for children, percentage calculations alligation method, calculations involving preparation of isotonic solutions, proof spirit and displacement values of suppositories. 4. Size reduction : Objectives of size reduction, factors influencing size reduction. Mechanism of size reduction, importance of size reduction in pharmacy, dry and wet grinding, study of cutter mill, hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, colloidal mill. 5. Size separation: Introduction standard for powders, standard for sieves, sieving methods, sedimentation method, elutriation methods. Application of sedimentation and elutriation. 6. Mixing:

Fundamentals, factors influencing the selection of mixers, mixing mechanisms, study of solid-solid, solid- liquid and liquid-liquid mixers used in pharmaceutical industry, mixing of semi-solids. 7. Extraction process : Infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation processes and preparation involving them. 8. Pharmaceutical preparations: Principles and procedures involved in the dispensing of following classes of pharmaceuticals; aromatic waters, syrups, elixirs, spirits, tinctures, emulsions, suspensions, powders, lozenges, hard and soft gelatin capsules, gargles, dentifrices, glycerites, lotions, liniments, creams, ointments, pastes, jellies, plasters, suppositories, pessaries, urethal and nasal bougies, inhalations, sprays, throat paints, eye and ear drops, douches, enemas, effervescent granules. 10. Surgical aids: Surgical dressings, sutures, ligatures and their standards. Reference Books: 1. M.E. Aulton, Pharmaceutical Practice 2. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics 3. G.S. Banker, Modern Pharmaceutics 4. Cooper and Gunn, Dispensing for pharmaceutical students 5. Ansel and Lippincott, Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery System 6. Stoklosa, Pharmaceutical calculations 7. Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences 8. Indian pharmacopoeia 9. British pharmacopoeia 10. United States pharmacopoeia 11. British Pharmaceutical Codex

PHARMACEUTICS - I 1P-1 I) About 75 formulations covering all the pharmaceutical preparations mentioned in the theory syllabus. (3-4 formulations of each category) a) Aromatic waters Chloroform water, Cinnamon water, Peppermint water. b) Syrups- Simple syrup, Ferrous sulphate syrup. c) Spirits- Chloroform spirit, Peppermint spirit. d) Elixirs- Piperazine citrate. e) Solutions- Aqueous iodine solution, Weak iodine solution f) Emulsions- By dry gum and wet gum method. g) Suspensions- Aluminium hydroxide suspension h) Tinctures- Orange, Capsicum, Cardamom i)Powders- Dusting powders(Zinc oxide) j)Effervescent granules: Sodium phosphate, Sodium tartarate k) Lotions- Calamine,Salicylic acid l)Liniments:Turpentine m) OintmentsParaffin ointment, Non staining iodine ointment,emulsifying ointment. n) Paste- Zinc oxide and salicylic acid o) Creams- Cold cream, Vanishing cream p) Gels, Jellies (2) q) Gargles,Mouthwashes (2) r) Enemas (2) s) Capsules (2) t)Inhalations (2) u) Eye ,Ear and Nasal drops (2) v) Suppositories (2) II) Practical based on Pharmaceutical calculations.(3 of each category) III) To carry out sieve analysis of certain Pharmaceutical substances and calculate different diameters. IV) To carry out the effectiveness of the screen.

V) To reduce the particle size of the given coarse powder to fine powder using ball mill and to determine the reduction ratio. Reference Books: 1. M.E. Aulton, Pharmaceutical Practice 2. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics 3. G.S. Banker, Modern Pharmaceutics 4. Cooper and Gunn, Dispensing for pharmaceutical students 5. Ansel and Lippincott, Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug 6. Delivery System 7. Stoklosa, Pharmaceutical calculations 8. Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences 9. Indian pharmacopoeia 10. British pharmacopoeia 11. United States pharmacopoeia 12. British Pharmaceutical Codex

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (Organic) 1T-2 Structure and Properties: Atomic structure, Atomic and molecular orbitals, hybridization, Sigma and Pi bonds intra and intermolecular forces, bond dissociation energy, polarity of bond, resonance structure. Principles underlying identification and estimation of elements (C, H, N, S and halogens) in organic compounds and empirical analysis of organic compounds.

(60 Hours)

Structure,

nomenclature,

preparation,

reaction

mechanisms,

reactive intermediates, stereochemistry (wherever applicable) of : Alkanes, alkyl halides, alcohols and ethers, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, benzene, arenes and their derivatives, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, amines, phenols, aryl halides and , - unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Recommended Books: 1. R. T. Morrison and R. N. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, Pearson Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

2. I. L. Finar, Organic Chemistry: The Fundamental Principles, LPE, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 3. Stanley H. Pine, Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 4. T. W. Graham Solomans Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons., Inc. U.S.A. 5. Jerry and March Advanced Organic Chemistry Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi. 6. P. Sykes, A Guide book into Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry, Orient Longman, New Delhi. 7. Ralph J. Fessenden and Joan S. Fessenden, Organic Chemisrty, PWS Publishers, Willard Grant Press, Boston. 8. J. D. Roberts and M. C. Caserio, Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, W. A. Benjamin Inc., NY. 9. J. B. Hendrickson, D. J. Cram and C. S. Hammmond, Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, U.S.A.

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (Organic) 1P-2 Identification of organic compounds belonging to the following classes by systematic qualitative organic analysis (upto derivative preparations). Separation of Binary organic mixtures (solid solid type), at least two practicals. Phenols, amides, carbohydrates, amines, carboxylic acids,

aldehydes and ketones, alcohol and esters, hydrocarbons, nitrocompounds. Introduction to use of stereo models. Preparation of simple organic compounds involving oxidation, reduction, benzoylation, nitration, acetylation, hydrolysis,

esterification, diazotization reactions. Recommended Books: 1. Vogels Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, ELBS, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, England. 2. Practical Organic Chemistry, F. G. Mann and Sounders, Orient Longmann UK.

3. Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part 1: Small Scale Preparations, Arthur I. Vogel, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 4. Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part 2: Qualitative Organic Analysis, Arthur I. Vogel, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II (Inorganic) 1T-3 (60 Hours)

The following inorganic topics will be treated covering outline of methods of preparation, specific tests for identity and purity including limit test, chemical properties and pharmaceutical uses : Pharmaceutical aids and necessities: Acids, Bases, Buffers, Antioxidant, Water, and Pharmaceutical acceptable glass. Major intracellular and extracellular electrolytes: Major Physiological ions, Electrolytes used in replacement therapy, Physiological acid base balance, Electrolytes used in acid base therapy, Electrolyte combination therapy. Essential and trace ions: Copper, Ferrous, Zinc, Chromium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Sulphur and Iodine. Gastrointestinal agents: Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbent, Saline cathartics. Topical agents: Protectives, Antimicrobial, Astringents. Dental Products: Anticaries agents, Dentifrices.

Nuclear Chemistry: Nuclear composition, Forces and stability, Isotopes, Radioactive emission, Measurement of radioactivity, Modes of decay, Half life period, Artificial radioactivity, Applications in Pharmacy. Radiopharmaceuticals and contrast media: Radiopharmaceuticals,

Radiopharmaceutical preparations and radioopaque contrast media including I, P, Cr, Au, Fe, Ra. Cordination compounds and complexation: Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents: Inhalants, Respiratory Stimulants, Expectorants and emetics, Poisons and antidotes, Tableting aids, and Suspending agents.

Recommended Books: 1. J. H. Block, E. B. Roche, T. D. Soine C. D. Wilson: Inorganic

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Varghese Publication House, Mumbai. 2. C. A. Discher : Modern Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 3. Textbook Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Bentley and Driver,

Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford. 4. A. H. Beckett and J. B. Stenlake: Practical Pharmaceutical

Chemistry, Vol I, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

5.

Vogels Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, LPE,

Pearson Education, New Delhi. 6. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Govt. of India Ministry of Health and

Family Welfare, Published By the Controller of Publications, Publications and Information Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi. 7. Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Alfonso R Gennaro, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia. 8. Pharmaceutical Chemistry (Inorganic) Vol. 1, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai. 9. Textbook of Inorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Prof. J. S. Qadry, B. S. Shah Publications. by G. R. Chatwal,

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II (Inorganic) 1P-3 Preparation of following inorganic pharmaceuticals and perform Identification tests, (excluding assays) (any 5) Aluminium hydroxide , Barium Sulphate , Zinc oxide Magnesium Sulphate, Calcium carbonate, Ferrous Sulphate, Potassium citrate, Boric acid, Yellow mercuric oxide Limit test for Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Heavy metals, Lead and Arsenic (As Per I.P.) Prepare and test purified water of Pharmacopoeial standard (I.P.) Qualitative analysis of 2 cations and 2 anions in inorganic mixtures (Atleast five mixtures) Swelling power in Bentonite Acid neutralizing capacity of Aluminium hydroxide gel Presence of iodates in potassium iodide Ammonium salts in potash alum Adsorption property in heavy kaolin

Recommended Books: 1. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Ministry of Health and Family Welfares, Govt. of India, New Delhi, 1966, 1985, 1996. 2. Textbook Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Bentley and Driver, Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford. 3. Vogels Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, LPE, Pearson Education, New Delhi.
4. Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Alfonso R

Gennaro, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia. 5. Cotton and Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Willey Eastern Ltd, Delhi. 6. A. H. Beckett and J. B. Stenlake Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol I, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 1T-4 (60 Hours) Biochemical organization of cell and transport processes across cell membrane. Bioenergetics : Introduction, concept of free energy, role of high energy nucleotide phosphates, production of ATP and biological significance. General introduction to biomolecules (carbohydrates, proteins and fats). Carbohydrate metabolism : Glycolysis, fermentation, glucogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogen formation, metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, pentose phosphate pathway, uronic acid pathway, citric acid cycle-significance, abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism. Lipid metabolism : Oxidation of fattyacids (Beta, Alpha, Omega oxidations), ketone bodies and their significance, Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, control of lipid metabolism, essential fatty acids, biosythesis of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclines, thromboxanes and leukotrienes). Abnormabilities of lipid metabolism.

Electron transport chain : Biological oxidations and its biochemical importance, redox potential, energy rich compounds, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation (schematic diagram). Protein metabolism/ Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers : Nitrogen and sulphur cycles, nitrogen balance, biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids with special emphasis on decarboxylation of amino acids, transamination(SGOT and SGPT), assimilation of ammonia (deamination), Urea cycle, metabolic disorder of urea cycle, metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids, porphyrin biosynthesis, formation of bile pigments, porphyrias, hyperbilirubenemia. Nucleic acids : DNA and RNA bases nucleotides. DNA structure and diagrammatic representation. Functions of DNA as carrier of genetic information and its role in protein biosynthesis. Protein biosynthesis : Role of DNA and different type of RNA viz., messenger RNA ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. Salient features of protein biosynthesis (with diagram). Idea of genetic code, regulation of gene expression and brief account of genetic engineering and polymerase chain reaction.

Enzymes : Nomenclature, classification, enzyme kinetics and its mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition, isoenzymes, enzymes and isoenzymes in clinical diagnosis. Vitamins and co-enzymes : vitamins as co-enzymes and their biological significance, metals as co-enzymes. Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins with biochemical roles and pharmaceutical applications.

Recommended Books : 1. Albert Lehninger : Principles of Biochemistry, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. 2. Lubert Stryer : Biochemstry. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 3. David T. Plummer: An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi. 4. Harold Varley: Practical Clinical Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 5. Harpers: Illustrated Biochemistry, McGraw-Hill Education (Asia), New Delhi. 6. B. Harrow and A. Mazur, Text Book of Biochemistry, W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 7. J. H. Weil, General Biochemistry, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi. 8. J. D. Watson: Molecular Biology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing, Carlifonia.

PHARMACOLOGY I (Physiology, Anatomy and Health Education) 1T-5 (60 Hours) 1. Scope of anatomy and physiology, Basic terminologies used in this subject 2. Structure of cell its component and their functions 3. Elementary tissue of human body : Epithelial, Muscular, connective, and nervous tissues . Their subtypes and characteristics 4. Haemopoitic System and Cardiovascular system: A. Composition of blood B. Haemopoiesis and disorders of blood components C. Blood groups D. Clotting Factors and Mechanism E. Platelets and disorders of Co-agulation (types, definition and cause in brief) F. ECG G. Cardiac cycle H. Blood pressure , Maintenance and regulation I. Disorders of CVS(types, definition and cause in brief) 5. Lymphatic system A. Composition , Formation and circulation B. Disorders of Lymph and Lymphatic system C. Spleen- Physiology and functions 6. Respiratory system : A. Mechanism and regulation of respiration B. Transport of respiratory gases C. Respiratory volumes and Vital capacity D. Disorders of Respiratory system(types, definition and cause in brief) 7. Digestive system : A. Physiology of salivary Glands, Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, and intestine B. Digestion of Fat, Carbohydrates and proteins. C. Disorder of GIT (types, definition and cause in brief) 8. Nervous System A. Classification of nervous system

B. Functional areas and functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, pons and medulla, Thalamus and hypothalamus, Basal Ganglia, C. Spinal cord- structure and reflexes D. Cranial Nerves : Name and functions E. ANS : Anatomy and physiology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system F. Disorders of Nervous system (types, definition and cause in brief) 9. Urinary system : A. Kidney and structure of Nephron B. Formation of urine C. Disorder of Urinary System (types, definition and cause in brief) 11. Endocrine system and their abnormalities A. Pituitary Glands B. Thyroid gland and Parathyroid Glands c. Adrenal glands D. Pancreas E. Gonads 12. Sense organ A. Eye B. Ear C. Tongue D. Skin E. Nose

Recommended Books : 1. Goyal Ramesh K Basics of Human Anatomy and Physiology (with Practical) B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad 2. Tortora G. J. and Derrickson B. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 11 ed. Join Wiley and Sons Inc, N. J.

3. Kimber, Gray and Stackpole Anatomy and Physiology 11th Ed Macmillan Pub. Co. New York 4. Chakrabarti B.K. , Ghosh H.N. and Sahana S.N. Human Physiology (New Book Stall, Calcutta). 5. Gyton, A.C., Text book of Medical Physiology (W.B.Saunders Co., Philadelphia) 6. Chatterjee C. C.: Human Physiology (Medical Allied Agency, Calcutta).

