CHANGING AND UNCHANGING DOMINATION PARAMETERS
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN MATHEMATICS
By
SHUNMUGASUNDARI
Register Number: 0935313
Research Guide
Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI
H.O.D., Department of Mathematics
Government Science College
Nruppathunga Road
Bangalore560 001
HOSUR ROAD
BANGALORE560 029
2010
1
Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI
H.O.D., Department of Mathematics
Government Science College
Kruppathunga Road
Bangalore560 001
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation submitted by Shunmugasundari on the title “Changing and Unchanging Domination Parameters” is a record of research work done by her during the academic year 2009 – 2010 under my guidance and supervision in partial fulfilment of Master of Philosophy in Mathematics. This dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associateship, Fellowship etc., in this University or in any other University.
Place: Bangalore
Date:
Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI
2
(Guide)
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled “Changing and Unchanging Domination Parameters” has been undertaken by me for the award of M.Phil degree in Mathematics. I have completed this under the guidance of Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics, Government Science College, and Kruppathunga Road, Bangalore560001.
I also declare that this dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any Degree, Diploma Associateship, and Fellowship etc., in this University or in any other University.
Place: 
Bangalore 
Shunmugasundari 
Date: 
(Candidate) 
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Neil Armstrong, the famous Astronaut has said, ‘Research is creating new Knowledge’. My effort in searching for this knowledge would not have been complete without the valuable contributions and support of so many benefactors.
I place
on
my record my gratitude
to
Dr. (Fr.) THOMAS
C.MATHEW, Vice – Chancellor, Fr. ABRAHAM V.M., Pro Vice Chancellor, Prof. Chandrashekaran K.A and Dr. Nanjegowda N. A, Dean of Sciences for having provided me an opportunity to undertake this research work.
It is with profound gratitude that I acknowledge the constant guidance of
Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics,
Government 
Science college, Bangalore560001, Whose valuable guidance, 

inspiration, 
fruitful discussions 
and 
constant encouragement 
at 
every 
stage 

empowered 
me 
to carry 
out 
this 
study 
and complete 
this 
research 
work 

successfully. 
I express with all sincerity & regard my deep indebtedness to Dr. S. PRANESH, Coordinator, Post Graduate Department of Mathematics, Christ University, Bangalore560 029 for his inspiration, able guidance and suggestions at every stage of my research work. Without his expertise concern & benevolent encouragement this work would not have been possible.
I also express my gratitude to Dr. MARUTHAMANIKANDAN S., Post Graduate Department of Mathematics, Christ University, and Bangalore for his
4
affection and keen interest throughout the course of my work. It is with a sense of deep appreciation that I place on record my profound thankfulness to him.
I must specially acknowledge Mr. T.V. Joseph, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics, and other colleagues for their kind cooperation throughout the period of this study
Finally
a
special
word
of
thanks
to
my
family
members
for
their
encouragement and support in completing this work.
.
Shunmugasundari
5
PREFACE
Graph Theory is a delightful playground for the exploration of proof
techniques in discrete mathematics, and its results have applications in many areas
of computing, social, and natural sciences. How can we lay cable at minimum cost
to make every telephone reachable from every other? What is the fastest route
from the national capital to each state capital? How can n jobs be filled by n
people with maximum total utility? What is the maximum flow per unit time from
source to sink in a network of pipes? How many layers does a computer chip need
so that wires in the same layer don’t cross? How can the season of a sports league
be scheduled into the minimum number of weeks? In what order should a
travelling salesman visit cities to minimum number of weeks? Can we colour the
regions of every map using four colours so that neighbouring regions receive
different colours? These and many other practical problems involve graph theory
(D. B. West, 2002 page1).
Graph Theory was born in 1936 with Euler's paper in which he solved the
Konigsberg Bridge problem. The past 50 years has been a period of intense
activity in graph theory in both pure and applied mathematics. Perhaps the fastest
growing area within graph theory is the study of domination and related subset
problems, such as independence, covering, and matching.
6
This thesis is divided into five chapters, first chapter being the
preliminaries introducing all the terms which are used in developing this thesis. In
this chapter we collect some basic definitions on graphs which are needed for the
subsequent chapters.
In chapter 2 we present a brief review of the historical development of the
study of domination in graphs.
Chapter 3 we deals with dominating set and domination number of a graph.
Some fundamental results on domination are presented. Further several bounds for
the domination number are stated. We also consider a variety of conditions that
might be imposed on a dominating set D in a graph G = (V, E). In this chapter we
will consider a variety of conditions that can be imposed either on the dominated
set V – D, or on V, or on the method by which vertices in V – D are dominated.
In chapter 4 we present the effects on domination parameters when a graph is
modified by deleting a vertex or deleting or adding edges.
In chapter 5 we present many interesting relationships among the six classes
of changing and unchanging graphs.
7
Table of Contents 

