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MANUAL HANDLING THIS SIDE UP
MANUAL HANDLING
THIS SIDE UP

Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission of New Brunswick

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Objectives

 

3

Definition

3

Why is manual handling a problem?

4

How to use this document

4

RISKS IDENTIFICATION

 

How to use the checklist

 

5

Manual handling checklist

6

SOLUTIONS

How to prevent manual handling injuries

.

.

7

Potential solutions

 

8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

.

.

.

.

.

.

14

APPENDICES

A: Iceberg theory – Your workplace statistics

B: Example of manual handling task

– Checklist sample

– Potential solutions

– Implementation

C: WHSCC regional offices

D: Copy of the checklist

3
3

Acknowledgment

Special thanks to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety and to Worksafe Western Australia for granting permission to use their graphic images.

Also, we thank all the New Brunswick employers and employees who provided feedback during the pilot phase of this document.

Disclaimer

This document represents best practices to prevent manual handling injuries and other business losses due to manual handling. Information contained in this document may change over time as new research and studies are done in the field of ergonomics. This document is not designed to replace a professional ergonomics analysis.

not designed to replace a professional ergonomics analysis. Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission of New

Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission of New Brunswick

September 1999

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

INTRODUCTION

As part of its ergonomics strategy, the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission has developed Ergonomics guidelines for manual handling. This document enables New Brunswick workplaces to identify the risk of injury associated with manual handling and to move toward reducing or eliminating these risks.

Objectives

This guide will help you:

• develop an understanding of the basic elements of manual handling;

• evaluate and analyze specific tasks that can potentially cause manual handling injuries;

• develop and implement solutions to reduce the risk of injury.

Please note: this document focuses on the handling of objects, not handling of persons.
Please note: this
document focuses on
the handling of
objects, not handling
of persons.

Definition

Manual handling includes any tasks which require a person to lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person.

lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person. lift/lower p u s

lift/lower

lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person. lift/lower p u s

push

lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person. lift/lower p u s

carry

lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person. lift/lower p u s

hold

lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carry any object, animal or person. lift/lower p u s

pull

Introduction

5
5

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Why is manual handling a problem?

New Brunswick statistics* reveal the dramatic number of lost-time injuries, days lost, and costs as a result of manual handling injuries.

Use Appendix A to calculate the total cost of having manual handling injuries in your
Use Appendix A to
calculate the total
cost of having manual
handling injuries in
your workplace.
Percentage of Lost-time Claims Manual handling 37.1% Other claims
Percentage of Lost-time Claims
Manual
handling
37.1%
Other
claims
Percentage of Days Lost Other claims Manual handling 43%
Percentage of Days Lost
Other
claims
Manual
handling
43%
Total Cost of Lost-time Claims Other claims Manual handling 38.5%
Total Cost of Lost-time Claims
Other
claims
Manual
handling
38.5%

* June 1999

Over one third of injuries are attributable to manual handling which makes the prevention of these type of injuries a priority for business, and health and safety professionals.

How to use this document

The first part of this document involves using a manual handling checklist to identify the risk of manual handling injuries. This identification process emphasizes lifting/lowering activities by assessing six factors:

See Appendix B for a complete example of a manual handling task.
See Appendix B for a
complete example
of a manual
handling task.

• weight;

• posture and layout;

• frequency and duration;

• object characteristics;

• individuals;

• environment.

The second part involves using the potential solutions section to develop an action plan to eliminate or reduce the risk of injury. The examples provided in the potential solutions correspond with the six factors in the manual handling checklist.

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6

Introduction

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

RISK IDENTIFICATION

How to use the checklist

Step 1

Select a manual handling task that has any of these characteristics:

• high rate of injury;

• workers have concerns about performing the task;

• high score on the comfort survey;

• product damage or defect is common.

Step 2

Advise and involve workers when completing the manual handling checklist.

A comfort survey is a questionnaire used to measure the discomfort levels in body parts.
A comfort survey is a
questionnaire used to
measure the
discomfort levels in
body parts.

Step 3

Complete the manual handling checklist for the task you have identified. Answer “NA” if the question does not apply to the task. Include all meaningful comments for each factor.

Each “No” answers indicates a risk of injury or a sub-optimal condition.

