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New Compressor Technology Trends For Residential, Commercial And Industrial Heat Pumps
New Compressor Technology
Trends
For Residential, Commercial
And Industrial Heat Pumps

Dr Eric WINANDY

Commercial And Industrial Heat Pumps Dr Eric WINANDY Institute of Refrigeration London, Thursday 6 th December

Institute of Refrigeration London, Thursday 6 th December 2012

Commercial And Industrial Heat Pumps Dr Eric WINANDY Institute of Refrigeration London, Thursday 6 th December
Main Trends & Drivers
Main Trends & Drivers
Energy OEMs Environ ment €
Energy
OEMs
Environ
ment
Which Translates in Compressors For Heat Pumps Trends… Ener gy OEMs Env. Residential Cost –
Which Translates in Compressors For Heat
Pumps Trends…
Ener
gy
OEMs
Env.
Residential
Cost

High Temperature, Envelope Extensions

Refrigerant Choice

Modulation

Electronics Integrated Solutions

Commercial

Seasonal Efficiency optimisation (Cooling and Heating)

Industrial

Increase of Applications Opportunities

High Temperature/High Pressure

Low Pressure Ratio Capability (Double Stage)

Heat Pump Optimised Scroll Technology
Heat Pump Optimised
Scroll Technology
Heat Pump Optimised Scroll Technology
Copeland Scroll Growth More than 80M pieces installed today
Copeland Scroll Growth
More than 80M pieces installed today
Annual Emerson Production 10 acquires (Million pcs) Copeland Launch of first residential 5 scroll «
Annual
Emerson
Production
10
acquires
(Million pcs)
Copeland
Launch of first residential
5
scroll « The answer to
increase SEER
standards »
0
Expansion > Plant franchise > Product localization
86
87
90
00
05
08
11
A/C commercial & refrigeration scrolls
Europe
Europe,US
Chlorine-free refrigerant, 10 SEER
Asia
Stepless modulation
Europe, Asia
Heating Scroll
US
2-Step modulation
Asia
China Scroll
US
13 SEER
Europe, US
VSS
Summary Application and Compressor Technology
Summary Application and Compressor
Technology
70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 Underfloor Heating 30.0 Radiator/DWH Air/Water w/Radiator Heat Source Temperature 20.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
Underfloor Heating
30.0
Radiator/DWH
Air/Water w/Radiator
Heat Source Temperature
20.0
Air
-30.0
-20.0
-10.0
0.0
10.0
20.0
Floor
Radiator
Water Temperature

Ground

Heat Pump Compressor How it works
Heat Pump Compressor
How it works
Heat Pump Compressor How it works 20 Druckverlauf ohne Ventil Isentrope Drucksteigerung Druckverlauf mit Ventil
20 Druckverlauf ohne Ventil Isentrope Drucksteigerung Druckverlauf mit Ventil Kältemittel: R404A 10 t 0 :
20
Druckverlauf ohne Ventil
Isentrope Drucksteigerung
Druckverlauf mit Ventil
Kältemittel: R404A
10
t
0 :
-30 °C
t
c :
45 °C
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Druck (bar)

Volumenverhältnis

Kältemittel: R404A 10 t 0 : -30 °C t c : 45 °C 0 0 0.2
Heat Pump Compressor Isentropic Efficiency & COP
Heat Pump Compressor
Isentropic Efficiency & COP
Standard Copeland Scroll -5% COP Heating Optimized Copeland 7 6 Std Isentropic Effy Heat. Opt.
Standard Copeland Scroll
-5% COP
Heating Optimized Copeland
7
6
Std Isentropic Effy
Heat. Opt. Isentropic Effy
Std COP
Heat. Opt COP
5
4
Standard
Built-in
Pressure Ratio
Heating Opt.
3
Built-in
+10% COP
Pressure Ratio
Operating Envelope
Extension
2
Isentr. Effy
Expanded Scale
COP