S.No 
Topics 
Page 
No 

Preface 

1 
Preliminaries 

1.1 
History of Graph theory 
1 
1.2 
Graphs: Basic Definitions 
4 
1.3 
Common Families of Graphs 
6 
1.4 
Isomorphism of Graphs 
24 
1.5 
Trees 
25 
1.6 
Euler Tour and Hamilton cycles 
28 
1.7 
Operation on Graph Theory 
31 
1.8 
Independent set 
33 
1.9 
Matching and Factorization 
35 
_{2} 
Literature survey 
38 
_{2}_{.}_{1} 
Theoretical 
44 
_{2}_{.}_{2} 
New models 
45 
_{2}_{.}_{3} 
Algorithmic 
46 
_{2}_{.}_{4} 
Applications 
47 
_{3} 
Motivation: Theory of Domination in Graphs 
55 
_{3}_{.}_{1} 
Domination number 
56 
_{3}_{.}_{2} 
Independent domination Number 
58 
_{3}_{.}_{3} 
Total domination number 
59 
_{3}_{.}_{4} 
Connected domination number 
60 
_{3}_{.}_{5} 
Connected Total domination number 
61 
_{3}_{.}_{6} 
Clique domination number 
62 
_{3}_{.}_{7} 
Paired domination number 
62 
_{3}_{.}_{8} 
Induced paired domination number 
63 
_{3}_{.}_{9} 
Global domination number 
64 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{0} 
Total global domination number 
64 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{1} 
Edge domination number 
65 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{2} 
Total Edge domination Number 
65 
8
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{3}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{4}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{5}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{6}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{7}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{8}
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{9}
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{0}
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{1}
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{2}
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{3}
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{4}
_{4}
_{4}_{.}_{1}
_{4}_{.}_{2}
_{4}_{.}_{3}
_{4}_{.}_{4}
_{4}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{1}
_{4}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{2}
_{4}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{3}
_{4}_{.}_{5}
_{4}_{.}_{5}_{.}_{1}
_{4}_{.}_{6}
_{4}_{.}_{7}
_{4}_{.}_{8}
_{5}
_{5}_{.}_{1}
_{5}_{.}_{2}
6
7
8
Connected Edge domination number
Domatic number
Total Domatic Number
Connected Domatic Number
Edge Domatic number
Total Edge Domatic number
Split domination number
Non Split domination number
Cycle non split Dominating Set
Path non split Dominating Set
Cototal Dominating Set
Distance –K Domination
Changing and unchanging Domination parameters
Terminology
Vertex removal: Changing Domination
Vertex removal: Unchanging Domination
Edge removal :Changing Domination
Bondage Number
Total Bondage Number
Split Bondage Number
Edge Removal: Unchanging Domination
Nonbondage Number
Edge addition: Changing Domination
Edge addition: Unchanging Domination
References
Conclusion
Classes of changing and unchanging graphs
Relationships among Classes
Bibliography
Index of symbols
Index of Definitions
9
66
67
67
68
69
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
78
84
87
87
88
93
97
99
100
101
107
108
110
110
112
113
126
129
Chapter1
Preliminaries
In this chapter we collect the basic definitions on graphs which are needed for the subsequent chapters.
1.1 History of Graph theory
Konigsberg is a city which was the capital of East Prussia but now is known as Kaliningrad in Russia. The city is built around the River Pregel where it joins another river. An island named Kniephof is in the middle of where the two rivers join. There are seven bridges that join the different parts of the city on both sides of the rivers and the island.
People tried to find a way to walk all seven bridges without crossing a bridge twice, but no one could find a way to do it. The problem came to the attention of a Swiss mathematician named Leonhard Euler (pronounced "oiler").
10
In 1735, Euler presented the solution to the problem before the Russian
Academy. He explained why crossing all seven bridges without crossing a bridge twice was
impossible. While solving this problem, he developed a new mathematics field called graph
theory, which later served as the basis for another mathematical field called topology
Euler simplified the bridge problem by representing each land mass as a point and each bridge as a line. He reasoned that anyone standing on land would have to have a way to get on and off. Thus each land mass would need an even number of bridges. But in Konigsberg, each land mass had an odd number of bridges. This was why all seven bridges could not be crossed without crossing one more than once.
The Konigsberg Bridge Problem is the same as the problem of drawing the above figure without lifting the pen from the paper and without retracing any line and coming back to the starting point.
Present state of the bridges
Two of the seven original bridges were destroyed by bombs during World War II.
Two others were later demolished and replaced by a modern highway. The three other bridges
remain, although only two of them are from Euler's time (one was rebuilt in 1935). Thus, there
are now five bridges in Konigsberg.
11
In terms of graph theory, two of the nodes now have degree 2, and the other two
have degree 3. Therefore, an Eulerian trail is now possible, but since it must begin on one island
and end on the other.
1.2 Graphs: Basic Definitions
In mathematics and computer science, graph theory studies the properties of graphs.
Mathematical structures used to model pair wise relations between
objects from a certain
collection. A "graph" in this context refers to a collection of vertices V (G) or 'nodes' and a
collection of edges E (G) that connect pairs of vertices.
A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another
Undirected graph:
12
Directed graph (Digraph)
:
Null graph: Graph that contains no edge is called Null graph because they have null degree of
vertices.
A null graph of order n is denoted by N _{n}
Trivial graph: A null graph with only one vertex is called a trivial graph.
A graph / digraph with only a finite number of vertices as well as finite number of edges
are called a finite graph / digraph; otherwise, it is called an infinite graph / digraph.
The number of vertices in a (finite) graph is called the order of the graph. It is denoted
by  V  ( The cardinality of the set V)
The number of edges in a (finite) graph is called the size of the graph. It is denoted by E 
( The cardinality of the set E)
Loop: If an edge is supported by only one vertex, it is called a loop.
Two vertices can also have multiple edges.
13
In fact one vertex can have multiple loops.
The two end vertices are coincident if the edge is a loop
1.3 Common Families of Graphs:
Simple Graph: A graph with no loops or multiple edges is called a simple graph.
Multigraph: A graph which contains multiple edges but no loops is called a multigraph.
General graph: A graph which contains multiple edges or loops (or both) is called a general graph.
Pseudo
graph: A multi graph
in
which
loops
are
allowed
is
called
a
pseudo
graph.
Every edge has two end vertices; every edge is incident on two vertices.
We also say that Vertex A incident with edge e and Vertex B incident with edge e.
Degree of vertex (Valency): Let G is the graph with loops, and let v be a vertex of G. The degree of v is the number of edges meeting at v, and is denoted by deg (v).
14
Deg (A) = 3
Deg (B) = 4
Deg (H) = 1
An isolated vertex has zero degree.
Let G be a multi graph. The maximum degree of G, denoted by _{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{(}_{G}_{)}_{,} is denoted as the maximum number among all vertex degrees in G.
_{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{(}_{G}_{)} = max {d (v) /v _{ε}_{ε}_{ε}_{ε} V (G)}
Let G be a multi graph. The minimum degree of G, denoted by _{δ}_{δ}_{δ}_{δ}_{(}_{G}_{)}_{,} is denoted as the minimum number among all vertex degrees in G.
_{δ}_{δ}_{δ}_{δ}_{(}_{G}_{)} = min {d (v) /v _{ε}_{ε}_{ε}_{ε} V (G)}
Ex.
Here ∆∆∆∆(G) = 4
and
δδδδ(G) = 1
Regular graph: A graph G is said to be regular if every vertex in G has the same degree
G is said to be kregular if d(v) = k for each vertex v in G, Where k _{≥}_{≥}_{≥}_{≥} 0.
An edge is incident only on two vertices.
A vertex may be incident with any number of edges.
15
Two nonparallel edges are said to be adjacent edges if they are incident on a common vertex.
Two vertices are said to be adjacent vertices (or neighbors) if there is an edge joining them.
The set of all neighbors of v in G is denoted by N(v);
i.e. N (v) = {x  x is a neighbor of v}.
N (A) = {B, C, D} and
N (B) = {D, E}
Petersen graph: The Petersen graph is the 3regular graph. It posses a number of graph theoretic properties and it frequently used to illustrate established theorems and to test conjectures.
A graph G is kregular if and only if ∆(G) = δ(G) = k
Walk: A walk in a multigraph G is an alternating sequence of vertices and edges beginning and ending at vertices:
v 0 e 0 v 1 e 1 v 2 e 2 v 3 e 3
v k1 e k1 v k,
16
Where k ≥ 1 and e _{i} is incident with v _{i} and v _{i}_{+}_{1}_{,} for each i = 0,1,2 ,
, k1.

The walk is also called a v _{0} – v _{k} walk with its initial vertex v _{0} and terminal vertex v _{k}_{.} 

The length of the walk is defined as ‘k’, which is the number of occurrences of edges in the sequence. 
Trail: A walk is called a trail if no edge in it is traversed more than once.
Path: A walk is called a path if no vertex in it is visited more than once.
walk (1) is neither a trail nor a path
17
walk (2) is a trail but not a path
walk (3) both a trail and a path
Every path must be a Trail.

A uv walk is said to be closed if u = v, that is, its initial and terminal vertices are the same; and open otherwise. 

