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CHANGING AND UNCHANGING DOMINATION PARAMETERS

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN MATHEMATICS

By

SHUNMUGASUNDARI

Register Number: 0935313

Research Guide

Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI

H.O.D., Department of Mathematics

Government Science College

Nruppathunga Road

Bangalore-560 001

of Mathematics Government Science College Nruppathunga Road Bangalore-560 001 HOSUR ROAD BANGALORE-560 029 2010 1

HOSUR ROAD

BANGALORE-560 029

2010

1

Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI

H.O.D., Department of Mathematics

Government Science College

Kruppathunga Road

Bangalore-560 001

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation submitted by Shunmugasundari on the title “Changing and Unchanging Domination Parameters” is a record of research work done by her during the academic year 2009 – 2010 under my guidance and supervision in partial fulfilment of Master of Philosophy in Mathematics. This dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associate-ship, Fellowship etc., in this University or in any other University.

Place: Bangalore

Date:

Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI

2

(Guide)

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled “Changing and Unchanging Domination Parameters” has been undertaken by me for the award of M.Phil degree in Mathematics. I have completed this under the guidance of Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics, Government Science College, and Kruppathunga Road, Bangalore-560001.

I also declare that this dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any Degree, Diploma Associate-ship, and Fellowship etc., in this University or in any other University.

Place:

Bangalore

Shunmugasundari

Date:

(Candidate)

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Neil Armstrong, the famous Astronaut has said, ‘Research is creating new Knowledge’. My effort in searching for this knowledge would not have been complete without the valuable contributions and support of so many benefactors.

I place

on

my record my gratitude

to

Dr. (Fr.) THOMAS

C.MATHEW, Vice – Chancellor, Fr. ABRAHAM V.M., Pro Vice- Chancellor, Prof. Chandrashekaran K.A and Dr. Nanjegowda N. A, Dean of Sciences for having provided me an opportunity to undertake this research work.

It is with profound gratitude that I acknowledge the constant guidance of

Dr. SHIVASHARANAPPA SIGARKANTI, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics,

Government

Science

college,

Bangalore-560001,

Whose valuable guidance,

inspiration,

fruitful

discussions

and

constant

encouragement

at

every

stage

empowered

me

to

carry

out

this

study

and

complete

this

research

work

successfully.

I express with all sincerity & regard my deep indebtedness to Dr. S. PRANESH, Co-ordinator, Post Graduate Department of Mathematics, Christ University, Bangalore-560 029 for his inspiration, able guidance and suggestions at every stage of my research work. Without his expertise concern & benevolent encouragement this work would not have been possible.

I also express my gratitude to Dr. MARUTHAMANIKANDAN S., Post Graduate Department of Mathematics, Christ University, and Bangalore for his

4

affection and keen interest throughout the course of my work. It is with a sense of deep appreciation that I place on record my profound thankfulness to him.

I must specially acknowledge Mr. T.V. Joseph, H.O.D., Department of Mathematics, and other colleagues for their kind co-operation throughout the period of this study

Finally

a

special

word

of

thanks

to

my

family

members

for

their

encouragement and support in completing this work.

.

Shunmugasundari

5

PREFACE

Graph Theory is a delightful playground for the exploration of proof

techniques in discrete mathematics, and its results have applications in many areas

of computing, social, and natural sciences. How can we lay cable at minimum cost

to make every telephone reachable from every other? What is the fastest route

from the national capital to each state capital? How can n jobs be filled by n

people with maximum total utility? What is the maximum flow per unit time from

source to sink in a network of pipes? How many layers does a computer chip need

so that wires in the same layer don’t cross? How can the season of a sports league

be scheduled into the minimum number of weeks? In what order should a

travelling salesman visit cities to minimum number of weeks? Can we colour the

regions of every map using four colours so that neighbouring regions receive

different colours? These and many other practical problems involve graph theory

(D. B. West, 2002 page1).

Graph Theory was born in 1936 with Euler's paper in which he solved the

Konigsberg Bridge problem. The past 50 years has been a period of intense

activity in graph theory in both pure and applied mathematics. Perhaps the fastest-

growing area within graph theory is the study of domination and related subset

problems, such as independence, covering, and matching.

6

This thesis is divided into five chapters, first chapter being the

preliminaries introducing all the terms which are used in developing this thesis. In

this chapter we collect some basic definitions on graphs which are needed for the

subsequent chapters.

In chapter 2 we present a brief review of the historical development of the

study of domination in graphs.

Chapter 3 we deals with dominating set and domination number of a graph.

Some fundamental results on domination are presented. Further several bounds for

the domination number are stated. We also consider a variety of conditions that

might be imposed on a dominating set D in a graph G = (V, E). In this chapter we

will consider a variety of conditions that can be imposed either on the dominated

set V – D, or on V, or on the method by which vertices in V – D are dominated.

In chapter 4 we present the effects on domination parameters when a graph is

modified by deleting a vertex or deleting or adding edges.

In chapter 5 we present many interesting relationships among the six classes

of changing and unchanging graphs.

7

 

Table of Contents

S.No

Topics

Page

 

No

 

Preface

1

Preliminaries

1.1

History of Graph theory

1

1.2

Graphs: Basic Definitions

4

1.3

Common Families of Graphs

6

1.4

Isomorphism of Graphs

24

1.5

Trees

25

1.6

Euler Tour and Hamilton cycles

28

1.7

Operation on Graph Theory

31

1.8

Independent set

33

1.9

Matching and Factorization

35

2

Literature survey

38

2.1

Theoretical

44

2.2

New models

45

2.3

Algorithmic

46

2.4

Applications

47

3

Motivation: Theory of Domination in Graphs

55

3.1

Domination number

56

3.2

Independent domination Number

58

3.3

Total domination number

59

3.4

Connected domination number

60

3.5

Connected Total domination number

61

3.6

Clique domination number

62

3.7

Paired domination number

62

3.8

Induced paired domination number

63

3.9

Global domination number

64

3.10

Total global domination number

64

3.11

Edge domination number

65

3.12

Total Edge domination Number

65

8

3.13

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17

3.18

3.19

3.20

3.21

3.22

3.23

3.24

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.4.1

4.4.2

4.4.3

4.5

4.5.1

4.6

4.7

4.8

5

5.1

5.2

6

7

8

Connected Edge domination number

Domatic number

Total Domatic Number

Connected Domatic Number

Edge Domatic number

Total Edge Domatic number

Split domination number

Non Split domination number

Cycle non split Dominating Set

Path non split Dominating Set

Cototal Dominating Set

Distance –K Domination

Changing and unchanging Domination parameters

Terminology

Vertex removal: Changing Domination

Vertex removal: Unchanging Domination

Edge removal :Changing Domination

Bondage Number

Total Bondage Number

Split Bondage Number

Edge Removal: Unchanging Domination

Nonbondage Number

Edge addition: Changing Domination

Edge addition: Unchanging Domination

References

Conclusion

Classes of changing and unchanging graphs

Relationships among Classes

Bibliography

Index of symbols

Index of Definitions

9

66

67

67

68

69

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

78

84

87

87

88

93

97

99

100

101

107

108

110

110

112

113

126

129

Chapter-1

Preliminaries

In this chapter we collect the basic definitions on graphs which are needed for the subsequent chapters.

1.1 History of Graph theory

Konigsberg is a city which was the capital of East Prussia but now is known as Kaliningrad in Russia. The city is built around the River Pregel where it joins another river. An island named Kniephof is in the middle of where the two rivers join. There are seven bridges that join the different parts of the city on both sides of the rivers and the island.

of the city on both sides of the rivers and the island. People tried to find

People tried to find a way to walk all seven bridges without crossing a bridge twice, but no one could find a way to do it. The problem came to the attention of a Swiss mathematician named Leonhard Euler (pronounced "oiler").

10

In 1735, Euler presented the solution to the problem before the Russian

Academy. He explained why crossing all seven bridges without crossing a bridge twice was

impossible. While solving this problem, he developed a new mathematics field called graph

theory, which later served as the basis for another mathematical field called topology

as the basis for another mathematical field called topology Euler simplified the bridge problem by representing

Euler simplified the bridge problem by representing each land mass as a point and each bridge as a line. He reasoned that anyone standing on land would have to have a way to get on and off. Thus each land mass would need an even number of bridges. But in Konigsberg, each land mass had an odd number of bridges. This was why all seven bridges could not be crossed without crossing one more than once.