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

Pressure Ratio

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

Heating Optimization: • Improved Heating Efficiency at Higher PR, up to 10% • Larger Operating
Heating Optimization:
• Improved Heating Efficiency at Higher PR, up to 10%
• Larger Operating Envelope
Summary Application and Compressor Technology
Summary Application and Compressor
Technology
70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 Underfloor Heating 30.0 Radiator/DWH Air/Water w/Radiator Heat Source Temperature 20.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
Underfloor Heating
30.0
Radiator/DWH
Air/Water w/Radiator
Heat Source Temperature
20.0
Air
-30.0
-20.0
-10.0
0.0
10.0
20.0
Floor
Radiator
Water Temperature

Ground

Vapour Injection Circuit Diagram
Vapour Injection Circuit Diagram
m +i Condenser Solenoid Valve i Vapour Injection TEV Scroll HX m Evaporator
m +i
Condenser
Solenoid Valve
i
Vapour Injection
TEV
Scroll
HX
m
Evaporator

TEV

Better Heating Capacity (+25%) Better COP (+10%)

P More Condenser mass flow gives more heating capacity m+i P i i m
P
More Condenser mass flow
gives more heating capacity
m+i
P
i
i
m

h

SCOP calculation – Space Heating
SCOP calculation – Space Heating

Heat load in each ambient bin. All heat in lowest bin supplied by back up heater

Heat pump kW Back up heater Heat Load 0 5 10 15°C -15 -10 -5
Heat pump
kW
Back up heater
Heat
Load
0
5
10
15°C
-15
-10 -5
Hours at each ambient temperature

All heat in lowest bin supplied by back up heater

SCOP calculation Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water (58°C)
SCOP calculation
Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water (58°C)
Heat pump - space heat Heat pump - DHW Back up heater ZR Scroll SCOP
Heat pump - space heat
Heat pump - DHW
Back up heater
ZR Scroll
SCOP = 2.29
ZH Scroll
SCOP = 2.69

= +17%

ZH Scroll Vapour Injection SCOP = 3.05

Comparison of scroll types = +33% Location: Frankfurt, constant water temperature 55°C
Comparison of scroll types
= +33%
Location: Frankfurt, constant water temperature 55°C
Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?
Residential Heat
Pump Compressors
What is Next?

1. High temperatures, envelope

extension

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next? 1. High temperatures, envelope extension
Envelope ZHI**K1P Heating w/ EVI
Envelope ZHI**K1P
Heating w/ EVI
Envelope ZHI**K1P Heating w/ EVI 75 70 -10;68ºC 65 Wet VI 60 Tdischarge < 135ºC 55
75 70 -10;68ºC 65 Wet VI 60 Tdischarge < 135ºC 55 50 +25ºC 45 40
75
70
-10;68ºC
65
Wet VI
60
Tdischarge < 135ºC
55
50
+25ºC
45
40
35
5K Superheat
-30ºC
30
Max
DLT 135ºC
25
20
15
ZHI*P 5K EVI
10
Wet Injection ZHI*P EVI
5
Operation
Unlimited
<2500
Hours
Operation
0
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Cond Temp ºC

Evap Temp ºC

Wet Vapour Injection Further Extends Compressor Operating Envelope
Wet Vapour Injection Further Extends
Compressor Operating Envelope
P Superheat at point 7 m+i 2 P i i 6 7 m
P
Superheat at point 7
m+i
2
P
i
i
6
7
m

h

P Wet vapour at point 7 m+i 2 P i i 7 m
P
Wet vapour at point 7
m+i
2
P
i
i
7
m

h

Wet vapour injection discharge temperature (2) and envelope

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?
Residential Heat
Pump Compressors
What is Next?

2. Refrigerant choice

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next? 2. Refrigerant choice
R410A ?
R410A ?

Higher Heat transfer Coeffcient

Potential to reduce Evap TD in A/W

No glide:

Defrost benefit in A/W

No counter/parallel flow issue in Reversible A/W HP

No Water Freezing issue for W/W

Compactness and Cost

No need of an Internal Heat Exchanger for B/W

Potential to reduce Refrigerant charge

Pushing up the limit kW for 3kg HFC (Service costs)

Less proliferation for AC customers using R410A

What about efficiency?
What about efficiency?
What about efficiency?
BUT…
BUT…

Dew Point convention for definition of

evaporating and condensing temperature for

R407C

R410A compressors have better isentropic efficiency and this offsets the slight

thermodynamic property disadvantage.