Step 4

For each “No” answer, consult the potential solutions for examples of ways to reduce the risk of injury. Use these examples as a starting point for brainstorming solutions which can be implemented in your workplace. Involve workers in discussions concerning solutions and implementation.

Risk Identification

7
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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Manual Handling Checklist

Division/Dept.

Workstation

Description of the task evaluated

Completed by

Date

We suggest reviewing the entire document before using the checklist.
We suggest reviewing
the entire document
before using the
checklist.

WEIGHT

NA

Yes

No

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg / 51 lbs?

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg / 51
1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg / 51
1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg / 51

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg / 10 lbs?

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg / 10
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg / 10
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg / 10

Comments:

POSTURE AND LAYOUT

NA

Yes

No

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?
3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?
3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

4. Are objects within arm's length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

4. Are objects within arm's length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
4. Are objects within arm's length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
4. Are objects within arm's length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and arms freely?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?
6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?
6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

Comments:

FREQUENCY AND DURATION

NA

Yes

No

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?
7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?
7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?
8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?
8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking) at least once an hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)

Comments:

OBJECT CHARACTERISTICS

NA

Yes

No

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length 40 cm / 16 in and height 30 cm / 12 in), balanced, and stable?

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm / 16 in and
10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm / 16 in and
10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm / 16 in and

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?
11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?
11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

Comments:

INDIVIDUALS

NA

Yes

No

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?
12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?
12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

13. Does the worker's clothing allow safe manual handling?

13. Does the worker's clothing allow safe manual handling?
13. Does the worker's clothing allow safe manual handling?
13. Does the worker's clothing allow safe manual handling?

Comments:

ENVIRONMENT

NA

Yes

No

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?
14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?
14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?
15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?
15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

Comments:

noise and airflow appropriate for the worker? Comments: 8 Risk Identification A blank copy of the
8
8

Risk Identification

A blank copy of the checklist is available at the end of this document for reproduction.

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

SOLUTIONS

How to prevent manual handling injuries

Commitment and involvement of the entire workplace, from top management to line workers, are essential elements of a successful injury prevention program. The best approach to prevent manual handling injuries involves the following components.

Education

Education is a key step in preventing injury. The worker should have a basic understanding of ergonomics principles and handling techniques, and should be able to recognize the risk factors and injury symptoms. Workers should make sure that injury symptoms, risk factors, near misses, hazards, incidents, accidents, etc. are reported to their supervisor and/or to the JHSC member so that necessary action can be taken.

Management should have knowledge to assume a leadership role. This includes:

• a visible involvement;

• a policy that places health and safety at the same level of importance as production;

• assigning responsibility;

• providing authority and resources to all responsible parties, and;

• ensuring that everyone is accountable for their responsibilities.

Design

The design of the job itself (work/rest schedules, job rotation), the object being handled and the workstation (dimensions/layout) have a direct impact on the risk of injury. In order to prevent injuries, you have to consider modifying all of these aspects.

There are additional costs incurred in re-designing or modifying a task. In order to eliminate these costs, you should design it right the first time or find creative and innovative solutions to eliminate the risk of injury. Remember, workers are a great source of creativity and innovation!

Also, providing mechanical aids such as conveyors, floor cranes, carts, suspension tools, balancing mechanisms, vacuum hoists, turntables, tilt tables, etc. can reduce or eliminate the risk of injury.

EDUCATION
EDUCATION
DESIGN
DESIGN

Solutions

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Key questions

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?

is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs? Dividing the weight can

Dividing the weight can sometimes reduce the risk of injury.

Potential Solutions

The following sections provide examples of how to reduce or eliminate the risk of manual handling injuries. They do not encompass all solutions. Any one solution will not eliminate all the risks of injury. Choose the solution(s) that best applies to your situation and use it as a starting point

to improve your work environment.

Weight

Handling any weight can represent a risk to health and safety. However, the maximum permissible weight lifted/lowered established by the U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under optimal conditions is 23 kg/51 lbs.

Answering “No” to any questions in the checklist decreases the maximum permissible weight.

There are other optimal conditions not included in the manual handling checklist:

• vertical distance the object travels is less than 25 cm/10 in;

• weight is distributed equally between both hands;

• horizontal distance between the person and the centre of gravity of the object is less than 25 cm/10 in.

Increasing these distances or having unequal weight distribution decreases the maximum permissible weight.

