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Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. All living organisms are cellular in nature.

e.g. amoebas with onl one cell or human, animals, and big plants with many cells (multicellular). There are 50 to 100 trillion cells in the human body. Cell membrane: 1. protects the cell from external trauma and it contains two types of protein that are important for transporting of some items or substances 2 types of proteins: integral and peripheral Integral: can act as receptor for some substances such as protein hormones and neurotransmitters because hormones and neurotransmitters cannot show their physiology reaction without binding to their specific receptor. Peripheral: close to submembrane and separates cell membrane from cytoplasm Structure of cell membrane: head is hydrophilic (lipophobic) tail is hydrophobic or (lipohylic) Other row of cell membrane is for transporting ions, can act as channels for different ions such as sodium potassium, etc.

1. Passive transport: doesnt require energy or ATP, ions can move from higher concentration to lower concentration 2. Active transport: requires ATP for pumping of sodium and potassium; ions can move from lower concentration to higher concentration 3. bulk: a. exocytosis: encdocrine gland: produce protein hormones such as insulin endocytosis: brings large molecules for outside to inside the cell for degradation or breaking down to small pieces. The degradation process is controlled by lysozomes. Phagocytosis: means eating, digesting the large molecules,

Pinocytosis: is observed by cell of small intestine Receptor mediated: require receptor such as low density lipoproteins, function of LDL is of taking the cholesterol from blood stream, then carries to target cell, but first should bind to its specific receptor and target cells membrane. After binding to LDL, it is able to release its content which is cholesterol into its target cell Sometimes because of some genetic disorders such as mutation or alteration to LDL receptor that affects or leads to some disorder such as hypercholesterolemia (emia means blood vessel) By time, leads to accumulation of cholesterol and blood vessels and causes atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia. If abstraction occurs in blood vessels hypoexemia and if it happens in coronary artery it causes myocardial infraction. Cytoplasm Ribosomes; translation of genetic information, releasing of information for production of proteins (in rough ER). Rough protein synthesis production Smooth - - doesnt have ribosomes, not involved in protein production, instead it is involved in drug detoxification Golgi apparatus: last station of protein production, surrounds protein, secretory vesicle Mitochondria: main part of cell for production of ATP (triphosphate), 2 membranes (inner & outer). Lysosomes: breaking down of large molecules or degradation of large molecules inside cytoplasm. Releases an enzyme, can break down large molecules into small pieces for digestion. Paysaces disease; Body starts to buildup large molecules Gauchers disease: can lead to failure of spleen or failure of lung. Peroxisomes: breaking down of poisons such as alcohol. Cytoskeleton: actin is protein, muscle tissue, muscle fiberimportant for muscle contraction. centrioles