PHARMACOLOGY I 1P-4 Experiment based on theory portion 1. Determination of hemoglobin content of blood 2. Determination of RBC count of Blood 3. Determination of W.B.C. count of blood 4. Determination of differential W.B.C. count of blood 5. Determination of blood group 6. Determination of blood pressure 7. Determination of bleeding time and clotting time 8. To record ECG 9. Determination of vital capacity and other respiratory volumes 10.Study of bones 11.Study of histology slides of different tissues / organs Study of various models/ charts/ CD- animation of following disorders 12. Study of various disorders of CVS 13. Study of various disorders of Urinary System 14. Study of various disorders of Nervous system 15. Study of various disorders of GIT 16. Study of various disorders of Respiratory system 17.Study of various techniques and appliances used in heart dysfunctioning. Recommended Books : 1. Goyal Ramesh K Basics of Human Anatomy and Physiology (with Practical) B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad 2. Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual (Mosby) 3. Chaurasia B. D. : Human Osteology (CBS Publishers and Distrubutors, Delhi) 4. Singh I.B. Text Book of Human Osteology (Jaypee Brothers medical publishers, New Delhi) 5. Garg K. Bahl J. and Kaul M. : A Text Book of Histology (CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi)

6. Chaudhari A. R. Viva in Physiology Paras Publishing 7. Chaudhari A. R. Texbook of Practical Physilogy. Paras Publishing

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY I (1T- 6) 1. Introduction to Pharmacognosy a. b. a. b. c. d. History, definition, and scope of Pharmacognosy Classification of crude drugs Endogenous factors Exogenous factors Preparation of crude drug for the commercial market. Adulteration and types of adulteration (60 Hours)

2. Various factors affecting quality and purity of crude drugs

3. Alternate systems of medicine -Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, Chinese medicine, and Aromatherapy. 4. Introduction to different metabolites a. i. Primary metabolites Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different primary metabolites through these pathways Photosynthesis ii. iii. b. Correlation of primary and secondary metabolites Introduction to following Primary metabolites -

Carbohydrate, Fats and Proteins Secondary metabolites i. Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways Shikimic acid Pathway, Acetate Pathways and Amino acid Pathway.

ii.

Introduction to following secondary metabolites- Gums,

Mucilages, Glycosides, Tannins, Flavonoids, Steroids, Terpenoids and Alkaloids 5. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Botany with special emphasis on the study of organized crude drugs. viz - Stems, Barks, Woods, Heartwood and Sapwood, Roots, Rhizomes and Stolons, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds and Entire herbs. 6. Pharmacognostic study of following carbohydrate and related compounds Introduction, Collection, Preparation, Chemistry, Chemical tests, substitutes, adulterants and uses of i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Sugars- Honey, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Carmel, Liquid Starches, Modified starches Cellulose and their derivatives Polysaccharides from marine sources - Agar, Sodium Other Polysaccharides Bael, Dextrin, Dextran, Inulin, Pectin Gums - Acacia, Tragacanth, Gum karaya, Gaur gum and Mucilages Isapaghula Sterculia gum 7. Drugs obtained from animal origin Musk, Civet, Cantharides, Shellac, Gelatin 8. Proteins and enzymes of pharmaceutical interest : Proteins: Heparin sodium, Protamine sulphate Enzymes: Papain, Pancreatin, Pepsin, Hyaluronidase, Streptokinase glucose

Alginate, and Carrageenan

9. Brief study of drugs from Microbial origin a. Antibiotics derived from Amino acid metabolites- Penicillins b. Polypeptide antibiotics - Polymyxin c. Antibiotics derived from acetate metabolism Tetracyclins d. Polyenes - Griseofulvin e. Antibiotics derived from carbohydrate metabolism Streptomycin 10.Fibers: Introduction, Classification, Chemical tests and uses of following fibers -Cotton, Jute, Hemp, Silk, Wool 11.Drugs obtained from mineral and Herbo-mineral origin. Introduction, classification, chemistry and uses of following drugs: Talc, Chalk, Kaolin, Kieselghur, Bentonite, Calamine and Shilajit Reference books: 1. Trease, G.E. and Evans,W.C.,Pharmacognosy,; W.B. Saunders Co.Ltd. Harcourt Publishers Ltd. UK. 2. Textbook of Pharmacognosy T.E.Wallis CBS Publishers and distributors New Delhi. 3. Pharmacognosy E.P. Clause; V.E.Tyler; Lea and Febiger Philadelphia USA 4. Pharmacognosy L.R.Brady; V.E.Tyler; and Robbers J.E.; Lea and Febiger Philadelphia USA. 5. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Part I and II - V.D.Rangari; Career publications, Nashik. 6. Secondary Plant Metabolism M.P. Vickery and B. Vickery; Basingstoke,Macmillan.

7. Pharmacognosy C. K. Kokate; S.B.Gokhale; A.P.Purohit; Nirali Prakashan Pune. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY - I (1P- 5) 1. -

Study of morphology and microscopy of crude drugs Stems - Kalmegh Barks - Arjuna, Ashoka Woods, Heartwood and Sapwood Sandalwood and Quassia Roots - Jalap, Ashwagandha Rhizomes and Stolons - Turmeric, Picrrorhiza, Acrous Leaves -Buchu, Tulsi Flowers Saffron, Arnica Fruits - Lemon peel, Bael, Amla Seeds Mustard, Ispaghula, Nux vomica Entire herbs Centella asiatica, Swertia chirata To perform preliminary phytochemical screening of crude drug Identification of following crude drugs by morphological study

2. 3.

for the identification of different primary and secondary metabolites. and chemical tests 1) Tragacanth 2) Acacia 3) Sterculia gum 4) Agar 5) Sodium alginate 6) Gaur gum 7) Gum karaya 8) Starches 9) Honey 10) Pectin 4. 5. 6. Determination of swelling factor of Ispaghula seeds. Identication of fibers Cotton, Jute, Hemp, Silk, Wool Isolation of starch from potatoes.

Reference books: 1. The practical evaluation of phytopharmaceuticals,- K.R.Brain and T.D. Turner., Wright-Scientechnica, Bristol. 2. Practical phramacognosy- K R Khandelwal, Nirali Prakashan, Pune. 3. Phytochemical Methods - J.B. Harborne; Chapman and Hall, International Edn. London. 4. Practical Pharmacognosy C.K. Kokate ; Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi. 5. Anatomy of Crude Drugs - M.A. Iyengar. 6. Analytical Microscopy T.E. Wallis; J and A Churchill Ltd., London. 7. Exercises in the Evaluation of Drugs and Surgical Dressings E.J. Shellard ; Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd. London.

STATISTICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATION IN PHARMACY 1T-7 (60Hours)

STATISTICS (30hr.) 1) Basic Concepts in Statistics: Basic concepts of Statistics: - Meaning, Definition, and scope of Statistics. Statistical data, Data graphics, types of variables, collection and classification of data; frequency distribution ; measure of central tendency arithmetic mean mode and median ; Measure of data dispersion range, mean deviation and standard deviation. (6 hr) 2) PROBABILITY:Meaning and terms used in probability, Probability rules, theoretical probability distribution , normal and Binomial distribution. (4 hr) 3) STATISTICAL INFERENCES:Sampling method, Estimation, Statistical tests for rejection of discordant data Q test, Z test, Confidence interval estimation. Testing, testing procedure, t test Chi square (2) test, confidence interval in Bioassays. (4 hr) 4) CORRELATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS (LINEAR ONLY):Concepts and method for studying correlation, significance testing of correlation co-efficient; Lines of regression, properties of coefficient and lines of regression, Methods to find regression lines. (6 hr) 5) (4 hr) 6) EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONSUMER TESTING:Meaning, steps in experimental design, purpose of experimental design, Basic principal of experimental design; advantages and disadvantages; selection of sample, sample size of clinical trials, conduct of ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: Meaning, techniques, one way classification, two way classification

experiment. Experimental design for development, consumer testing. (6 hr)

formulation

and

processes

COMPUTER APPLICATION IN PHARMACY (30 hr.) 1) COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS: Overview of computer system: Characteristic of computer, hardware, general components of a computer viz; memory, various input- output units, C.P.U., secondary storage units; low and high level languages, unit of capacity, classification of computers on the basis of size and capacity. (6 hr) 2) SOFTWARE:- Concepts , types of software viz, system software, operating system, (DOS and UNIX overview only),languages processor and utilities, Application software, other software like graphics, Multimedia presentation software, languages used for software like BASIC, C, C++, JAWA etc. ( Just overview / features), programming methodology, solving problem by computer program , Algorithm, Flow-chart, preparing a sample program in BASIC language. (8 hr) 3) WINDOWS 3.1:- Starting up window, sizing and arranging windows, window tools, WordPad, window explorer. (4 hr) 4) (6 hr) 5) NETWORKING: - Need and advantages of networking LAN, WAN, Concepts of LAN and WAN. (2 hr) 6) INTERNET: - Introduction and history, connecting to internet, World Wide Web and Browser, e-mail. (2 hr) 7) APPLICATIONS: - Computer application in Pharmacy viz, Drug information Storage and retrieval; Pharmacokinetics; Drug design, MS-OFFICE: - Introduction to Word, Excel and PowerPoint

Crude drug identification; Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy; Pharmaceuticals analysis; Diagnosis and data analysis; Bulk drug and Pharmaceuticals manufacture ( Just an overview of packages/utility softwares in these fields.) (2 hr) REFRENCE BOOKS: 1. Pharmaceuticals Statistics: Stanford Bolton; (Marcel Dekker Inc)
2. A First Course in Mathematical Statistics:_C.E Weather burns;

( S,Chand & Co.) 3. Introduction to Biostatistics: Mahajan 4. Introduction to Mathematical Statistic: P. and G Hall 5. Statistical Method in Biology: N.T.J Bailey; (The English Universities pvt ltd.) 6. Basic Statistic for Health science student: D.S.Phillips ; ( N.H Freeman and Co.) 7. Computer Today: Donald sanders; (Mc Graw- Hill Book Company) 8. Windows 3.1 made easy: Tom Shelder; (Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd) 9. Programming in BASIC: E-Balguruswami{Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd} 10.MS-CIT Learning Material: M.S.B.T.E, Mumbai 11.Computer Application in Pharmacy i. ____ William Fasett & Dale B. Christensen (Lea Fibiger, Philadelphia, USA)

B. Pharm. Second Year Sr. No. Subject Theory 2T-1 Pharmaceutics-II (Physical) 2T-2 Pharmaceutics-III (Engineering) 2T-3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Organic) 2T-4 Pharmaceutical Analysis -I 2T-5 Pharmacology-II 2T-6 Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence and Regulatory Affairs 2T-7 Biophysics and Molecular Biology Practical 2P-1 Pharmaceutics-II 2P-2 Pharmaceutics-III 2P-3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Organic) 2P-4 Pharmaceutical Analysis-I 2P-5 Pharmacology-II 20 20 20 80 80 80 100 100 100 50 50 50 20 80 100 50 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 Minimum Sessional Theory Total marks Maximum marks

PHARMACEUTICS-II (Physical) 2T-1 (60 Hours)

1. Solubility and Distribution Phenomena: Mechanism of solute-solvent interactions. Ideal solubility and Scatchard-Hildebrand equation, solvation and association, Quantitative approach to the factors influencing solubility of drugs. Distribution of solute between immiscible liquids, ionic dissociation and molecular association influencing partitioning. Applications of distribution phenomena in pharmacy, Phase rule equilibria, phase diagram, one and two component, the solid state amorphous, crystalline and polymorphism. 2. Surface-active Agents: Classification based on chemical nature and HLB scale, determination of HLB, Surface activity, Bulk properties of solution. Factors affecting micelle formation, structure of micelle and liquid crystal, Micellar solubilization and its Pharmaceutical significance. 3. Interfacial Phenomena: Cohesion, adhesion and spreading. Adsorption at solid and liquid interfaces, adsorption isotherms, adsorption in Medicine and Pharmacy, Electrical properties of interfaces, origin of charge, electrical double layer, Nernst and Zeta potential, Effect of electrolyte. 4. Colloidal Dispersions: Properties of colloids-optical, Kinetics and electrical and their applications in determining molecular weight of polymer. Stability of colloidal systems, Mechanism of peptization, coacervation and protective action. 5. Rheology: Types of flow behavior, thixotropy and thixotropic coefficient. Measurement of various rheological properties, factors influencing rheology of dispersed systems.

6. Micromeritics: Particle size, size distribution, shape and surface area and their determination in heterogeneous systems. Porosity, density and packaging arrangements in flow properties and their influence on processing of solid dosage forms, Mechanisms of particle bonding and granule formation.

7. Complexation and Methods of detection of Complexes. 8. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations and concepts, zero order, first order, second order and complex reactions. Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalysts and other factors. Thermodynamic considerations and mechanisms in general. 9. Polymer Science: Historical background, Pharmaceutical application of polymers, definition, Molecular weight, Average molecular weight, Determination from solution viscosity, Conformation of dissolved linear macromolecules, Polymer as thickening agent, Polymer solution overview, Solvent selection, Preparing polymer solution, Thermodynamics of polymer solution, Phase separation, Gel formation, Coacervation, and Micro encapsulation, Polymer in the solid state-overview, Mechanical properties, Interchain cohesive forces, Crystallinity, Tacticity, Morphology, Orientation, Thermodynamics of fusion and crystallization, glass-rubber transition, plasticization, elastomers, fabrication, future trends in pharmaceutical and other biomedical uses of polymers. Reference Books: 1. Martin, Physical Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger. 2. Burlage and Lee, Physical and Technical Pharmacy. 3. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. 4. Shotton and Ridgway, Physical Pharmaceutics.
5.

Bean, Beckett, Carless, Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol I, II, III and IV.

6. Gennaro, Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack publishing Co. 7. Hoover, Dispensing of Medication, Mack Publishing Co. 8. Aulton, Pharmaceutics. The science of dosage form design, Lea ELBS. 9. Lachman, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger.

PHARMACEUTICS-II (Physical) 2P-1) 1. To determine the heat of solution of benzoic acid. 2. To determine the heat of solution of boric acid. 3. To determine the relation between dielectric constant of solvent and solubility of drugs. 4. To plot ternary phase diagram. 5. To find out the partition coefficient and distribution of the drug between two phases. 6. To determine the interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids and to calculate spreading coefficient. 7. To determine CMC of a surfactant through interfacial tension measurement. 8. To plot adsorption isotherm. 9. To determine the molecular weight of a polymer by viscosity measurement method. 10.To verify the Holfmiester series for the flocculation of colloid. 11.To measure the mean globule diameter of the emulsion. 12.To study the effect of phase volume ratio on viscosity of emulsion. 13.To determine critical HLB for an emulsion. 14.To study the rheograms of some mucilages. 15.To measure the particle size of a suspension by Andreasen pipette method. 16.To study the effect of particle size on angle of repose and flow properties. 17.To study the effect of fines and lubricant on angle of repose and flow properties.

18.To determine the bulk density, True density and granulate density of few pharmaceuticals and to calculate the porosity of the material. 19.To find out the cloud point and kraft point of surfactant solutions. 20.To study the effect of temperature and centrifugation on the stability of emulsions. Reference Books: 1. Martin, Physical Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger. 2. Burlage and Lee, Physical and Technical Pharmacy. 3. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. 4. Shotton and Ridgway, Physical Pharmaceutics. 5. Bean, Beckett, Carless, Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol I, II, III and IV. 6. Gennaro, Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack publishing Co. 7. Hoover, Dispensing of Medication, Mack Publishing Co. 8. Aulton, Pharmaceutics. The science of dosage form design, Lea ELBS. 9. Lachman, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger.