Heat exchanger temperature differences and subcool conditions for the two heat pumps differ

because of the different fluid properties

Minimum Condensing Temp R407C ~70 Zero Press drop Dew 38.5°C 1.5K Subcooling R407C with liquid
Minimum Condensing Temp R407C
~70
Zero Press drop
Dew 38.5°C
1.5K Subcooling
R407C with liquid
receiver
R407C
35
Bubble Point 33.5
Water
32
[Pinch Point 1]
30
PHX
R407C Cond TD at W35°C = 3.5K
Minimum Condensing Temp R410A ~70 3.5K Subcooling R410A no liquid receiver Zero Press drop R410A
Minimum Condensing Temp R410A
~70
3.5K Subcooling
R410A no liquid
receiver
Zero Press drop
R410A
R410A 36.5 °C
[Pinch Point 2]
35
33.0
Water
[Pinch Point 1]
30
PHX
R410A Cond TD at W35 ° C = 1.5K
GSHP Performance Characteristics
GSHP Performance Characteristics
EVI
EVI

R410A

ASHP Performance Characteristics
ASHP Performance Characteristics
ASHP Performance Characteristics
HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance
SCOP calculation
SCOP calculation
SCOP calculation SCOP = 3.05

SCOP = 3.05

HP Seasonal Performance
HP Seasonal Performance

Meteonorm (2009) Strasbourg

Bivalent point at -2°C

Space Heating + DHW

HP Seasonal Performance Meteonorm (2009) – Strasbourg Bivalent point at -2°C Space Heating + DHW
HP Seasonal Performance Meteonorm (2009) – Strasbourg Bivalent point at -2°C Space Heating + DHW
SCOP Results Strasbourg, Bivalent -2°C 4,0 3,5 3,0 Max. Water Outlet 56°C DHW 56°C Heating
SCOP Results
Strasbourg, Bivalent -2°C
4,0
3,5
3,0
Max. Water
Outlet 56°C
DHW 56°C
Heating Only
2,5
With 20% DHW
R410A
R407C
2,0
ZH12K1P
ZHI11K1P
ZH38K4E
ZH13KVE
(EVI)
(EVI)
SCOP Radiator, Compensated
SCOP Results
SCOP Results
SCOP Results
Discussion
Discussion

Superior SCOP with DHW :

significant running hours are accumulated at high evaporating temperatures in the warmer conditions

High evaporating temperatures result in very high capacity,

In practice it is necessary to ensure that the heat can distributed without short cycling,

Future modulating compressor will be advantageous.

After R410A?
After R410A?

Lowest-GWP Available By Flammability Class & Capacity

Current

Applications

Unitary A/C

Small Chillers

Capacity

A2L Pure R32 & R410-Like 400-675 Blends R32/R1234 R410A A1 R404A-Like A2L Blends R32/R1234 1500
A2L
Pure R32 &
R410-Like
400-675
Blends R32/R1234
R410A
A1
R404A-Like
A2L
Blends R32/R1234
1500 +
150-300
R407-Like
A1
R1234
R22-Like
R407C
< 1500
Blends
A2L
A1
R1234
R1234yf
4-6
R134-Like
<600
Blends
R1234ze
R134a
0
500
1000
1500
2000

Refrigeration

Large Chillers

Refrigerators

Mobile

Source : Papers by Dupont, Honeywell, Daikin, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Electric NEDO Symposium 2/17/2010 Japan Purdue Refrigeration Conf July 2010

GWP Level

Daikin, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Electric NEDO Symposium 2/17/2010 Japan Purdue Refrigeration Conf July 2010 GWP Level
Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next? 3. Moduation-Variable Speed
Residential Heat Pump
Compressors
What is Next?
3. Moduation-Variable Speed
Variable Speed ZHW**K1P
Variable Speed ZHW**K1P
Variable Speed ZHW**K1P O-Ring Compressor Component: BPM Motor Oil pump EVI Component: Shell Fitting Dog Bone
Variable Speed ZHW**K1P O-Ring Compressor Component: BPM Motor Oil pump EVI Component: Shell Fitting Dog Bone

O-Ring

Variable Speed ZHW**K1P O-Ring Compressor Component: BPM Motor Oil pump EVI Component: Shell Fitting Dog Bone