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury: Store heavier objects at waist level. 10

Store heavier objects at waist level.

10
10

Solutions

• reduce the weight by modifying the size, shape and/or number of objects;

• select or design objects which can be held close to the body;

• minimize the traveling distance of the load;

• minimize the total weight handled each day;

• handle objects weighing more than 4.5 kg/10 lbs in a standing position;

• change from lifting to pushing, from carrying to pushing or from pulling to pushing;

• introduce team lifting.

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Posture and Layout

Task(s) should be designed to minimize:

• twisting the trunk or bending to the side;

• reaching below mid-thigh height;

• reaching above shoulder height;

• reaching beyond 50 cm/20 in (horizontal distance in front of the body).

Optimal working heights Elbow height is measured with upper arms in neutral position HEAVY WORK
Optimal working heights
Elbow height is
measured with upper
arms in neutral
position
HEAVY WORK
LIGHT WORK
PRECISION WORK
between elbow
and waist height
at approx.
elbow height
at approx. 5 cm/2 in
above elbow height

Key questions

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

4. Are objects within arm‘s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and arms freely?

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

Optimal working height is based on workers body dimensions.

Optimal working area
Optimal working area

Frequently used objects should be place within easy reach in the usual work area.

Solutions

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

Please refer to the weight section on page 8 for additional solutions.
Please refer to the
weight section on
page 8 for additional
solutions.
12
12

Solutions

• use proper body mechanics – turn by moving the feet rather than twisting the upper body;

• use storage techniques – wall brackets, shelving, gravity feed – to reduce holding, carrying, lifting, etc.;

• minimize the number of times the load is lifted below mid-thigh height;

• add posture variety by introducing job rotation and/or job enlargement;

• add posture variety by using a footrest, sit/stand device;

• provide anti-fatigue matting or shoe inserts for workers who stand for long periods;

• adjust the height of the workstation to the worker’s optimal working height.

of the workstation to the worker’s optimal working height. A turn table can help bring the

A turn table can help bring the load closer to the body.

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Frequency and Duration

Workers should use different muscle groups and vary their posture (sitting, standing, walking) every hour. The physical intensity of the work should also vary, especially for lifting/lowering tasks. Lifting/lowering less than once every five minutes is the best practice.

Increasing frequency or duration decreases the maximum permissible weight.

25 20 15 10 5 0 0.2 0.5 1 2 4 6 8 10 12
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.2 0.5
1
2
4
6
8
10
12

Number of lifts (per minute)

Duration of 8 hours

Duration of less than 1 hour

Key questions

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to

standing or walking)

at least once an hour?

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

• introduce proper task rotation and/or job enlargement;

• introduce short and frequent work-rest cycles;

• introduce task-specific exercises;

• try using large muscle groups instead of small;

• minimize the number of times the load is lifted;

• reduce the pace of the task and/or the pace of the machine or feeder;

• if frequency is very high, provide mechanical aids or automate task.

is very high, provide mechanical aids or automate task. A tilt work surface can eliminate reaching

A tilt work surface can eliminate reaching and bending.

Please refer to the weight section on page 8 for additional solutions.
Please refer to the
weight section on
page 8 for additional
solutions.

Solutions

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Key questions

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length40 cm/16 in and height 30 cm/12 in), balanced and stable?

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

Further analysis is required to assess injury risks when handling animals, persons, tools or hazardous
Further analysis is
required to assess
injury risks when
handling animals,
persons, tools or
hazardous
materials.
Please refer to the weight section on page 8 for additional solutions.
Please refer to the
weight section
on page 8 for
additional solutions.
to the weight section on page 8 for additional solutions. Handles designed with finger space Object

Handles designed with finger space

Object Characteristics

Object weight, size, shape and material can affect the risk of injury. Providing properly designed handles can increase the handling ability by up to 10 per cent. Handles should be designed to keep wrists in a neutral posture, provide power grip, and minimize contact stresses.

posture, provide power grip, and minimize contact stresses. Neutral wrist posture Localized contact stresses are

Neutral wrist posture

Localized contact stresses are produced when parts of the body come into contact with hard, sharp objects, resulting in forces transmitted through the skin to underlying structures such as tendons and nerves. Compression can be reduced with soft handle grips that spread the pressure out over a larger area.