PHARMACEUTICS- III (Engineering) 2T- 2 1. Heat Transfer Mechanism of heat transfer, Fourriers law, resistance in series, heat flow through cylinders. Convection- natural convection, forced convection, surface coefficients, overall heat transfer coefficients. Heat flow through boiling liquids and condensing vapors. Radiationblack body, angle of vision. Heat exchangers, heat interchangers, finned tubes, parallel and countercurrent heat exchangers. 2. Evaporation Factors affecting evaporation,. Study of pan, vertical tube, forced circulation, film, vacuum and multiple effect evaporators. Evaporator accessories. Problems encountered in evaporators. Capacity economy of evaporators. 3. Distillation Raults and Henrys law, theory of distillation of binary mixtures of miscible liquids. Study of distillation equipments used for simple vacuum, steam, reflux and molecular distillation. Separation of azeotropes, rectification and fractionation. Drying Definition, purpose of drying, moisture content and equilibrium moisture content. Classification of dryers. Study of tray, vacuum, fluidized-bed, freeze, spray and flash dryers. Crystallization 60 hours

Introduction, importance of crystallization, theory of nucleation and crystal growth. Miers theory. Principles underlying the design and operation of agitated batch, Swenson-Walker, Krystal growth and vacuum crystallizers. Operating variables in vacuum crystallizers. Caking of crystals and its prevention. Filtration Theory of filtration, Kozenys equation, filter aids, selection of filters. Study of filter press, rotary drum, leaf, meta, disc and membrane filters. Humidification, air conditioning and refrigeration Definitions, psychometric charts, wet-bulb theory. Determination of humidity. Humidifiers, dehumidifiers, cooling towers and refrigeration. Centrifugation Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifuges. Conveying Belt, apron, bucket, screw and pneumatic conveyors for solids. Transportation of fluids, reciprocating, rotatory and centrifugal pumps. Flow of fluids Fluids statics, dynamics, Bernoullis theorem. Measurement of rate of flow of fluids. Materials of pharmaceutical plant construction Factors influencing selection of plant material. Study of ferrous, non ferrous metals, glass and plastics as material of construction. Corrosion

Various types of corrosion. Methods of reducing corrosion. REFERENCE: 1. Ganderton, Unit process in pharmacy 2. Lachman, Theory and practice of Industrial pharmacy 3. Gennaro, Remingtons pharmaceutical sciences 4. Rawlins, Bentleys text book of pharmaceutics 5. Brown, Unit operations 6. Coper and Gunn, In dustrial pharmacy 7. Badger and Banchero, Introduction to chemical engineering 8. Mc Cabe, Smith, Unit operations in chemical engineering

2P 2

PHARMACEUTICS III

1. To study the effect of centrifugation speed on the cake volume. 2. To study the effect of centrifugation time on cake volume. 3. To study the effect of steam pressure on rate of evaporation. 4. To study the effect of viscosity on rate of evaporation. 5. To find the % yield of boric acid, NaCl crystals with seeding. 6. To find the % yield of boric acid, NaCl crystals without seeding. 7. To study the effect of rate of cooling on the crystal growth. 8. To find the rate of sedimentation of a slurry and to utilize the data to design thickener area. 9. To carry out sieve analysis to calculate different diameters of particles. 10.To separate particles of different sizes by setting. 11.To determine effectiveness of screen. 12.To study the effect of ball change on grinding process. 13.To plot a boiling point diagram for the given mixture. 14.To study the rate of drying of a material. 15.To calculate loss on drying and moisture content of the given granules 16.To determine the angle of nip. 17.To determine hardness of water in terms of calcium ions. 18.To study the comparative insulating properties of different insulating materials. 19.To study the rate of filtration by using different thickness of media. 20.To study the effect of additives on crystal geometry of the given sample. 21.To determine the humidity of air by dew point method and psychometer.

22.To draw boiling point diagram for the given mixtures. 23.To study the effect of centrifugation speed on the cake volume. 24.To study the effect of centrifugation time on cake volume.

REFERENCE: 1. Ganderton, Unit process in pharmacy 2. Lachman, Theory and practice of Industrial pharmacy 3. Gennaro, Remingtons pharmaceutical sciences 4. Rawlins, Bentleys text book of pharmaceutics 5. Brown, Unit operations 6. Coper and Gunn, In dustrial pharmacy 7. Badger and Banchero, Introduction to chemical engineering 8. Mc Cabe, Smith, Unit operations in chemical engineering

2T-3

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (Organic) (60 Hours)

Structure, nomenclature, synthesis and reactions including reaction mechanistic, stereochemical consideration and pharmaceutical uses of the following heterocyclic compounds: Pyrrole, furan, thiophene, oxazole, isoxazole, thiazole, imidazole, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, indole, quinoline,

isoquinoline, purine, xanthine, acridine, benzimidazole, benzothiazole, coumarin and phenothiazine. Polynuclear hydrocarbonsStructure, nomenclature, synthesis,

reactions and pharmaceutical uses of naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene and their derivatives. Macromolecules- Polymers and Polymerization. Biomoleculesconsideration), Introduction, structure (including stereochemical reactions and

nomenclature,

classification,

pharmaceutical uses of : Carbohydrates (including simple glycosides like salicin, arbutin and amygdalin), amino acids, peptides, proteins and lipids.

Recommended Books: 1. R. T. Morrison and R. N. Boyd, Organic Chemistry Pearson Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 2. I. L. Finar, Organic Chemistry: The Fundamental Principles, LPE, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 3. J. A. Joule, G. F. Smith, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Longmann UK. 4. R. N. Acheson, An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Interscience Publishers, NY. 5. R. K. Bansal, Hetrocyclic Chemistry, New Age International, New Delhi. 6. Pandeya S. N. A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Volume II, S. G. Publishers, Varanasi. 7. Alan R. Katritzky, FRS, Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanorich, Publishers, New York. 8. K. B. G. Torsell, Natural Product Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, NY.

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (Organic) 2P-3 Seven exercises in synthesis of organic heterocyclic compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Quantitative determination of organic compounds Phenolic group by bromination. Carbonyl group by hydroxyl amine hydrochloride pyridine method. Carboxyl group by alkalimetry. Amino group by bromination. Ester group by hydrolysis method. Aldehyde group by sodium sulphite sulfuric acid method. Analysis of oils and fats (I. P. methods) Acid value. Saponofication value. Iodine value. Preparation of stereo models of some biomolecules.

Recommended Books: 1. Vogels Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, ELBS, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, England. 2. Practical Organic Chemistry, F. G. Mann and Sounders. Orient Longmann UK. 3. Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part 1: Small Scale Preparations, Arthur I. Vogel, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 4. Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part 3: Quantitative Organic Analysis, Arthur I. Vogel, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS-I 2T-4 1. Introduction: (60 Hours) Pharmaceutical analysis - Definition and scope.

Introduction to analytical techniques, calibrations of volumetric apparatus, Sampling Techniques, Methods of expressing concentration, Expression of analytical results , Significant figures, Errors - concept, classification and minimization of errors, Accuracy and Precision. Primary and secondary standards 2. Impurities and Limit tests: Sources of contamination in pharmaceuticals, limits of insoluble matter, soluble matter, non- volatile matter, residue on ignition and ash values. Review of limit tests for common impurities. Specific limit tests like p-aminophenol in paracetamol, salicylic acid in aspirin, iodine and iodide in di-iodohydroxyquinoline, etc. 3. Acid Base titration : Modern concepts of acids and base, acid base equilibria, law of mass action, dissociation constants, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, buffer solutions, theory of acid base titration , neutralization curves, neutralization indicators, mixed and universal indicators. Formal titrations. Pharmaceutical applications assay of aspirin, boric acid, ephedrine, benoic acid, ammonium chloride, etc. 4. Non aqueous titration: Theory, advantages and limitation, non-aqueous solvents, ionization and dissociation in non-aqueous media, titration of weak acids and bases, indicators in non-aqueous titration, preparation of standard solutions, applications assay of mebendazole, atenolol,norfloxacin ephedrine hydrochloride, phenobarbitone,etc. 5. Redox titration: Theory of redox reactions, strength and equivalent weights of oxidizing agents and reducing agents, redox titration curves,

redox indicators, titration involving potassium permagnate, cerric sulphate potassium iodate, potassium bromate, titanous chloride, sodium 2,6dichlorophenol indophenol. Iodometry and iodimetry, Pharmaceutical application of redox titrations-Assay of ferrous sulphate, hydrogen peroxide, acetomenadione, iodine solutions, isoniazide, copper sulphate, vit.C, Analgin, Phenol, etc. 6. Gravimetric analysis: Sparingly soluble substances, Solubility product and common ion effect, factors affecting solubility, fractional precipitation, quantitative precipitation, condition for precipitation, contamination of precipitate-co precipitation and post precipitation, practical aspects of gravimetric drying/ignition analysis-precipitation, of precipitate, digestion, introduction filtration, to washing, thermogravimerty,

pharmaceutical application-assay of thiamine , priprazine salts, etc. 7. Precipitation titration: Theory of precipitation titration, Mohrs method, Volhards method, Adsorption indicators. benzenehexachloride, etc. 8. Complexometric titration: Concepts of complexation and chelation, Werners co-ordination number, stability of complexes, titrants ,titration curves, types of complexometric titrations , methods of end point detection ,metallochromic indicators, metal ion buffer, titration selectivity masking and demasking, Applications - assay of magnesium sulphate, calcium lactate, aluminium hydroxide gel, Aluminium sulphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium stearate, etc. 9. Gas analysis: Principle of gas analysis, Hemples apparatus, absorbants in gas analysis, applications assay of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide. Pharmaceutical application assay of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, chlorbutol, gamma

10. Determination of functional groups - amino, hydroxyl, carbonyl, esters, carboxylic acids. Reference books: 1. A. H. Beckette and J. B. Stanelake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol-I and II, The Athlone press, University of Londan. 2. Grant Stastical quality control (McGraw Hill ) 3. K. A. Conners, Text book of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Intersciences, NY. 4. Garret, Text book of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 5. Higuchi and Brochmann- Hanssen- Pharmaceutical Analysis (Intersciences). 6. G. L. Jenkins, J. E. Christian, G. P. Hager, Quantitative pharmaceutical Chemistry. 7. Indian Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmacopoeia 8. Vogels, Text book of Quantitative inorganic analysis. 9. Garry D. Chissition : Analytical chemistry (wiley) university of Washington. 10. J.G. Dick : Analytical Chemistry ( International student edition) 12. A. V. Kasture, S. G. Wadodkar, Mahadik K. R., More H. N. Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol. I and II), Nirali Prakashan. 13. Ashutosh Kar, Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis, New Age International publication.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS-I 2P-4 1. Calibration of volumetric apparatus 2. Preparation and standardization of HCl and NaOH solutions. Assay of sodium bicarbonate, boric acid, aspirin / zinc oxide, ibuprofen / benzoic acid, ammonium chloride etc. 3. Preparation and standardization of perchloric acid and sodium methoxide solutions. Assay of ephedrine hydrochloride, Phenytoin, etc 4. Preparation and standardization of potassium permangnate, ceric ammonium sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, iodine and sodium thiosulphate solutions. Assay of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous sulphate, potassium iodide, isoniazide, analgin / ascorbic acid, copper sulphate, phenol, etc. 5. Preparation and standardization of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol solution and assay of ascorbic acid injection. 6. Preparation and standardization of a silver nitrate and ammonium thiocynate solutions. Assay of sodium chloride and potassium chloride. 7. Assay of thiamine hydrochloride / piperazine citrate by gravimetry. 8. Preparation and standardization of EDTA solution. Assay of Calcium lactate / gluconate, calcium carbonate, aluninium hydroxide gel / aluminium sulphate, etc. 9. Limit tests of salicylic acid in aspirin, p-aminophenol in paracetamol, etc.

Reference book:

1. Indian Pharmacopoea 1996, Published By Ministry of Health Science, Delhi.

PHARMACOLOGY II 2T-5 1. (60 Hours) General pharmacology A. Introduction and definition B. Route of administration C. Transport of drugs across cell membrane D. Absorption of drug and factors affecting them E. Drug distribution, Biotransformation and excretion F. Mechanism of drug action- molecular and biochemical , receptor and drug receptor interactions, Factors modifying drug effects

Study of Pharmacological action of following classes of drug with respect to classification of recently available drugs, mechanism of action, receptors, Adverse effects, contra-indications, therapeutic uses and dosages with brief study of Pathophysiology of related disorders 2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on ANS A. introduction neurohumoral transmission B. adrenergic and cholinergic receptos C. adrenergic drugs D. adrenergic receptor blockers E. cholinomimetics , anticholinesterases F. anti-muscarinic agents G. ganglionin blockers and stimulants H. neuromuscular blocking agents

3 Pharmacology of drugs acting on CVS A. antihypertensive drugs B. antianginal drugs C. antiarrythmic drugs D. drugs use for CHF E. drug use in Hyperlipidemia 4 Pharmacology of drugs acting on renal system A. Diuretics B. Anti-diuretics 5 Pharmacology of drug acting on Haemopoitic system

A. B. C.

Haematinic Co-agulants and anticoagulants Fibrinolytic and antiplatelet agents

Recommended Books : 1. Brar F. S. K. Essentials of Pharmacotherapentics 2nd Ed. S Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 2. Katzuny B.G. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 6th Ed Prentice Hall International Inc. London. 3. Satoskar R. S. and Bhandarkar S.Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 19 ed 4. Popular Prakashan Pri. Ltd., Mumbai 5. Rosenteld, G.C., Loose Mitchell and Jones J.B.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins U.S.A. 6. Board Review Series Pharmacology 3rd Ed.
7. Rang,H.R. Dale, M.Pharmacology 2nd Ed. E.L.B.S., London

8. Brunton L. L.and Others Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11 ed. Mc Graw Hill Medical Pub. Div . New York.
9. Girdwood R.H.Clinical Pharmacology 25th Ed Varghese Publishing

House, Bombay
10. Gandhi T.P., Goyal R.K. and Mehta A.A. Derasari and Gandhi

Elements of Pharmacology 11th Ed. B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad


11. Crossland,James Lewis`s Pharmacology 5th Ed. Churchill Livingtone

New York 12.Aviado, Doningo M Krantz and Carrs Pharmacologic Principles of Medical Practice 7th Ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, U.S.A.

