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THE BLASTER’S GUIDE

COMMON FORMULAS USED FOR BLAST DESIGN

BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Absolute Bulk Strength (ABS) .................................................................................... 8


Absolute Weight Strength (AWS) ................................................................................ 8
Actual Scaled Distance ............................................................................................ 8
Base-Charge Length ............................................................................................... 8
Burden .................................................................................................................. 9
Deck Stemming ...................................................................................................... 9
-For Dry Holes
-For Wet Holes
Face Height ........................................................................................................... 9
Hole-to-Hole Delay Time .......................................................................................... 9
Loading Density .................................................................................................... 10
Maximum Charge Weight per Delay .......................................................................... 10
Minimum Distance.................................................................................................. 10
Powder Factor ...................................................................................................... 10
-Volume of Rock Input
-Weight of Rock Input
Pre-Splitting Formulas for Air-Decked Charges .......................................................... 11
-Spacing of Air-Decked Charges
-Weight of Air-Decked Charges
-Stemming Column Length
Pre-Splitting Formulas for De-Coupled Charges ......................................................... 11
-Linear Charge Weight
-Spacing between Pre-Split Holes
Pressure Formula .................................................................................................. 11
Relative Weight Strength (RWS) ............................................................................... 12
Resistance Formulas ............................................................................................. 12
-For Paralle Circuits
-For Series Circuits
Row-to-Row Delay Time ......................................................................................... 12
Stone Stemming Particle Size .................................................................................. 12
Spacing ............................................................................................................... 13
-Instant
-Delayed
Sub-Drilling .......................................................................................................... 13
“Supersonic” Face Velocity ..................................................................................... 13
Top-Stemming Length ........................................................................................... 13
Water Displacement .............................................................................................. 14
Weight of Rock per Blast Hole ................................................................................. 14
Vibration Level Prediction ....................................................................................... 14
-Peak Particle Velocity Prediction
-Site Specific Ground Transmission Constant
Volume of Rock per Blast Hole ................................................................................ 14

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

HOW TO READ FORMULAS

FORMULA NAME Base-Charge Length Formula

FORMULA
Eb � �� 0.3 � 0.5 � � B � � J
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

Variables used in formula and required units in VARIABLES and [UNITS]


[brackets]. If input variables are not in required
units, then you must use the unit conversion tables. E b = Length of base charge of high density
explosives [ft]
B = Average burden [ft]
J = Sub-drilling depth [ft]
Absolute Bulk Strength (ABS)

Acutual Scaled Distance Formula


ABS E � AWSE � dE

VARIABLES and [UNITS] Actual Scaled Distance

ABS E = Absolute bulk strength of the explosive D


SD �
[cal/cc] W
AWS E = Absolute weight strength of the explosive
[cal/g]
d E = Density of the explosive [g/cm 3 ] Maximum Charge Weight per Delay
2
� D �
W �� �
Absolute Weight Strength (AWS) � SD �

Minimum Distance
RBS E � 7 . 462
AWS E � D � SD � W
dE
VARIABLES and [UNITS]
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

AWS E = Absolute weight strength of the explosive


SD = Scaled distance factor
[cal/g]
W = Charge weight per delay [ lb ]
RBS E = Relative bulk strength of the explosive
[ANFO = 100] D = Distance [ft]
d E = Density of the explosive [g/cm 3 ]

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Burden Formula

Hole-to-Hole Delay Time Formula


� �d � �
B � De � ��2 � � e � � 1.5��
� � dr � �
D hth � � 0 � 5 � � S
ms/ft
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

VARIABLES and [UNITS]


B = Burden [ft]
de = Density of the explosives [g/cm 3 ]
dr = Density of the rock [g/cm 3 ] Dhth = Delay time between holes in a row [ms]
De = Diameter of fully coupled explosive column [in] S = Spacing between holes in a row [ft]

Hole-to-Hole Delay Times to Improve Fragmentation


Deck Stemming Formula
Rock Type ms/ft

Sands, Loams, Marls and Coals 1.8 - 2.1


Some Limestones, Rock Shale and some Shales 1.5 - 1.8
For Dry Holes Td � 0.5 � D
Compact Limestones and Marbles, some Granites
and Basalts, Quartzite Rocks and some Gneisses 1.2 - 1.5
For Wet Holes Td � 1.0 � D and Gabbros

Diabase, Diabase Porphyrites, Compact Gneisses, 0.9 - 1.2


VARIABLES and [UNITS] and Mica Schists and Magnetites

Td = Minimum length of stone deck


consisting of particles of size Ts [ft]
D = Blast-hole diameter [in]

Face Height Formula

H� 5 10 � D

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

H = Face Height [ft] Leading underground mining technology.