Pinch grip

Power grip

the pressure out over a larger area. Pinch grip Power grip Poor Good Consider implementing the

Poor

Good

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

• modify the object – change shape, use rigid containers, divide into smaller objects, move center of gravity, and move closer to the lifter;

• create handles – handholds, shock absorbing handles – on the object;

• balance and stabilize the contents of containers;

• assign more people to move object/person;

• use appropriate lifting device;

• use comfortable, safe and well-fitted gloves.

Solutionsmore people to move object/person; • use appropriate lifting device; • use comfortable, safe and well-fitted

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Individuals

Regardless of all other factors, workers should always be trained for the specific task assigned. A task may be accomplished in many different ways as the worker naturally attempts to decrease his/her energy expenditure. If the individual is taught the bestuse of his/her body for a given task, instead of attempting to find it through trial and error, the potential for injury is reduced.

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

• provide education in safe manual handling principles;

• provide education in proper selection and fit of clothing;

• ensure workers are physically fit to do the task;

• provide education in the proper selection, fit, and use of personal protective equipment;

• provide clear, meaningful instructions for tasks and evaluate worker comprehension.

Environment

Environmental factors can affect the risk of injury and overall worker’s well-being.

The optimal environmental conditions are:

• temperature: between 19 – 21˚C/66 – 70˚F

• humidity: between 30 – 50%

• lighting: greater than 200 LUX/19 foot candle

Consider implementing the following solutions to reduce the risk of injury:

• add lighting to improve worker’s ability to see objects;

• use appropriate clothing for cold or hot temperatures;

• keep floor and work surfaces free of clutter;

• ensure good housekeeping in and around work area;

• identify high traffic areas and traffic flow directions, using floor markers or paint, and overhead signs;

• use mirrors and other visual aids to help workers manoeuvre safely around corners and other obstacles;

• warm up before performing task, to increase muscle strength and increase blood circulation;

• if needed, provide personal protective equipment;

• provide anti-fatigue or anti-vibration matting.

Key questions

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

13. Does the worker’s clothing allow safe manual handling?

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

Please refer to the weight section on page 8 for additional solutions.
Please refer to the
weight section on
page 8 for additional
solutions.

Solutions

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This document is based on information collected from the following sources:

AUBURN ENGINEERS INC. Design For Ergonomics, Auburn, 1997.

BIRD, Frank E. Jr. and George L.GERMAN. Practical Loss Control Leadership, Revised Edition. Loganville: Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.) Inc., 1996.

BRIDGER R.S. Introduction to Ergonomics, McGraw-Hill, 1995.

KROEMER, K.H.E. and E. GRANJEAN. Fitting the Task to the Human, fifth edition. Bristol: Taylor & Francis Inc., 1997.

KROEMER, Karl, et al. Ergonomics -How to Design for Ease and Efficiency, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

MITAL, A., A.S. NICHOLSON, AND M.M. AYOUB. A guide to Manual Materials Handling, second edition. Washington: Taylor & Francis Inc., 1997.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AUTHORITY. Code of Practice for Manual Handling (Occupational Overuse Syndrome), Melbourne: Law Press, 1995.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Ergonomics Program for Management Guidelines for Meatpacking Plants, 1993.

VICTORIAN WORKCOVER AUTHORITY. Regulations and Code of Practice:

Manual Handling, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1996.

WATERS, PUTZ-ANDERSON, and GARG. Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Public Health Services, 1994.

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Appendix A

Iceberg theory - your workplace statistics

Any organization which determines the cost of its accidents only in terms of compensation costs is looking at a very small percentage of its identifiable costs. In fact, studies have shown that the costs of workplace injuries are estimated to be anywhere between seven and 50 times the direct costs.

By using the following tables with your workplace information, you will appreciate the total cost of accidents.

Iceberg theory Your workplace Direct cost of accident per year $1 (a) Start here Building,
Iceberg theory
Your workplace
Direct cost of accident per year
$1
(a)
Start here
Building, equipment and product damage,
investigation time, and production delays and
interruptions
$5 minimum value
5
x (a)=
Hiring and training of replacement workers,
overtime, and wages paid for lost-time from
production
$1 minimum value
1
x (a)=
Total accident costs
$7
Sum column here

Use the table below to change your Total accident costsinto the amount of sales required.