Pharmacology II 2P-5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Introduction to experimental pharmacology Study of laboratory animals and their tissues use in animal experimentation Study of laboratory appliances used in experimental pharmacology Preparation of various salts solution use in experimental pharmacology Demonstration of isolated frog heart preparation Effect of different ions on isolated frog heart preparation Effect of Adrenaline and propranolol on isolated frog heart preparation Effect of Ach and atropine on isolated frog heart preparation To determine the category of unknown sample using isolated frog heart preparation To determine the category of unknown sample using isolated frog heart preparation Effect of different ions on intact frog heart preparation Effect of Adrenaline and propranolol on intact frog heart preparation Effect of Ach and atropine on intact frog heart preparation To determine the category of unknown sample using intact frog heart preparation To determine the category of unknown sample using intact frog heart preparation Effect of digitalis on isolated frog heart preparation To determine the PA2 and PA10 value of atropine using rat ileum Effect of cholinergic agents on rabbit eye Effect of anticholinergic agents on rabbit eye Effect of Local anesthetics on rabbit eye

To introduce, demonstrate and practice experiment using computer simulation CDs.

Recommended Books : 1. Kulkarni, S. K. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi) 2. Ghosh, M.N. : Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, (Scentific book Agency, Calcutta). 3. Sheth, U.K. Dadkar, N.K. and Kamat, U.G. Selected Topics in Experimental Pharmacology (Kothari book Depot, Bombay) 4. Perry, W.L.M. Pharmacological Experiments on Isolated preparations (EandS Livingstone, London) 5. Lawarence, D. R. and Bacharach, A.L. : Evaluation of Drug Activities : Pharmacometrics (Academic press, London) 6. Turner R.A. : Screening Methods in Pharmacology (Academic Press, London)

PHAMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS 2T- 6 (60 Hours)

History of pharmacy legislation in India Origin and nature of pharmaceutical legislation in India, Its scope and objective, report of commission, new drug policy and the future trends. Study of the followings with latest amendments 1. Pharmaceutical Ethics Principles and significance of professional ethics, critical study of code of pharmaceutical ethics drafted by PCI regarding to pharmacists in relation to his job, to this trade and to medical profession. 2. Pharmacy act 1948 Introduction, objective, definition, educational regulation and approval, registration of pharmacists, central and state councils, amendment to the Pharmacy act. 3. Drug and cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 Introduction, definition, general study of the special references to the C, C1, F, G, H, P and X, Salient features of the storage and labelling conditions of drugs, administration, manufacture, sales and import of drug, provisions for Ayurvedic, unani drugs and cosmetics as amended to date. 4. Medicinal and Toilet preparations (Excise duties) Act 1955 Objectives, background, definition, manufacture and warehousing of alcohol preparation, Procedures, offences and penalties as amended to date. 5. Narcotic Drug and Psychotropic substances Act 1985 and Rules Introduction, objectives, definitions, prohibited and controlled operations, enforcement, manufacture, cultivation of poppy plants, sales of opium, import and export of narcotics as amended to date. 6. Drug Price Control Order Objective, definitions, schedules to the order, sale prices of bulk drugs, prices and price list, MAPE calculations as amended to date. 7. Patent act Objective, definitions, types of patents, procedure for patenting, secrecy of certain invention, surrender and revocation of patents as amended to date.

A brief study with a special reference to the main provisions Drug and Magic Remedies Act (Objectionable Advertisements) 1954. Medical Termination of pregnancy Act 1970 and Rules 1975. Prevention of cruelty to animals Act 1960. Factories Act 1948. Minimum wages Act 1948. Consumer protection Act with respect to pharmaceutical services Recommended Book for Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence and regulatory affairs: 1. All related Bare Act with latest amendments to date. 2. A textbook of Forensic pharmacy, By N.K. Jain, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, 2002. 3. Latest issues of CIMS, MIMS, PDR, DDR. 4. Latest issues of IDMA Bulletin. 5. The Drug and cosmetics Act and Rules by the Indian drug manufacture association publication 6. ICMR Guidelines. 7. Hand book of Drug Laws: Mehra, Law Publication, Allahabad. 8. CPCACEA guidelines. 9. Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence, By S. P. Agrawal and R. Khanna, Tata Publication.

BIOPHYSICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 2-T-7 BIOPHYSICS


1) Introduction: Definitions of Biophysics, Physics and Biology,

(60 Hours)

Biophysics as a separate field, Branches of Biophysics, Some basic concepts of Biophysics, Place of Biophysics in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2) Biomechanics: Elasticity of living cell material, Muscle contraction, A short review of experimental protocols to study muscle relaxants, Newtonian and Nonnewtonian liquids, Viscosity, Surface tension, Interfacial tension, Surface energy of cell and their determination, Heamodynamics: Factors affecting blood flow, Importance of Haemostatic and Reynoldss number in Medical Sciences. 3) Radiation Biophysics:Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR) and their biological effects, Medical applications of EMR (X-rays, UV, IR and MW), Special precautions to be taken while dealing with EMR. 4) Biological Importance of Sound and Heat: Sound, Generation of ultrasonic, P hysical consequences, Biological effects and application of ultrasonic in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Thermoregulation in Homoeothermic animals, Heat production

and Physiological heat transfer mechanism. Thermotherapy: Application of heat and cold in therapy, Heat Exhaustion, Heat stroke and first aid in these conditions. 5) Recent Trends in Biophysics:a) Introduction to Liposomes and Nanorparticle, their application in Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Short Review. b) Biomaterials used in implants. c) Elementary ideas of biocybernetics. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1. Introduction: Cell, Evolution at the core molecular change,

Molecules of life: Macromolecular structures, the Architecture of cell, an integrated view of cells at work, Centrifugation and sub cellular fractionation.
2. Chemical Foundation: A brief review on different types of bonding

and intermolecular forces, biochemical energies. A) A short review on protein structure and function, functional design, purifying, detecting and characterizing proteins. B) Nucleic acids structure and the genetic code, properties of nucleosides and nucleotides, synthesis of biopolymers: Rules of macromolecular carpentry.

C) Other Biological Polymers: Polysaccharides, Association formed among different macromolecules, Lipids, Proteins and Polysaccharides in biological membrane, Protein-Lipid interaction. 3. Physico-chemical techniques to study biomolecules: Basic troubles in protein strand, Polypeptide chain geometries, General characterization of nucleic acid strand, Geometries , Base pairing and base stacking, Purification of cells and their parts, Biomembranes : Structural organization and basic function , Transport across cell membrane, Intracellular ion environment and membrane electric potential.
4.

The behavior of biological macromolecules: A) Ligand interaction at equilibrium: Importance of ligand interaction, Ligand equation, Identical independent sites, Interaction between sites, Binding of two different ligands and linked function, Linkage of ligands binding from an energetic view points, Interaction of large ligands with lattice like chain. B) Kinetics of ligands interaction: Biochemical kinetic studies, Unimolecular and simple bimolecular reactions, multiple intermediates, Steady state kinetics, Relaxation spectrometry, Ribonuclease as an example.

C) Regulation of biological activity: Biological regulation some features and property of allosteric enzyme, Models for allosteric proteins, Cell to cell signaling and receptors, Overview of extra cellular signaling, Identification and Purification of cell surface receptor, G-protein coupled receptors and their effectors, Second messenger, interaction and regulation of signaling pathways. D) Drug-Receptor interaction an overview: Explanation with at least three to four examples of existing and well known drugreceptor interaction. 5. Cancer: Cancer as a microrevolutionary process, the molecular genetics of cancer, treatment of cancer with radiations.

Recommended Books: 1. A Text book of Biophysics by Roy, R.N., New Central Book

Agency Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta. 2. Biophysics by Pattabhi, V. and Gautham, N., Narosa Publishing

House, New Delhi 3. 4. Biophysics by Arora, M. P., Himalaya Publishing House, Nagpur Chasin, M. and Layer, R. (Eds), Biodegradable Polymers as Drug

Delivery Systems, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York

5.

Krenter, J., Colloidal Drug Delivery Systems, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,

New York.
6.

Glaser, R., Biophysics. Springer-Verlag, Germany [Springer

(India) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi]. 7. Cantor, C. R. and Schimmel, P. R., Biophysical Chemistry, Part I,

II and III, W. H. Freeman and Co, New York. 8. Stacy, R. W., Essentials of Biological and Medical Physics, Mc

Graw-Hill Company, Inc, New York. 9. Kulakarni, S. K., Principles of Experimental Pharmacology,

Vallabh Prakashan, Ahmedabad. 10. Molecular Cell Biology by Odish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.,

Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D., Darnell, J. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 11. Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J.,

Raff, M., Roberts, K., Watson, J. D., Garland Publishing, Inc., New York. 12. Wilson and Gisvolds Textbook of Organic Medicinal Chemistry; Delgado, J. N. and Remers, W. A., J. B. Lippincott Co.,

edited by New York.

B. Pharm. Third Year Sr. No. Subject Theory 3T-1 Dosage Form Technology - I 3T-2 Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Immunology 3T-3 Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry I 3T-4 Pharmaceutical Analysis - II 3T-5 Pharmacology-III 3T-6 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-II 3T-7 Pharmacy Practice and Management Practical 3P-1 Dosage Form Technology - I 3P-2 Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Immunology 3P-3 Pharmaceutical Analysis - II 3P-4 Pharmacology - III 3P-5 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-II 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 Minimum Sessional Theory Total marks Maximum marks

DOSAGE FORM TECHNOLOGY- I 3T-1 60 Hours

1. Preformulation Considerations: Physical description, microscopic examination, particle size, partition coefficient, polymorphism, solubility , dissolution, membrane permeability, drug stability. 2. Liquid Orals: (i) Oral solutions: Components of the formulation such as solvents/vehicles, buffers, colors, flavors, preservatives etc.,development of formula for oral solutions, stability of solutions, manufacture of solutions. (ii) Syrups: Components and preparation of syrups. (iii) Elixirs: Introduction, formulation and preparation of elixirs. (iv) Suspensions: Theoretic considerations, particle interactions and behavior, flocculation and deflocculation, sedimentation parameters, role of wetting, controlled flocculation and structured vehicles in formulation and manufacture of suspensions. Evaluation of suspension. (v) Dry powders for suspensions: Formulation and manufacture. (vi) Emulsions: Types, Detection, Thermodynamic considerations, Mechanism of droplet stabilization, Theories of emulsification. Formulation and manufacture of emulsions. Stability of emulsions, Assessment of emulsion shelf-life. 3. Tablets: Types of tablets, tablet ingredients, diluents, binders, disintegrant, lubricants, colors, flavors, sweeteners etc. Manufacture of tablets by wet granulation, dry granulation and direct compression. Tablet processing problems and defects, tablet standardization: hardness, friability, weight variation, disintegration, dissolution and content uniformity tests.

Tablet coating: Types of coating: Sugar, press coating and film coating (enteric and non enteric). Coating formulation, process and equipments used, coating defects. 4. Capsules: Hard gelatin capsules- capsule size, formulation and preparation of filled hard gelatin capsules. Soft gelatin capsules (Softgels) - manufacturing procedures. Quality control of capsules.

5. Microencapsulation: Core and coat properties, important techniques of micro encapsulation. 6. Ointments: Ointment bases, preparation and preservation of ointment bases, drug absorption from various ointment bases. Ophthalmic ointments. 7. Suppositories: Drug absorption from various suppositories, suppository bases, preparation, packaging and storage and evaluation of suppositories. 8. Cosmetics: Fundamentals, Classification, Formulation and preparation of various skin products, cold cream, vanishing cream, moisturizing cream, face powders and dentifrices, toothpastes and tooth powders. 10.Packaging of pharmaceutical dosage forms: Glass- the absolute barrier, Elastomer Closures, Plastics, Metals, paper and board special packaging Analysis and control of packaging materials, blister and strip packaging, packaging related content in the official compendia. 10. Blood products and Glandular products: Collection, processing and storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs, dried human plasma, human fibrinogen, human normal immunoglobin, human fibrinfoam. Plasma substitutes- ideal requirements, pvp dextran, Glandular products like insulin, pancreatin, thyroid and adrenal products.

Reference Books: 1. Lachman, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger. 2. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. Ansel, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms and Drug Delivey Systems, Lea and Febiger. Aulton, Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Desing, ELBS, London. 5. Banker, Modern pharmaceutics, Marcel Dekker Inc. 6. Gennaro, Remingtins Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. 7. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London.

3. 4.

DOSAGE FORM TECHNOLOGY- I 3P-1 Preparation and evaluation of following dosage forms with an emphasis on excipients drug interaction. Syrups Suspensions Emulsions Tablets Tablets with model drug Tablet coating a) Non Enteric b) Enteric 8. Capsules 9. Micro encapsulations 10.Ointments Cold cream, Vanishing cream, Toothpaste, Face powder, Moistening creams 12.Evaluation of marketed preparation Evaluation of Packaging materials as per official compendia. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

11. 13.

Reference Books: 1. Lachman, Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. 2. Rawlins, Bentleys T. B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. 3. Ansel, Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. 4. Aulton, Pharmaceutics: The science of dosage form designing, ELBS, London. 5. Banker, Modern Pharmaceutics, Marcel Dekker Inc. 6. Gennaro, Remingtins Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. 7. Rawlins, Bentleys T. B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. 8. Indian Pharmacopoeia 9. British Pharmacopoeia 10.United State Pharmacopoeia
11. British Pharmaceutical Codex

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 3T-2 1. MICROBIOLOGY Introduction History and Scope of Microbiology- Theory of spontaneous generation, Contributions of -Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pastuer, Robert Koch, Alexander Fleming, Scope of microbiology, Branches of microbiology. Classification Nomenclature and Taxonomy. Light microscopy-, magnification, resolving power, lenses, Types of light microscope- Compound microscope, UV, phase contrast, fluorescence. Electron microscopy- transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Preparation of specimens for electron microscope and light microscope. Microbiology of bacteria Morphology- shapes and sizes. Structure- prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes cell structures. Nutrition- composition of bacterial cell, classification of nutrients, nutrients composition, culture medium, types of culture mediums. Growth- growth curve, synchronous growth, continuous growth, growth measurement, influence of environmental factors on growth. Metabolism- Enzymes- types, properties, nomenclature, mechanism of 60 hours

action. Photosynthesis- light reaction, dark reaction. Aerobic respirationglycolysis, TCA, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, other cycles. Anaerobic respiration. Fermentation. Catabolism and anabolism of bacterial cellular material. Genetics- genetic material, DNA structure, RNA, DNA replication and repair to damage, transcription, translation, protein synthesis, transposons, plasmids. Mutation- Types of mutation, mutagenic agents. Recombination in bacteria- conjugation, transformation, transduction. Replica plate technique. Regulation mechanisms in bacteria. Microbiology of viruses Classification, structure, bacteriophage, replication, cultivation of virus, quantitative determination of virus. Microbiology of fungi and yeast Classification, nutrition and reproduction. Sterilization methods Mode of action, equipment and application of- Heat sterilization, Radiation sterilization, Filtration sterilization, Gaseous sterilization methods. Evaluation of physical sterilization process- biological indicators, chemical indicators, sterility testing. Chemical disinfectants,

Sterilization- Disinfectants- mode of action, types of

classification of disinfectants, evaluation f disinfectants. Antimicrobial agents- classification and evaluation. Microbiology of air, water and sewage 2. IMMUNOLOGY

Host parasite interactions-Disease and infection- types of diseases, transmission of infection, portal of entry of microorganisms, normal flora of human body. Pathogenecity and virulence- invasiveness, toxigenecity- exotoxins, endotoxins, enzymes, factors. Barriers to invading organisms, resistance, nonspecific defense.

