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Esc201A:

Introduction to Electronics

Adrish Banerjee Dept. of Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur

30 July 2012

Acknowledgements

Prof. Baquer Mazhari, EE department

Prof. A. R. Harish, EE department

Prof. Aloke Dutta, EE department

Prof. Y. N. Singh, EE department

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Outline

Introduction

Course Overview

Course Books

Circuit Fundamentals: A Recap

3

Introduction

Lectures

M W F 8.00-9.00 a.m. L7 (LHC)

Tutorials

Th 8.00-9.00 a.m. TB101-TB112

Laboratory

M T Th F 2.00-5.00 p.m. Core Labs 102

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CL 102B 5
CL 102B
5

Introduction

Instructor

Adrish Banerjee

e.mail: adrish@iitk.ac.in

Ph: 7991

ACES-305A

Department of Electrical Engineering, I.I.T. Kanpur

Meeting by appointment

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Introduction

 

Lab Coordinator

 

K. S. Venkatesh

E.mail: venkats@iitk.ac.in

 

Ph: 7468

 

ACES 207 Department of Electrical Engineering I.I.T. Kanpur

 

Meeting by appointment

 
 

7

 

Tutors

 

Section

 

Tutorial Tutor

 

Laboratory Tutor

O1

M. J. Akhtar (mjakhtar)

M. J. Akhtar (mjakhtar)

O2

Ankita Gangwar (ankgang)

Ruchir Gupta (rgupta)

 

O12

K.

S. Venkatesh (venkats)

Y.

N. Singh (ynsingh)

O13

Shafi Qureshi (qureshi)

Pallavi Athe (apallavi)

 

O14

Baquer Mazhari (baquer)

Baquer Mazhari (baquer)

O32

Rajesh Bhatt (bhatt)

Raju Ranjan (rajuran)

 

O33

Yogesh Chauhan (yogesh)

Yogesh Chauhan (yogesh)

O34

K.

Vasudevan (vasu)

K.

Vasudevan (vasu)

O35

Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava (kvs)

Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava (kvs)

O36

Vipul Arora (vipular)

Trivesh Kumar (trivesh)

O41

Sumana Gupta (sumana)

Sumana Gupta (sumana)

O42

Rajesh Hegde (rhegde)

Syed Mazahir Hussain Rizvi (syed)

 

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Marks Distribution

S.No.

Description

Marks

1.

Two Quizzes (45 minutes each)

30

marks

2.

One Mid-Semester Examination

40

marks

3.

One End-Semester Examination

70

marks

4.

Tutorial mini 10-minutes problem

20

marks

5.

One Laboratory Examination

20

marks

6.

Weekly Laboratory Performance

20

marks

9

Examination Schedule

Tutorial mini 10 minutes problem every Thursday in the first 10 minutes of the tutorial

1 st Quiz: Thursday, 23 rd August 2012, 8.05-8.50 a.m. during tutorial hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.

Mid-semester examination: Week of 17 th -21 st September,

2012.

2 nd Quiz: Thursday, 18 th October, 2012, 8.05-8.50 a.m. during tutorial hours in the respective tutorial classrooms.

Laboratory Examination: Week of 5 th -9 th November, 2012.

End-semester Examination: 19 th -29 th November, 2012.

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Laboratory Schedule

S.No.

Day of the week

Sections

1.

Monday

O2, O41, O42

2.

Tuesday

O1, O12, O35

3.

Thursday

O32, O33, O36

4.

Friday

O13, O14, O34

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Laboratory Schedule

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Course Outline

Electrical Circuits

Circuit Analysis (Nodal, Mesh, Superposition, Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorem)

Transient analysis of RC, RL and RLC circuits

Sinusoidal steady state analysis of RC, RL and RLC circuits

Transfer function and frequency response of RC, RL and RLC circuits.

 

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Course Outline

Analog Circuits

Diode and diode circuits

Power supply

MOSFETs and simple MOSFET circuits

Operational Amplifier circuits and waveform generators

 

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Course Outline

Digital Circuits

Logic gates, logic minimization

Combinational circuits

Flip flops

Sequential circuits

Counters, shift registers

Data convertors (ADC, DAC)

 

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Books

Electrical Circuits

Engineering Circuit Analysis by Hayt, Kemmerly, Durbin, 7 th edition, Tata McGraw Hill.

Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering by L. S. Bobrow, 2 nd edition, Oxford University Press.

Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering by Rizzoni, 5 th edition, Tata McGraw Hill

Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits by Agarwal, Lang, Elsevier.

 

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Books

Analog Circuits

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Boylestad, Nashelsky, 10 th edition, Pearson.

Microelectronics Circuits, by Sedra/Smith, 5 th edition, Oxford University Press

Microelectronics by Millman, Grabel, 2 nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill.

Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits by Agarwal, Lang, Elsevier.

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Books

Digital Circuits

Digital Design by Mano, Ciletti, 4 th edition, Pearson

Digital Principles and Applications, by Leach, Malvino, 5 th edition, Tata McGraw Hilll.