Compressor Component:

BPM Motor

Oil pump

EVI Component:

Shell Fitting Dog Bone & O-rings

Shell Fitting Dog Bone & O-rings
Simulated Systems Characteristics
Simulated Systems Characteristics

Three Different R410A Heat Pump Solutions

System # #1 – ZH12 #2 – ZHI11 #3 – ZHW16 Refrigerant R410A R410A R410A
System #
#1 – ZH12
#2 – ZHI11
#3 – ZHW16
Refrigerant
R410A
R410A
R410A
Heating Optimised
Yes
Yes
Yes
Enhanced Vapour Injection
(EVI)
No
Yes
Yes
Permanent
Motor
Induction
Induction
Magnets
Modulation
Fixed Speed
Fixed Speed
Variable Speed

Defrost Included

Same De-rating And Scheme For All Three Systems

Fan Power Consumption Considered

Water Pump And Other Aux Power Consumption Not Included

Fixed Speed Compressors Simulation Average Climate (A)
Fixed Speed Compressors Simulation
Average Climate (A)

kW

20 18 Bivalent 16 Point 14 12 10 Back-up 8 Electrical Heater 6 Need 4
20
18
Bivalent
16
Point
14
12
10
Back-up
8
Electrical
Heater
6
Need
4
2
0

-10

-5

0

Outdoor Ambient Temperature ºC

5

10

15

Variable Speed Compressor Average Climate (A)
Variable Speed Compressor
Average Climate (A)
16 Smaller Electrical Heater 14 Or No Need At All 12 10 8 Variable Speed
16
Smaller Electrical Heater
14
Or
No Need At All
12
10
8
Variable Speed
6
Higher Compressor Efficiency
(Permanent
Magnet Motor)
4
• Better Temperature Control
• Higher Comfort
2
• Reduced Compressor
Cycling
0
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Outdoor Ambient Temperature ºC
kW
Seasonal Performance Calculation
Seasonal Performance Calculation
Comp W35 SCOP SCOP Simulation Results Comp W55 SCOP 4.5 4.4 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.7
Comp W35 SCOP
SCOP Simulation Results
Comp W55 SCOP
4.5
4.4
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.5
3.0
3.1
2.8
2.5
EVI Effect
VS Effect
2.0
Fixed Speed
Fixed Speed EVI
Variable Speed EVI
SCOP

Variable Speed Brings

Substantial SCOP Increase To The System

EVI (Enhanced Vapour

Injection) Effect Higher At Higher Pressure

Ratio (Higher Water Temperature)

Variable Speed Scroll Optimised For Higher Pressure Ratio

(Higher Water Temperature)

High Water

Temperature Mandatory For Retrofit Application

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next? 4. Electronics-Integrated Solutions
Residential Heat Pump
Compressors
What is Next?
4. Electronics-Integrated Solutions
Electronic Controlers
Electronic Controlers

Compressor operating map & speed management

Synchronised Superheat control with

auto-tuning PID loop

Vapour and wet injection control for economizer cycle (ZHW only)

and wet injection control for economizer cycle (ZHW only) • Smart crank-case heater control • Frequency

Smart crank-case heater control

Frequency management to avoid resonances

Modbus serial communication to system controller

Integrated Solutions
Integrated Solutions

Integrated Solutions in order to reduce to time to Market, Investment, Complexity while optimising

Efficiency and ensuring highest reliability

Wide Range of Fixed Speed Variable Speed Scroll & Inverter Combined Integrated Solution Solution Scrolls
Wide Range of
Fixed Speed
Variable Speed
Scroll & Inverter
Combined
Integrated
Solution
Solution
Scrolls
Drive
Drive
Decreasing
-
Time To Market, Investments, Complexity
Increasing
Efficiency & Reliability
+
Commercial Heat Pump Compressors
Commercial Heat Pump
Compressors