The Konigsberg Bridge Problem is the same as the problem of drawing the above figure without lifting the pen from the paper and without retracing any line and coming back to the starting point.

Present state of the bridges

Two of the seven original bridges were destroyed by bombs during World War II.

Two others were later demolished and replaced by a modern highway. The three other bridges

remain, although only two of them are from Euler's time (one was rebuilt in 1935). Thus, there

are now five bridges in Konigsberg.

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In terms of graph theory, two of the nodes now have degree 2, and the

In terms of graph theory, two of the nodes now have degree 2, and the other two

have degree 3. Therefore, an Eulerian trail is now possible, but since it must begin on one island

and end on the other.

1.2 Graphs: Basic Definitions

In mathematics and computer science, graph theory studies the properties of graphs.

Mathematical structures used to model pair wise relations between

objects from a certain

collection. A "graph" in this context refers to a collection of vertices V (G) or 'nodes' and a

collection of edges E (G) that connect pairs of vertices.

A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another

Undirected graph:

the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex

12

Directed graph (Digraph)

:

Directed graph (Digraph) : Null graph : Graph that contains no edge is called Null graph

Null graph: Graph that contains no edge is called Null graph because they have null degree of

vertices.

A null graph of order n is denoted by N n

Trivial graph: A null graph with only one vertex is called a trivial graph.

A graph / digraph with only a finite number of vertices as well as finite number of edges

are called a finite graph / digraph; otherwise, it is called an infinite graph / digraph.

The number of vertices in a (finite) graph is called the order of the graph. It is denoted

by | V | ( The cardinality of the set V)

The number of edges in a (finite) graph is called the size of the graph. It is denoted by |E |

( The cardinality of the set E)

Loop: If an edge is supported by only one vertex, it is called a loop.

E) Loop: If an edge is supported by only one vertex, it is called a loop

Two vertices can also have multiple edges.

E) Loop: If an edge is supported by only one vertex, it is called a loop

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In fact one vertex can have multiple loops.

The two end vertices are coincident if the edge is a loop

1.3 Common Families of Graphs:

Simple Graph: A graph with no loops or multiple edges is called a simple graph.

with no loops or multiple edges is called a simple graph. Multigraph : A graph which

Multigraph: A graph which contains multiple edges but no loops is called a multigraph.

contains multiple edges but no loops is called a multigraph. General graph: A graph which contains

General graph: A graph which contains multiple edges or loops (or both) is called a general graph.

Pseudo

graph: A multi graph

in

which

loops

a general graph. Pseudo graph: A multi graph in which loops are allowed is called a

are

allowed

is

called

a

pseudo

graph.

Every edge has two end vertices; every edge is incident on two vertices.

two end vertices; every edge is incident on two vertices. We also say that Vertex A

We also say that Vertex A incident with edge e and Vertex B incident with edge e.

Degree of vertex (Valency): Let G is the graph with loops, and let v be a vertex of G. The degree of v is the number of edges meeting at v, and is denoted by deg (v).

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Deg (A) = 3 Deg (B) = 4 Deg (H) = 1 An isolated vertex

Deg (A) = 3

Deg (B) = 4

Deg (H) = 1

An isolated vertex has zero degree.

Let G be a multi graph. The maximum degree of G, denoted by (G), is denoted as the maximum number among all vertex degrees in G.

(G) = max {d (v) /v εεεε V (G)}

Let G be a multi graph. The minimum degree of G, denoted by δδδδ(G), is denoted as the minimum number among all vertex degrees in G.

δδδδ(G) = min {d (v) /v εεεε V (G)}

Ex.

δ ( G ) = min {d (v) /v ε ε ε ε V (G)} Ex.

Here ∆∆∆∆(G) = 4

and

δδδδ(G) = 1

Regular graph: A graph G is said to be regular if every vertex in G has the same degree

G is said to be k-regular if d(v) = k for each vertex v in G, Where k 0.

An edge is incident only on two vertices.

A vertex may be incident with any number of edges.

15

Two non-parallel edges are said to be adjacent edges if they are incident on a common vertex.

be adjacent edges if they are incident on a common vertex. Two vertices are said to

Two vertices are said to be adjacent vertices (or neighbors) if there is an edge joining them.

vertices (or neighbors ) if there is an edge joining them. The set of all neighbors

The set of all neighbors of v in G is denoted by N(v);

i.e. N (v) = {x | x is a neighbor of v}.

is denoted by N(v); i.e. N (v) = {x | x is a neighbor of v}.

N (A) = {B, C, D} and

N (B) = {D, E}

Petersen graph: The Petersen graph is the 3-regular graph. It posses a number of graph theoretic properties and it frequently used to illustrate established theorems and to test conjectures.

to illustrate established theorems and to test conjectures. A graph G is k-regular if and only

A graph G is k-regular if and only if (G) = δ(G) = k

Walk: A walk in a multigraph G is an alternating sequence of vertices and edges beginning and ending at vertices:

v 0 e 0 v 1 e 1 v 2 e 2 v 3 e 3

v k-1 e k-1 v k,

16

Where k ≥ 1 and e i is incident with v i and v i+1, for each i = 0,1,2 ,

, k-1.

The walk is also called a v 0 – v k walk with its initial vertex v 0 and terminal vertex v k.

The length of the walk is defined as ‘k’, which is the number of occurrences of edges in the sequence.

which is the number of occurrences of edges in the sequence. Trail : A walk is
which is the number of occurrences of edges in the sequence. Trail : A walk is

Trail: A walk is called a trail if no edge in it is traversed more than once.

Path: A walk is called a path if no vertex in it is visited more than once.

Path: A walk is called a path if no vertex in it is visited more than
Path: A walk is called a path if no vertex in it is visited more than

walk (1) is neither a trail nor a path

17

walk (2) is a trail but not a path

walk (3) both a trail and a path

Every path must be a Trail.

A u-v walk is said to be closed if u = v, that is, its initial and terminal vertices are the same; and open otherwise.

A closed walk of length at least two in which no edge is repeated is called a circuit.

Connected graph: A multi graph G is said to be connected if every two vertices in G are joined by a path. Otherwise it is disconnected.

Every disconnected graph can be split up into a number of connected sub graphs, called components.

Ex: Connected non simple graph

graphs, called components. Ex: Connected non simple graph Ex : Disconnected non simple graph Let G

Ex : Disconnected non simple graph

non simple graph Ex : Disconnected non simple graph Let G be a connected multi graph,

Let G be a connected multi graph, and u, v be any two vertices in G. The distance from u to v , denoted by d(u , v) is the smallest length of all u-v paths in G ( This is also known as geodesic distance)

The greatest distance between any two vertices in a graph G

(i.e.) max {d (u, v) / u, v Є V (G)}

is called the diameter of G and it is denoted by diam (G).

18

The eccentricity ε of a vertex v is the greatest distance between v and any other vertex.

The radius of a graph is the minimum eccentricity of any vertex.

Density: The density of G is the ratio of edges in G to the maximum possible number of edges Density = 2L/ (p * (p-1)) Where L is the number of edges in the graph and p is the number of vertices in the graph.

in the graph and p is the number of vertices in the graph. Density = 2*7

Density = 2*7 / (7*6) = 1 / 3 Bouquet: A Graph consisting of a single vertex with n self loops is called a bouquet and is denoted B n. Ex. B 4

loops is called a bouquet and is denoted B n . Ex. B 4 Dipole :

Dipole: A Graph consisting of two vertices and n edges joining them is called a dipole and is denoted D n Ex. D 5

them is called a dipole and is denoted D n Ex. D 5 The Complete Graphs:

The Complete Graphs: A simple graph of order ≥ 2 in which there is an edge between every pair of vertices is called a complete graph (or a full graph)

19

In other words, a complete graph is a simple graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is adjacent. It is denoted by K n.

Ex. K 5

vertices is adjacent. It is denoted by K n . Ex. K 5 Path Graph :

Path Graph : A path graph P is a simple connected graph with |V p | = |E p | + 1 that can be drawn so that all of its vertices and edges lie on a single straight line and it is denoted by P n .

Ex. P 8

single straight line and it is denoted by P n . Ex. P 8 Circular ladder

Circular ladder graph: The Circular ladder graph CL n is visualized as two concentric n-cycles in which each of the n pairs of corresponding vertices is joined by an edge.

