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EIGRP Tutorial
December 3rd, 2010 Go to comments
Feasible Distance (FD) and Advertised Distance (AD)
In the next part, we will define these terms and take an example to make them clear.
Advertised distance (AD): the cost from the neighbor to the destination.
Feasible distance (FD): The sum of the AD plus the cost between the local router and the next'hop router
Successor: The primary route used to reach a destination. The successor route is kept in the routing table.
Notice that successor is the best route to that destination.
Feasible successor: The backup route. To be a feasible successor, the route must have an AD less than the
FD of the current successor route
Maybe its a bit confused with these terms so below is an example to make it clear.
Suppose you are in NEVADA and want to go to IOWA. From NEVADA you need to specify the best path
(smallest cost) to IOWA.
In this topology, suppose router A & B are exchanging their routing tables for the first time. Router B says
Hey, the best metric (cost) from me to IOWA is 50 and the metric from you to IOWA is 90 and advertises
it to router A. Router A considers the first metric (50) as the Advertised distance. The second metric (90),
which is from NEVADA to IOWA (through IDAHO), is called the Feasible distance.
NEVADA also receives the cost path from NEVADA '> OKLAHOMA '> IOWA advertised by router C
with the Advertised distance of 70 and Feasible distance of 130.
All of these routes are placed in the topology table of router A:
Route Advertised distance Feasible distance
NEVADA '> IDAHO '> IOWA 50 90
NEVADA '> OKLAHOMA '> IOWA 70 130
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Router A will select the route to IOWA via IDAHO as it has the lowest Feasible distance and put it into the
routing table.
The last thing we need to consider is if the route NEVADA '> OKLAHOMA '> IOWA will be considered
as a feasible successor. To achieve this, it must satisfy the feasibility condition:
To qualify as a feasible successor, a router must have an AD less than the FD of the current
successor route
Maybe you will ask why do we need this feasibility condition? Well, the answer is because it guarantees a
loop'free path to the destination; in other words, it must not loop back to the current successor.
If the route via the successor becomes invalid (because of a topology change) or if a neighbor changes the
metric, DUAL checks for feasible successors to the destination route. If one is found, DUAL uses it, avoiding
the need to recompute the route as the re'computation can be processor'intensive. If no suitable feasible
successor exists, a re'computation must occur to determine the new successor.
EIGRP calls these alternative, immediately usable, loop'free routes feasible successor routes, because they
can feasibly be used as a new successor route when the current successor route fails. The next'hop router of
such a route is called the feasible successor.
In this case, the route NEVADA '> OKLAHOMA '> IOWA has an AD (70) less than the FD of the
successor route (90) so it becomes the feasible successor route.
Of course in some cases the feasibility condition will wrongly drop loop'free paths. For example, if the metric
between OKLAHOMA and IOWA is greater than 90 then the route NEVADA '> OKLAHOMA '>
IOWA will not be considered as a feasible successor route although it is loop'free. But this condition is
necessary because it can guarantee the feasible successor routes are loop'free.
Notice that the feasible successors are placed in the topology table, not in the routing table.
Now router A has 3 complete tables as follows (we only consider route to IOWA network)
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Now you have a basic concept of EIGRP, in the next part we will dig into the 3 tables of EIGRP the
neighbor, topology & routing tables as understanding them is a requirement for a CCNA'taker and learn how
to calculate the metric of EIGRP.
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Comments (138) Comments
Comment pages
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1. 9tut
May 29th, 2012
@Rose: The AD is one hop less than the FD so it has only 1 outgoing interface (Fa0/1 of Router1)
and the delay of this interface is 10.
2. Anonymous
June 14th, 2012
Very amusing and educational. Good job.
Thanks,
Hansen Kannie CCNA, CCDA, CCNP, CCDP, CCIE R&S written.
3. Ank
June 19th, 2012
In Routing table Is it true, for outbound interface the value would be 50 or the interface name E0
(intead of 50) ?
4. nawel algeria
July 3rd, 2012
thank you for the tuto its cool
5. Anonymous
July 9th, 2012
What a great Summary of EIGRP.
6. Jason
July 11th, 2012
This page should be updated to note that if K5 = 0, the formula reduces to Metric = [k1 * bandwidth
+ (k2 * bandwidth)/(256 ' load) + k3 * delay].
