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Chapter 10 The Elements and Organization of Music Musical Notation Notation- is a system of signs by means of some of which music

is written down. The two properties of tone are pitch and duration. Notation of Pitch Staff- is a five horizontal lines with four equal spaces where musical notation is written. Clef- is a letter sign placed on the staff in order to indicate the pitch of the notes. (G clef, C clef and F clef) G Clef- also called as treble clef. Notes of the treble staff are located around middle C and above, and are usually played with the right hand. C Clef- A symbol indicating which line of a staff represents the pitch of middle C. F Clef- also called as bass clef. Notes on the bass staff fall around middle C and below, and are played with the left hand. Ledger Lines- are short lines which are used to indicate pitches which lie below or above the range of the staff. Sharp (#) - the tone is one half step higher and played on the piano one key to the right. Flat (b) the tone is one half step lower and played on piano one key to the left. Octave- is the pitch distance between any note and the next note of the same letter, either to the right or left on the keyboard. Chords- are notes on staff which are arranged in vertical position and are played simultaneously. Notation of Duration (Note Values) Meter- is a series of regular pulses, as in ticking of a clock. Time Signatures- show the number of beats to a measure. It consists of two numbers: (1) the upper number indicates the number of beats to a measure and (2) the lower number indicates the kind of note that will receive on beat. Signs Accent Mark ( or ) - it is located above a note which means to ) indicates a gradual increase in loudness. ) also called diminuendo mark,

give extra stress or play the note louder. Crescendo Mark ( Decrescendo Mark ( Fermata ( normal value. Staccato ( the sound. Legato ( ) a curved line above or below two or more notes means no silence between notes. Key Signature the group of flats or sharps appearing at the beginning of a piece. Sound *Music is an art whose basic material is sound. *The composition of music can be defined as the organization of music. *Music is the art of combining tones and silences in such a manner as to convey the emotions and ideas conceived by the composer. Tone *A sound produced by regular vibrations of air. Components of Tone: ) a dot over or under a note indicates shortening

gradually decreases the loudness. ) means holding of a or chord longer than its


Pitch- highness or lowness of a tonal sound. The faster the vibrations are, the higher the pitch will be and vice versa.

2. 3. 4.

Duration- the length of time the vibration is sustained. Intensity of Volume- the loudness or softness of tones. Timber or Quality- this property enables one to distinguished one sound from another, one instrument from another.

Organization of the Elements A dot following a note gives it an additional one-half of its regular value. e.g. Elements of Music 1) Pitch- register (high or low); Organization of pitches with a pattern of intervals between them creates scales; Words we might

use to describe scales: major/minor, chromatic, gapped, and pentatonic. Meter- it is a way of measuring durations on a fixed, regular pattern. The most common meters are duple (grouping in two) and triple (grouping in three). Tempo- is an Italian word which literally means time. In music, it refers to speed. Music may move at a fast, moderate or slow speed, and in varying degrees.

Polytonality- music in which two or more keys are combined simultaneously in a single composition. Multi-tonality- sometimes called as displaced tonality. Here, the composer rapidly shifts from one key center to another so that the entire key feeling is disturbed. Atonal- it is music that rejects the framework of key. Here, the composer avoids any feeling of key at all times. 5) Dynamics- it is when intensity is applied to a piece of music

2) Melody- the element of music which makes the most direct appeal. It is generally what we remember and whistle or hum. It has four other characteristics: a) Dimension- has two dimensions: length and range. The length of the melody is relative to the number of measures which compose it. The range of the melody is the pitch distance from its lowest to highest tone.

rather than to a single tone. 6) Timbre- it is the quality of tone. Every musical medium has its own distinctive quality of tone. 7) Texture- refers to the melodic and harmonic relationship of musical factors. Types of Texture

b) Register- is the relative highness or lowness of the aggregate tones of melody. It may be high, medium or low. c) Direction- has two direction of pitch: upward and downward. Usually, a melodic line moves towards a high point which is the climax of the melody. Non-melodic texture- created for special effects in which harmonic d) Progression- refers to the intervals between the tones as a melody moves from one tone to the next. 3) Harmony- it is the simultaneous sounding of two or more tones. It is apparent when the pianist plays the melody with his right hand while the left strikes the chords. Chord Progression- the scheme by which chords change. Consonance and Dissonance- certain combinations of tones produce a quality of repose or relaxation is called consonance while tones that produce a quality of unrest or tension is called dissonance. Diatonic and Chromatic Harmony- a diatonic harmony is one in which there are few altered tones while chromatic harmony is one in which there are numerous altered tones. 4) Tonality- is an element of music which is define as a musical property which creates a sense of gravitation toward a key or tonal center. sounds obscure or partly exclude the melodic content of a composition. Sonority- is an attribute of texture which is based more on harmonic than melodic consideration. This refers to quality richness or thinness of texture. Homophonic texture- is a single melody with chords. Polyphonic texture- is a combination of two or more melodies of more or less equal prominence.