A closed walk of length at least two in which no edge is repeated is called a circuit. 
Connected graph: A multi graph G is said to be connected if every two vertices in G are joined by a path. Otherwise it is disconnected.
Every disconnected graph can be split up into a number of connected sub graphs, called components.
Ex: Connected non simple graph
Ex : Disconnected non simple graph
Let G be a connected multi graph, and u, v be any two vertices in G. The distance from u to v , denoted by d(u , v) is the smallest length of all uv paths in G ( This is also known as geodesic distance)
The greatest distance between any two vertices in a graph G
(i.e.) max {d (u, v) / u, v Є V (G)}
is called the diameter of G and it is denoted by diam (G).
18
The eccentricity ε of a vertex v is the greatest distance between v and any other vertex.
The radius of a graph is the minimum eccentricity of any vertex.
Density: The density of G is the ratio of edges in G to the maximum possible number of edges Density = 2L/ (p * (p1)) Where L is the number of edges in the graph and p is the number of vertices in the graph.
Density = 2*7 / (7*6) = 1 / 3 Bouquet: A Graph consisting of a single vertex with n self loops is called a bouquet and is denoted B _{n}_{.} Ex. B _{4}
Dipole: A Graph consisting of two vertices and n edges joining them is called a dipole and is denoted D _{n} Ex. D _{5}
The Complete Graphs: A simple graph of order ≥ 2 in which there is an edge between every pair of vertices is called a complete graph (or a full graph)
19
In other words, a complete graph is a simple graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is adjacent. It is denoted by K _{n}_{.}
Ex. K _{5}
Path Graph : A path graph P is a simple connected graph with V _{p}  = E _{p}  + 1 that can be drawn so that all of its vertices and edges lie on a single straight line and it is denoted by P _{n} .
Ex. P _{8}
Circular ladder graph: The Circular ladder graph CL _{n} is visualized as two concentric ncycles in which each of the n pairs of corresponding vertices is joined by an edge.
Ex. CL _{4}
Cut point: A vertex is a cut point if its removal increases the number of components in the graph.
20
Bridges: An edge is a bridge if its removal increases the number of components in the graph.
Vertexconnectivity: The connectivity κ (G) of a connected graph G is the minimum number of vertices that need to be removed to disconnect the graph (or make it empty).
κ (G) = 1
Edgeconnectivity: The edgeconnectivity λ (G) of a connected graph G is the minimum number of edges that need to be removed to disconnect the graph.
λ(G) = 2
Block: A block of a loop less graph is a maximal connected subgraph H such that no vertex of H is a cut vertex of H. Ex. G:
21
G has four blocks; they are the subgraph induced on the vertex subsets {u, v, w, x}, {x, y}, {y, z, m}. Block graph: The block graph of a graph G, denoted by BL (G), is the graph whose vertices correspond to the blocks of G, such that two vertices of BL (G) are joined by a single edge whenever the corresponding blocks have a vertex in common.
Ex. G:
BL (G):
Bipartite graph (or bigraph): A bipartite graph is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint U and V such that every edge connects a vertex in U to one in V; that is, U and V are independent sets.
Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any oddlength cycles.
Complete bipartite graph:
22
Complete bipartite graph or biclique is a special kind of bipartite where every vertex of the first set is connected to every vertex of the second set. The complete bipartite graph with partitions of size
 V _{1}  = m and  V _{2}  = n, is denoted K _{m}_{,}_{n} .
Star: A star S _{k} is the complete bipartite graph K _{1}_{,} _{k} .
Ex. K _{1}_{,} _{7}
Wheel: The wheel graph W _{n} is a graph on n vertices constructed by connecting a single vertex to every vertex in an (n1)cycle.
Ex. W _{8}
Planar graph: A planar graph is that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints.
23
The Cycles: A graph of order n ≥ 3 is called cycle if its n vertices can be named as v _{1} ,v _{2} ,…,v _{n} such that v _{1} is adjacent to v _{2} _{,} v _{2} is adjacent to v _{3} to v _{n}_{}_{1} is adjacent to v _{n} , v _{n} is adjacent to v _{1} , and no other adjacency exists; that is ,
V (G) = { v _{1}_{,} v _{2} ,…, v _{n} }
and
E (G) = {v _{1} v _{2} , v _{2} v _{3}_{,} , … ,v _{n} v _{1} }
A cycle of order n is denoted C _{n}_{,} we call C _{n} an ncycle.
Ex.C _{6}
Girth: The minimum length of a cycle in a graph G is the girth g (G).
g (G) =
3
24
Unicyclic Graph: A connected graph containing exactly one cycle
Subgraphs: A subgraph S of a graph G is a graph such that
The vertices of S are a subset of the vertices of G.
(i.e.)
V(S) ⊆
V (G)
The edges of S are a subset of the edges of G.
(i.e.) E(S) ⊆
E (G)
S is a subgraph of G
S ^{1} is not a subgraph of G
Proper subgraph: If S is a subgraph of G then we write S ⊆ G. When S ⊆ G but S ≠ G.
i.e. V(S) ≠ V(G) or E(S) ≠ E(G), then S is called a Proper subgraph of G .
A spanning subgraph: A spanning subgraph of G is a subgraph that contains all the vertices of
G.
( i.e.) V(S) = V(G)
25
S is spanning subgraph of G
A vertex induced Subgraph: A vertexinduced subgraph is one that consists of some of the vertices of the original graph and all of the edges that connect them in the original denoted by 〈
V〉.
G _{1} is an induced subgraph
 induced by the set of vertices
V _{1} = {A,B,C,F} .
G _{2} is not an induced subgraph.
An edgeinduced subgraph: An edgeinduced subgraph consists of some of the edges of the original graph and the vertices that are at their endpoints.
Some graph operation:
26
Vertex deleted subgraph: For any vertex v of graph G, Gv is obtained from G by removing v and all the edges of G which have v as an end. Gv is referred to as a vertex deleted subgraph.
Edge deleted subgraph: If G = (V,E) and e is an edge of G then Ge is obtained from G by removing the edge e (but not its end point(s) . Ge is referred to as a edge deleted subgraph.
Complement of a graph: The complement of the graph G, denoted by
, is the graph with V
(
) = V(G) such that two vertices are adjacent in
if and only if they are not adjacent in
G. ( interchanging the edges and the nonedges)
27
Clique: clique in an undirected graph G is a subset of the vertex set C ⊆ V, such that for every two vertices in C, there exists an edge connecting the two. This is equivalent to saying that the subgraph induced by C is complete (in some cases, the term clique may also refer to the subgraph).
A maximal clique is a clique that cannot be extended by including one more adjacent vertex,
that is, a clique which does not exist exclusively within the vertex set of a larger clique.
A maximum clique is a clique of the largest possible size in a given graph. The clique number
ω (G) of a graph G is the number of vertices in the largest clique in G.
ω (G) =
5
1.4 Isomorphism of Graphs:
The simple graphs G _{1} = (V _{1} , E _{1} ) and G _{2} = (V _{2} , E _{2} ) are isomorphic if there is a bijection (an one toone and onto function) f from V _{1} to V _{2} with the property that a and b are adjacent in G _{1} if and only if f (a) and f(b) are adjacent in G _{2} , for all a and b in V _{1} .Such a function f is called an isomorphism.
In other words, G _{1} and G _{2} are isomorphic if their vertices can be ordered in such a way that the
adjacency matrices M _{G}_{1} and M _{G}_{2} are identical
For two simple graphs, each with n vertices, there are n! possible isomorphism
For this purpose we can check invariants, that is, properties that two isomorphic simple graphs must both have
28
• the same number of vertices,
• the same number of edges, and
• The same degrees of vertices.
Note that two graphs that differ in any of these invariants are not isomorphic, but two graphs that match in all of them are not necessarily isomorphic
Example : Are the following two graphs isomorphic?
Solution:
Yes, they are isomorphic, f(a) = e, f(b) = a, f(c) = b, f(d) = c, f(e) =d.
If G is isomorphic to H, then V(G ) = V(H) and E(G) = E(H).
Adjacency matrix: Let G = (V, E) be a simple graph with V = n. Suppose that the vertices of
G 
are listed in arbitrary order as v _{1} , v _{2} … v _{n} . The adjacency matrix A (or A _{G} ) of G, with respect 
to 
this listing of the vertices, is the n×n zeroone matrix with 1 as it’s (i, j) entry when v _{i} and v _{j} 
are adjacent, and 0 otherwise.
In other words, for an adjacency matrix A = [a _{i}_{j} ],
a _{i}_{j} = 1 a _{i}_{j} = 0
if {v _{i} , v _{j} } is an edge of G, otherwise.
Example: What is the adjacency matrix A _{G} for the following graph G based on the order of vertices a, b, c, d?
29
Adjacency matrices of undirected graphs are always symmetric.
Incidence matrix:
and edges of G are listed in arbitrary order as v _{1} , v _{2} … v _{n} and e _{1} , e _{2} … e _{m} , respectively. The
incidence matrix of G with respect to this listing of the vertices and edges is the n×m zeroone matrix with 1 as it’s (i, j) entry when edge e _{j} is incident with v _{i} , and 0 otherwise.
Let G = (V, E) be an undirected graph with V = n. Suppose that the vertices
In other words, for an incidence matrix M = [m _{i}_{j} ],
m _{i}_{j} = 1 m _{i}_{j} = 0
if edge e _{j} is incident with v _{i} otherwise.
Example: What is the incidence matrix M for the following graph G based on the order of vertices a, b, c, d and edges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6?
Incidence matrices of directed graphs contain two 1s per column for edges connecting two vertices and one 1 per column for loops.
1.5 Tree: A tree is a graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one simple path. In other words, any connected graph without cycles is a tree.
30
Spanning tree: A spanning tree T of a connected , undirected graph G is a tree composed of all the vertices and some (or perhaps all) of the edges of G.
Informally, a spanning tree of G is a selection of edges of G that form a tree spanning every vertex. That is, every vertex lies in the tree, but no cycles (or loops) are formed
Forest: A forest is an undirected graph, all of whose connected components are trees; in other words, the graph consists of a disjoint union of trees. Equivalently, a forest is an undirected cyclefree graph.
Galaxy: A galaxy is a forest in which each component is a star.
1.6 Euler Tour and Hamilton cycles:
31
Euler path: A graph is said to be containing an Euler path if it can be traced in 1 sweep without
lifting the pencil from the paper and without tracing the same edge more than once. Vertices may
be passed through more than once. The starting and ending points need not be the same.
Euler circuit: An Euler circuit is similar to an Euler path, except that the starting and ending
points must be the same.