Seasonal Efficiency Optimisation

Cooling and Heating

Commercial Heat Pump Compressors Seasonal Efficiency Optimisation Cooling and Heating
EN14825 Considers 3 Climate Zones for Heating Warmer, Average, Colder & 1 Zone for Cooling
EN14825 Considers 3 Climate Zones for Heating
Warmer, Average, Colder & 1 Zone for Cooling
Meteonorm SW 6.1 Temp. profile of 225 Cities Averaged b-w ‘96 and ‘05
Meteonorm SW 6.1
Temp. profile of 225 Cities
Averaged b-w ‘96 and ‘05
Cooling Energy Consumption Profiles
Cooling Energy Consumption Profiles
16,000 Warmer Climate 14,000 • Based on 100kW cooling load @ 35ºC 12,000 10,000 80%
16,000
Warmer Climate
14,000
• Based on
100kW
cooling
load @ 35ºC
12,000
10,000
80% Energy
8,000
80% Energy (prEN14825)
6,000
Average Climate
4,000
80% Energy
80% Energy
2,000
Colder
Climate
0
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
kWh

Outdoor Temp ºC

Profiles Differ in Terms of Absolute Max Energy Consumption

But, Very Similar Temp. Range to Cover the 80% of the Tot En. Consumption

The prEN14825 Chooses a Single Climatic Profile (grey/black color)

Heating Energy Consumption Profiles
Heating Energy Consumption Profiles
14,000 12,000 • Based on building @ 100kW heating load -22ºC 10,000 Average Climate 8,000
14,000
12,000
• Based on
building @
100kW heating load
-22ºC
10,000
Average Climate
8,000
Colder Climate
80% Energy
6,000
Warmer Climate
80% Energy
4,000
80% Energy
2,000
0
-25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16
-15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
kWh

Outdoor Temp ºC

For Each Climate the Normative Defines 4 Water Temperatures: LT(35ºC), MT(45ºC), HT(55ºC), VHT(65ºC)

OEM’s Challenge Multiple Optimizations System Cooling Heating Season Season Cooling Warmer Average Colder
OEM’s Challenge
Multiple Optimizations
System
Cooling
Heating Season
Season
Cooling
Warmer
Average
Colder
Chiller
Rev. Chiller
Heat Pump
Rev. Heat
Pump
…and potentially, for each Heating Climate Optimization, there are 4 different
Water Temperatures: LT(35º), MT(45º), HT(55º), VHT(65º)
Primary Optimization
Secondary Optimization
Comfort Applications & Comfort Optimized Scrolls – ZH*P IE% Comfort Optimized Scroll – ZH*P Standard
Comfort Applications & Comfort
Optimized Scrolls – ZH*P
IE%
Comfort Optimized
Scroll – ZH*P
Standard
Scroll for A/C
BIPR
(R410A)
Energy Needs by Applications
Low PR
Medium PR
Medium PR
High PR
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.4
4.5
Chiller A/W ESEER/EN Fixed Outlet
HP A/W Warmer Clima (LT,MT,HT)
HP A/W Average Clima (LT,MT)
HP A/W Colder Clima (LT)
HP B/W Warmer Clima (LT, MT, HT)
HP B/W Average Clima (LT, MT, HT)
HP B/W Colder Clima (LT)
HP W/W Warmer Clima (LT, MT, HT)
HP W/W Average Clima (LT, MT, HT)
HP W/W Colder Clima (LT, MT, HT)
Low PR Improvement
High PR Improvement
Cooling:
Highest Energy Consumption
30% of Total
80% of Total
Energy Consumption
Energy Consumption
Heating:
Highest Energy Consumption

30% of Total 80% of Total
80% of Total30% of Total

Energy Consumption Energy Consumption

Heating Applications & Heating Optimized Scrolls – ZHI*P
Heating Applications & Heating
Optimized Scrolls – ZHI*P

Heating Optimized Scroll ZHI*P

Standard Scroll for A/C BIPR
Standard
Scroll for A/C
BIPR

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

(R410A)

2.8

2.9

3.0

3.1

w/ Vapor

Injection

IE%

Medium PR High PR 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2
Medium PR
High PR
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.8
High PR Stronger Improvement
High PR Stronger Improvement

Energy Needs by Applications

7.4

7.5

Improvement Energy Needs by Applications … 7.4 7.5 HP A/W Average Clima (HT) HP A/W Colder

HP A/W Average Clima (HT)

HP A/W Colder Clima (MT,HT)