Sales required to cover ‘Total accident costs’ TOTAL PROFIT MARGIN ACCIDENT COSTS 5% 10% 15%
Sales required to cover ‘Total accident costs’
TOTAL
PROFIT MARGIN
ACCIDENT
COSTS
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
5,000
100,000
50,000
33,333
25,000
20,000
10,000
200,000
100,000
66,667
50,000
40,000
15,000
300,000
150,000
100,000
75,000
60,000
25,000
500,000
250,000
166,667
125,000
100,000
50,000
1,000,000
500,000
333,333
250,000
200,000
100,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
666,667
500,000
400,000
150,000
3,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
750,000
600,000
200,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
1,333,333
1,000,000
800,000
300,000
6,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,200,000
400,000
8,000,000
4,000,000
2,666,667
2,000,000
1,600,000
500,000
10,000,000
5,000,000
3,333,333
2,500,000
2,000,000
750,000
15,000,000
7,500,000
5,000,000
3,750,000
3,000,000
1,000,000
20,000,000
10,000,000
6,666,667
5,000,000
4,000,000

Appendix A

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Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Appendix B

Example of a manual handling task – Company ABC Inc.

I– Task description:

Stacking components on a pallet

A set of heavy vehicle suspension components are stacked on a shipping pallet on an irregular basis, as orders are received. This may occur only once per week or as often as six times per day. The task is performed by one of several employees whose other duties involve general warehouse and assembly tasks. It takes approximately 20 minutes to load a pallet.

The shipping pallet is on the floor and is surrounded by storage pallets and carts. Components, some relatively light and compact, and others such as the awkward 42 kg/92 lbs springs, are removed from storage pallets or carts and are dragged or carried to the shipping pallet. Each component is then carefully placed in a standard pattern on the shipping pallet. The standard pattern provides stability during transport and consistent presentation of the packages.

The workers have had general task training and are experienced in this task, but they have not received specific training in safe manual handling.

Storage Pallets

Shipping Pallet Spring
Shipping Pallet
Spring
18
18

Appendix B

Cart

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

II– Manual Handling Checklist

Division/Dept.

Description of the task evaluated

Completed by

Warehouse

Workstation

Stacking truck components on a pallet (compiling orders)

Date

August 17, 1999

John Smith (supervisor), Bill Anderson (worker)

WEIGHT

NA

Yes

No

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs? ✔
1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs? ✔
✔

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?

✔
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs? ✔
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs? ✔

Comments:

Springs weight is approx. 42 kg/92 lbs, no mechanical aid (forklift) available for heavy components.

POSTURE AND LAYOUT

NA

Yes

No

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height? ✔
3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height? ✔
✔

4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
✔

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and arms freely?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
✔

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process? ✔
6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process? ✔
✔

Comments:

Bending over to floor level to place components on the pallet, other pallets around restrict floor space, must walk around the pallet to properly place the spring.

FREQUENCYAND DURATION

NA

Yes

No

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes? ✔
7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes? ✔
✔

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour? ✔
8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour? ✔
✔

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking) at least once an hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
✔

Comments:

Each pallet takes 20 minutes to stack, task varies with customer demand. On some days, the workload is particularly physically demanding.

OBJECT CHARACTERISTICS

NA

Yes

No

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length 40 cm/16 in and height 30 cm / 12 in), balanced, and stable?

Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm/16 in and height ≤ 30
Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm/16 in and height ≤ 30
✔

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip? ✔
11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip? ✔
✔

Comments:

Springs are awkward, heavy and very difficult to grip.

INDIVIDUALS

NA

Yes

No

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles? ✔
12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles? ✔
✔

13. Does the worker’s clothing allow safe manual handling?

13. Does the worker’s clothing allow safe manual handling? ✔
✔
13. Does the worker’s clothing allow safe manual handling? ✔

Comments:

Workers had general task training and are experienced at this task, but have not received specific training in safe handling principles.

ENVIRONMENT

NA

Yes

No

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even? ✔
14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even? ✔
✔

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker? ✔
15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker? ✔
✔

Comments:

In cold weather, the metal draws heat from the hands. Gloves offer protection but make gripping more difficult.

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

III– Potential Solutions

Brainstorming to reduce risks brought the following potential solutions.

Create or modify the design

Improve storage methods to more efficiently use racks and clear floor space.