Ex. CL 4

of corresponding vertices is joined by an edge. Ex. CL 4 Cut point: A vertex is

Cut point: A vertex is a cut point if its removal increases the number of components in the graph.

20

Bridges: An edge is a bridge if its removal increases the number of components in

Bridges: An edge is a bridge if its removal increases the number of components in the graph.

its removal increases the number of components in the graph. Vertex-connectivity: The connectivity κ (G) of

Vertex-connectivity: The connectivity κ (G) of a connected graph G is the minimum number of vertices that need to be removed to disconnect the graph (or make it empty).

to be removed to disconnect the graph (or make it empty). κ (G) = 1 Edge-connectivity:

κ (G) = 1

Edge-connectivity: The edge-connectivity λ (G) of a connected graph G is the minimum number of edges that need to be removed to disconnect the graph.

of edges that need to be removed to disconnect the graph. λ(G) = 2 Block: A

λ(G) = 2

Block: A block of a loop less graph is a maximal connected subgraph H such that no vertex of H is a cut vertex of H. Ex. G:

21

G has four blocks; they are the subgraph induced on the vertex subsets {u, v,

G has four blocks; they are the subgraph induced on the vertex subsets {u, v, w, x}, {x, y}, {y, z, m}. Block graph: The block graph of a graph G, denoted by BL (G), is the graph whose vertices correspond to the blocks of G, such that two vertices of BL (G) are joined by a single edge whenever the corresponding blocks have a vertex in common.

Ex. G:

BL (G):

corresponding blocks have a vertex in common. Ex. G: BL (G): Bipartite graph (or bigraph ):
corresponding blocks have a vertex in common. Ex. G: BL (G): Bipartite graph (or bigraph ):

Bipartite graph (or bigraph): A bipartite graph is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint U and V such that every edge connects a vertex in U to one in V; that is, U and V are independent sets.

Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any odd-length cycles.

sets. Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any odd-length cycles. Complete

Complete bipartite graph:

22

Complete bipartite graph or biclique is a special kind of bipartite where every vertex of the first set is connected to every vertex of the second set. The complete bipartite graph with partitions of size

| V 1 | = m and | V 2 | = n, is denoted K m,n .

1 | = m and | V 2 | = n, is denoted K m ,

Star: A star S k is the complete bipartite graph K 1, k .

Ex. K 1, 7

complete bipartite graph K 1 , k . Ex. K 1 , 7 Wheel: The wheel

Wheel: The wheel graph W n is a graph on n vertices constructed by connecting a single vertex to every vertex in an (n-1)-cycle.

Ex. W 8

single vertex to every vertex in an ( n -1)-cycle. Ex. W 8 Planar graph: A

Planar graph: A planar graph is that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints.

23

The Cycles: A graph of order n ≥ 3 is called cycle if its n

The Cycles: A graph of order n ≥ 3 is called cycle if its n vertices can be named as v 1 ,v 2 ,…,v n such that v 1 is adjacent to v 2 , v 2 is adjacent to v 3 to v n-1 is adjacent to v n , v n is adjacent to v 1 , and no other adjacency exists; that is ,

V (G) = { v 1, v 2 ,, v n }

and

E (G) = {v 1 v 2 , v 2 v 3, , ,v n v 1 }

A cycle of order n is denoted C n, we call C n an n-cycle.

Ex.C 6

is denoted C n , we call C n an n-cycle. Ex.C 6 Girth: The minimum

Girth: The minimum length of a cycle in a graph G is the girth g (G).

we call C n an n-cycle. Ex.C 6 Girth: The minimum length of a cycle in

g (G) =

3

24

Unicyclic Graph: A connected graph containing exactly one cycle

Subgraphs: A subgraph S of a graph G is a graph such that

The vertices of S are a subset of the vertices of G.

(i.e.)

V(S)

V (G)

The edges of S are a subset of the edges of G.

(i.e.) E(S)

E (G)

S are a subset of the edges of G. ( i.e. ) E(S) ⊆ E (G)

S is a subgraph of G

S 1 is not a subgraph of G

Proper subgraph: If S is a subgraph of G then we write S G. When S G but S ≠ G.

i.e. V(S) ≠ V(G) or E(S) ≠ E(G), then S is called a Proper subgraph of G .

A spanning subgraph: A spanning subgraph of G is a subgraph that contains all the vertices of

G.

( i.e.) V(S) = V(G)

25

S is spanning subgraph of G A vertex induced Subgraph: A vertex-induced subgraph is one

S is spanning subgraph of G

A vertex induced Subgraph: A vertex-induced subgraph is one that consists of some of the vertices of the original graph and all of the edges that connect them in the original denoted by

V.

that connect them in the original denoted by 〈 V 〉 . G 1 is an

G 1 is an induced subgraph

- induced by the set of vertices

V 1 = {A,B,C,F} .

G 2 is not an induced subgraph.

An edge-induced subgraph: An edge-induced subgraph consists of some of the edges of the original graph and the vertices that are at their endpoints.

of some of the edges of the original graph and the vertices that are at their

Some graph operation:

26

Vertex deleted subgraph: For any vertex v of graph G, G-v is obtained from G by removing v and all the edges of G which have v as an end. G-v is referred to as a vertex deleted subgraph.

as an end. G-v is referred to as a vertex deleted subgraph. Edge deleted subgraph: If

Edge deleted subgraph: If G = (V,E) and e is an edge of G then G-e is obtained from G by removing the edge e (but not its end point(s) . G-e is referred to as a edge deleted subgraph.

point(s) . G-e is referred to as a edge deleted subgraph. Complement of a graph: The

Complement of a graph: The complement of the graph G, denoted by

of a graph: The complement of the graph G, denoted by , is the graph with

, is the graph with V

(

of the graph G, denoted by , is the graph with V ( ) = V(G)

) = V(G) such that two vertices are adjacent in

with V ( ) = V(G) such that two vertices are adjacent in if and only

if and only if they are not adjacent in

G. ( interchanging the edges and the non-edges)

two vertices are adjacent in if and only if they are not adjacent in G. (

27

Clique: clique in an undirected graph G is a subset of the vertex set C V, such that for every two vertices in C, there exists an edge connecting the two. This is equivalent to saying that the subgraph induced by C is complete (in some cases, the term clique may also refer to the subgraph).

A maximal clique is a clique that cannot be extended by including one more adjacent vertex,

that is, a clique which does not exist exclusively within the vertex set of a larger clique.

A maximum clique is a clique of the largest possible size in a given graph. The clique number

ω (G) of a graph G is the number of vertices in the largest clique in G.

G is the number of vertices in the largest clique in G . ω ( G

ω (G) =

5

1.4 Isomorphism of Graphs:

The simple graphs G 1 = (V 1 , E 1 ) and G 2 = (V 2 , E 2 ) are isomorphic if there is a bijection (an one- to-one and onto function) f from V 1 to V 2 with the property that a and b are adjacent in G 1 if and only if f (a) and f(b) are adjacent in G 2 , for all a and b in V 1 .Such a function f is called an isomorphism.

In other words, G 1 and G 2 are isomorphic if their vertices can be ordered in such a way that the

adjacency matrices M G1 and M G2 are identical

For two simple graphs, each with n vertices, there are n! possible isomorphism

For this purpose we can check invariants, that is, properties that two isomorphic simple graphs must both have

28

the same number of vertices,

the same number of edges, and

The same degrees of vertices.

Note that two graphs that differ in any of these invariants are not isomorphic, but two graphs that match in all of them are not necessarily isomorphic

Example : Are the following two graphs isomorphic?

Example : Are the following two graphs isomorphic? Solution: Yes , they are isomorphic, f(a) =

Solution:

Yes, they are isomorphic, f(a) = e, f(b) = a, f(c) = b, f(d) = c, f(e) =d.

If G is isomorphic to H, then V(G ) = V(H) and E(G) = E(H).

Adjacency matrix: Let G = (V, E) be a simple graph with |V| = n. Suppose that the vertices of

G

are listed in arbitrary order as v 1 , v 2 … v n . The adjacency matrix A (or A G ) of G, with respect

to

this listing of the vertices, is the n×n zero-one matrix with 1 as it’s (i, j) entry when v i and v j

are adjacent, and 0 otherwise.

In other words, for an adjacency matrix A = [a ij ],

a ij = 1 a ij = 0

if {v i , v j } is an edge of G, otherwise.

Example: What is the adjacency matrix A G for the following graph G based on the order of vertices a, b, c, d?

29

Adjacency matrices of undirected graphs are always symmetric. Incidence matrix : and edges of G

Adjacency matrices of undirected graphs are always symmetric.

Incidence matrix:

and edges of G are listed in arbitrary order as v 1 , v 2 … v n and e 1 , e 2 … e m , respectively. The

incidence matrix of G with respect to this listing of the vertices and edges is the n×m zero-one matrix with 1 as it’s (i, j) entry when edge e j is incident with v i , and 0 otherwise.

Let G = (V, E) be an undirected graph with |V| = n. Suppose that the vertices

In other words, for an incidence matrix M = [m ij ],

m ij = 1 m ij = 0

if edge e j is incident with v i otherwise.

Example: What is the incidence matrix M for the following graph G based on the order of vertices a, b, c, d and edges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6?

the order of vertices a, b, c, d and edges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6?

Incidence matrices of directed graphs contain two 1s per column for edges connecting two vertices and one 1 per column for loops.

1.5 Tree: A tree is a graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one simple path. In other words, any connected graph without cycles is a tree.

30

Spanning tree : A spanning tree T of a connected , undirected graph G is

Spanning tree: A spanning tree T of a connected , undirected graph G is a tree composed of all the vertices and some (or perhaps all) of the edges of G.

Informally, a spanning tree of G is a selection of edges of G that form a tree spanning every vertex. That is, every vertex lies in the tree, but no cycles (or loops) are formed

vertex lies in the tree, but no cycles (or loops) are formed Forest: A forest is

Forest: A forest is an undirected graph, all of whose connected components are trees; in other words, the graph consists of a disjoint union of trees. Equivalently, a forest is an undirected cycle-free graph.

Equivalently, a forest is an undirected cycle-free graph. Galaxy: A galaxy is a forest in which

Galaxy: A galaxy is a forest in which each component is a star.

1.6 Euler Tour and Hamilton cycles:

31

Euler path: A graph is said to be containing an Euler path if it can be traced in 1 sweep without

lifting the pencil from the paper and without tracing the same edge more than once. Vertices may

be passed through more than once. The starting and ending points need not be the same.

Euler circuit: An Euler circuit is similar to an Euler path, except that the starting and ending

points must be the same.

The term Eulerian graph has two common meanings in graph theory. One

meaning is a graph with an Eulerian circuit, and the other is a graph with every vertex of

even degree

An Eulerian path, Eulerian trail or Euler walk in an undirected graph is a path

that uses each edge exactly once. If such a path exists, the graph is called traversable or

semi-eulerian.

An Eulerian cycle, Eulerian circuit or Euler tour in an undirected graph is a

cycle that uses each edge exactly once. If such a cycle exists, the graph is called

unicursal. While such graphs are Eulerian graphs, not every Eulerian graph possesses an

Eulerian cycle.

Let's look at the graphs below; do they contain an Euler circuit or an Euler path?

32

What is the relationship between the nature of the vertices and the kind of path/circuit

What is the relationship between the nature of the vertices and the kind of path/circuit that the

graph contains? We will have the answer after looking at the table below.

Graph

Number

of

odd

Number

of

even

What

does

the

vertices

vertices

path contain?

(Euler path = P;

Euler circuit = C;

Neither = N)

 

1

0

10

C

33

2

0

6

C

3

2

6

P

4

2

4

P

5

4

1

N

6

8

0

N

From the above table, we can observe that:

A graph with all vertices being even contains an Euler circuit.

A graph with 2 odd vertices and some even vertices contains an Euler path.

A graph with more than 2 odd vertices does not contain any Euler path or circuit.

Hamiltonian path: Hamiltonian path (or traceable path) is a path in an undirected graph which visits each vertex exactly once.

Hamiltonian cycle: A Hamiltonian cycle (or Hamiltonian circuit) is a cycle in an undirected graph which visits each vertex exactly once and also returns to the starting vertex

Hamiltonian

graph: A graph is Hamiltonian if it contains a Hamilton cycle.

A graph is Hamiltonian if it contains a Hamilton cycle . 1.7 Some Operations on Graph

1.7 Some Operations on Graph Theory:

Union: There are several ways to combine two graphs to get a third one. Suppose we have

graphs G 1 and G 2 and suppose that G 1 has vertex set V 1 and edge set E 1 , and that G 2 has vertex

34

set V 2 and edge set E 2 . The union of the two graphs, written G 1 U G 2 will have vertex set V 1 U V 2 and edge set E 1 U E 2 .

If we choose the null graph N 1 and the complete graph K 5 we will get the graph in following figure

graph K 5 we will get the graph in following figure N 1 U K 5

N 1 U K 5

Sum (Join): The sum of two graphs G 1 and G 2 , written G 1 + G 2 , is obtained by first forming the

union G 1 UG 2 and then making every vertex of G 1 adjacent to every vertex of G 2 .

vertex of G 1 adjacent to every vertex of G 2 . N 1 + K

N 1 + K 5

Graph Cartesian Product: The Cartesian graph product G = G 1 X G 2 , sometimes simply called "the graph product” of graphs G 1 and G 2 with disjoint point sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the graph with point set and adjacent with whenever or

sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the
sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the
sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the
sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the
sets V 1 and V 2 and edge sets E 1 and E 2 is the

35

1.8 Independent set: An independent set or stable set is a set of vertices in

1.8 Independent set: An independent set or stable set is a set of vertices in a graph no two of which are adjacent.

a set of vertices in a graph no two of which are adjacent . {I, D},

{I, D}, {I, D, F} and {H, C, E} are some of the independent sets.

But {A, D, F} and {A, C, H} are not. Independent sets are also called disjoint or mutually exclusive.

Maximum independent set: A maximum independent set is a largest independent set for a given graph G.

Maximal independent set:

A maximal independent set or maximal stable set is an independent set that is not a subset of any other independent set.

Ex. In the cycle C 10

36

The sets {B,F,I} ,{A,C,E,G,I} , {A,C,E} are some of the independent sets. {J,C,F,H} ,{A,C,E,G,I} ,{B,D,F,H,J}

The sets {B,F,I} ,{A,C,E,G,I} , {A,C,E} are some of the independent sets.

{J,C,F,H} ,{A,C,E,G,I} ,{B,D,F,H,J} are maximal independent set.

{J, C, F, H} is not a maximum independent set.

Independence number ββββ 0 (G): The number of vertices in a maximum independent set of G

called the independence number of G and is denoted by ββββ 0 (G).

number of G and is denoted by β β β β 0 (G). is β β

is

ββββ 0 (G) = 4

Independent set of edges: An independent set of edges of G has adjacent

Ex. K 4

: An independent set of edges of G has adjacent Ex. K 4 no two of

no two of

its

edges are

Edge independence number ββββ 1 (G): The number of edges in a maximum independent

set of G is called the edge independence number of G and is denoted by β 1 (G).

β 1 (G) = 2

37

Point cover: A vertex and a line are said to cover each other if they are incident. A set of points which covers all the lines of graph G is called a point cover.

Vertex covering number: The smallest number of points in any vertex cover for G is called its

vertex covering number and it is denoted by α 0 (G).

Edge Cover: A set of lines which covers all the vertices of graph G is called a line cover.

Edge covering number: The smallest number of lines in any edge cover for G is called its edge covering number and it is denoted by α 1 (G).

its edge covering number and it is denoted by α 1 (G). α 0 (G) =

α 0 (G) = 3 and α 1 (G) = 3

1.9 Matching: Given a graph G, a matching M in G is a set of pair wise non-adjacent edges; that

is, no two edges share a common vertex.

A vertex is matched (or saturated) if it is incident to an edge in the matching. Otherwise the

vertex is unmatched (or unsaturated). A maximal matching is a matching M of a graph G with the property that if any edge not in M is added to M, it is no longer a matching, that is, M is

maximal if it is not a proper subset of any other matching in graph G.

A maximum matching is a matching that contains the largest possible number of edges. There

may be many maximum matching. The matching number ν (G) of a graph G is the size of a

maximum matching. Note that every maximum matching is maximal, but not every maximal matching is a maximum matching

38

ν (G) = 2 A perfect matching is a matching which matches all vertices of

ν (G) = 2

A perfect matching is a matching which matches all vertices of the graph.

is a matching which matches all vertices of the graph. A near-perfect matching is one in

A near-perfect matching is one in which exactly one vertex is unmatched. This can only occur when the graph has an odd number of vertices, and such a matching must be maximum.

odd number of vertices, and such a matching must be maximum. An alternating path is a

An alternating path is a path in which the edges belong alternatively to the matching (M)

and not to the matching (E-M).

An augmenting path is an alternating path that starts from and ends on free (unmatched)

vertices.

Factorization: A factor of a graph G is a spanning subgraph of G which is not totally

disconnected. G is the sum of factors G i

called a factorization of G.

An n-factor is a regular of degree n.

if it is their line disjoint union, and such a union is

39

If G is the sum of n-factors, their union is called an n-factorization and G itself is n-

factorable.

A 1-factorization of a graph is a decomposition of all the edges of the graph into 1-

factors.

G: K 4

of all the edges of the graph into 1- factors. G: K 4 G: K 5
of all the edges of the graph into 1- factors. G: K 4 G: K 5

G: K 5

G 1:

G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3

A 2-factor is a collection of cycles that spans all vertices of the graph.

5 G 1: G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3 A 2-factor is

40

G 2:

G = G 1 + G 2 41

G = G 1 + G 2

G = G 1 + G 2 41

41

References:

1. Bollobas.B,Graph Theory: An Introductory Course Springer 1979.

2. C. Berge Graphs, North-Holland 1985.

3. Chartrand.G, Introductory Graph Theory, Dover 1985 .

4. Diestel.R, Graph Theory, Springer-Verlag 1997.

5. F. Harary,

Graph

Theory,

Addison Wesley,

Reading,

MA,

(1969).

6. G. Chartrand and L.Leniak, Graphs Digraphs, Fourth Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton,

2004.

7. Gould.RJ Benjamin/Cummings, Graph Theory , 1988

8. Gross. JL and Yellen. J, Graph Theory and its Applications, CRC Press LLC, 1998.

9. J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murthy, Graph Theory with Applications, Macmillan, London.

10. J. Clark and D. A. Holton, a first look at graph theory, World Scientific Pub. Singapore / Allied Pub.Ltd. New Delhi (1995)

11. J. Wilson and J.J. Watkins John, Graphs: An Introductory Approach, Wiley & Sons 1990.

12. M. Behzad, A characterization of total graphs, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 26

389.

(1970) 383 –

13. M. Capobianco and J.C. Molluzzo, Examples and Counterexamples in Graph Theory,

North-Holland 1978.

14. O. Ore, Theory of Graphs, AMS Colloquium Publications 38 AMS 1962.

15. R. C. Brigham and D. Dutton, On Neighborhood graphs, J. Combinatorics Inf & Syst.

Sci., 12

(1987)

75 – 85.

16. R. L. Brooks On coloring the nodes of a network, Proc.Cambridge Philos. Soc.

(1941)

194 – 197.

42

37

17.

R.J. Wilson Introduction to Graph Theory by R.J. Trudeau Dover Publications, 1994.

18. S. Arumugam and S. Ramachandran, Invitation to Graph Theory Scitech Publications

(2001).

19. T. Gallai, Uber extreme Punkt-und Kantenmenger, Ann Univ. Sci. Budapest, Eotvos Sect. Math, 2 (1959) 133 – 138.

20. V. R. Kulli, Graph

Theory, Vishwa

Internat.

Publications,

(2000).

21. West.DB, Introduction to Graph Theory, Prentice Hall 1996.

43

Chapter-3

Concept of Domination in graphs

In this chapter we collect the basic definitions and theorems on domination in graphs which are

needed for the subsequent chapters.

3.1 Dominating set : In graph theory, a dominating set for a graph G = (V, E) is a subset D of

V such that every vertex not in D (every vertex in V- D ) is joined to at least one member of D

by some edge.

(i.e.) A set D of vertices in a graph G is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in V-D is adjacent to some vertex in D.

Ex. In the following graph G

adjacent to some vertex in D. Ex. In the following graph G The set D =

The set D = {A, B, E, H} is one of the dominating set

Minimum Dominating set:

A dominating set D is said to be Minimum Dominating set if D consist of minimum number of vertices among all dominating sets

Ex. In the following graph G

45

Domination number: The domination number γ (G) is the number of vertices in a smallest

Domination number:

The domination number γ (G) is the number of vertices in a smallest dominating set for G. (The cardinality of minimum dominating set)

Ex. In the following graph G

vertices in a smallest dominating set for G. (The cardinality of minimum dominating set) Ex. In

46

Minimal Dominating Set:

A dominating set D is called Minimal dominating set if no proper subset of D is a dominating set

Ex.

set if no proper subset of D is a dominating set Ex. The sets {B,C,E} ,{D,C}

The sets {B,C,E} ,{D,C} and {B,E,F,G} are Minimal dominating sets.

In the following graph

are Minimal dominating sets. In the following graph The set D 1 = {B, C, D}

The set D 1 = {B, C, D} is a dominating set. But D 1 is not a minimal dominating set.

D 2 = {C, D} is a minimal dominating set. Also D 2 is a minimum dominating set.

A minimum dominating set is a minimal dominating set, but the converse is not always true.

Theorem 2.1: A dominating set D is a minimal dominating set if and only if for each vertex

vD, one of the following two conditions holds:

(a) v is an isolated vertex of D

(b) there exists a vertex u V-D such that N(u) D = {v}.

Theorem 2.2: Every connected graph G of order n 2 has a dominating set D whose complement V-D is also a dominating set.

47

Theorem 2.3: If G is a graph with no isolated vertices, then the complement V-D of every minimal dominating set D is a dominating set.

2.2 Independent dominating

set:

A dominating set D of a graph G is an independent dominating set if the induced sub graph <D> has no edges.

Ex. Independent domination Number: γ i (G):
Ex.
Independent
domination
Number:
γ i (G):

The

independent

domination

cardinality of an independent dominating set.

γ i (G)

=

2

number γi (G) of a graph G is the minimum

Theorem 2.4: An independent set is maximal independent set if and only it is independent and dominating.

Theorem 2.5: Every maximal independent set in a graph G is a minimal dominating set.

Theorem 2.6[: For any graph G,

p /(1 +(G)

γ (G) p - (G).

where p is the number of vertices in V (G).

2.3 Total

dominating set:

48

the

induced sub graph <D> has no isolated vertices. i.e. Every vertex of G is adjacent to at least one vertex in D

A

dominating set

D

of

a

graph

G

is

a

total

dominating

set

if

Ex. P 7

set D of a graph G is a total dominating set if Ex. P 7 Total

Total domination number

γ t (G):

The total domination number is the minimum cardinality of a total dominating set

Here

γ t (G) = 4

Theorem 2.7: If G is a connected graph with p 3 vertices then γ t (G) 2p/3.

Theorem 2.8: If G has p vertices and no isolates, then γ t (G) p - (G) +1.

Theorem 2.9: If G is connected and (G) < p-1, then γ t (G) p - (G) .

2.4 Connected Dominating set:

A dominating set D is said to be connected dominating set if induced subgraph <D> is connected.

Connected

domination

number

γ c (G):

The connected domination number is the minimum cardinality of a connected dominating set.

Ex. P 8

49

γ c (P 8 ) = 6 Theorem 2.10: If G is a connected graph

γ c (P 8 )

=

6

Theorem 2.10: If G is a connected graph with p 3 vertices then γ c (G) p-2

Theorem 2.11: For any connected graph G, p/((G)+1) γ c (G) 2q-p. Furthermore, the lower

bound is attained if and only if (G) = p-1 and the upper bound is attained if and only if G is a path.

Theorem 2.12: For any connected graph G, γ c (G) p-(G).

2.5 Connected Total

dominating set:

A total dominating set D of a graph G is a connected total dominating set if the induced sub graph <D> is connected.

Connected Total domination

number

γ ct (G):

The connected total domination number γ ct (G) is the minimum cardinality of a connected total dominating set.

the minimum cardinality of a connected total dominating set. γ c t (G) = 4 Theorem

γ ct (G)

= 4

Theorem 2.13: For any connected graph G with p 4,

50

p/((G)+1)+ 1γ ct (G) 2p-q. Furthermore, the lower bound is attained if G = K p and

the upper bound is attained if and only if G is a path.

Theorem 2.14: For any connected graph G with p 4, γ ct (G) p-2.

Theorem 2.15: If T is a tree of order p 4 and T K 1,p-1 , then γ ct (G) = p – e. where e is the

number of end vertices of a tree.

2.6 Clique dominating set:

A dominating set D of a graph G is a dominating clique if the induced sub graph <D> is a complete graph.

Clique domination number

γ cl (G):

The Clique domination number γ cl is the minimum cardinality of a dominating

clique.

c l is the minimum cardinality of a dominating clique. γ c l (G) = 4

γ cl (G)

=

4

2.7 Paired dominating set:

A dominating set D of a graph G is a paired dominating set if the induced

sub graph Dcontains at least one perfect match.

Paired domination number

γ p (G):

The paired domination number γ p (G) is the minimum cardinality of a paired

dominating set.

51

G:

G: γ p (G) = 4 Theorem 2.16: If G has no isolated vertices, then 2

γ p (G) = 4

Theorem 2.16: If G has no isolated vertices, then 2 γ p (G) p and these bounds are sharp.

Theorem 2.17: If G has no isolated vertices, then p/(G) γ p (G).

Theorem 2.18: If a connected graph G has p 6 and δ(G) 2, then γ p (G) 2 p/3

2.8 Induced Paired dominating set:

A dominating set D of vertices of a graph G is an induced paired dominating set if the induced sub graph Dis a set of independent edges.

Induced paired domination number

γ ip (G):

The induced paired domination number γ i p (G) is the minimum cardinality of an induced paired dominating set of G.

Ex. G:

cardinality of an induced paired dominating set of G. Ex. G: 2.9 Global dominating set :

2.9 Global dominating set:

γ ip (G) = 1

A dominating set D of a graph G is a global dominating set if D is also a

dominating set of

Global domination number γ g (G):

set D of a graph G is a global dominating set if D is also a

52

The global domination number γ g (G) is the minimum cardinality of a global dominating set.

(G) is the minimum cardinality of a global dominating set. γ g (G) = 2 2.10

γ g (G) = 2

2.10 Total Global dominating set:

A total dominating set D of a graph G is a total global dominating set if D is also a total dominating set of

.
.

Total global domination number

γ tg (G):

The total global domination number γ tg (G) is the minimum cardinality of a total global dominating set.

the minimum cardinality of a total global dominating set . γ t g (G) = 4

γ tg (G) = 4

Theorem 2.19: Let G be a graph such that neither G nor

2q-p(p-3) γ tg (G)

Theorem 2.20: Let G be a graph such that neither G nor

γ tg (G) 2α 0 (G).

2.11 Edge dominating set :

53

have an isolated vertex. ThenG nor γ t g (G) ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 2 α 0 (G) . 2.11

have an isolated vertex. ThenG nor γ t g (G) ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 2 α 0 (G) . 2.11

A set F of edges in a graph G is an edge dominating set, if every edge not in F (every

edge in E-F)

is adjacent to at least one edge in F.

Edge domination number

γ 1 (G):

The edge domination number γ 1 (G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of an edge dominating set of G.

G is the minimum cardinality of an edge dominating set of G. γ 1 (G) =

γ 1 (G) = 3

2.12 Total Edge dominating Set:

A set F of edges in a graph G is called a total edge dominating set of G if for every edge in E is adjacent to at least one edge in F.

i.e. a set F of edges in G is called total edge dominating set of G if for every edge e

E, there exists an edge e 1 F such that e and e 1 have a vertex in common.

Total Edge domination Number: γ t 1 (G)

The minimum cardinality of a total edge dominating set of G is the total edge

domination number of a graph G, and it is denoted

by

γ t 1 (G).

of a graph G, and it is denoted by γ t 1 (G). γ t 1

γ t 1 (G) = 3

2.13 Connected Edge Dominating set :

54

A edge dominating set D is said to be connected edge dominating set if induced subgraph <F> is connected.

Ex. P 8

set if induced subgraph <F> is connected. Ex. P 8 Connected Edge domination number γ c

Connected Edge domination number

γ c 1 (G):

The

connected

edge

domination

connected edge dominating set.

γ c 1 (G)

= 5

2.14 Domatic number: d(G)

number

is

the

minimum

cardinality

of

a

The domatic number is defined as the maximum number of disjoint dominating set.

Ex.

as the maximum number of disjoint dominating set. Ex. X = { {B,E}, {A,D,G},{C,F}} Theorem 2.21

X = { {B,E}, {A,D,G},{C,F}}

Theorem 2.21:

For any graph G, d (G) ≤ δ(G) +1.

and

d(G) = 3

Theorem 2.22: For any graph G, d (G) = 1 if and only if G has an isolated vertex.

Theorem 2.23:

For any graph G, p +(p - δ(G))  ≤ d(G).

2.15 Total Domatic Number:

55

A partition of a vertex V of G is called total domatic partition of G if

each class of is a total dominating set of G. The maximum number of classes of total domatic

partition of G is called the total domatic number G and is denoted by d t (G).

Ex.

G:

total domatic number G and is denoted by d t (G). Ex. G: X = {{A,

X = {{A, B}, {D, C}}

d t (G) = 2

Theorem 2.24: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d t (G) d (G).

Theorem 2.25: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d t (G) ≤ δ(G).

Theorem 2.26: If K p is a complete graph with p 2 vertices then d t (K p ) = p/2

Theorem 2.27: For any graph G without isolated vertices, d(G) /2  ≤ d t (G).

2.16 Connected Domatic Number:

A partition of a vertex V of a connected graph G is called a connected domatic

partition of G if each class of is a connected dominating set of G. The maximum number of

classes of connected domatic partition of G is called the connected domatic number G and is

denoted by d c (G).

Ex. G:

56

X = {{A, B}, {H,I} , {D,E} } d c (G) = 3 Theorem 2.28

X = {{A, B}, {H,I} , {D,E} }

d c (G)

= 3

Theorem 2.28: For any connected graph G, d c (G) ≤ δ(G).

Theorem 2.29: For any connected graph G which is not compete d c (G) ≤ δ(G)+1.

Theorem 2.30: For any connected graph G which is not compete d c (G) ≤ κ(G).

2.17 Edge domatic number:

An edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E(G), all of whose classes are edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of an edge partition of G is called the edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d 1 (G).

Ex. C 6

domatic number of G and is denoted by d 1 (G). Ex. C 6 X =

X = {{e 1, e 4 } , {e 2 , e 5 }, {e 3 , e 6 }}

d 1 (G) = 3

Theorem 2.31: If P p is a path with p 3 vertices then d 1 (P p) = 2.

57

Theorem 2.32: If C p is a cycle with p 3 vertices then d 1 (C p) = 3 if p is divisible 3

Connected Edge domatic number:

=2 otherwise.

A connected edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E (G), all of whose classes are

connected edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of a connected edge partition of G is called the connected edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d c 1 (G).

Ex. G:

number of G and is denoted by d c 1 (G). Ex. G: X = {{e

X = {{e 2, e 3 , e 4 }, {e 7 , e 11 , e 9 , e 10 }}

d c 1 (G) = 2.

2.18 Total Edge domatic number:

A total edge domatic partition of G is a partition of E(G), all of whose classes are total

edge dominating sets in G. The maximum number of classes of a total edge partition of G is called the total edge domatic number of G and is denoted by d c 1 (G).

Ex. G: W 6

58

X = { {e 2 , e 8 , e 1 1 , e 5

X = { {e 2 , e 8 , e 11 , e 5 } , {e 3 , e 9 , e 12 , e 6 } , {e 4 , e 10 , e 7 , e 1 }}

d t 1 (G) = 4.

2.19 Split Dominating Set:

A dominating set D of G is a split dominating set if the induced subgraph <V-D> is disconnected.

Ex. C 5

the induced subgraph <V-D> is disconnected. Ex. C 5 Split domination number γ s (G): The

Split domination number

γ s (G):

The split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a split dominating set.

γ s (G) = 2

Theorem 2.33: For any graph G, γ s (G) α 0 (G).

Theorem 2.34: For any graph G, γ (G) + γ s (G) p.

59

Theorem 2.35: γ

s (C p )

γ s (W p )

γ s (K

m ,n )

=

p/3

if p 4;

=

3

if p 5;

=

m

if 2 m n.

Strong split Dominating Set:

A dominating set D of G is a strong split dominating set if the induced sub graph <V-D> is totally disconnected with at least two vertices.

Strong split domination number

cardinality of a strong split

γ ss (G): The strong split domination number is the minimum

dominating set

Ex. G:

split domination number is the minimum dominating set Ex. G: 2.20 Non Split Dominating Set :

2.20 Non Split Dominating Set:

γ ss (G) = 4

A dominating set D of G is a non split dominating set if the induced sub graph <V-D> is connected.

Non Split domination number

γ ns (G):

The split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a non split

dominating set.

n s (G): The split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a non split dominating

γ ns (G) = 5

60

Theorem 2.36: If T is a tree which is not a star then γ ns (T) p-2.

Theorem 2.37: If T is a tree with p 3 then p – m γ ns (T). Here m is the number of vertices adjacent to end vertices.

Strong non split Dominating Set:

A dominating set D of G is a strong split dominating set if the induced subgraph <V-D> is complete.

Strong non Split domination number γ sns (G):

strong non split

The strong non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set.

number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set. γ s n s (G) = 3

γ sns (G) = 3

2.21 Cycle non split Dominating Set:

A dominating set

D of a connected

graph G

is

a cycle non

split

dominating set if the induced sub graph <V-D> is cycle in G.

Cycle non split domination number

γ cns (G):

cycle non split

The cycle non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set

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γ c n s (G) = 2 Preposition 2.38: For any connected graph G with

γ cns (G) = 2

Preposition 2.38: For any connected graph G with p 4, γ (G) γ cns (G).

Preposition 2.39: For any connected graph G with p 4, γ ( G) + γ cns (G) p.

2.22 Path non split Dominating Set:

A dominating set D of a connected dominating set if the induced sub graph <V-D> is a path in G

Path non split domination number

γ pns (G):

graph G is

a path non split

The path non split domination number is the minimum cardinality of a path non split dominating set.

Ex. C 5

cardinality of a path non split dominating set. Ex. C 5 γ p n s (G)

γ pns (G) = 3

Preposition 2.40: For any nontrivial connected graph G, γ (G) γ pns (G).

Preposition 2.41: For any nontrivial connected graph G, γ (G) + γ pns (G) p.

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Preposition 2.42: γ pns (K p ) = p – 2, p 3.

γ pns (C p ) = p – 2,

p 3.

γ pns (P p ) = p – 2,

p 3.

γ pns (W p )

=

2,

p 4.

γ pns (K m ,n ) = m + n – 3 ,

2.23 Cototal Dominating Set:

m 2,

n 3.

A dominating set D of G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph <V-D> is has no isolated vertices.

Cototal domination number

γ cot (G):

The cototal domination number γ cot (G) is the minimum cardinality

cotal dominating set.

o t (G) is the minimum cardinality cotal dominating set. γ c o t (G) =

γ cot (G) = 3

Theorem 2.43: For any graph G, p – (2/3)q γ cot (G).

Theorem 2.44: let G be a graph such that each component of G is not a star. Then

γ cot (G) p - δ(G).

Theorem 2.45: For any graph G, 2(p –q) – p 0 γ cot (G). Where p 0 is the number of isolated vertices in G.

2.24 Distance –K Domination:

Given any integer k ≥ 1, vertex subset D is a distance-k dominating set of a graph G if for all v Є V G –D, there exists x Є D such that d(v , x) ≤ k

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Ex. A Minimum distance -2 dominating set

Ex. A Minimum distance -2 dominating set The distance-k domination number: The distance-k domination number of

The distance-k domination number:

The distance-k domination number of a graph G, denoted d k –dom(G) , is the cardinality of a minimum distance-k dominating set of G. More over d k –dom(G) ≤ ϒ(G)

of a minimum distance-k dominating set of G. More over d k –dom(G) ≤ ϒ (G)

ϒ(G) = 4

d 2 –dom(G) = 2

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References:

1. A. M. Barcalkin and L. F. German, The external stability number of the Cartesian product

of graphs, Bul. Akad. Stiince RSS Moldoven, No 1, 94 (1979) 5-8.

2. B. Bollobas and E.J.Cockayne, Graph theoretic parameters concerning domination,

independence and irredundance, J. Graph Theory 3 (1979) 241-250.

3. C. Berge, Theory of Graphs and its Applications, Methuen, London, (1962).

4. E. J. Cockayne, S.T.Hedetniemei and D.J.Miller, Properties of hereditary hyper graphs and

middle graphs, Canad. Math. Bull., 21 (1978) 461-468.

5. E. Sampathkumar and H. B. Walikar, The connected domination number of a

graph, J. Math.Phys.Sci., 13 (1979) 607-613.

6. F. Harary and M. Livingston, Characterization of trees with equal domination and

independent domination number. Congr. Number, 55 (1986) 121-150.

7. H. B. Walikar, B. D. Acharya and E. Sampathkumar, Recent developments in the theory of

domination in graphs. In MRI Lecture Notes in Math. Metha Research Inst., Allahabad

No. 1, (1979).

8. K. Seyffarth and G. Macgillivray, Domination numbers of planar graphs, J. Graph

Theory, 22 (1996) 2134-229.

9. L. A. Sanchis, Maximum number of edges in connected graph with given domination

number, Discrete Math. 87 (1991) 65-72.

10. O. Favaron, A bound on the independent domination number of a tree. Vishwa Internat. J.

Graph Theory, 1 (1992) 19-27.

11. R. B. Allan and R. C. Laskar, On domination and independent domination numbers of a

graph, Discrete Math, 23 (1978) 73-76.

12. S. L. Mitchell and S. T. Hedetniemi, Edge domination in trees. Congr. Numer.19

489-509.

13. S. R. Jayaram, Edge domination in graphs, a Graphs

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Combin.

3(1987)

357-363.

(1997)

14.

T.W. Haynes and P. J. Slater, Paired Domination in graphs, Networks, 32 (1998)

199-206.

15. V. G. Vizing, Some unsolved problems in graph theory, Uspekhi Mat. Nauk. 23 (1968) 117-134.

(6(144))

16. V. R. Kulli, Theory of domination in graph, Vishwa Internat.Publications,2010.

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Chapter-3

Literature survey

The following problem can be said to be the origin of the study of dominating sets in graphs. The following figures illustrates a standard 8 x 8 chessboard on which is placed a queen.

a standard 8 x 8 chessboard on which is placed a queen. According to the rules

According to the rules of chess a queen can, in one move, advance any number of squares horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (assuming no other chess piece lies in its way). Thus, the queen in the above figure can move to (or attack, or dominate) all of the squares marked with an ‘X’. In the 1850s, chess enthusiastics in Europe considered the problem of determining the minimum number of queens that can be placed on a chess board so that all squares are either attacked by a queen or are occupied by a queen. The following figure illustrates a set of six

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queens which together attack or dominate, every square on the board. It was correctly thought

queens which together attack or dominate, every square on the board. It was correctly thought in the 1850s, that five is the minimum number of queens that can dominate all of the squares of an 8 x 8 chessboard.

Case-1 : No two Queens attack each other

number of queens that can dominate all of the squares of an 8 x 8 chessboard.

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Case-2 : All Queens lie on the main diagonal

Case-2 : All Queens lie on the main diagonal Case-3 : All Queens lie on a

Case-3 : All Queens lie on a common column

Case-2 : All Queens lie on the main diagonal Case-3 : All Queens lie on a

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Mathematical history of Domination in Graphs:

The mathematical study of dominating sets in graphs began around 1960.

The subject has historical roots dating back to 1862, when Jaenisch studied the problem of

determining the Minimum number of Queens which are necessary to cover an n x n chess

board.

Among others, the following are the 3 basic types of problems:

Covering: What is the minimum number of chess pieces of given type which is necessary to

cover / attack /dominate every square of an n x n board?

This is an example of the problem, finding a dominating set of minimum cardinality.

Independent Covering: What is the minimum number of mutually non attacking chess pieces

of a given type which are necessary to dominate every square of an n x n board?

This is an example of the problem of finding a minimum cardinality independent

dominating set.

Independence: What is the maximum number of chess pieces of a given type which can be

placed on an n x n chessboard in such a way that no two of them attack / dominate each other?

This is an example of the problem of finding the maximum cardinality of an

independent set.

These three problem types were studied in detail by Yaglom and Yaglom brothers around

1964

In 1958 Claude Berge wrote a book on graph theory, in which he defined for the

first time, the concept of the domination number of a graph ( he called this number as ‘

the coefficient of external stability ‘)

In 1962, Oystein Ore published his book on Graph theory in which he used for

the first time, the names ‘ dominating set ‘ and ‘ dominating number ‘ .

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In 1977, Cockayne and Hedetniemi publish a survey of the few results known at that time, about dominating sets and graph. In this survey, they were the first to use the notation γ (G) for the domination number in a graph, which subsequently became the accepted notation.

This survey paper seems of have set in motion the modern study of domination in graphs

Some twenty years later, more than 1200 research papers have been published on this topic and the number of papers is steadily growing.

According to S. T. Hedetniemi, R. C. Laskar, they divide the contributions in Topics on domination theory into three sections, entitled ‘theoretical’, ‘new models’ and ‘algorithmic’.

The nine theoretical papers retain a primary focus on properties of the standard domination number ϒ(G)

The four papers which they

classify as ‘ new models ‘ are concerned primarily

with new variations in

the domination theme.

The eight algorithmic papers are primarily concerned with finding classes of graphs for which the domination number, and

Several other domination-related parameters can be computed in polynomial

time.

3.1 Theoretical:

For a variety of reasons they lead of this volume with the paper “ Chessboard domination problem “ by Cockayne, because Cockayne has done the most definitive work in this area. The follow up paper “ On the queen domination problem” by Ginstead, Hahne and Vanstone the best approximation to the old problem of placing a minimum number of queens on an arbitrary nxn chessboard so that all squares are ‘covered’ by atleast one queen.

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.

It is able to present next a reprint of a paper by Berge and Duchet entitled “Recent

problems and results about Kernels in directed graph” Claude Berge has done more than anyone in particular of domination theory. He used the terminology “Coefficient of external

stability” instead “The domination number”

. David Sumner was one of the early researcher in domination theory and was perhaps the first one to consider the question of domination in critical graphs. In this paper “ Critical concepts in domonation” he considers the problem of characterizing graphs for which adding any edge e decreases the domination number. He also considers the problem of characterizing graphs having minimum dominating sets D which are independent. i.e. no two vertices in D are adjacent.

A related notion, By Fink , Jacobson, Kinch and Roberts in “The bondage number of graph”, is that of finding a set of edges F of smallest order (called the bondage number), whose removal increases the domination number.

In the original survey paper on domination Cockayne and Hedetniemi introduced the domatic number of a graph denoted d(G) which equals the maximum order of a partition{V 1 , V 2, V 3,, V R } of V(G) such that every set V i is a dominating set. Today Zelinka has become the world’s foremost authority on the domatic number and a related partition numbers. He has published nearly two dozen papers on this topic. Zelinka entitled “ Regular totally domatically full graphs” and Rall entitled Domatically critical and domatically full graphs “. On the domatic number of a graph.

3.2 New models:

The concepts of domination, covering and centrality are so interrelated. In a 1985 paper, Hedetniemi, Hedetniemi and Laskar list 30 different types of domination. As of now twice as many types of domination problem have been studied.

The paper “ Dominating cliques in graphs ” by Cozzens and Kelleher, studies the existence of families of graphs which contain a complete subgraph whose vertices form a dominating set. They present several forbidden subgraph conditions which are sufficient to imply

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the existence of dominating cliques and they present a polynomial algorithm for finding a domination clique for a certain class of graphs.

The paper “Covering all cliques of a graph” by Tuza considers a different kind of domination, in which one seeks a minimum set of vertices which dominates all cliques(i.e. maximal complete subgraphs ) of a graph.

The paper by Brigham and Dutton entitled “ Factor domination in graphs” considers, the general problem of finding a minimum set of vertices which is a dominating set of every subgraph in a set of edge disjoint subgraphs, say G 1 , G 2, G 3,, G t , whose union is a given graph G.

The paper by Sampathkumar entitled “The least point covering and domination number of a graph” is one of many papers in which one imposes additional conditions on a dominating set, e.g. the dominating set must induce a connected subgraph(connected domination), a complete subgraph (dominating clique), or a totally-disconnected graph (independent domination). In Sampathkumar’s paper the domination number of the subgraph induced by the dominating set must be minimized.

3.3 Algorithmic:

Nearly 100 papers containing domination algorithm or complexity results have been published in the last 10 years. Perhaps, the first domination algorithm was an attempt by Daykin and Ng in 1966 to compute the domination number of an arbitrary tree. But their algorithm seems to have an error that cannot be easily corrected.

Cockayne, Goodman and Hedetniemi apparently constructed the first domination algorithm for trees in 1975 and, at about the same time, David Johnson constructed the first (unpublished) proof that the domination problem for arbitrary graphs is NP complete.

The first paper by Corneil and Stewart entitled “ Dominating sets in perfect graphs” presents both a brief survey of algorithmic results on domination and a discussion of the dynamic-programming-style technique that is commonly used in designing domination algorithms, especially as they are applied to the family of perfect graph.

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The paper “Unit disk graphs” by Clark , Colbourn and Johnson discusses the algorithmic compelxity of such problem as domination , independent domination and connected domination , and several other problems, on the intersection graphs of equal size circles in the plane. This paper is significant since it contains the result that the Domination problem for grid graphs, a subclass of unit disk graphs, is NP-complete.

The paper “ Permutation graphs: Connected domination and Steiner trees” by Colbourn and Stewart , a variety of NP-complete problems have been shown to have polynomial solutions when restricted to permutation graph.

The paper “ The discipline number of a graphChavatal and Cook, provides an example of the relatively recent study of fractional( i.e. real valued ) parameters of graphs. These are the values obtained by real relaxations of the integer linear programs corresponding to various graphical parameters like domination, matching, covering and independence.

The paper “Best location of service centers in a tree- like network under budget constraints” by McHugh and Perl, provides both a nice applications perspective on domination and an illustration of the many papers that have been published on the topic of centrality in graphs. It also provides an example of a pseudo-polynomial domination algorithm and another example of the dynamic programming technique applied to domination problems.

The paper “Dominating cycles in Halin graphs” by Skowronska and Syslo, discusses both a fourth class of graphs on which polynomial time domination algorithms can be constructed, and the notion of a dominating cucle, i.e. a cycle C in a graph such that every vertex not in C lies at most one from some vertex in C.

The paper “Finding dominating cliques efficiently, in strongly chrodal

graphs and undirected path graph” by Kratsch is an algorithmic mate of the paper by

Cozzens and Kelleher on dominating cliques, find the dominating cliques of minimum size.

The paper “On minimum dominating sets with minimum intersection

by

Grinstead and Slatter, which is a good representative of the fast developing area of polynomial,

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and even linear , algorithms on partial K-trees. Grinstead and Slatter introduce a difficult, new

type of problem, prove that it is in general NP-complete, and give a linear time solution when

restricted to trees. This solution also uses a dynamic programming style approach and a

methodology created by Wimer in his 1987 Ph.D. Thesis.

3.4 Applications:

School Bus Routing:

Most school

in the country provide school buses for transporting children to and from school.

Most also operate under certain rules, one of which usually states that no child shall have to walk

farthrer than, say one quarter km to a bus pickup point. Thus, they must construct a route for

each bus that gets

Within one quarter km of every child in its assigned area.

No bus ride can take more than some specified number of minutes, and

Limits on the number of children that a bus can carry at any one time.

Let us say that the following figure represents a street map of part of a city, where each edge

represents one pick up block. The school is located at the large vertex. Let us assume that the

school has decided that no child shall have to walk more than two blocks in order to be picked up

by a school bus. Construct a route for a school bus that leaves the school, gets within two blocks

of every child and returns to the school. One such simple route is indicated by the directed edges

in the following figure

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A second possible route is indicated below. With this route the school bus can turn

A second possible route is indicated below. With this route the school bus can

turn around

and drive back down a street. Both routes define what are called distance-2

dominating sets in the sense that every vertex not on the route(not in the set) is within distance

two (two edges) of at least one point on the route.

These routes also define what are called

connected dominating sets in the sense that the set of shaded vertices on the route forms a

connected subgraph of the entire graph. The connected domination number ϒ c (G) equals the

minimum cardinality of a dominating set D such that <D> is connected

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