Specific defense- Immunity- types of immunity, immune systems, antigens, antibodies, compliment proteins and other immune molecules. Antigen- antibody reactions- agglutination, precipitation, immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, Immunofluroscence, compliment fixation, radioimmunoassay. Hypersensitivity reactions. Autoimmune diseases.

Microbial Diseases (etiology, pathophysiology, transmission, prevention and treatment)-Bacterial and viral diseases of GIT, respiratory, genitor-urinary tracts and contact diseases. Fungal diseases- mycoses.

Vaccines and Sera preparations- Manufacturing and standardizations of bacterial, viral and rickettsial vaccines. Sera (Antitoxins) - antibacterial and antiviral. Diagnostic agentstuberculin, Shick test

REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Pelczar and Reid, Microbiology. 2. Hugo and Russel, Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 3. Kale and Bhusari, Applied Microbiology. 4. Prescott and Dunn, Industrial Microbiology. 5. Tortora, Microbiology 6. Rawlins, Bentleyss Textbook of Pharmaceutics.

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY 3P 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Study of various instruments and common apparatus used in microbiology laboratory. Introduction to microscope and to study its use. Smear preparation and fixation microorganism. Negative staining of microorganism. To perform gram staining. To perform acid fast staining. Demonstration of bacterial endospores. Motility studies of microorganisms. Study of mold morphology. Streak plate method of isolation. Preparation of nutrient medias. Sterilization and aseptic transfer methods. Biochemical reactions. Biochemical reactions. and simple staining of

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

To take total and viable count. Bacteriological examination of air. Bacteriological examination of water and milk. Study of cultural characteristics of microorganism. Demonstration of Evaluation of disinfectants. Test for sterility for ampoules and infusions. Test for sterility for powders. Microbiological assay of antibiotics. To study microscopic slides for morphological characters of bacteria. Demonstration of Metachromatic granules in bacteria.

REFEENCE BOOKS

1. L. Jack Bradshaw: Laboratory Microbiology 2. Collins and Lyne: Microbiological Methods 3. Kale and Bhusari: Practical Microbiology

PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-I 3T-3

60 Hours

Basic principles of medicinal chemistry: Structure of biological membrane, physicochemical parameters affecting drug action, drug absorption, distribution and elimination, stereochemical aspects of drug action, drug receptor interaction including transduction mechanism, blood brain barrier

Drug metabolism: Phase I and Phase II reaction, biological factors affecting drug metabolism, inducers and inhibitors of drug metabolism, significance of drug metabolism studies in drug development.

Prodrug concept: Principles of prodrug design and its application. Following topics shall be treated covering nomenclature, synthesis procedure of official drugs, uses, SAR including physico-chemical and steric aspects and mode of action. Steroids-Androgens and anabolic agents, estrogens, progestational agents and adrenocorticoids. Chemotherapeutic agents - Sulphonamides, synthetic antibacterial agents, antiprotozoal agents (antimalarials, antiamoebics, agents

trypanosomicidals,

anthelmintics),

antimycobacterial

(antitubercular and antileprotic agents), antifungal agents, antiviral

agents (including drugs used in AIDS), antineoplastic agents, antibiotics and prominent analogues (penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, polypeptides, chloramphenicaol,

macrolides, lincomycins, lactamase inhibitors), drugs acting on GIT (antacids, emetics, antiemetics, digestants, purgatives, antidiarrhoeals and antiflatulence agents) Diagnostic agents, Medicinal dyes, surface active agents, antiseptics and disinfectants and other pharmaceutical aids. Local anaesthetic, general anaesthetic, sedativehypnotics,

antiepileptics, antipshychotics, antianxiety, central nervous system stimulants and psychodelics.

Recommended Books: 1. Text book Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Bentley and Driver, Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford. 2. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Foye, B. I. Waverly Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Text book of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Wilson and Gisvold, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia.

4. Ashutosh Kar, Medicinal Chemistry, New Age International(P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi. 5. I. L. Finar, Organic Chemistry: The Fundamental Principles, LPE, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 6. Burgers Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Donald J. Abraham, John Wiley and Sons, NY. 7. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Daniel Ledincer, Lester A. Mitscher, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 8. Martindale, The Complete Drug Reference, Sean C Sweetman, Pharmaceutical Press, London. 9. Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Alfonso R Gennaro, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS- II 3T-4 1. Introduction: Instrumental methods of analysiscomparison with chemical methods of analysis. 60 Hours Advantages,

2.

Physical methods: Polarimetry: Optical and specific rotation, Instrumentation, Application. Introduction to optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichromism. Refractometry: Refractive index, molar refraction, Instrumentation, applications.

3.

Spectrochemical methods: Electromagnetic radiation: Nature of electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between energy and matter, application of quantum mechanics theory, the absorption and emission of radiant energy by atoms and molecules. UV-Visible spectroscopy: Origin of UV spectra, chromophores and auxochromes, bathochromic and hypsochromic shift , choice of solvents, Beer-Lamberts Law, methods of color development, Instrumentation- single and double beam spectrophotometers. Single component analysis, Simultaneous spectrophotometry, Derivative spectrophotometry. Applications - absorptiometric assays of following drug monographs in I.P. Riboflavin, Folic acid, paracetamol tablets, Rifampicin/ rifampicin capsules ,Reserpine tablets and Ampicillin trihydrate. Introduction to structural analysis Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Theory, Instrumentation, and applications. Infrared Spectrophotometry : Theory, modes of vibration in polyatomic molecules, fingerprint and group frequency region, absorption frequencies of important organic functional groups,

Instrumentation single and double beam spectrophotometers, FTIR., qualitative and quantitative pharmaceutical applications. Fluorescence Spectroscopy : Fluorescence and phosphorescence, excitation and emission spectra, factors affecting fluorescence intensity, instrumentation. Application- determination of quinine sulphate, Thiamine HCl,etc. Flame Photometry and Atomic Aabsorption Spectroscopy: Theory, Instrumentation, and Pharmaceutical applications. 4. Electrochemical methods: Conductometry: Conductance and its measurement, Conductometric titrations, applications, High frequency titrations. Potentiometry: Theoretical consideration, Measurement of potential, Instrumentation, Reference and indicator electrodes, ion selective electrodes, pH measurements, potentiometric titrations, location of end point, equipment, analytical application direct measurement of mean concentration, differential curve, determination of solubility product. Polarography: Theory, mass transport process, current processes, current potential relationship, polarization, choice of electrodes, effect of oxygen, calculation of concentration, applications. Normal and differential pulse polarography. Amperometric titrations and its applications. Coulometry: Introduction, coulometry at controlled potential, coulometry at constant current, instrumentation, applications. Electrogravimetry: Theory, electrode reactions, overpotential, completeness of deposition, apparatus, applications. 5. Thermal methods of analysis: Introduction.

Thermogravimetry (TG)- isothermal and static thermogravimetry, quasistatic thermogravimetry , information from TG curves, Factors affecting thermogravimetry, Instrumentation, applications of TG.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry : Theory, instrumentation and applications 6. Miscellaneous methods of analysis : Nitrite titration, Kjeldahls method of nitrogen estimation, oxygen flask combustion, Karl Fischer titration, Determination of alcohol in galenicals. Reference books: 1. A. H. Beckette and J. B. Stanelake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol I andII, The Athlone press, University of London. 2. Skoog, Holler, Nieman; Principles of Instrumental Analysis 3. Vogels, Textbook of Chemical Analysis. 4. K. A. Conners, A, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Intersciences, NY. 5. A. V. Kasture, S. G. Wadodkar, Mahadik K. R., More H. N. Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol. I and II), Nirali Prakashan. 6. Ashutosh Kar, Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis, New Age International publication 7. Garret, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 8. Higuchi and Hanssen- Pharmaceutical Analysis (Intersciences). 9. Ewing, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis. 10.H. H. Willard, Instrumental Methods of Analysis. 11.G. L. Jenkins, J. E. Christian, G. P. Hager, Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 12.IP, BP, USP

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS- II 3P-3 1. Assay of Dextrose injection IP 2. Determination of refractive indices of some fixed / volatile oils 3. Determination of glycerin in solution / critical micelle conc of butyric acid by refractometry 4. Calibration of wavelength and absorbance scale of uv-vis spectrophotometer, 5. Location of max, determination of molar absorptivity and specific absorptivity, verification of Beers law 6. Effect of solvent / pH on max. 7. Assay of Albendazole tablet IP 8. Assay of Riboflavin tablet / Vit. B-12 injection IP
9. Assay of sulphacetamide eye drop by colorimetry

10.Determination of binary mixture by uv-vis spectrometry 11.Fluorimetric determination of quinine sulphate / Riboflavin.
12. Determination of Na+ / K+ by flame photometry.

13.Calibration of pH meter and determination of pH 14.Determination of concentration and pKa value of acetic acid using pH meter. 15.Assay of sodium phosphate IP (potentiometrc titration) 16.Determination of ferrous salt by potentiometry 17.Calibration of conductometer and determiation of conductivity of water.

18.Determination of weak and strong acid in a mixture by conductometric titration. 19.Estimation of boric acid by conductometric titration. 20.Experiments based on polarography 21. Demonstration experiments: preparation KBr pellets of drug sample, recording IR spectra and comparison with standard spectra in IP / BP(Identification test). Assignment of important absorption bands. Reference books: 1. Beckette and J. B. Stanelake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol I andII, The Athlone press, University of London. 2. Skoog, Holler, Nieman; Principles of Instrumental Analysis 3. Vogels, Textbook of Chemical Analysis. 4. A. Conners, A, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Intersciences, NY. a. V. Kasture, S. G. Wadodkar, Mahadik K. R., More H. N. Pharmaceutical Analysis (Vol. I and II), Nirali Prakashan. 5. Ashutosh Kar, Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis, New Age International publication 6. Garret, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 7. Higuchi and Hanssen- Pharmaceutical Analysis (Intersciences). 8. Ewing, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis. 9. Willard, Instrumental Methods of Analysis. 10.Jenkins, J. E. Christian, G. P. Hager, Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 11.IP, BP, USP

PHARMACOLOGY III 3T-5 60 Hours

Study of Pharmacological action of following classes of drug with respect to classification of recently available drugs, mechanism of action, receptors, Adverse effects, contra-indications, therapeutic uses and dosages with brief study of Pathophysiology of related disorders 1 Pharmacology of drug acting on CNS A. Introduction : cell signaling, neurotransmission, Central neurotransmitters B. Alcohol and alcoholism C. General anesthetics D. Sedative hypnotics E. Anticonvulsants F. Psychopharmacological agents(antipsychotics,antidepressants, anxiolytic ) G. Drug dependence and drug abuse H. CNS stimulants I. Anti-parkinsonian drugs J. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents 2 Pharmacology of local anesthetics

3 Autacoids and their blockers 4 Pharmacology of drug acting on endocrine systems A. Hypoglycemic B. Adrenocorticoids, anabolic steroids and fertility agents C. Antithyroid agents 5. Pharmacology of drugs acting on Respiratory system A. drug therapy of asthma B. therapy of Cough 6. Pharmacology of drugs acting on GIT A. Drugs used in Ulcers B. Laxative and purgative C. Emetic and anti-emetics

7 Bio-Assay Scope, Principle, Design of official bioassays. . Recommended Books : 1. Brar F. S. K.Essentials of Pharmacotherapentics 2nd Ed. S Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 2. Katzuny B.G.Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 6th Ed Prentice Hall International Inc. London. 3. Satoskar R. S. and Bhandarkar S.Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 19 ed
4. Popular Prakashan Pri. Ltd., Mumbai

5. Rosenteld, G.C., Loose Mitchell and Jones J.B.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins U.S.A. 6. Board Review Series Pharmacology 3rd Ed.
7. Rang,H.R. Dale, M.Pharmacology 2nd Ed. E.L.B.S., London

8. Brunton L. L.and Others Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11 ed. Mc Graw Hill Medical Pub. Div . New York.
9. Girdwood R.H. Clinical Pharmacology 25th Ed Varghese Publishing

House, Bombay
10. Gandhi T.P., Goyal R.K. and Mehta A.A. Derasari and Gandhi

Elements of Pharmacology 11th Ed.B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad


11. Crossland,James Lewis`s Pharmacology 5th Ed. Churchill Livingtone

New York 12.Aviado, Doningo M Krantz and Carrs Pharmacologic Principles of Medical Practice 13.7th Ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, U.S.A.

PHARMACOLOGY III 3P-4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.


15.

Different route of drug administration General introduction to CNS experimental pharmacology (animals and their use) To study the Analgesic activity of some drugs on tail flick apparatus in rats. To study the Analgesic activity of some drugs on hot plate analgesiometer in rats. To study the anti-inflammatory activity of some drugs on plethysmometer in rats. To study the Anticonvulsant activity of some drugs by using electroconvulsive meter in mice To study the hypnotic activity by using pentobarbital induce loss of righting reflex in mice To study the antipyretic activity of some drugs by using telethermometer To study the antidepressant activity of some drugs using mouse forced swim test To study the anxiolytic activity of some drugs. To study the CNS stimulant activity of some drugs using Actophotometer To study the CNS Depressant activity of some drugs using Actophotometer To study the antiparkinsonsonism activity of some drugs using catalepsy model in mice induced by haloperidol To determine the category of unknown drug using above models To study antihistaminic activity using histamine aerosol model To introduce, demonstrate and practice experiment using computer simulation CDs.

Recommended Books : 1. Kulkarni, S. K. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi) 2. Ghosh, M.N. : Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, (Scentific book Agency, Calcutta).