The term Eulerian graph has two common meanings in graph theory. One 
meaning is a graph with an Eulerian circuit, and the other is a graph with every vertex of 

even degree 


An Eulerian path, Eulerian trail or Euler walk in an undirected graph is a path 
that uses each edge exactly once. If such a path exists, the graph is called traversable or 

semieulerian. 


An Eulerian cycle, Eulerian circuit or Euler tour in an undirected graph is a 
cycle that uses each edge exactly once. If such a cycle exists, the graph is called
unicursal. While such graphs are Eulerian graphs, not every Eulerian graph possesses an
Eulerian cycle.
Let's look at the graphs below; do they contain an Euler circuit or an Euler path?
32
What is the relationship between the nature of the vertices and the kind of path/circuit that the
graph contains? We will have the answer after looking at the table below.
Graph 
Number 
of 
odd 
Number 
of 
even 
What 
does 
the 
vertices 
vertices 
path contain? 

(Euler path = P; 

Euler circuit = C; 

Neither = N) 

1 
0 
10 
C 
33
2 
0 
6 
C 
3 
2 
6 
P 
4 
2 
4 
P 
5 
4 
1 
N 
6 
8 
0 
N 
From the above table, we can observe that:
A graph with all vertices being even contains an Euler circuit.
A graph with 2 odd vertices and some even vertices contains an Euler path.
A graph with more than 2 odd vertices does not contain any Euler path or circuit.
Hamiltonian path: Hamiltonian path (or traceable path) is a path in an undirected graph which visits each vertex exactly once.
Hamiltonian cycle: A Hamiltonian cycle (or Hamiltonian circuit) is a cycle in an undirected graph which visits each vertex exactly once and also returns to the starting vertex
Hamiltonian
graph: A graph is Hamiltonian if it contains a Hamilton cycle.
1.7 Some Operations on Graph Theory:
Union: There are several ways to combine two graphs to get a third one. Suppose we have
graphs G _{1} and G _{2} and suppose that G _{1} has vertex set V _{1} and edge set E _{1} , and that G _{2} has vertex
34
set V _{2} and edge set E _{2} . The union of the two graphs, written G _{1} U G _{2} will have vertex set V _{1} U V _{2} and edge set E _{1} U E _{2} .
If we choose the null graph N _{1} and the complete graph K _{5} we will get the graph in following figure
N _{1} U K _{5}
Sum (Join): The sum of two graphs G _{1} and G _{2} , written G _{1} + G _{2} , is obtained by first forming the
union G _{1} UG _{2} and then making every vertex of G _{1} adjacent to every vertex of G _{2} .
N 1 + K 5
Graph Cartesian Product: The Cartesian graph product G = G _{1} X G _{2} , sometimes simply called "the graph product” of graphs G _{1} and G _{2} with disjoint point sets V _{1} and V _{2} and edge sets E _{1} and E _{2} is the graph with point set and adjacent with whenever or
35
1.8 Independent set: An independent set or stable set is a set of vertices in a graph no two of which are adjacent.
{I, D}, {I, D, F} and {H, C, E} are some of the independent sets.
But {A, D, F} and {A, C, H} are not. Independent sets are also called disjoint or mutually exclusive.
Maximum independent set: A maximum independent set is a largest independent set for a given graph G.
Maximal independent set:
A maximal independent set or maximal stable set is an independent set that is not a subset of any other independent set.
Ex. In the cycle C _{1}_{0}
36
The sets {B,F,I} ,{A,C,E,G,I} , {A,C,E} are some of the independent sets.
{J,C,F,H} ,{A,C,E,G,I} ,{B,D,F,H,J} are maximal independent set.
{J, C, F, H} is not a maximum independent set.
Independence number _{β}_{β}_{β}_{β} _{0} (G): The number of vertices in a maximum independent set of G
called the independence number of G and is denoted by _{β}_{β}_{β}_{β} _{0} (G).
is
_{β}_{β}_{β}_{β} _{0} (G) = 4
Independent set of edges: An independent set of edges of G has adjacent
Ex. K _{4}
no two of
its
edges are
Edge independence number _{β}_{β}_{β}_{β} _{1} (G): The number of edges in a maximum independent
set of G is called the edge independence number of G and is denoted by β _{1} (G).
β _{1} (G) = 2
37
Point cover: A vertex and a line are said to cover each other if they are incident. A set of points which covers all the lines of graph G is called a point cover.
Vertex covering number: The smallest number of points in any vertex cover for G is called its
vertex covering number and it is denoted by α _{0} (G).
Edge Cover: A set of lines which covers all the vertices of graph G is called a line cover.
Edge covering number: The smallest number of lines in any edge cover for G is called its edge covering number and it is denoted by α _{1} (G).
α _{0} (G) = 3 and α _{1} (G) = 3
1.9 Matching: Given a graph G, a matching M in G is a set of pair wise nonadjacent edges; that
is, no two edges share a common vertex.
A vertex is matched (or saturated) if it is incident to an edge in the matching. Otherwise the
vertex is unmatched (or unsaturated). A maximal matching is a matching M of a graph G with the property that if any edge not in M is added to M, it is no longer a matching, that is, M is
maximal if it is not a proper subset of any other matching in graph G.
A maximum matching is a matching that contains the largest possible number of edges. There
may be many maximum matching. The matching number ν (G) of a graph G is the size of a
maximum matching. Note that every maximum matching is maximal, but not every maximal matching is a maximum matching
38
ν (G) = 2
A perfect matching is a matching which matches all vertices of the graph.
A nearperfect matching is one in which exactly one vertex is unmatched. This can only occur when the graph has an odd number of vertices, and such a matching must be maximum.
_{}_{}_{}_{} 
An alternating path is a path in which the edges belong alternatively to the matching (M) 
and not to the matching (EM). 