D = Blast-hole Diameter [in]

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Loading Density Formula


Minimum Distance Formula

2
d l � 0.3404 � De � d e D � SD � W

VARIABLES and [UNITS]


VARIABLES and [UNITS]

d l = Explosives loading density [lb /ft] SD = Scaled distance factor


W = Charge weight per delay [lb]
De = Diameter of explosives column [in]
D = Distance [ft]
de = Density of explosives [g/cm 3 ]

Powder Factor Formula

Volume of Rock

We
PF �
V

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

PF = Powder factor [lb/yd 3 ]


We = Total weight of explosives used in blast [lb]
Loading a blast on an iron ore range. V = Total volume of rock generated in blast [yd3 ]

Maximum Charge Weight per Delay Weight of Rock

Wr
2 PF �
� D � We
W �� �
� SD � VARIABLES and [UNITS]

VARIABLES and [UNITS]


PF = Powder factor [t/lb]
SD = Scaled distance factor Wr = Total weight of rock generated in blast [t]
We = Total weight of explosives used in blast [lb]
W = Charge weight per delay [ lb]
D = Distance [ft]

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Pre-Splitting Formulas
Pre-Splitting Formulas for De-Coupled Charges
for Air-Decked Charges
Linear Charge Weight
Spacing of Air-Decked Charges 2
D
Wl �
S � �1 .5 � 2 .0 � � D 28

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

VARIABLES and [UNITS]


Wl = Linear charge weight for
pre-splitting explosive [lb/ft]
S = Spacing between air-decked holes [ft]
D = Diameter of blast-hole [in]
D = Diameter of blast-hole [in]

Spacing between Pre-Split Holes


Weight of Air-Decked Charges 2
D
S�
2.8
W � �0 .08 � 0 .12 � � S � Lh
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

VARIABLES and [UNITS] S = Spacing between pre-split holes [ft]


D = Diameter of blast-hole [in]
W = Weight of air-deck charge [lb]
S = Spacing between blast-holes [ft]
Lh = Length of blast-hole [ft]

Pressure Formula
Stemming Column Length

T � �1 .0 � 1 .2 � � D P � 0.000000233 � VOD � d E
2

VARIABLES and [UNITS]


VARIABLES and [UNITS]

T = Stemming column length [ft]


P = Pressure [kbar]
D = Diameter of blast-hole [in]
VOD = Velocity of detonation of explosive [ft/sec]
d E = Density of explosive [g/cm 3 ]

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Relative Weight Strength (RWS)

Row-to-Row Delay Time Formula


AWS E
RWS E �
91,000
Drtr � � 2 � 15 � � B
VARIABLES and [UNITS] ms/ft

RWS E = Relative weight strength of the explosive


VARIABLES and [UNITS]
[ANFO = 100]
AWS E = Absolute weight strength of
D rtr = Delay time between consecutive rows [ms]
the explosive [cal/g]
B = Maximum burden in front of a row of holes [ft]

Effects of Various Row-to-Row Delays


Resistance Formulas
Effects ms/ft

Violent excessive air-blast and back-break 2


For Parallel Circuits
High pile close to face, moderate air-blast and back-break 2-3
1 1 1 1 1
� � � � ... � Average pile height, average air-blast and back-break 3-4
Rtotal R1 R2 R3 Rn
Scattered pile with minimum back-break 4-6

For Series Circuits


Rtotal � R1 � R2 � R3 � ... � Rn
Stone Stemming Particle Size Formula
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

Rtotal = Total resistance of the electrical circuit [ �] D


Ts �
R1 ... R n = Resistance of individual blasting caps or
circuit branches [ �]
12 � 20

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

T s = Clean crushed stone stemming particle size [in]


D = Blast-hole diameter [in]

Bulk trucks preparing for another day on the job.

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Sub-Drilling Formula
Spacing Formulas

J � � 0.2 � 0.5 � � B
H H
If: �4 If: <4
VARIABLES and [UNITS] B B

H � (2 � B )
B = Burden [ft] Instant S � 2.0 � B S�
J = Sub-drilling [ft] 3

H � (7 � B )
Delayed S � 1.4 � B S�
8

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

H = Face height [ft]


B = Burden [ft]
S = Blast-hole spacing [ft]

Top Stemming Length Formula


Industry’s leading Detonating Cord

T � � 0 .7 � 1 .3 � � B

"Supersonic" Face Velocity Formula VARIABLES and [UNITS]

B = Burden [ft]
S T = Top stemming length [ft]
D min �
1.127

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

D min = In order to avoid air-blast from "supersonic"


lateral face velocity, the delay between holes
must be more than Dmin [ms]
S = Spacing between blast holes [ft]

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BLAST DESIGN FORMULAS

Water Displacement Formula Vibration Level Predictation Formulas

Lw Lc
Peak Particle Velocity Prediction
C � 2
� Dc �
1 � �� �� PPV � K � SD
- 1.6

D
� h�
VARIABLES and [UNITS]
VARIABLES and [UNITS]

C = Number of explosives cartridges required PPV = Peak particle velocity [in/s]


to rise above standing water K = Ground transmission constant [K=160 if
L w = Length of the standing water column [ft] no other seismic data is available]
L c = Length of one explosives cartridge [ft] SD = Scaled distance factor
D c = Diameter of explosives cartridges [in]
D h = Diameter of blast-hole [in]
Site Specific Ground Transmission Constant

K � PPV � SD
1.6

VARIABLES and [UNITS]

K = Ground transmission constant


PPV = Peak particle velocity [in/s]
SD = Scaled distance factor

HEET Truck on display at an open house in 2001

Volume of Rock per Blast Hole Formula


Weight of Rock per Blast Hole Formula

B� S� H
V�
W � V � dr 27

VARIABLES and [UNITS] VARIABLES and [UNITS]

W = Weight of rock generated per blast-hole [t] V = Bank volume of rock per blast-hole [yd 3 ]
V = Bank volume of rock generated B = Burden [ft]
per blast-hole [yd 3 ] S = Spacing [ft]
d r = Bank density of rock [t/yd 3 ] H = Face height [ft]

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