3. Sheth, U.K. Dadkar, N.K. and Kamat, U.G. Selected Topics in Experimental Pharmacology (Kothari book Depot, Bombay) 4. Perry, W.L.M. Pharmacological Experiments on Isolated preparations (EandS Livingstone, London) 5. Lawarence, D. R. and Bacharach, A.L. : Evaluation of Drug Activities : Pharmacometrics (Academic press, London) 6. Turner R.A. : Screening Methods in Pharmacology (Academic Press, London)

PHARMACOGNOSY ANDPHYTOCHEMISTRY -II 3T- 6 60 Hours 1. Extraction, isolation and purification methods of

phytopharmaceuticals for preparation of standardized extract : a. Extraction Theory of mass transfer, Maceration, Percolation, Soxhlet extraction and Super critical fluid extraction b. Isolation and purification Column chromatography, Paper Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Gas Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography. 2. Various methods used for evaluation of crude drugs: a. Morphological methods, Microscopical methods, Physical methods, Chemical methods, Pharmacological methods and other miscellaneous methods b. WHO standards for crude drugs, Study of different methods used for the standardization of crude drugs, standardized extracts and pure phytopharmaceuticals. 3. Model examples of structure elucidation of natural products by physical methods e.g. Camphor 4. Essential oils a. Introduction, biosynthetic pathways, general properties, chemical nature, chemical tests, chemistry, physical, chemical properties ,classification, general methods of isolation and analysis of volatile oils b. Pharmacognostic study of drugs from following classes of crude drugs:

i.

Hydrocarbon containing volatile oils- Pepper, Turpentine ii. Alcohol containing volatile oils - Peppermint, Spearmint, Cardamom, Coriander, Pine, Sandalwood

iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

Aldehyde containing volatile oils - Cinnamon, Lemon grass, Citronella, Lemon peel Ketone containing volatile oils - Camphor, Spearmint, Caraway, Dill Phenol containing volatile oils Clove, Ajowan, Tulsi Phenolic Ether containing volatile oils- Anise, Fennel, Myristica Oxide containing volatile oils - Eucalyptus Ester containing volatile oils - Lavender oil and Gaultheria oil 5. Resins a. Introduction, Biosynthetic pathways, Chemistry, Physical and Chemical properties, Method of isolation and Classification b. Pharmacognostic study of drugs from following classes of drug Resins - Colophony, Cannabis, Podophyllum, Jalap, Benzoin, Tolu balsam, Peru balsam, and Storax Gum resins - Gamboage Oleo-gum - resin: Myrrh, Guggul, Boswellia and Asafoetida Oleoresins - Turpentine, Capsicum, Ginger and Turmeric 6. Fixed oils, fats, and waxes a. Introduction, Biosynthetic pathways, Chemistry, Physical, b. General methods of preparation of various drugs c. Physiochemical parameters and Pharmacopoeial Standards d. Standardization and quality control of lipids Chemical properties and Classification

e. Pharmacognostic study drugs

of drugs from following classes of

Fixed oils: Castor oil, Linseed oil, Olive oil, Peanut oil, Soyabean oil, Sesame oil, Cottonseed oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Primrose oil, Cod liver oil, Shark liver oil. Fats: Lanolin, Lard, Suet, Theobroma oil, Cocoa butter, Sitosterol, Cholesterol Waxes: Beeswax, Spermaceti, Carnauba wax 7. Natural sweeteners a. Introduction and classification i. ii. Nutritive sweeteners - Sorbitol, Mannitol Nonnutritive sweeteners - Stevioside, Neohesperidin,

dihydrochalcone, glycyrrihizin, Thaumatin, Sucralose

8. Pesticides of natural origin: a. Introduction and Classification of pesticides b. Studies of following Drugs i. Insecticides : Pyrethrum, Tobacco, Neem products ii. Rodenticides : Squill, Nuxvomica iii. Fungicides : Neem Products iv. Molluscicides : Phytolacca spp. v. Antifeedants: Neem Products
vi. Attractants: Musca domestica

vii. Repellents: Cymbopogon Spp, Neem Products 9. Plant allergens

a. General introduction and Classification of allergens b. Studies of following Drugs i. Inhalants : Pollen grains, Fungal Spores, Dust ii. Ingestants: Food, Food additives, and Fruits iii. Injectants: Antibiotics iv. Contactants: Parthenium v. Infestants: Microorganisms 10.Marine drugs Introduction, Classification of Marine drugs and Studies of following Drugs: Antiviral agents; Antiparsitic agents; Anticancer agents; Cardivascular drugs; Marine toxins Reference books: 1. Trease, G.E. and Evans,W.C.,Pharmacognosy,; W.B. Saunders Co.Ltd. Harcourt Publishers Ltd. UK. 2. Textbook of Pharmacognosy T.E.Wallis, CBS Publishers and distributors New Delhi. 3. Pharmacognosy L.R.Brady; V.E.Tyler; and Robbers J.E.; Lea and Febiger Philadelphia USA. 4. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Part I and II - V.D.Rangari; Career Publications, Nashik . 5. Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants, - C.K.Atal and B.M.Kapur; R.R.L. Jammu. 6. Cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants, - C.K.Atal and B.M.Kapur; R.R.L. Jammu.

7. Official Methods of Analysis; Association of Official Analytical Chemists publication, Washington; New York. 8. Standardization of Botanicals V.Rajpal ; Vol I and II ; Eastern Publishers New Delhi. 9. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography P.D. Sethi; CBS Publisher and distributors, New Delhi. 10.Pharmacognosy C.K.Kokate; S.B.Gokhale; A.P.Purohit; Nirali Prakashan Pune. 11.Secondary Plant Metabolism M.P. Vickery and B. Vickery; Basingstoke, Macmillan.
12. Advances in Natural Product Chemistry: Extraction and Isolation of

Biologically Active Compounds. S. Natori, et al; Wiley; New York. 13.The Essential Oils Earnest Gaunther Vol I IV ;Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York. 14.Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II S.S.Handa RRL Jammu Tawi; and IDMA Mumbai.
15. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II Ministry of Health ,Government

of India,

New Delhi.

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY II 3P- 5 1. Isolation of fixed oils by solvent extraction. 2. Determination of Acid value, Saponification value, Iodine value of fixed oils. 3. Determination of the leaf constants ( Palisade ratio, vein-islet no, vein termination number, stomatal no and stomatal index) 4. Determination of LOD and water (moisture) content of acacia by toluene distillation method. 5. Determination of the percentage of volatile oil in eucalyptus leaves by hydro distillation method. 6. Determination of balsamic acid in balsams 7. Estimation of citral content of lemon grass oil 8. Estimation of carvone content of dill oil 9. Estimation of cineole content of eucalyptus oil 10.Isolation of eugenol from cinnamon leaf oil 11. Identification of following crude drugs by morphological study and performing chemical tests 1) Asafetida 2) Benzoin 3) Balsam of tolu and peru 4) Myrrh 5) Storax 6) Colophony 7) Podophyllum 12. Study of morphological and histological characters of 1) Cardamom 2) Coriander 3) Cinnamon 4) Caraway 5) Dill 6) Clove 7) Fennel 8) Eucalyptus 9) Ginger 13.Identification and detection of sesame oil, cotton seed oil, castor oil, argemone oil, linseed oil, mineral oils as adulterant in lipids 14. Thin layer chromatography of volatile oils.

Reference books: 1. The practical evaluation of phytopharmaceuticals,- K.R.Brain and T.D. Turner., Wright-Scientechnica,Bristol. 2. Analytical Microscopy T.E. Wallis ; Jand A Churchill Ltd., London. 3. Experimental Pharmacognosy V.E. Tyler and A.E. Schwarting ; Burgess Pub. Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 4. Official Methods of Analysis; Association of Official Analytical Chemists publication, Washington; New York. 5. Practical Pharmacognosy C.K. Kokate; Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi. 6. Standardization of Botanicals V.Rajpal ; Vol I and II ; Eastern Publishers NewDelhi. 7. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II S.S.Handa RRL Jammu Tawi; and IDMA Mumbai. 8. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II Ministry of Health ,Government of India, New Delhi,

PHARMACY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT 3T-7 60 Hours

1. Status Of Health Delivery System in India: Definition and role of hospital in the health delivery systems. Type of hospitals. 2. Hospital Pharmacy: Definition, functions and objectives, location, layout and flow Chart of material and men, personnel and facilities required including equipments. 3. Drug Distribution System In Hospitals a) Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted. b) Dispensing of drug to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems. Charging policy, labelling. c) Dispensing of drug to ambulatory patients. d) Dispensing of controlled drugs. 4.Hospital Drug Policy- General Consideration Pharmacy therapeutics committee-purpose, organization and functions. Hospital formulary- organization, formulary content, preparation and distribution. Pharmacy procedure manual preparation and publications. Hospital committees- infection control committee, antibiotic policy committee, research and ethics committee. Role of hospital pharmacists in hospital committee and practice of rational drug therapy. Drug exchange Programme. 5. Central Sterile Supply Unit And Their Management Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply of sterile materials. 6. Manufacture Of Sterile And Non-Sterile Products Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirement, manufacturing practice ,Master formula card ,production control ,Manufacturing records. 7. Drug Information services: Sources of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of

information, Computerized services (e.g. MEDLINE),Retrieval of information, Medication error. 8. Records and Reports: a) Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases etc. b) Application of computers in hospital pharmacy.
9. Community Pharmacy:

Concept of community pharmacy, its activities and professional responsibilities. Community pharmacies in primary health care services: family planning, first aid, communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Role of community pharmacist in health care system. Community pharmacist as health educator, role in population control and prevention of communicable diseases, as a source of drug and poison information. Patient compliance: non- compliance, reason, consequence, and compliance improvement. Patient counseling: general consideration, importance, step and procedure. 10. Management: a. Concept of management, Principles of management. b. Primary functions of management- planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, motivating, entrepreneurship development. c. Secondary functions of management: decision making, leadership, innovation, delegation authority/responsibility 11. Drugs Store Management And Inventory Control: a. Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions. b. Purchase and Inventory control, purchase procedure, purchase order, procurement and stocking. 12. Pharmaceutical Marketing: Function, buying, selling, transportation, storage, finance, feedback, information, Channels of distribution, wholesale, retail, departmental store, multiple shop and mail order business. 13. Salesmanship;

Principles of sales, Promotion, advertising, ethics of sales, merchandising, literature, detailing, recruitment, training, evaluation, compensation to the pharmacist. 14. Production management: A brief exposure of the different aspect of production management: Visible and Invisible inputs, methodology of activities performance evaluation technique, process-flow, process know-how, maintenance management, importance of GMP, CGMP, GLP, ISO 9000, WHO GMP, SOP, SCP and its relation to quality of Pharmaceutical Products. 15. Accountancy: Principles of accountancy ledger posting and book entries, preparation of trial balance, Columns of cashbook, profit and loss account, balance sheet, bills of exchange, promissory note and hundies, documentary bills. 16. Economics: Priciples of economics with special reference to the laws of demand and supply, demand schedule, demand curves, labour welfare, general principles of insurance and foreign trade, procedure of exporting and importing goods.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR HOSPITAL PHRMACY: 1. Text Book of Hospital Pharmacy-S.H.Merchant and Quadry 2. Text Book of Hospital Pharmacy: Mc Allwood and J.T. Fell 3. Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy: Pratibha Nand and R. K. Khar 4. Hospital Pharmacy: Williams E.Hassan 5. Pharmacy practice: A.L. Werthimer and M.C. Smith. 6. Hospital pharmacy: A.T.Wood and Florence 7. Pharmaceutics and pharmacy practice: A.J. Winfield and R.M.E. Richards.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR MANAGEMENT 1 Management: A global perspective By Heinz Weihrich, Harold Koontz, Tata McGraw Hill International Edition Tenth Edition. 2 Principles of management , By P.C Tripathi, PN Reddy, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 3 Pharmaceutical marketing in India, By Subba Rao, Asian Institute of pharmaceutical Marketing, Hyderabad 1998 Edition 4 Principles of pharmaceutical marketing, By Mickey C Smith, CRS Publishers and Distribution, New Delhi, 3rd Edition. 5 Pharmaceutical marketing in 21st century, By Mickey C Smith, , Viva Book Pvt Ltd, 2001 6 Quality Assurance of pharmaceuticals, Compendium of Guideline and related materials, Vol I, WHO Publications, Geneva. 7 WHO Expert Committee on Specification for Pharmaceutical preparation 13th. 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 34th Report. 8 Management by James A.F. Stoner 9 Statistics for Management by Richard I. Levin 10 Personnel Management By Arun Monappa 11 Business Organsiation and Office Management By Santhosh Bushan 12 Business Management By Dinker 13 Modern Business Correspondence by Lartside 14 Business Administration by Hall

15 Principles of Marketing by Philips Kottler 16 Personnel Management and Industrial Relation, by R.S. Davar 17 Personnel Management, by Mamoria 18 Materials Management, by Gopalkrisnan,and R.K.Rajput 19 Purchasing and Store Keeping,by D.R.Gupta,R.K.Rajput 20 Managing Drug Supply: Management Sciences for Health, by Borbon 21 Pharmaceutical Marketing by Smith 22 Establishment of a Pharmaceutical Factory, by S.P.Aganil 23 Quantitative Techniques for Managerial Decision Making, by U.K.Srivastava and S.C.Sharma. 24 Marketing Management by Philips Kottler,Tenth Edition,Printice Hall of India. 25 Marketing Strategy: a Global Perspective by Vernon R. Stauble The Dryden Press. 26 Developing Management Skills, D.A.Whetton and K.S.Cameron,New York:Harper Collins, 1995,72 27 Management: Tasks, Responsibilities practices, Peter F. Drucker, NewYork: Harper and Row, 1974,523.

Sr. No.