Otherwise, the metric formula solves to zero when K5 is zero.
7. Shemie
July 16th, 2012
(CD'ROM) This product is ok. I got a while back for my CCNA with the CCNA kit. It has a dcenet
supporting lineup of router and switches. It seriously lacks commands especially in routers. just a few I
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supporting lineup of router and switches. It seriously lacks commands especially in routers. just a few I
noticed when creating my virtual network: any logging command and any exec command (which means
you always have a logout timer) these are just a few that I can think of off the top of my head. There
are many more but i can only remember the conf t ones right now and I have since uninstalled. I
expected more from Sybex. Their CCNA study guide (Lammle) is amazing. All'in'all not good. To get
my CCNA I used CCNA study guide (Lammle),CCNA IOS Commands Survival Guide (Lammle),
CCNA Fast Pass (Lammle) for the book/lab exercises. I used Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 for my virtual
lab.Also, the Study guide would have been enough to pass the exam, but I wanted the extra command
info and labs in the Fast Pass and Survival Guide.Packet Tracer is available through Cisco Academy
and a few other places. I dont really know all the ways to get it unless you are DOD. If your DOD
you can get it for free.
8. Geet
July 18th, 2012
Thanks for the comment. To know that 1 pesron has benefited from the information that I post is good
enough for me. I completely agree with your statement that keeping a blog on going is a challenge. The
biggest challenge is having content to post that is beneficial.When it comes to linux finding something
that your looking for is sometimes not very easy, and for me, its never easy. It usually takes me a fair
amount of time to locate what I need for whatever im working on. I always find myself saying why cant
someone just post the things in a easy step by step format in one place instead of having to search all
over for the answer. So thats what I attempt to do.Thanks again for the comment. Its awesome. Please
keep coming back and feel free to post your things you have found or run into
9. Please Explain
July 19th, 2012
EIGRP Load Balancing
@9tut + Load balancing: EIGRP supports UNEQUAL metric load balancing, which allows
administrators to better distribute traffic flow in their networks.
@Todd Lammle Book Load Balance up to four EQUAL cost link
Please confirm. thanks
10. learner
July 22nd, 2012
@please Explain, EIGRP can load balance upto 4 equal cost path links by default, you can use
variance command, set it to one, it will load balance equal cost paths, but it can provide load balancing
upto 16 paths(variable cost path links)
11. learner
July 22nd, 2012
@9tut and @Xallax Hii, i found these tutorials extremely good, i would like to know what you guys
are doing these days and in terms of certifications by Cisco , really i would love to help u guys in these
tutorials someday .. I appreciate your efforts !!
12. learner
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July 22nd, 2012
@9tut.. Superb explanation of AD , FD n successor route , even Todd Lammle didnt explained it in
such a nice way..!!
13. thuti_2000
July 25th, 2012
This was the best description of AD FD that I ever read.well done and thank you.
14. Lage
August 3rd, 2012
Hi guys,
Thank you for the wonderful work you people are doing for everyone who is trying to learn all of this
stuff. Thanks @9tut youre great.
By the way can you please tell me where i can get the Packetracer you are using please let me know.
You may contact me at linking@gmail.com.
Thank you and bless yall.
15. Lage
August 3rd, 2012
Sorry actually my email is linkony@gmail.com
16. Lage
August 3rd, 2012
@9tut my email is linkony@gmail.com please pass on the Packetracer tool.
17. Anonymous
August 4th, 2012
This is good tutorial.
For those want to understand further the strengths of EIGRP for your network, you may want to read
these articles:
http://www.netxplane.com/2012/07/the'strength'of'eigrp'part'i.html (EIGRP Feasible Successor)
http://www.netxplane.com/2012/07/the'strength'of'eigrp'part'ii.html (EIGRP Unequal Load Sharing)
18. amila
August 9th, 2012
loop'free path = valid path ??????????? help meeee
19. nithalia
August 10th, 2012
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good job....
20. Lucas
August 22nd, 2012
I love this, its so great ! and easy to understand
21. Good job
August 31st, 2012
This tutorial was written very good I didnt expect it to be on this site, better than some books.