HP A/W Average Clima (HT) HP A/W Colder Clima (MT,HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT)
HP A/W Average Clima (HT) HP A/W Colder Clima (MT,HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT)
HP A/W Average Clima (HT) HP A/W Colder Clima (MT,HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT)

HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT)

Cooling:

Heating:

Highest Energy Consumption(MT,HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT) Cooling: Heating: 30% of Total 80% of Total Energy

30% of Total 80% of Total
80% of Total30% of Total

Energy Consumption Energy Consumption

Energy Consumption Energy Consumption

Highest Energy Consumption80% of Total Energy Consumption Energy Consumption Energy Consumption Energy Consumption 30% of Total 80% of

30% of Total 80% of Total
80% of Total30% of Total

Comfort and Heating Optimized Scrolls Lineup Overview Heating R410A Main Features & Benefits Capacity (kW)
Comfort and Heating Optimized Scrolls
Lineup Overview
Heating
R410A
Main Features & Benefits
Capacity (kW)
-7°C/50°C
Model
SH 5K, SC 4K
• Optimized for Heating Dedicated Apps.
ZHI26K1P-TFD
26.0
• High Pressure Ratio Optimization, High
Power Motor & Vapor Injection (EVI)
ZHI31K1P-TFD
30.8
Improved SCOP +++
Heating Scroll
ZHI35K1P-TFD
34.8
Standard ESEER
Extended Envelope +++
ZHI39K1P-TFD
39.1
Vapor & Wet Injection
EVI
HT Water / Sanitary Water Production down
ZHI46K1P-TFD
46.3
to -22ºC Ambient
ZH22K1P-TFD
21.6
Optimized for Comfort Dedicated Apps.
•Dynamic Volume Ratio Optimization
ZH26K1P-TFD
25.3
(High & Low PR)
Liquid
• Improved SCOP ++
Comfort Scroll
ZH29K1P-TFD
28.5
• Improved ESEER ++
Liquid Injection
ZH32K1P-TFD
32.1
• Extended Envelope ++
ZH38K1P-TFD
38.0
Industrial Heat Pumps
Industrial Heat Pumps
Industrial Heat Pumps
Natural Gas and Electrical kWhr Prices Converging Increased Interest
Natural Gas and Electrical kWhr Prices
Converging Increased Interest
Countries ELEC GAS ** % Savings 1kWh produced COP COP COP COP € per kWh
Countries
ELEC
GAS **
% Savings 1kWh produced
COP
COP
COP
COP
€ per kWh
(elec) 2009
€ per kWh
(heat)
3
4
5
6
Finland
0,083 €
0,110
74,8%
81,1%
84,9%
87,4%
Sweden
0,073 €
0,048
48,8%
61,6%
69,3%
74,4%
France
0,080 €
0,039
31,2%
48,4%
58,7%
65,6%
Denmark
0,132 €
0,063
29,6%
47,2%
57,8%
64,8%
Turkey*
0,078
0,035
25,9%
44,4%
55,5%
62,9%
Croatia*
0,089
0,037
20,4%
40,3%
52,2%
60,2%
Netherlands
0,141 €
0,059
20,0%
40,0%
52,0%
60,0%
Spain
0,095 €
0,039
18,3%
38,7%
51,0%
59,1%
Poland
0,090 €
0,036
17,2%
37,9%
50,3%
58,6%
United Kingdom
0,125 €
0,049
14,5%
35,9%
48,7%
57,3%
Austria
0,121 €
0,046
12,8%
34,6%
47,7%
56,4%
Portugal
0,103 €
0,039
11,4%
33,5%
46,8%
55,7%
Slovenia
0,107 €
0,039
8,0%
31,0%
44,8%
54,0%
Germany
0,147 €
0,050
2,0%
26,5%
41,2%
51,0%
Ireland
0,148 €
0,050
1,3%
26,0%
40,8%
50,7%
Lithuania
0,078 €
0,026
1,0%
25,7%
40,6%
50,5%
Czech Rep,
0,098 €
0,029
-13,6%
14,8%
31,8%
43,2%
Latvia
0,077 €
0,023
-14,1%
14,4%
31,6%
43,0%
Luxembourg
0,118 €
0,034
-16,5%
12,6%
30,1%
41,7%
Bulgaria
0,070 €
0,020
-16,7%
12,5%
30,0%
41,7%
Estonia
0,071 €
0,020
-18,3%
11,3%
29,0%
40,8%
Hungary
0,135 €
0,038
-20,0%
10,0%
28,0%
40,0%
Belgium
0,129 €
0,035
-22,9%
7,9%
26,3%
38,6%
Romania
0,134 €
0,033
-37,4%
-3,1%
17,5%
31,3%
Italy
0,179 €
0,043
-40,4%
-5,3%
15,8%
29,8%
Slovakia
0,130 €
0,028
-57,6%
-18,2%
5,5%
21,2%
Cyprus
0,142 €
NO DATA
Greece
0,091 €
NO DATA
Malta
0,105 €
NO DATA