_{}_{}_{}_{} 
An augmenting path is an alternating path that starts from and ends on free (unmatched) 
vertices.
Factorization: A factor of a graph G is a spanning subgraph of G which is not totally
disconnected. G is the sum of factors G _{i}
called a factorization of G.
_{}_{}_{}_{}
An nfactor is a regular of degree n.
if it is their line disjoint union, and such a union is
39
_{}_{}_{}_{}
If G is the sum of nfactors, their union is called an nfactorization and G itself is n
factorable.
_{}_{}_{}_{}
A 1factorization of a graph is a decomposition of all the edges of the graph into 1
factors.
G: K _{4}
_{}_{}_{}_{}
G: K _{5}
G 1:
G = G _{1} + G _{2} + G _{3}
A 2factor is a collection of cycles that spans all vertices of the graph.
40
G 2:
G = G _{1} + G _{2}
41
References:
1. Bollobas.B,Graph Theory: An Introductory Course Springer 1979.
2. C. Berge Graphs, NorthHolland 1985.
3. Chartrand.G, Introductory Graph Theory, Dover 1985 .
4. Diestel.R, Graph Theory, SpringerVerlag 1997.
5. F. Harary,
Graph
Theory,
Addison Wesley,
Reading,
MA,
(1969).
6. G. Chartrand and L.Leniak, Graphs Digraphs, Fourth Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton,
2004.
7. Gould.RJ Benjamin/Cummings, Graph Theory , 1988
8. Gross. JL and Yellen. J, Graph Theory and its Applications, CRC Press LLC, 1998.
9. J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murthy, Graph Theory with Applications, Macmillan, London.
10. J. Clark and D. A. Holton, a first look at graph theory, World Scientific Pub. Singapore / Allied Pub.Ltd. New Delhi (1995)
11. J. Wilson and J.J. Watkins John, Graphs: An Introductory Approach, Wiley & Sons 1990.
12. M. Behzad, A characterization of total graphs, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 26
389.
(1970) 383 –
13. M. Capobianco and J.C. Molluzzo, Examples and Counterexamples in Graph Theory,
NorthHolland 1978.
14. O. Ore, Theory of Graphs, AMS Colloquium Publications 38 AMS 1962.
15. R. C. Brigham and D. Dutton, On Neighborhood graphs, J. Combinatorics Inf & Syst.
Sci., 12
(1987)
75 – 85.
16. R. L. Brooks On coloring the nodes of a network, Proc.Cambridge Philos. Soc.
(1941)
194 – 197.
42
37
17.
R.J. Wilson Introduction to Graph Theory by R.J. Trudeau Dover Publications, 1994.
18. S. Arumugam and S. Ramachandran, Invitation to Graph Theory Scitech Publications
(2001).
19. T. Gallai, Uber extreme Punktund Kantenmenger, Ann Univ. Sci. Budapest, Eotvos Sect. Math, 2 (1959) 133 – 138.
20. V. R. Kulli, Graph
Theory, Vishwa
Internat.
Publications,
(2000).
21. West.DB, Introduction to Graph Theory, Prentice Hall 1996.
43
44
Chapter3
Concept of Domination in graphs
In this chapter we collect the basic definitions and theorems on domination in graphs which are
needed for the subsequent chapters.
3.1 Dominating set : In graph theory, a dominating set for a graph G = (V, E) is a subset D of
V such that every vertex not in D (every vertex in V D ) is joined to at least one member of D
by some edge.
(i.e.) A set D of vertices in a graph G is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in VD is adjacent to some vertex in D.
Ex. In the following graph G
The set D = {A, B, E, H} is one of the dominating set
Minimum Dominating set:
A dominating set D is said to be Minimum Dominating set if D consist of minimum number of vertices among all dominating sets
Ex. In the following graph G
45
Domination number:
The domination number γ (G) is the number of vertices in a smallest dominating set for G. (The cardinality of minimum dominating set)
Ex. In the following graph G
46
Minimal Dominating Set:
A dominating set D is called Minimal dominating set if no proper subset of D is a dominating set
Ex.
The sets {B,C,E} ,{D,C} and {B,E,F,G} are Minimal dominating sets.
In the following graph
The set D _{1} = {B, C, D} is a dominating set. But D _{1} is not a minimal dominating set.
D _{2} = {C, D} is a minimal dominating set. Also D _{2} is a minimum dominating set.
A minimum dominating set is a minimal dominating set, but the converse is not always true.
Theorem 2.1: A dominating set D is a minimal dominating set if and only if for each vertex
v∈D, one of the following two conditions holds:
(a) v is an isolated vertex of D
(b) there exists a vertex u ∈ VD such that N(u) ∩ D = {v}.
Theorem 2.2: Every connected graph G of order n ≥ 2 has a dominating set D whose complement VD is also a dominating set.
47
Theorem 2.3: If G is a graph with no isolated vertices, then the complement VD of every minimal dominating set D is a dominating set.
2.2 Independent dominating
set:
A dominating set D of a graph G is an independent dominating set if the induced sub graph <D> has no edges.
The
independent
domination
cardinality of an independent dominating set.
γ _{i} (G)
=
2
number γi (G) of a graph G is the minimum
Theorem 2.4: An independent set is maximal independent set if and only it is independent and dominating.
Theorem 2.5: Every maximal independent set in a graph G is a minimal dominating set.
Theorem 2.6[: For any graph G,
p /(1 +∆(G)
≤
γ (G) ≤ p  ∆(G).
where p is the number of vertices in V (G).
2.3 Total
dominating set:
48
the
induced sub graph <D> has no isolated vertices. i.e. Every vertex of G is adjacent to at least one vertex in D
A
dominating set
D
of
a
graph
G
is
a
total
dominating
set
if
Ex. P _{7}
Total domination number
γ _{t} (G):
The total domination number is the minimum cardinality of a total dominating set
Here
γ _{t} (G) = 4
Theorem 2.7: If G is a connected graph with p ≥ 3 vertices then γ _{t} (G) ≤ 2p/3.
Theorem 2.8: If G has p vertices and no isolates, then γ _{t} (G) ≤ p  ∆(G) +1.
Theorem 2.9: If G is connected and ∆(G) < p1, then γ _{t} (G) ≤ p  ∆(G) .
2.4 Connected Dominating set:
A dominating set D is said to be connected dominating set if induced subgraph <D> is connected.
Connected
domination
number
γ _{c} (G):
The connected domination number is the minimum cardinality of a connected dominating set.
Ex. P _{8}
49
γ _{c} (P _{8} )
=
6
Theorem 2.10: If G is a connected graph with p ≥ 3 vertices then γ _{c} (G) ≤ p2
Theorem 2.11: For any connected graph G, p/(∆(G)+1) ≤ γ _{c} (G) ≤ 2qp. Furthermore, the lower
bound is attained if and only if ∆(G) = p1 and the upper bound is attained if and only if G is a path.
Theorem 2.12: For any connected graph G, γ _{c} (G) ≤ p∆(G).
2.5 Connected Total
dominating set:
A total dominating set D of a graph G is a connected total dominating set if the induced sub graph <D> is connected.
Connected Total domination
number
γ _{c}_{t} (G):
The connected total domination number γ _{c}_{t} (G) is the minimum cardinality of a connected total dominating set.
γ _{c}_{t} (G)
= 4
Theorem 2.13: For any connected graph G with p ≥ 4,
50
p/(∆(G)+1) + 1≤ γ _{c}_{t} (G) ≤ 2pq. Furthermore, the lower bound is attained if G = K _{p} and
the upper bound is attained if and only if G is a path.
Theorem 2.14: For any connected graph G with p ≥ 4, γ _{c}_{t} (G) ≤ p2.
Theorem 2.15: If T is a tree of order p ≥ 4 and T ≠ K _{1}_{,}_{p}_{}_{1} , then γ _{c}_{t} (G) = p – e. where e is the
number of end vertices of a tree.
2.6 Clique dominating set:
A dominating set D of a graph G is a dominating clique if the induced sub graph <D> is a complete graph.
Clique domination number
γ _{c}_{l} (G):
The Clique domination number γ _{c}_{l} is the minimum cardinality of a dominating
clique.
γ _{c}_{l} (G)
=
4
2.7 Paired dominating set:
A dominating set D of a graph G is a paired dominating set if the induced
sub graph 〈D〉 contains at least one perfect match.
Paired domination number
γ _{p} (G):
The paired domination number γ _{p} (G) is the minimum cardinality of a paired
dominating set.
51
G:
γ _{p} (G) = 4
Theorem 2.16: If G has no isolated vertices, then 2 ≤ γ _{p} (G) ≤ p and these bounds are sharp.
Theorem 2.17: If G has no isolated vertices, then p/∆(G) ≤ γ _{p} (G).
Theorem 2.18: If a connected graph G has p ≥ 6 and δ(G) ≥ 2, then γ _{p} (G) ≤ 2 p/3
2.8 Induced Paired dominating set:
A dominating set D of vertices of a graph G is an induced paired dominating set if the induced sub graph 〈D〉 is a set of independent edges.
Induced paired domination number
γ _{i}_{p} (G):
The induced paired domination number γ _{i} _{p} (G) is the minimum cardinality of an induced paired dominating set of G.