Digital Systems: Principles and Applications by Tocci, Widmer, Moss, 10 th edition, Pearson.

Digital Design: Principles and Practices by Wakerly, 4 th Edition, Pearson.

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Circuit Fundamentals

Charge, Current, Voltage, Power, and Energy

Ohm’s Law

KCL

KVL

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Electrical Current

The time rate of flow of electrical charge

– The units are amperes (A), which are equivalent to coulombs per second (C/s)

(A), which are equivalent to coulombs per second ( C/s) André-Marie Ampère 1775-1836 Current has a

André-Marie Ampère

1775-1836

Current has a magnitude and a direction

20
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Direct Current (DC) & Alternating Current (AC)

When current is constant with time, we say that we have direct current, abbreviated as DC.

time, we say that we have direct current, abbreviated as DC. ~ On the other hand,
~
~

On the other hand, a current that varies with time, reversing direction periodically, is called alternating current, abbreviated as AC

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Voltage

Voltage difference is a Source of current flow

Voltage Voltage difference is a Source of current flow Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827 Units

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827

Units of Voltage: Volts (V)

flow Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827 Units of Voltage: Volts (V) V + − V
flow Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827 Units of Voltage: Volts (V) V + − V

V

+

V

=

12V

flow Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827 Units of Voltage: Volts (V) V + − V
flow Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta 1745-1827 Units of Voltage: Volts (V) V + − V

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Electrical Systems are made of Voltage sources, wires and a variety of electrical elements

Voltage sources, wires and a variety of electrical elements R e s i s t o

Resistor

wires and a variety of electrical elements R e s i s t o r Capacitor

Capacitor

wires and a variety of electrical elements R e s i s t o r Capacitor

Inductor

Diode
Diode

Transformer

wires and a variety of electrical elements R e s i s t o r Capacitor

Transistor

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Electrical Circuit

Connection of several circuit elements in closed paths by conductors

of several circuit elements in closed paths by conductors Before we learn how to analyze and

Before we learn how to analyze and design circuits, we must become familiar with some basic circuit elements.

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Resistance

Resistance v ( t ) = R × i ( t ) Ohm’s law The constant,

v (t )= R × i(t)

Ohm’s law

The constant, R, is called the resistance of the component and is measured in units of Ohm (Ω)

The constant, R, is called the resistance of the component and is measured in units of

Resistor Symbol:

R

The constant, R, is called the resistance of the component and is measured in units of
The constant, R, is called the resistance of the component and is measured in units of

25

Conductance v ( t ) v (t )= R × i(t) i ( t )
Conductance
v ( t )
v (t )= R × i(t)
i
(
t
)
=
=
G
×
v
(
t
)
R
G = 1/R is called conductance and its unit
is Siemens (S)
Ernst Werner von Siemens
1816-1892
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v R = i i G = v 27
v R = i i G = v
v
R
=
i
i
G
=
v

27

Ohm’s law

v (t )= R × i(t )

Any electrical element which obeys ohms law can be modeled as a resistor

Can we model an electric bulb as a resistor?

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Electric Bulb

29
29

Electric Bulb

Electric Bulb Even though characteristics are non-linear, over a certain range, the bulb can be thought

Even though characteristics are non-linear, over a certain range, the bulb can be thought of as a resistor

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Power and Energy 12V Q The charge loses energy = Q x 12 Joules X
Power and Energy
12V
Q
The charge loses energy = Q x 12 Joules
X
This energy is taken from the voltage
source and delivered to the circuit
element
0V
A charge of 1 coulomb receives or delivers an energy of
1 joule in moving through a voltage of 1 volt.
dw
v =
dq
31

Power:

v =

dw

dq

dw

=

dt

i =

dq

dt

dw dq

dq

dt

t 2 dw P ( t ) = ⇒ w = ∫ p ( t
t
2
dw
P
(
t
)
=
w
= ∫
p
(
t
)
dt
dt
t
1

32

()

P t

=

=

v(t)i(t)

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Power V 1 I P =(V − V )× I 1 2 X V 2
Power
V 1
I
P =(V − V )× I
1
2
X
V 2
If V 1 > V 2 then P is positive and it means that power is being
delivered to the electrical element X
If V 1 < V 2 then P is negative and it means that power is being
extracted from the electrical element X.
X is a source of power !
33

Note on the direction of current

X
X
X

X

X

2A

X
X
X
X

X

X
Note on the direction of current X 2A X -2A Similarly for the voltage between two

-2A

Similarly for the voltage between two points

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Examples 12V P = ? 1A X P = ( V − V ) ×
Examples
12V
P =
?
1A
X
P
=
(
V
V
)
×
I
1
2
=
(1 2
6 )
× =
1
6 W
6V
12V
P =
?
1A
P
=
(
V
V
)
×
I
X
1
2
=
(1 2 6 )
×− =−
1
6 W
6V
35
P =
?
6V
1A
P
=
(
V
V
)
×
I
X
1
2
=
(6 12)
×− =
1 6 W
12V
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8/8/2012 There is only one battery in the circuit. Can you find which element is a

There is only one battery in the circuit. Can you find which element is a battery?