22. RJ
September 4th, 2012
When EIGRP comes up for the first time.(the router will try to establish a neighboring relationships by
sending Hello packets to others running EIGRP)'its fine butit exchanges its TOPOLOGY table
with its neighbors and not ROUTING tablein this above diagram R2 will also send its TOPOLOGY
table to R1 by Update packets. Remember that R2 will send its complete TOPOLOGY table for the
first time and not ROUTING table.R1 confirms it has received the Update packet by an ACK
message.R1 will also send to R2 all of its TOPOLOGY table for the first time.R2 sends a message
saying it has received R1s TOPOLOGY table.
23. PLEASE CORRECT THIS POINT 9TUT
September 4th, 2012
When EIGRP comes up for the first time.(the router will try to establish a neighboring relationships by
sending Hello packets to others running EIGRP)'its fine butit exchanges its TOPOLOGY table
with its neighbors and not ROUTING tablein this above diagram R2 will also send its TOPOLOGY
table to R1 by Update packets. Remember that R2 will send its complete TOPOLOGY table for the
first time and not ROUTING table.R1 confirms it has received the Update packet by an ACK
message.R1 will also send to R2 all of its TOPOLOGY table for the first time.R2 sends a message
saying it has received R1s TOPOLOGY table.
24. Magneta
September 9th, 2012
This is very easy tutorial.
25. Asok Mohan
September 14th, 2012
hats off 9tut worth 9$
26. Ramesh
September 18th, 2012
this tutorial is very good, i understand so much things. So please post this type of notes & improve our
knowledge.
Regards & Thanks
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Ramesh
27. Raj
September 20th, 2012
Shemie,
can yo uplseaes let meknow when can i download Packet Tracer 5.3.. as i am just able to find only the
broken links and that disappoints me :(
28. sotir1984
September 24th, 2012
One question? Do i have a brain freeze or if K5 is 0 then all is zero?
29. Anonymous
September 27th, 2012
The literature is amazing , some times we find things to be difficult because we do not have right people
to expalin it !!!, wel done
Gaid
30. AnkushK
September 27th, 2012
@anyone
how to change the AS number of eigrp without using no command?
plz help me my xm is on 29th..tnx in advance
31. kushal arora
September 29th, 2012
widout no command we cant chnge it ..we hav to put
no router eigrp AS
thn agn new as no as above
32. C3C
October 11th, 2012
Since I cant afford to enroll into any online or onsite classes I have had to use whatever help I can find
on the Internet. The Sybex test engine is very limited so I turned to GNS3. Since it is a Cisco cert I
require i have found that using the Cisco learning forum a big help. I just now found 9tut and it also
helps. I feel that it is possible to pass any Cisco test without buying into any online or onsite training.
Again thanks to 9tut for your help.
33. S Shrestha
October 13th, 2012
Much gratitude to 9tut.com. Your work is like a Gem for those who wants to learn about Cisco
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system and face the CCNA exam. Although, I have once gone through Todd Lamelles book, the
concise presentation of your materials helps to quickly review the concepts and retain in the brain. I
have already taken the membership to support your effort. Keep going 9tut.com, you are the hope for
all of us!!!Cheers!!
34. tinasoft
November 2nd, 2012
thank so much.
35. avish malrotra
November 9th, 2012
plz i want a full summary of eigrp
36. TelcoGuy
December 2nd, 2012
When calculating the metric you say 1024 is the speed of T1, are you talking about a T1 carrier? T1s
are 1.544Mbps
37. Shri
December 4th, 2012
Didnt get the use of no auto summary command plz explain
38. Pijush
January 2nd, 2013
@9tut
You guys are Rockstar! Even Todd lamle have not explained this way, about AD and FD. I have used
Reachard Deals(easy and vast) book to understand AD and FD. Its is truly great
@ Shir
auto summary is the term used to refer summarized boundary of a class full network. so 10.0.5.0
would be treated as 10.0.0.0, where subnet bit of an address is situated to that class(known as default
mask(means no subnet)). whether it is under class A,B or C.
192.168.1.1 = 192.168.1.0 (for class c)
172.16.25.0 = 172.16.0.0 (for class b)
21.25.35.74 = 21.0.0.0 (for class a)
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