B. Pharm. Final Year. Subject Maximum marks Theory

Minimum Sessional Theory Total marks 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 45 45 45 45 45

4T-1 Pharmaceutics IV (Dosage form Technology) 4T-2 Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics 4T-2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry VII( Medicinal) 4T-3 Biotechnology and fermentation processes 4T-4 Pharmaceutical Chemistry VIII ( Medicinal) 4T-5 Pharmaceutical analysis - III 4T-6 Pharmacology-IV 4T-7 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-III 4T-8 Quality assurance Practical 4P-1 Pharmaceutics -IV 4P-2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry VII 4P-3 Pharmaceutical analysis - III 4P-4 Pharmacology - IV 4P-5 Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-III

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50

DOSAGE FORM TECHNOLOGY- II 4T-1 60 Hours . 1. Sterile dosage forms: Types of injections, parenteral routes of administration, large and small volume parenteral and ophthalmic, ear and nasal solutions and suspensions. Pyrogens: nature, source and elimination. Formulation development of sterile dosage forms: active ingredients, solvents and vehicles, surfactants and solubilizers, antimicrobials, antioxidants, buffers, chelating agents, tonicity adjusters. Containers and closures for sterile dosage forms. Compounding, processing, filtration, sealing, sterilization, packaging and labeling of sterile dosage forms. Quality control tests like sterility, pyrogen, clarity, safety and leakage testing. Ophthalmic solutions. 2. Aerosols: Principle, component of aerosol package-propellants (types), container, valves and actuators, aerosol formulation and different types of systems, manufacture, stability testing and quality of aerosols. 3. Optimization techniques in pharmaceutical formulation and processing: Introduction, optimization parameters, classic optimization, statistical design, applied optimization methods, computer and systems, concluding remarks. 4. Concepts and System Design for Rate-Controlled drug Delivery: Introduction, classification of rate-controlled drug delivery system, ratepreprogrammed drug delivery system, activation-modulated drug delivery system, Feed back-regulated drug delivery system. 5. Oral drug delivery and delivery system:

Introduction, Osmotic Pressure-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery Systems, Hydrodynamic Pressure-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery System, Membrane Permeation-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery Systems, Gel Diffusion-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery Systems, pH-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery Systems, Ion-Exchange-Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery Systems Modulation of Gastrointestinal Transit time, Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Dynamics, Prolongation of GI Retention, Hydro dynamically Balanced Intragastric Delivery System, Intragastric Floating Gastrointestinal Drug Delivery System Inflatable Gastrointestinal Drug Delivery System, Intragastric Osmotically Controlled Drug Delivery System, Intrarumen Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Device, Bio(muco) adhesive Gastrointestinal Drug Delivery Systems, Co administration with GI Motility-Reducing Drugs, overcoming hepatic first-pass elimination, Biochemical Approaches, Chemical Approaches, Physiological Approaches, Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery, Rectal Mucosal Drug Delivery Reference Books: 1) Lachman, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger. 2) Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London. 3) Ansel, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms and Drug Delivey Systems, Lea and Febiger. 4) Aulton, Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Desing, ELBS, London. 5) Banker, Modern pharmaceutics, Marcel Dekker Inc. 6) Gennaro, Remingtins Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. 7) Novel drug delivery systems, edited by Yie W .Chien, vol 50, Marcel Dekker Inc.

DOSAGE FORM TECHNOLOGY- II 4P-1

Illustrative formulation development, preparation and evaluation of dosage forms at laboratory scale:1. Preparation and Evaluation of matrix tablets 2. Preparation and Evaluation of oral control release formulations. 3. Drug loading on pellets and coating. 4. Accelerated stability testing 5. Preparation and Evaluation of all types of parenterals a. Solution b. Emulsion c. Suspension d. Powder ready to use 6. Preparation and Evaluation of large volume parenterals. 7. Preparation and Evaluation of ophthalmic solutions.

Reference Books: 1. Lachman, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger. 2. Rawlins, Bentleys T.B. of Pharmaceutics, ELBS, London.
3.

Ansel, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms and Drug Delivey Systems, Lea and Febiger. Aulton, Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Desing, ELBS, London.

4.

5. 6. 7.

Banker, Modern pharmaceutics, Marcel Dekker Inc. Gennaro, Remingtins Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. Novel drug delivery systems, edited by Yie W .Chien, vol 50, Marcel Dekker Inc.

BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS 4-T-2 60 Hours 1. Drug Absorption: gastrointestinal absorption, membrane physiology, mechanisms of solute transport across the cell membrance. Factors affecting drug bioavailability/ absorption: Pharmaceutic variables: dosage form factors like dissolution, disintegration time, influence of pharmaceutic adjuvants, manufacturing variables and nature and type of dosage form. Physico-chemical factors like particle size, polymorphism, pseudo-polymorphism, chemical form, Complexation, drug pKa, lipophilicity and stability. Patient variables: Age, time and site administration, GI pH, gastric and interstinal transit time, GI contents, blood flow through the GIT and metabolic consideration influencing systemic absorption. Mechanisms of drug absorption following sublingual, parenteral, rectal and topical administration. Drug dissolution models. 2. Drug Distribution: Dispopsition processes, distribution in blood, factors affecting drug distribution: Blood pH, drug pKa and partition coefficient, physiological barriers like plasma membrane, blood-brain barrier, CSF barrier, placental barrier and blood-testis barrier to drug distribution, perfusion rate to the tissue, drug-tissue binding, P-D binding and miscellaneous factors like age, diet, obesity, pregnancy, diseased state and drug interaction. 3. Plasma protein-drug binding: Plasma proteins, kinetics of binding, factors affecting P-D binding and therapeutic significance of p-D binding. Tissue redistribution and its significance. 4. Drug Biotransformation: Drug elimination processes, drug metabolizing enzymes, non-microsomal enzymes, chemical pathyways of drug metabolism: Phase I and Phase II reactions, factors affecting drug metabolism: Chemical and biological , first pass/ presystemic metabolism, biotransformation reaction and pharmacologic activity.

5. Prodrugs to overcome pharmaceutic and pharmacokinetic problems. Drug excretion: Renal excretion mechanisms, factors affecting renal clearance of drug. Non-renal routes of drug excretion: biliary, pulmonary, salivary, mammary, skin, GI and gential excretion of drugs. 6. Biopharmaceutic considerations in the preformulation stages of dosage form development. 7. Pharmacokinetics: Rates and order of physiologic processes: zero order, first order and mixed process, rate constants. 8. Compartment models: One compartment and two compartment models as applied to i.v. bolus, continuos i.v. infusion and extravascular route of drug administration. Method of residuals. 9. Pharmacokinetic parameters: Apparent volume of distribution concept and its relation to real volume; Elimination half life. Clearance: total body clearance, organ clearance, hepatic clearance, renal clearance, excretion ratio. Blood and urinary excretion data in calculation of various pharmacokinetic parameters. 10. Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: Plasma-drug concentration time profile, bioavailability studies, parameters and methods in evaluating bioavailability, bioequivalence studies. In-vitro in vivo correlations. 11. Drug interactions: Detailed study of physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities of all classes of drugs and drug products, their mechanisms, factors affecting them, their stability and chemical importance and their prevention and/ or management. Reference Books: 1. Milo Gibaldi, Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Lea and Febiger. 2. Notari, Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics: An introduction, Marcel Dekker Inc. 3. Sharjel, Applied Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Appleton Century Crofts.

4. Niazri, T.B. of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Appleton Century Crofts. 5. Rowland and Tozer, Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Lea and febiger. 6. Ritschel, Handbook of Basic Pharmacokinetics. 7. Gennaro, Remiggtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. 8. Stockley, Drug interactions, Blackwell Scientific Publications. 9. Hansten, Drug interactions, Lea and Febiger. 10.C. Hansch, Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry Vol. VBiopharmaceutics, ed. J.B. Taylor, Pergamon Press.

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND FERMENTATION PROCESSES 4T-3

60 hours Molecular biology and Recombinant DNA Technology- DNA replication. Molecular mechanisms of recombinations. Tools and Techniques of rDNA technology- enzymes, cloning vectors, gene cloning, gene library, southern blotting, western blotting, colony hybridization. Polymerase chain reaction. Preparation of rDNA. Applications of rDNA- Agricultural- transgenic plants, Medicalproteins, insulin growth hormones, interferons, immunomodulators, Industrial applications- genetically enginnered microbial, plant and animal cells. Development of hybridoma of monoclonal antibodies.

Plant Cell and Tissue Culture- structure of plant cell, enzymesproduction, isolation, immobilization. Plant cell culture techniques. Cellular totipotency, Plant tissue culture media. Production of secondary metabolites. Strian improvement in plant cells. Genetic engineering of plant cells. Germplasm conservation.Gene storage bank.

Animal cell biotechnology- Media for cultivation of animal cells. Culture techniques and types of animal cell culture. Genetic recombination in animal cells. Gene machine. And probes. Mammalian cell cultures. Human cell cultures. Human genome project.

Analytical techniques of biotechnological products- protein content data determination, amino acid analysis, carbohydrate determination, electrophoresis, chromatography, spectroscopy, immunoassay, DNA determination, detection of contaminants- chemical and microbial.

Introduction to fermentation processes. Fermenter- construction type and working. Fermentation monitoring. In-situ recovery of fermentation products- Downstream processing.

Microorganisms of industrial importance- isolation screening and strain improvement.

Fermentation media- inoculation media and fermentation medium. Sterilization methods in fermentation.

Immobilization technology- need, principle, methods- adsorption, entrapment, covalent binding, cross linking. Applications of immobilized cells and enzymes.

Industrial production methods- Ethanol. Amino acids- glutamic acid, lysine, tryptophan. Enzymes and their stabilization- amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, lactase. Vitamins- Vitamin B12, riboflavin. Antibiotics- b- lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, streptomycins. Single cell proteins. Microbial transformation- steroids and sterols, non steroid compounds, antibiotics.

REFEENCE BOOKS 1. Crueger and Crueger, Biotechnology. 2. Presscott and Dunn, Industrial Microbiology. 3. Hugo and Russel, Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 4. Stanbury, Whitekar and Hall, Principles of Fermentation Technology. 5. Singh, Biotechnology.

PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-II 4T-4

60 Hours

General Principles of Drug Design: Object of drug design, common approaches used in drug design, physicochemical properties in drug design, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR).

Methods of QSAR, molecular modeling, simple correlation equations. Computers regression analysis. Theoretical considerations of QSAR, introduction to graph theory, applications of quantum mechanics. Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD), brief introduction to combinatorial chemistry. Following topics shall be treated covering nomenclature, synthetic procedure of official drugs, uses, SAR including physico-chemical and steric aspects and mode of action of: Sympathomimetic agents including biosynthesis and metabolism of adrenergic neurotransmitters , adrenoreceptor blockers, cholinergic agents, cholinesterase inhibitors, anticholinergic agents including antispasmodics, ganglionic stimulants and blockers, neuromuscular blockers. Cardiovascular antiarrhythmics, drugs including antihypertensives, antithrombotics, cardiotonics, thrombolytics,

anticoagulants,

antianginals, diuretics.

coronary

vasodilators,

hypolipoproteinemic

drugs,

Antihistaminics, prostaglandins and eicosanoids, narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics (including NSAID). Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, hypoglycemic agents, oxytocics. Drugs acting on respiratory system Antiasthmatics, bronchodilators, phosphodiestrase inhibitors, expectorant, decongestant and antitussives Concepts and brief introduction of genetic engineering in medicinal chemistry.

Recommended Books: 1. Textbook Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Bentley and Driver, Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford. 2. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Foye, B. I. Waverly Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Wilson and Gisvold, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia.

4. I. L. Finar, Organic Chemistry: The Fundamental Principles, LPE, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 5. Ashutosh Kar, Medicinal Chemistry, New Age International(P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi. 6. Burgers Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Donald J. Abraham, John Wiley and Sons, NY. 7. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Daniel Ledincer, Lester A. Mitscher, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 8. QSAR : Hansch Analysis and related approaches by Hugo Kubiyani. 9. Practical Applications of Computer Aided Drug Design, Paul S. Chariffson (Ed) Marcel Dekker , New York. 10.Hansch, C, Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry. 11.Martindale, The Complete Drug Reference, Sean C Sweetman, Pharmaceutical Press, London. 12.Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Alfonso R Gennaro, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company, Philadelphia. 13.Fieser and Fieser, Steroids, Reinhold Publishing Co., NY.

14.An Introduction to Medicinal Chemsitry, Graham L. Patrik, Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 15.Smith and Williams Introduction to the Principles of Drug Design and Action, CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, U.S.A.

PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 4P-2 Workshop on use of stereo models for some selected drugs. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course contents like (Phenytoin, benzocaine, 4-hydroxy coumarrin, benzimidazole, benzothiazole,

phenothiazine, 2,4,5- triphenylimidazole, chlorobutanol, barbituric acid, nikhetamide, paracetamol, p-amino salicylic acid, sulphanilamide, isoniazid, prontosil ). Spectral analysis of drug synthesized. Establishing the pharmacopoeial standards of the drug synthesized.

Recommended Books: 1. Vogels Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, ELBS, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, England. 2. Advances Practical Medicinal Chemistry by Ashutosh Kar, New Age International(P) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi. 3. Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, I. R. Dyer, Prentice Hall, New Delhi. 4. Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, Silverstein, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

5.

Indian Pharmacopoeia, Govt. of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Published By the Controller of Publications, Publications and Information Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS - III 4T-5 1. 60 Hours

Introduction to a concept of quality assurance, validation of analytical instruments and methods, GLP, ICH guidelines in pharmacopoeial and biochemical analysis, ISO Guidelines, Documentation and record keeping. Quality control of raw material and pharmaceutical dosage forms Tablets, capsules, injections, lozenges, mixtures, ointments, suppositories, creams etc. Quality control of radiopharmaceutical- measurement of radioactivity, ionization and scintillation countres, radiochemical and radionuclidic purity, identification of radionuclides, radio chemical methods in analysis. Radioimmunoassay and related immuno assay techniques, ELISA technique. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Theory, instrumentation, introduction to interpretation parameters chemical shift, spin spin coupling, peak area, qualitative and quantitative applications. Mass spectrometry: Theory, Instrumentation-Single- focusing, double focusing and Time of flight mass spectrometers. Types of ions, general rules of fragmentation, qualitative and quantitative applications. X-ray diffraction: principle, instrumentation and applications.

2.

3.

5.

6.

7.

8. Separation technique: Partition coefficient phenomenon, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, counter current distribution and applications. 9. Chromatography: Introduction, classification, adsorption, partition, column chromatography, paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gel chromatography

Gas chromatography Theory, Instrumentation columns, detectors, column performance parameters, isothermal and temperature

programming modes, pharmaceutical applications. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- normal phase and reverse phase, bonded phases, isocratic and gradient elution, Instrumentation and pharmaceutical application. Ion exchange chromatography- theory of ion exchange, types of ionexchangers, applications. 10. Packaging material testing: Testing of primary packaging materials, bottles, tubes, testing of foils, permeability of plastics, burst and tensile strength. Testing of secondary packaging materials, cartons drop test, folding endurance test. Biochemical Analysis: Theoretical basis, Estimations of biochemicals and drugs in biological samples like glucose cholesterol, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, sulphonamides, salicylates etc.

11.

13. Evaluation of cosmetic products like talcum powder, creams, lipsticks, shampoos, toothpaste. Reference Books: 1. A. H. Beckette and J. B. Stanelake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol I and II, The Athlone press, University of London. 2. K. A. Conners, A, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Intersciences, NY. 3. Skoog, Holler, Nieman; Principles of Instrumental Analysis. 4. Garret, Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 5. Higuchi and Brochmann- Hanssen- Pharmaceutical Analysis (Intersciences). 6. Ewing, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis.