Ex. G:
2.9 Global dominating set:
γ _{i}_{p} (G) = 1
A dominating set D of a graph G is a global dominating set if D is also a
dominating set of
Global domination number γ _{g} (G):
52
The global domination number γ _{g} (G) is the minimum cardinality of a global dominating set.
γ _{g} (G) = 2
2.10 Total Global dominating set:
A total dominating set D of a graph G is a total global dominating set if D is also a total dominating set of
Total global domination number
γ _{t}_{g} (G):
The total global domination number γ _{t}_{g} (G) is the minimum cardinality of a total global dominating set.
γ _{t}_{g} (G) = 4
Theorem 2.19: Let G be a graph such that neither G nor
2qp(p3) ≤ γ _{t}_{g} (G)
Theorem 2.20: Let G be a graph such that neither G nor
γ _{t}_{g} (G) _{≤}_{≤}_{≤}_{≤} 2α _{0} (G).
2.11 Edge dominating set :
53
have an isolated vertex. Then
have an isolated vertex. Then
A set F of edges in a graph G is an edge dominating set, if every edge not in F (every
edge in EF)
is adjacent to at least one edge in F.
Edge domination number
γ ^{1} (G):
The edge domination number γ ^{1} (G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of an edge dominating set of G.
γ ^{1} (G) = 3
2.12 Total Edge dominating Set:
A set F of edges in a graph G is called a total edge dominating set of G if for every edge in E is adjacent to at least one edge in F.
i.e. a set F of edges in G is called total edge dominating set of G if for every edge e∈
E, there exists an edge e _{1} ∈ F such that e and e _{1} have a vertex in common.
Total Edge domination Number: γ _{t} ^{1} (G)
The minimum cardinality of a total edge dominating set of G is the total edge
domination number of a graph G, and it is denoted
by
γ _{t} ^{1} (G).
γ _{t} ^{1} (G) = 3
2.13 Connected Edge Dominating set :
54
A edge dominating set D is said to be connected edge dominating set if induced subgraph <F> is connected.
Ex. P _{8}
Connected Edge domination number
γ _{c} ^{1} (G):
The
connected
edge
domination
connected edge dominating set.
γ _{c} ^{1} (G)
= 5
2.14 Domatic number: d(G)
number
is
the
minimum
cardinality
of
a
The domatic number is defined as the maximum number of disjoint dominating set.
Ex.
X = { {B,E}, {A,D,G},{C,F}}
Theorem 2.21:
For any graph G, d (G) ≤ δ(G) +1.
and
d(G) = 3
Theorem 2.22: For any graph G, d (G) = 1 if and only if G has an isolated vertex.
Theorem 2.23:
For any graph G, p +(p  δ(G)) ≤ d(G).
2.15 Total Domatic Number:
55
A partition ∆ of a vertex V of G is called total domatic partition of G if
each class of ∆ is a total dominating set of G. The maximum number of classes of total domatic
partition of G is called the total domatic number G and is denoted by d _{t} (G).
Ex.
G:
X = {{A, B}, {D, C}}
d _{t} (G) = 2
Theorem 2.24: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d _{t} (G) ≤ d (G).
Theorem 2.25: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d _{t} (G) ≤ δ(G).
Theorem 2.26: If K _{p} is a complete graph with p ≥ 2 vertices then d _{t} (K _{p} ) = p/2
Theorem 2.27: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d(G) /2 ≤ d _{t} (G).
2.16 Connected Domatic Number:
A partition ∆ of a vertex V of a connected graph G is called a connected domatic
partition of G if each class of ∆ is a connected dominating set of G. The maximum number of
classes of connected domatic partition of G is called the connected domatic number G and is
denoted by d _{c} (G).
Ex. G:
56
X = {{A, B}, {H,I} , {D,E} }
d _{c} (G)
= 3
Theorem 2.28: For any connected graph G, d _{c} (G) ≤ δ(G).
Theorem 2.29: For any connected graph G which is not compete d _{c} (G) ≤ δ(G)+1.
Theorem 2.30: For any connected graph G which is not compete d _{c} (G) ≤ κ(G).
2.17 Edge domatic number:
An edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E(G), all of whose classes are edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of an edge partition of G is called the edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d ^{1} (G).
Ex. C _{6}
X = {{e _{1}_{,} e _{4} } , {e _{2} , e _{5} }, {e _{3} , e _{6} }}
d ^{1} (G) = 3
Theorem 2.31: If P _{p} _{i}_{s} a path with p ≥ 3 vertices then d ^{1} (P _{p}_{)} = 2.
57
Theorem 2.32: If C _{p} _{i}_{s} a cycle with p ≥ 3 vertices then d ^{1} (C _{p}_{)} = 3 if p is divisible 3
Connected Edge domatic number:
=2 otherwise.
A connected edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E (G), all of whose classes are
connected edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of a connected edge partition of G is called the connected edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d _{c} ^{1} (G).
Ex. G:
X = {{e _{2}_{,} e _{3} , e _{4} }, {e _{7} , e _{1}_{1} , e _{9} , e _{1}_{0} }}
d _{c} ^{1} (G) = 2.
2.18 Total Edge domatic number:
A total edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E(G), all of whose classes are total
edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of a total edge partition of G is called the total edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d _{c} ^{1} (G).
Ex. G: W _{6}
58
X = { {e _{2} , e _{8} , e _{1}_{1} , e _{5} } , {e _{3} , e _{9} , e _{1}_{2} , e _{6} } , {e _{4} , e _{1}_{0} , e _{7} , e _{1} }}
d _{t} ^{1} (G) = 4.
2.19 Split Dominating Set:
A dominating set D of G is a split dominating set if the induced subgraph <VD> is disconnected.
Ex. C _{5}
Split domination number
γ _{s} (G):
The split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a split dominating set.
γ _{s} (G) = 2
Theorem 2.33: For any graph G, γ _{s} (G) ≤ α _{0} (G).
Theorem 2.34: For any graph G, γ (G) + γ _{s} (G) ≤ p.
59
Theorem 2.35: γ
_{s} (C _{p} )
γ _{s} (W _{p} )
γ _{s} (K
_{m} _{,}_{n} )
= 
p/3 
if p ≥ 4; 
= 
3 
if p ≥ 5; 
= 
m 
if 2 ≤ m ≤ n. 
Strong split Dominating Set:
A dominating set D of G is a strong split dominating set if the induced sub graph <VD> is totally disconnected with at least two vertices.
Strong split domination number
cardinality of a strong split
γ _{s}_{s} (G): The strong split domination number is the minimum
dominating set
Ex. G:
2.20 Non Split Dominating Set:
γ _{s}_{s} (G) = 4
A dominating set D of G is a non split dominating set if the induced sub graph <VD> is connected.
Non Split domination number
γ _{n}_{s} (G):
The split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a non split
dominating set.
γ _{n}_{s} (G) = 5
60
Theorem 2.36: If T is a tree which is not a star then γ _{n}_{s} (T) ≤ p2.
Theorem 2.37: If T is a tree with p ≥ 3 then p – m ≤ γ _{n}_{s} (T). Here m is the number of vertices adjacent to end vertices.
Strong non split Dominating Set:
A dominating set D of G is a strong split dominating set if the induced subgraph <VD> is complete.
Strong non Split domination number γ _{s}_{n}_{s} (G):
strong non split
The strong non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set.
γ _{s}_{n}_{s} (G) = 3
2.21 Cycle non split Dominating Set:
A dominating set
D of a connected
graph G
is
a cycle non
split
dominating set if the induced sub graph <VD> is cycle in G.
Cycle non split domination number
γ _{c}_{n}_{s} (G):
cycle non split
The cycle non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set
61
γ _{c}_{n}_{s} (G) = 2
Preposition 2.38: For any connected graph G with p ≥ 4, γ (G) ≤ γ _{c}_{n}_{s} (G).
Preposition 2.39: For any connected graph G with p ≥ 4, γ _{(} G) + γ _{c}_{n}_{s} (G) ≤ p.
2.22 Path non split Dominating Set:
A dominating set D of a connected dominating set if the induced sub graph <VD> is a path in G
Path non split domination number
γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (G):
graph G is
a path non split
The path non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a path non split dominating set.
Ex. C _{5}
γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (G) = 3
Preposition 2.40: For any nontrivial connected graph G, γ (G) ≤ γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (G).
Preposition 2.41: For any nontrivial connected graph G, γ (G) + γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (G) ≤ p.
62
Preposition 2.42: γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (K _{p} ) = p – 2, p ≥ 3.
γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (C _{p} ) = p – 2, 
p ≥ 3. 

γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (P _{p} ) = p – 2, 
p ≥ 3. 

γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (W _{p} ) 
= 
2, 
p ≥ 4. 
γ _{p}_{n}_{s} (K _{m} _{,}_{n} ) = m + n – 3 ,
2.23 Cototal Dominating Set:
m ≥ 2,
n ≥ 3.
A dominating set D of G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph <VD> is has no isolated vertices.
Cototal domination number
γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G):
The cototal domination number γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G) is the minimum cardinality
cotal dominating set.
γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G) = 3
Theorem 2.43: For any graph G, p – (2/3)q ≤ γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G).
Theorem 2.44: let G be a graph such that each component of G is not a star. Then
γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G) ≤ p  δ(G).
Theorem 2.45: For any graph G, 2(p –q) – p _{0} ≤ γ _{c}_{o}_{t} (G). Where p _{0} is the number of isolated vertices in G.
2.24 Distance –K Domination:
Given any integer k ≥ 1, vertex subset D is a distancek dominating set of a graph G if for all v Є V _{G} –D, there exists x Є D such that d(v , x) ≤ k
63
Ex. A Minimum distance 2 dominating set
The distancek domination number:
The distancek domination number of a graph G, denoted d _{k} –dom(G) , is the cardinality of a minimum distancek dominating set of G. More over d _{k} –dom(G) ≤ ϒ(G)
ϒ(G) = 4
d _{2} –dom(G) = 2
64
References:
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of graphs, Bul. Akad. Stiince RSS Moldoven, No 1, 94 (1979) 58.
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independence and irredundance, J. Graph Theory 3 (1979) 241250.
3. C. Berge, Theory of Graphs and its Applications, Methuen, London, (1962).
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middle graphs, Canad. Math. Bull., 21 (1978) 461468.
5. E. Sampathkumar and H. B. Walikar, The connected domination number of a
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8. K. Seyffarth and G. Macgillivray, Domination numbers of planar graphs, J. Graph
Theory, 22 (1996) 2134229.
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number, Discrete Math. 87 (1991) 6572.
10. O. Favaron, A bound on the independent domination number of a tree. Vishwa Internat. J.
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11. R. B. Allan and R. C. Laskar, On domination and independent domination numbers of a
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65
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T.W. Haynes and P. J. Slater, Paired Domination in graphs, Networks, 32 (1998)
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Chapter3
Literature survey
The following problem can be said to be the origin of the study of dominating sets in graphs. The following figures illustrates a standard 8 x 8 chessboard on which is placed a queen.
According to the rules of chess a queen can, in one move, advance any number of squares horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (assuming no other chess piece lies in its way). Thus, the queen in the above figure can move to (or attack, or dominate) all of the squares marked with an ‘X’. In the 1850s, chess enthusiastics in Europe considered the problem of determining the minimum number of queens that can be placed on a chess board so that all squares are either attacked by a queen or are occupied by a queen. The following figure illustrates a set of six
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queens which together attack or dominate, every square on the board. It was correctly thought in the 1850s, that five is the minimum number of queens that can dominate all of the squares of an 8 x 8 chessboard.
Case1 : No two Queens attack each other
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Case2 : All Queens lie on the main diagonal
Case3 : All Queens lie on a common column
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Mathematical history of Domination in Graphs:
The mathematical study of dominating sets in graphs began around 1960.
The subject has historical roots dating back to 1862, when Jaenisch studied the problem of
determining the Minimum number of Queens which are necessary to cover an n x n chess
board.
Among others, the following are the 3 basic types of problems:
Covering: What is the minimum number of chess pieces of given type which is necessary to
cover / attack /dominate every square of an n x n board?
This is an example of the problem, finding a dominating set of minimum cardinality.
Independent Covering: What is the minimum number of mutually non attacking chess pieces
of a given type which are necessary to dominate every square of an n x n board?
This is an example of the problem of finding a minimum cardinality independent
dominating set.
Independence: What is the maximum number of chess pieces of a given type which can be
placed on an n x n chessboard in such a way that no two of them attack / dominate each other?
This is an example of the problem of finding the maximum cardinality of an
independent set.
These three problem types were studied in detail by Yaglom and Yaglom brothers around
1964
In 1958 Claude Berge wrote a book on graph theory, in which he defined for the
first time, the concept of the domination number of a graph ( he called this number as ‘
the coefficient of external stability ‘)
In 1962, Oystein Ore published his book on Graph theory in which he used for
the first time, the names ‘ dominating set ‘ and ‘ dominating number ‘ .
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In 1977, Cockayne and Hedetniemi publish a survey of the few results known at that time, about dominating sets and graph. In this survey, they were the first to use the notation γ (G) for the domination number in a graph, which subsequently became the accepted notation.

This survey paper seems of have set in motion the modern study of domination in graphs 

Some twenty years later, more than 1200 research papers have been published on this topic and the number of papers is steadily growing. 
According to S. T. Hedetniemi, R. C. Laskar, they divide the contributions in Topics on domination theory into three sections, entitled ‘theoretical’, ‘new models’ and ‘algorithmic’.