4,50

4,00

3,50

3,00

2,50

2,00

EU 15-EU 27 Ratio Elec/Gas Trend 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
EU 15-EU 27
Ratio Elec/Gas
Trend
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008

Data source EUROSTAT

**Corrected value based on 80% gas heater efficiency

Industrial Heat Pumps
Industrial Heat Pumps

High temperature (high pressure) needed

Low pressure ratio capability (two-stage) needed

Available Waste Heat
Available Waste Heat
Available Waste Heat
Vilter Single Screw Advantages
Vilter Single Screw Advantages

Balanced Bearing Loading

No Thrust Load

ntssss
ntssss

Suited to High Pressures and Pressure Differences ss Variable Volume Slide 1.2 to 7.0 Ratio

Well suited for high pressure heat pump requirements

– No Mid-Rotor Deflection
– No Mid-Rotor Deflection
Ammonia Pressure-Temperature Relationship
Ammonia Pressure-Temperature
Relationship
Ammonia Pressure-Temperature Relationship
Scavenging Heat Pump System
Scavenging Heat Pump System
Scavenging Heat Pump System
Scavenging Heat Pump System
2-Stage Scavenging Heat Pump System
2-Stage Scavenging Heat
Pump System
2-Stage Scavenging Heat Pump System
2-Stage Scavenging Heat Pump System
NH3 Two Stage Heat Pump Drammen Norway District Heating • 3 x 2-stage system •
NH3 Two Stage Heat Pump
Drammen Norway District Heating
3 x 2-stage system
Capacity: 15 MW
• COP: > 3,0 @ 90 o C
• Seawater: + 8/4 o C
• Heating: +60 → 90
o
C
• NH3 charge: < 2000
kg
• High efficiency
• Capacity control
down to 10%
• Low operating and

maintenance cost

Courtesy of Star Refrigeration Ltd. U.K.

Conclusions Compressors for Residential Heat Pumps
Conclusions
Compressors for Residential Heat Pumps

Heat Pump Optimised Scroll Technology And Vapour Injection Allow High Temperature Operation While

Increasing The Heat Pump SCOP R410A Is Seen To Be The Next Generation Heat Pumps Refrigerant Over Conventional R407C

System Design To Be Adapted

Variable Speed Technology Substantially Increases The SCOP Of A/W Heat Pumps

System To Be Designed For Capacity Control

Electronics/Integrated Solutions bring

Conclusions Compressors for Commercial Heat Pumps
Conclusions
Compressors for Commercial Heat Pumps

Optimisation of high and low pressure ratio in order to maximise SEER and SCOP

90 50 80 40 70 30 60 20 50 10 40 Tevaporating 0 30 -10
90
50
80
40
70
30
60
20
50
10
40
Tevaporating
0
30
-10
20
-20
10
-30
0
Tevap & Tcond (ºC)
Building Load (kW)

-25

-23

-21

-19

-17

-15

-13

-11

-9

-7

-5

-3

-1

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

Outdoor Temp (ºC)

Conclusions Compressors for Industrial Heat Pumps
Conclusions
Compressors for Industrial Heat Pumps

The single screw compressor with its balanced bearing loading and high pressure capability

brings the concept of high temperature heat recovery to reality.

balanced bearing loading and hi gh pressure capability brings the concept of high temperature heat recovery
Thank you for your attention!
Thank you for your
attention!

Questions?

Thank you for your attention! Questions?