7. H. H. Willard, Instrumental Methods of Analysis. 8. G. L. Jenkins, J. E. Christian, G. P. Hager, Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 9. IP, BP, USP, EuropeanPharmacopoeia, International Pharmacopoeia. 10.Haftmann- Chromatography (McGraw Hill) 11.Browning- Chromatography (McGraw Hill). 12.Harold Varlley, Practical Clinical Biochemistry. 13.Shiv Narayan Sahu , The Technology of Preparation and Distribution of Drugs and Cosmetic. 14.P. D. Sethi, Quantitative Analysis of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations. 15.Juran- Quality Control Handbook- McGraw Hill. 16. Ashutosh Kar, Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis, New Age International publication.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS -III 4P-3 1. Evaluation of accuracy and precision of assay method titrimetric / spectrophotometric method. 2. Determination of drug contents in sample using HPLC. 3. Determination of drug contents using gas chromatography. 4. Separation and identification of sulphonamides / sugars / aminoacids by TLC 5. Separation and identification of sulphonamides / sugars / aminoacids by paper chromatography. 6. Determinations based on ion exchange chromatography NaCl / KCl, ephedrine, etc. 7. Testing of raw material any one drug 8. Testing of finished product any one formulation 9. Assay of folic acid tablet IP 10.Assay of iodochlorohydroxyquinoline ointment IP 11.Assay of compound sodium chloride solution / injection IP 12.Assay of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablet. 13.Assay of compound aspirin tablet I.P. 14.Evaluation of excipients : Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Lactose, etc. 15. Determination of cholesterol, glucose, creatinine, sulphonamides, salicylates, etc. in biological samples

PHARMACOLOGY IV 4T-6 60 Hours

Study of Pharmacological action of following classes of drug with respect to classification of recently available drugs, mechanism of action, receptors, Adverse effects, contra-indications, therapeutic uses and dosages with brief study of Pathophysiology of related disorders 1. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Chemotherapy of microbial infections Introduction Penicillin and cephalosporins Macrolides and amino glycosides and Polypeptides Fluoroquinolones Chemotherapy of fungal infections Chemotherapy of viral infections Chemotherapy of malaria and protozoal infections Chemotherapy of TB and leprosy Pharmacology of anthelmintics Anti- neopalstic agents

2. Gene therapy A. Introduction B. Approaches of gene therapy C. Application of gene therapy 3. Immunopharmacology A. Basic principle of immune response B. Immunosuppressants/ Stimulnts C. immuno-modulating agents D. therapy Of AIDS 4. Toxicology A. principal of toxicology B. toxicity of genetic material and cell replication C. reproductive toxicology D. treatment of poisoning 5. Clinical and Safety Pharmacology and drug use in special population

1. .

A. Concept and scope of clinical pharmacology B. Principal of drug therapy in geriatrics and pediatrics C. Drug therapy in pregnancy D. Adverse drug reaction and drug interaction 6. Clinical Research A. introduction and scope of clinical research B. Phases of clinical trials C. Documentation and role of regulatory bodies in clinical research D. Statistics in clinical research E. Safety in clinical research Recommended Books : 1. Brar F. S. K.Essentials of Pharmacotherapentics 2nd Ed. S Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 2. Katzuny B.G.Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 6th Ed Prentice Hall International Inc. London. 3. Satoskar R. S. and Bhandarkar S.Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 19 ed
4. Popular Prakashan Pri. Ltd., Mumbai

5. Rosenteld, G.C., Loose Mitchell and Jones J.B.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins U.S.A. 6. Board Review Series Pharmacology 3rd Ed.
7. Rang,H.R. Dale, M.Pharmacology 2nd Ed. E.L.B.S., London

8. Brunton L. L.and Others Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11 ed. Mc Graw Hill Medical Pub. Div . New York.
9. Girdwood R.H. Clinical Pharmacology 25th Ed Varghese Publishing

House, Bombay

10. Gandhi T.P., Goyal R.K. and Mehta A.A. Derasari and Gandhi

Elements of Pharmacology 11th Ed.B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad


11. Crossland,James Lewis`s Pharmacology 5th Ed. Churchill Livingtone

New York 12.Aviado, Doningo M Krantz and Carrs Pharmacologic Principles of Medical Practice 13.7th Ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, U.S.A.

PHARMACOLOGY IV 4P-4 1. Introduction to bioassays and biological fluids 2. Demonstration of effect of Ach using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog 3. Demonstration of effect of Ach using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog 4. Study of the CRC of Ach using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog 5. Study of the CRC of Ach using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog 6. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by interpolation bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 7. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by interpolation bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 8. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by Bracketing bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 9. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by Bracketing bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 10. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by matching bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 11. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by matching bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 12. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by three point bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 13. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by three point bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 14. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by Four point bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 15. Determination of the concentration of Ach sample by Four point bioassay method using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog. 16. Study of the cumulative response curve of Ach using rectus abdomnis muscle of frog.To introduce, demonstrate and practice experiment using computer simulation CDs. Recommended Books : 1. Kulkarni, S. K. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi) 2. Ghosh, M.N. : Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, (Scentific book Agency, Calcutta).

3. Sheth, U.K. Dadkar, N.K. and Kamat, U.G. Selected Topics in Experimental Pharmacology (Kothari book Depot, Bombay) 4. Perry, W.L.M. Pharmacological Experiments on Isolated preparations (EandS Livingstone, London) 5. Lawarence, D. R. and Bacharach, A.L. : Evaluation of Drug Activities : Pharmacometrics (Academic press, London) 6. Turner R.A. : Screening Methods in Pharmacology (Academic Press, London)

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY III 4T- 7 importance and their status Value of crude drugs and their commerce I. II. III. IV. National and international status of herbal drug industry Value of natural products and biodiversity Importance of natural products for drug development World trade and market a. General introduction to interactions and classification b. Study of following drugs and their interactions - Hypericum, Kava-kava, Ginko biloba, Ginseng, Garlic, Ginger, Ephedra 3. Different techniques involved in the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways 4. Glycosides a. Biosynthesis of Antharaquinone, Flavones, Steroidal, Triterpenoidal, Cynogenetic and isothiocynate group of compounds b. Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Physical and Chemical properties of glycosides, General method of isolation and study of drugs belonging to following classes i. Antharaquinone Glycosides Senna, Aloe and Rhubarb ii. Cardiac glycosides - Digitalis, Stropanthus, Squill and Thevetia iii. Steroidal saponin glycosides Dioscorea, Shatavari, Ginseng, Quillia and Fenugreek 60 Hours 1. Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy,

2. Herbal drug interactions

iv. Triterpenoid saponin glycosides Safed Musali, Brahmi,

Liquorice and Senega v. Cynogenetic Glycosides: Wild cherry, Bitter almond vi. Isothiocynate Glycosides: Black mustard, White mustard vii. Flavonoids Glycosides - Rutin, Hesperidin, Citrus bioflavonoids viii. Chromone Glycosides - Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga ix. Coumarin Psoralea
x. Lactone Glycosides Artemisia annua

xi. Alcohol Glycosides - Salix xii. Aldehyde Glycosides - Vanilla xiii. Bitter glycosides - Quassia, Gentian, Kalmegh, Chirata, Picrorrhiza c. Detailed method of isolation, identification and estimation of Sennosides, Diosgenin, Glycyrrhizin, Gymnemic acid and Rutin. 5. Tannins Definition, general characters, classification, general method of isolation, and chemical test of tannins, Phramcognostic Studies of drugs belonging to following classes i. ii. iii. Hydrolysable tannins - Myrobalan, Bahera, Malabar kino, Pomegranate bark Condensed tannins - Black and Pale Catechu, Butea gum, Ashoka, Tea. Pseudotannins: Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Catechins, Chlorogenic acid 6. Alkaloids a. Biosynthesis of Tropane, Quinoline, Benzyl isoquinoline and Indole group of alkaloids

b. Definition, Classification, Physical and Chemical properties, Chemical test, general method of isolation of alkaloids, chemistry of alkaloids and the Pharmacognostic study of drugs belonging to following classes: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.
x.

Alkaoidal amines - Ephedra and Colchicine Pyridine-pyrollidine alkaloids - Atropa, Belladona, Datura, Hyoscymus, Coca and Dubosia Pyridine Piperidine alkaloids - Hygrine Quinoline alkaloids - Cinchona Indole alkaloids - Ergot, Rauwolfia, Vinca, Nuxvomica and Physostigma Isoquinoline alkaloids - Morphine, Ipecac and Berberis Imidazole alkaloids- Pilocarpine Quinazolidine alkaloids - Vasaka Steroidal alkaloids: Veratrum, Aconite and Kurchi Pseudo alkaloids (Purine bases): Tea, Coffee, Cocoa seeds and Taxus baccata

c. Detailed method of isolation, identification and estimation of Quinine, Ephedrine, Andrographolides and Atropine 7. Neutraceuticals General introduction, Classification, study of Inorganic mineral supplements, Vitamins supplements, Digestive enzymes, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Dietary fibers, Cereals and grains, Health drinks, Antioxidants, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Herbs as functional foods. 8. Cosmaceuticals

Introduction to Cosmaceuticals and Role of following drugs in preparation of cosmetic formulations - Aloe vera, Amala, Turmeric, Shikakai, Reetha, Heena, Papaya, Cucumber, Sandalwood. 9. Flavoring and Coloring agents Introduction to Flavoring and Coloring agents and study of following drugs - Heena, Saffron, Annatto and Carotenoids. Reference books: 1. Trease, G.E. and Evans,W.C.,Pharmacognosy; W.B. Saunders Co.Ltd. 1996. Harcourt Publishers Ltd. UK. 2. Textbook of Pharmacognosy T.E.Wallis CBS Publishers and distributors New Delhi, 110032. 3. Pharmacognosy L.R.Brady; V.E.Tyler; and Robbers J.E.; Lea and Febiger Philadelphia USA. 4. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Part I and II - V.D.Rangari; Career Publications, Nashik . 5. Official Methods of Analysis; Association of Official Analytical Chemists Publication, Washington; New York. 6. Pharmacognosy C.K.Kokate; S.B.Gokhale; A.P.Purohit; Nirali Prakashan Pune. 7. Secondary Plant Metabolism M.P. Vickery and B. Vickery; Basingstoke, Macmillan. 8. Biosynthetic Pathways in Higher Plants J.B. Pridham and T. Swain ; Academic Press; New York.
9. Advances in Natural Product Chemistry: Extraction and Isolation

of Biologically Active Compounds S. Natori, et al ;Wiley; New York.

10.Phytochemical Methods - J.B. Harborne; Chapman and Hall, International Edn. London. 11.British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Ministry of Health and Social Services for Northern Ireland,UK. 12.Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II S.S.Handa; RRL Jammu tawi; and IDMA Mumbai. 13.Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants, - C.K.Atal and B.M.Kapur R R.L.Jammu. 14.Cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants, - C.K.Atal and B.M.Kapur. R.R.L.Jammu.

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY III 4P- 5 1. 1) 2. Study of Morphological, Microscopical , Powder chracterstics and Senna 2) Liquorice 3) Quassia 4) Digitalis Study of Morphological, Microscopical , Powder chracterstics and 1) Rauwolfia 2) Vinca 3) Vasaka 4) Cinchona 5) Kurchi 6) Ephedra 7) Datura 3. Isolation of caffeine from tea 4. Isolation of lawsone from Heena 5. Isolation of sennosides from senna 6. Isolation of tannic acid from myrobalan 7. Determination of tannins in black catechu 9. Determination of total quinazoline alkaloids from vasaka leaves. 10.Thin layer chromatographic studies of extracts from crude drugs. 11.Preparation of liquid extract of belladonna and determination of total alkaloids of belladonna 12.Paper chromatography of Tropane alkaloids of belladonna (std 0.03% w/v atropine) 13.Estimation of the content of strychnine and brucine quantitatively in nuxvomica seeds by spectrophotometric method. 14. 15. Determination of alcoholic and water extractive values of crude drugs Determination of fiber content of liquorice roots. 8. Determination of total ash, acid insoluble ash and sulpahted ash values Chemical tests of following glycoside containing drugs

Chemical tests of following alkaloid containing drugs

Reference books:

1. The practical evaluation of phytopharmaceuticals,- K.R.Brain and T.D. Turner.,Wright-Scientechnica, Bristol. 2. Analytical Microscopy T.E. Wallis ; Jand A Churchill Ltd., London. 3. Official Methods of Analysis; Association of Official Analytical Chemists Publication, Washington; New York. 4. Practical Pharmacognosy C.K. Kokate; Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi. 5. Phytochemical Methods - J.B. Harborne; Chapman and Hall, International Edn. London. 6. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol I and II S.S.Handa; RRL Jammu Tawi and IDMA Mumbai. 7. Practical Pharmacognosy K.R.Khandelwal ; Nirali Prakashan ; Pune. 8. The Microscopical Study of Drugs L.A. Kay.; Bailliere Tindall and Cox, London. 9. Anatomy of Crude Drugs - M.A. Iyengar. 10.Pharmacognosy of Powdered Crude Drugs M.A. Iyengar.

QUALITY ASSURANCE 4T-8 60 Hours

1. An understanding of the concepts of quality assurance, good manufacturing practice and quality control as applied to the pharmaceutical industry quality control documentation 2. Good laboratory practice Regulations: Scope, history, description of regulations, enforcement of regulations. 3. Documentation: General requirements, equipment cleaning and use record, packaging and labeling records, master production records, batch manufacturing record, material identification systems, review of records, laboratory records, distribution records, complaint files. 4. Good manufacturing practices: an overview: Introduction, organization and personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and drug products containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports, returned and salvaged drug products. 5. Audits: Internal and external audits, GMP audits 6. Validation of Pharmaceutical processes: Process validation options, the validation committee, validation master plan, validation protocol and report. Preapproval inspection pilot plant scale up and technical transfer, stages of validation, Change control, out-ofspecifications, pharmaceutical chemicals. 7. Prospective Process Validation: Introduction, organization, master documentation, product development, development of manufacturing capability, full-scale product/process development, defining experimental programs, experimental design and analysis, summary 8. Retrospective validation:

Introduction, process validation strategies, product selection criteria for retrospective validation, organizing for retrospective validation, written operating procedures, other considerations, selection and evaluation of processing data, compressed tablet (drug a), coated tablet (drug b), soft gels (soft gelatin capsules; drug c), solution dosage form (drug d), semisolid dosage form (drug e), computer-aided analysis of data, using validation experience to set product alert limits, reliability of the validation process, selection and evaluation of packaging data, conclusion. 9. Validation of solid dosage forms: Introduction, validation of raw materials, analytical methods validation, equipment/facility validation, definition and control of process variables, inprocess tests, finished product tests, guidelines for process validation of solid dosage forms, tablets, tablet composition, process evaluation and selection, equipment evaluation, hard gelatin capsules, capsule composition, process evaluation and selection, encapsulation equipment evaluation, outsourcing implications on validation, conclusions. Reference Books: 1. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology: Editors James Swarbrick, James C. Boylan, Marcel Dekker Inc. New York- Basel- Hongkong. Vol 7, vol16. 2. Pharmaceutical Process Validation, Edited by Robert A. Nash, Alfred H. Wachter, Volume 129, Marcel Dekker Inc. 3. Q.A. manual, by D.H.Shah, published by Business horizons, New Delhi.