- + + - + + + 1 A 1 A 2.5 V 2.5 V
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
1 A
1 A
2.5 V
2.5 V
5 V
2 A
-
-
-

2.5 V

2.5 V

A battery is a source of power, so P is negative

Answer is C

Is energy conserved in this circuit?

37

Answer is C Is energy conserved in this circuit? 3 7 Power dissipated in a Resistor

Power dissipated in a Resistor

+ i v R -
+
i
v
R
-
circuit? 3 7 Power dissipated in a Resistor + i v R - v = i

v = i × R

7 Power dissipated in a Resistor + i v R - v = i × R

P = v × i

7 Power dissipated in a Resistor + i v R - v = i × R

P = i

2

× R

2 v P = R
2
v
P =
R
v i = R
v
i =
R

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Circuit Analysis

R 1 R 3 R 2 V S R 4 I X
R 1
R 3
R 2
V S
R 4
I X

Procedure:

What is current in R 2 ?

Use Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's Current law (KCL) to transform the circuit into a set of equations whose solution gives the required voltage or current value 39

Engineering Analysis

Real-life System Fuse Abstract Model Mathematical problem Fuse 40
Real-life System
Fuse
Abstract Model
Mathematical
problem
Fuse
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Nodes and loops

Node: A point where 2 or more circuit elements are connected.

R 1 R 3 R 2 V S R 4 I X
R 1
R 3
R 2
V S
R 4
I X

41

A loop is formed by tracing a closed path through circuit elements without passing through any intermediate node more than once

R 1 R 3 R 2 V S R 4 I X
R 1
R 3
R 2
V S
R 4
I X

This is not a valid loop !

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Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Sum of currents entering a node is equal to sum of currents leaving a node

Current Law (KCL) Sum of currents entering a node is equal to sum of currents leaving

i 1

+ i

2

= i

3

43

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Net current entering a node is zero

N

1

i

j = 0

Current entering a node is considered negative and current leaving a node is considered as positive

a node is considered negative and current leaving a node is considered as positive − i

i i + i = 0

1

2

3

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i = i 3 4 i = 4 A i =− 2 A 45 a
i
= i
3
4
i
= 4 A
i
=− 2 A
45
a
b
i c =− 8 A 46

i

c =− 8 A

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KCL: More general formulation

The sum of currents entering/leaving a closed surface is zero.

i 1
i 1

i 2

R 1 R 3 R 2 V S R 4 I X
R 1
R 3
R 2
V S
R 4
I X

i i i + i = 0

1

2

3

4

47

i 3 3

i 3 i 4

i 4

Series Circuit

Two elements are connected in series if there is no other element connected to the node joining them

there is no other element connected to the node joining them A, B and C are

A, B and C are in series

The elements have the same current going through them

i a

= i

b

= i

c

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A a n d B a r e i n s e r i e

A and B are in series

E, F and G are in series

49

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

The algebraic sum of the voltages equals zero for any closed path (loop) in an electrical circuit

Voltage Law (KVL) The algebraic sum of the voltages equals zero for any closed path (loop)

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Example

Example 51
Example 51
Example 51
Example 51

51

KVL and Conservation of Energy

V 1

V 2

KVL and Conservation of Energy V 1 V 2 Q X The charge loses energy =

Q

X

The charge loses energy = Q x (V 1 -V 2 ) Joules

Q X The charge loses energy = Q x (V 1 -V 2 ) Joules Energy

Energy gained

Energy lost

KVL: law of conservation of Energy

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Parallel Circuits

Two elements are connected in parallel if both ends of one element are connected directly to corresponding ends of the other

are connected directly to corresponding ends of the other A and B are connected in parallel

A and B are connected in parallel

D, E and F are connected in parallel

53

The voltage across parallel elements are equal (both magnitude and polarity)

The voltage across parallel elements are equal (both magnitude and polarity) v a = v =−

v a

= v =−v

b

c

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Example − 3 − 5 + v = 0 ⇒ v = V 8 c
Example
3
5
+ v =
0
⇒ v = V
8
c
c
− v − −
( 10)
+ v =
0
⇒ v =− V
2
c
e
e
55
Use KVL , KCL and Ohm’s law to solve the given problem
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Use ohm’s law :

v = I x R

+ - v 1 i 1 = ? + + + 0.5A 1A v 2
+
-
v 1
i 1 = ?
+
+
+
0.5A
1A
v
2 =5V
5V
5V
-
-
-

= 2.5A

Apply KCL at the indicated node

i

1

0.5

1

1

− − =

0

1

v

1

= i × 5 = 12.5V

1

 

i

node i 1 − 0.5 1 1 − − = 0 ⇒ 1 v 1 =

57