• Investigate options for pre-packaging pallets instead of waiting for orders, to even out the workload.

• Modify cart to have a higher base to reduce bending.

Educate the worker

• Train staff in storage and use of mechanical aids.

• Train staff in manual handling principles.

Use mechanical aids which fit the worker

• Provide overhead hoist system for moving springs and heavy components.

• Place pallet on a stand for stacking at a more suitable work height.

• Place pallet on a turntable device.

IV- Implementation

In consultation with all parties (i.e. JHSC, employee, employer, following solutions will be implemented.

Short term (0 - 4 weeks)

), the

• Improve housekeeping (floor space and stock on pallets, clean floor).

• Provide initial training to staff in appropriate work practices and use of equipment.

• Gather information on options for reducing fluctuations in pallet stacking workload.

Medium term (1 - 4 months)

• Train staff in manual handling principles.

• Trial option for reducing workload fluctuations e.g. pre-stacking of some pallets in quieter periods.

• Raise height of cart base at a more suitable level.

• Investigate hoist system, and mechanism for grasping the springs during lift by the hoist.

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Appendix B

Long term (4 - 8 months)

• Install hoist system for heavy springs

• Construct/purchase fixed-height pallet stands to improve work height.

• Provide employees with further training on new procedures.

develop work procedures

stands to improve work height. • Provide employees with further training on new procedures. develop work

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Appendix C: WHSCC Regional Offices

for Manual Handling Appendix C: WHSCC Regional Offices For more information, contact the ergonomics consultant in

For more information, contact the ergonomics consultant in your region:

Grand Falls Tel: (506) 475-2550 Fax: (506) 475-2568 Toll Free: 1 800 222-9775

Grand Bay/Saint John Tel: (506) 738-4069 Fax: (506) 738-4099 Toll Free: 1 800 282-8080

Bathurst Tel: (506) 547-7300 Fax: (506) 547-7311 Toll Free: 1 800 561-2524

Moncton Tel: (506) 867-0525 Fax: (506) 859-6911 Toll Free: 1 800 222-9775

You can find more information on WHSCC’s programs and services on the internet at www.whscc.nb.ca.

Appendix C

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21

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Handling

Manual Handling Checklist

Division/Dept.

Description of the task evaluated

Completed by

Workstation

Date

WEIGHT

NA

Yes

No

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?

1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?
1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?
1. When standing, is the weight of the object lifted less than 23 kg/51 lbs?

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?

2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?
2. When seated, is the weight of the object handled less than 4.5 kg/10 lbs?

Comments:

POSTURE AND LAYOUT

NA

Yes

No

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?
3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?
3. Are objects handled between mid-thigh and shoulder height?

4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?
4. Are objects within arm’s length allowing the worker to reach them without bending his/her back?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and arms freely?

5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and
5. Is the task performed in an open space, allowing worker to move his/her feet and

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?
6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?
6. Does the worker move without twisting the trunk during the handling process?

Comments:

FREQUENCYAND DURATION

NA

Yes

No

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?
7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?
7. Does the worker perform the same lifting/lowering motion less than once every five minutes?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?
8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?
8. Does the worker use different muscle groups every hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking) at least once an hour?

9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)
9. Does the worker change body positions and movements (go from sitting to standing or walking)

Comments:

OBJECT CHARACTERISTICS

NA

Yes

No

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length 40 cm/16 in and height 30 cm / 12 in), balanced, and stable?

10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm/16 in and height ≤
10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm/16 in and height ≤
10. Is the object easy to handle (frontal length ≤ 40 cm/16 in and height ≤

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?
11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?
11. Does the object provide good handles and allow a power grip?

Comments:

INDIVIDUALS

NA

Yes

No

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?
12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?
12. Is the worker trained to perform the task, including safe handling principles?

13. Does the worker ’s clothing allow safe manual handling?

13. Does the worker ’s clothing allow safe manual handling?
13. Does the worker ’s clothing allow safe manual handling?
13. Does the worker ’s clothing allow safe manual handling?

Comments:

ENVIRONMENT

NA

Yes

No

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?
14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?
14. Is the floor surface clean, non-slippery and even?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?
15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?
15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker?

Comments:

and even? 15. Are temperature, humidity, lighting, noise and airflow appropriate for the worker? Comments: