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Figure 4.1 Derivation of WSD Design Formulas


h
b
As
d
NA
kd
d-kd
Original Beam Section
f
c

f
s
/n
Stress Diagram
jd
T = A
s
f
s

C = (1/2)f
c
bkd
kd/3
D DE ES SI IG GN N O OF F B BE EA AM MS S F FO OR R F FL LE EX XU UR RE E U US SI IN NG G W WS SD D ( (A AL LT TE ER RN NA AT TE E D DE ES SI IG GN N M ME ET TH HO OD D) )

Introduction
In working-stress design a margin of safety is provided by permitting calculated flexure
stresses to reach only a certain percentage of the ultimate strength of the concrete or of
the yield strength of the reinforcing steel. These percentages are sufficiently small so
that an approximately linear relation exists between the stress and strain in the concrete
as well as in the reinforcing.
The NSCP permits the design of reinforced concrete members using service
loads and the working-stress design method, except that the method is now referred to
as the Alternate Design Method.
Section 424.4 of the NSCP provides expressions for the permissible service load
stresses. The maximum permissible concrete compressive stress in the extreme fiber of
a member is
'
c
0.45f . The maximum allowable tensile stress in the reinforcing is 140
MPa for grade 275 reinforcement and 170 MPa for grade 415 reinforcement or greater.

Derivation of WSD Design Formulas
Reference is made to Figure 4.1 for the beam cross section and the terms that will be
used in the derivation. The steel is once again transformed into an equivalent area of
fictitious concrete that can resist tension. This area is
s
nA .
In WSD the most economical design possible is referred to as balanced design.
A beam designed by this method will, under full service load, have its extreme fibers in
compression stressed to their maximum permissible value
c
f and its reinforcing bars
stressed to their maximum permissible value
s
f . Balanced design is the situation
assumed in the derivation of the design formulas for WSD.













The design formulas are derived on the basis of a consideration of the internal
couple consisting of the two forces C and T. Once again, the total compression C
equals the compression area bkd times the average compression
c
f / 2and T equals
s s
A f . The sum of the horizontal forces in a beam in equilibrium is obviously zero, and
thus C = T. The internal moment M can be written as Cjd or Tjd, and these are equated
to the external moment M and the resulting expressions are solved for the beam
dimensions and the steel area required.

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As a straight-line variation of stress is assumed from
c
f to
s
f / n, the following
ratio can be written and from it the design value of k obtained:


( )
+
=
c s
c
f f / n
f
kd d


( )
=
+
c
c s
f
k
f f / n
(4.1)
In a similar manner j is determined:
=
kd
jd d
3

=
k
j 1
3
(4.2)
Now, using the internal couples,

= M Cjd

( )
=
c
1
M f bkd jd
2

=
2
c
2M
bd
f kj
(4.3)
= M Tjd
=
s s
M A f jd
=
s
s
M
A
f jd
(4.4)

Note: These equations (4.1 through 4.4) were derived for rectangular sections and they
do not apply to sections where the compression area is not rectangular or to sections
with compression reinforcing.

Differences between Investigation and Design problems
There are two general types of formulas that are presented for beams: those used for
investigation or review and those used for design. In investigation problems the physical
dimensions of the beam and the number, sizes, and placement of bars are given. It is
desired to determine the flexural stresses for certain moments or the permissible
moment a section can carry for certain allowable stresses. Design problems are those
in which the member sizes are to be determined based on certain external moments
and certain allowable steel and concrete fiber stresses. It is very important to realize
that some of the formulas do not apply to both investigation and design. For this reason
the formulas for the investigation and design of rectangular beams are repeated here.





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For investigation of rectangular beams:
= +
2
k 2 n ( n) n
=
k
j 1
3

=
c
2
2M
f
bd kj

=
s
s
M
f
A jd


For design of rectangular beams:

( )
=
+
c
c s
f
k
f f / n

=
k
j 1
3

=
2
c
2M
bd
f kj

=
s
s
M
A
f jd


Miscellaneous topics
Before the design of an actual beam is attempted, it is important to discuss the following
topics:

1. Estimated Beam Weight. The weight of the beam to be selected must be
included in the calculation of the bending moment to be resisted, as the beam
must support itself as well as the external loads.
2. Beam proportions. Unless architectural or other requirements dictate the
proportions of reinforced concrete beams, the most economical beam sections
are usually obtained for the shorter beams (up to 6m or 7.5m in length) when the
ratio of b to d is in the range of 1/2 to 2/3. For longer spans better economy is
usually obtained if deep, narrow sections are used. The depth may be as large as
3 or 4 times the widths.
3. Selection of bars. After the required reinforcing area is calculated, the selection of
bar sizes will follow. For the usual situations bars of sizes 36mm and smaller are
practical. It is usually convenient to use bars of one size only in a beam, although
occasionally two sizes will be used.
4. Cover. The reinforcing for concrete members must be protected from the
surrounding environment; that is, fire and corrosion protection needs to be
provided. To do this the reinforcing is located at certain minimum distances from
the surface of the concrete so that a protective layer of concrete, called concrete
cover, is provided. In addition the concrete cover improves the bond between the
concrete and the steel. In Section 407.8.3.1 of the NSCP, minimum permissible
concrete cover is given for reinforcing bars under different conditions. Values are

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Figure 4.1 Example 4.1
w = 20 kN/m
5.50 m
given for reinforced concrete beams, columns, and slabs, for members exposed
to weather and earth, and so on.
5. Minimum spacing of bars. Section 407.7.1 of NSCP states that the minimum
clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer be d
b
but not less than 25 mm.
Where parallel reinforcement is placed in two or more layers (Section 407.7.2),
bars in the upper layer shall be placed directly above bars in the bottom layer
with clear distance between layers not less than 25mm. Please refer to Section
407.7.3 until 407.7.5 for the spacing limitations of other conditions.

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Sometimes due to architectural or functional requirements beam dimensions are
selected that are much larger than are required for bending alone. Such members
theoretically require very small amounts of reinforcing.
There is actually another possible mode of failure that can occur in very lightly
reinforced beams. If the ultimate resisting moment of the section is less than its cracking
moment, the section will fail immediately when a crack occurs. This type of failure would
occur without warning, and the NSCP (Section 410.6) provides a minimum steel
percentage equal to
= >
min
'
1.4
4
c
y y
f
f f

so, A
smin
=
min
bd

And when A
s
< A
smin
, use smaller between 4/3A
s
or A
smin
.

E Ex xa am mp pl le e 4 4. .1 1
Design the beam shown in Figure 4.1 for moment only. Compute stresses in the
resulting section by using the review formulas. Use =
'
c
f 21MPa, =
y
f 276 MPa and n =
9.







Solution:

1. Compute Design Moment,
Assume beam weight, =
beam
w 5kN/m
= = =
2 2
wL 25(5.50)
M 94.53
8 8
kN.m
2. Determine Allowable Stresses,
= = =
'
c c
f 0.45f 0.45(21) 9.45 MPa

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Figure 4.2 Section at Midspan
540mm
350mm
600mm
60mm
5 - 20mm |
=
s
f 140MPa (for Grade 275)
3. Compute Design Constants,
( ) ( )
= = =
+ +
c
c s
f 9.45
k 0.378
f f / n 9.45 140 / 9

= = =
k 0.378
j 1 1 0.874
3 3

4. Estimate beam size,
=
2
c
2M
bd
f kj
Assume ~ d 1.5b
=
6
2
2(94.53x10 )
(b)(1.5b)
9.45(0.378)(0.874)

= b 343.05mm; = d 514.58mm

Say use 350mm x 600mm (d = 540mm)
5. Compute required steel reinforcements,
= = =
6
s
s
M 94.53x10
A 1431
f jd 140(0.874)(540)
mm
2

Using 20mm | bars, ( =
b
A 314 mm
2
)
= = =
s
b
A 1431
n 4.56
A 314

Say use 5 20mm | bars in one layer
6. Check Spacing of bars
( )

= > >

s b
b
b 2c 2d nd
s d 25mm
n 1


= =

350 2(40) 2(10) 5(20)


s 37.50
5 1
mm > 25mm Ok!
7. Check Weight of Beam,
= =
beam
w 23.50(0.35)(0.60) 4.935kN/m < =
assumed
w 5kN/m Ok!
8. Draw Section Detail,











Checking Stresses:


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1. Compute steel ratio ,
t (
= =
(

2
s
A 5 (20) 1571
4
mm
2

= = =
s
A 1571
0.008311
bd 350(540)

2. Compute k,
= +
2
k 2 n ( n) n
= +
2
k 2(0.008311x9) (0.008311x9) (0.008311x9)
= k 0.319
3. Compute j,
= = =
k 0.319
j 1 1 0.894
3 3


4. Compute stresses,
= =
2
24.935(5.50)
M 94.29
8
kN.m
= = =
6
s
s
M 94.29x10
f 124.32
A jd 1571(0.894)(540)
MPa < 140 MPa Ok!
= = =
6
c
2 2
2M 2(94.29x10 )
f 6.48
bd kj 350(540) (0.319)(0.894)
MPa < 9.45 MPa Ok!























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