The nine theoretical papers retain a primary focus on properties of the standard domination number ϒ(G) 


The four papers which they 
classify as ‘ new models ‘ are concerned primarily 
with new variations in the domination theme. 


The eight algorithmic papers are primarily concerned with finding classes of graphs for which the domination number, and 


Several other dominationrelated parameters can be computed in polynomial 
time.
3.1 Theoretical:
For a variety of reasons they lead of this volume with the paper “ Chessboard domination problem “ by Cockayne, because Cockayne has done the most definitive work in this area. The follow up paper “ On the queen domination problem” by Ginstead, Hahne and Vanstone the best approximation to the old problem of placing a minimum number of queens on an arbitrary nxn chessboard so that all squares are ‘covered’ by atleast one queen.
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.
It is able to present next a reprint of a paper by Berge and Duchet entitled “Recent
problems and results about Kernels in directed graph” Claude Berge has done more than anyone in particular of domination theory. He used the terminology “Coefficient of external
stability” instead “The domination number”
. David Sumner was one of the early researcher in domination theory and was perhaps the first one to consider the question of domination in critical graphs. In this paper “ Critical concepts in domonation” he considers the problem of characterizing graphs for which adding any edge e decreases the domination number. He also considers the problem of characterizing graphs having minimum dominating sets D which are independent. i.e. no two vertices in D are adjacent.
A related notion, By Fink , Jacobson, Kinch and Roberts in “The bondage number of graph”, is that of finding a set of edges F of smallest order (called the bondage number), whose removal increases the domination number.
In the original survey paper on domination Cockayne and Hedetniemi introduced the domatic number of a graph denoted d(G) which equals the maximum order of a partition{V _{1} _{,} V _{2}_{,} V _{3}_{,}_{…}_{,} V _{R} } of V(G) such that every set V _{i} is a dominating set. Today Zelinka has become the world’s foremost authority on the domatic number and a related partition numbers. He has published nearly two dozen papers on this topic. Zelinka entitled “ Regular totally domatically full graphs” and Rall entitled “ Domatically critical and domatically full graphs “. On the domatic number of a graph.
3.2 New models:
The concepts of domination, covering and centrality are so interrelated. In a 1985 paper, Hedetniemi, Hedetniemi and Laskar list 30 different types of domination. As of now twice as many types of domination problem have been studied.
The paper “ Dominating cliques in graphs ” by Cozzens and Kelleher, studies the existence of families of graphs which contain a complete subgraph whose vertices form a dominating set. They present several forbidden subgraph conditions which are sufficient to imply
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the existence of dominating cliques and they present a polynomial algorithm for finding a domination clique for a certain class of graphs.
The paper “Covering all cliques of a graph” by Tuza considers a different kind of domination, in which one seeks a minimum set of vertices which dominates all cliques(i.e. maximal complete subgraphs ) of a graph.
The paper by Brigham and Dutton entitled “ Factor domination in graphs” considers, the general problem of finding a minimum set of vertices which is a dominating set of every subgraph in a set of edge disjoint subgraphs, say G _{1} _{,} G _{2}_{,} G _{3}_{,}_{…}_{,} G _{t} , whose union is a given graph G.
The paper by Sampathkumar entitled “The least point covering and domination number of a graph” is one of many papers in which one imposes additional conditions on a dominating set, e.g. the dominating set must induce a connected subgraph(connected domination), a complete subgraph (dominating clique), or a totallydisconnected graph (independent domination). In Sampathkumar’s paper the domination number of the subgraph induced by the dominating set must be minimized.
3.3 Algorithmic:
Nearly 100 papers containing domination algorithm or complexity results have been published in the last 10 years. Perhaps, the first domination algorithm was an attempt by Daykin and Ng in 1966 to compute the domination number of an arbitrary tree. But their algorithm seems to have an error that cannot be easily corrected.
Cockayne, Goodman and Hedetniemi apparently constructed the first domination algorithm for trees in 1975 and, at about the same time, David Johnson constructed the first (unpublished) proof that the domination problem for arbitrary graphs is NP complete.
The first paper by Corneil and Stewart entitled “ Dominating sets in perfect graphs” presents both a brief survey of algorithmic results on domination and a discussion of the dynamicprogrammingstyle technique that is commonly used in designing domination algorithms, especially as they are applied to the family of perfect graph.
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The paper “Unit disk graphs” by Clark , Colbourn and Johnson discusses the algorithmic compelxity of such problem as domination , independent domination and connected domination , and several other problems, on the intersection graphs of equal size circles in the plane. This paper is significant since it contains the result that the Domination problem for grid graphs, a subclass of unit disk graphs, is NPcomplete.
The paper “ Permutation graphs: Connected domination and Steiner trees” by Colbourn and Stewart , a variety of NPcomplete problems have been shown to have polynomial solutions when restricted to permutation graph.
The paper “ The discipline number of a graph” Chavatal and Cook, provides an example of the relatively recent study of fractional( i.e. real valued ) parameters of graphs. These are the values obtained by real relaxations of the integer linear programs corresponding to various graphical parameters like domination, matching, covering and independence.
The paper “Best location of service centers in a tree like network under budget constraints” by McHugh and Perl, provides both a nice applications perspective on domination and an illustration of the many papers that have been published on the topic of centrality in graphs. It also provides an example of a pseudopolynomial domination algorithm and another example of the dynamic programming technique applied to domination problems.
The paper “Dominating cycles in Halin graphs” by Skowronska and Syslo, discusses both a fourth class of graphs on which polynomial time domination algorithms can be constructed, and the notion of a dominating cucle, i.e. a cycle C in a graph such that every vertex not in C lies at most one from some vertex in C.
The paper “Finding dominating cliques efficiently, in strongly chrodal
graphs and undirected path graph” by Kratsch is an algorithmic mate of the paper by
Cozzens and Kelleher on dominating cliques, find the dominating cliques of minimum size.
The paper “On minimum dominating sets with minimum intersection”
by
Grinstead and Slatter, which is a good representative of the fast developing area of polynomial,
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and even linear , algorithms on partial Ktrees. Grinstead and Slatter introduce a difficult, new
type of problem, prove that it is in general NPcomplete, and give a linear time solution when
restricted to trees. This solution also uses a dynamic programming style approach and a
methodology created by Wimer in his 1987 Ph.D. Thesis.
3.4 Applications:
School Bus Routing:
Most school
in the country provide school buses for transporting children to and from school.
Most also operate under certain rules, one of which usually states that no child shall have to walk
farthrer than, say one quarter km to a bus pickup point. Thus, they must construct a route for
each bus that gets

Within one quarter km of every child in its assigned area. 

No bus ride can take more than some specified number of minutes, and 

Limits on the number of children that a bus can carry at any one time. 
Let us say that the following figure represents a street map of part of a city, where each edge
represents one pick up block. The school is located at the large vertex. Let us assume that the
school has decided that no child shall have to walk more than two blocks in order to be picked up
by a school bus. Construct a route for a school bus that leaves the school, gets within two blocks
of every child and returns to the school. One such simple route is indicated by the directed edges
in the following figure
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A second possible route is indicated below. With this route the school bus can
turn around
and drive back down a street. Both routes define what are called distance2
dominating sets in the sense that every vertex not on the route(not in the set) is within distance
two (two edges) of at least one point on the route.
These routes also define what are called
connected dominating sets in the sense that the set of shaded vertices on the route forms a
connected subgraph of the entire graph. The connected domination number ϒ _{c} (G) equals the
minimum cardinality of a dominating set D such that <D> is connected
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