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# 1/19/2013

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ENGR 476, Mechanics of Materials II

Winter 2013, M. Alemi

Lecture 6

Principal centroidal axes for arbitrary
shaped cross sections

Slides adapted from Mechanics of Materials by Ferdinand P. Beer et al., Mc Graw Hill, 2009.
1. Normal Stress in Beams

1.1 Revision: Normal Stresses in Beams

1.3 Beams with Asymmetric Cross Sections
1.4 Bending of Curved Members
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Motivation
We have shown that we can use simple beam
equations for arbitrary shaped cross sections if
we apply moments in the principal centroidal
axes.
We need to be able to find
the principal centroidal axes
for arbitrarily shaped cross
sections.
Review: Properties of principal centroidal axes of
inertia
1.) There are always two principal centroidal axes of inertia.
2.) They are perpendicular to each other
3.) They go through the centroid of the x section
4.) They are always oriented along the axis of symmetry and
perpendicular to it!
5.) If there is no axis of symmetry, there are still two principal
centroidal axes of inertia, that can be determined using a Mohrs
circle. Lets see how this is done
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Finding the Principal centrodal axes for
asymmetric x-sections
Procedure for Analysis

1. Calculate (or get from tables) I
y
, I
z
, I
yz

2. Construct Mohrs Circle and find principal centroidal directions
(u & v)

3. Work with new coordinate system (u & v)

We know how to find I
y
& I
z
, Lets develop the product moment
of inertia (I
yz
)
Product moment of inertia

= .

where:
dA = elemental area
x = distance of dA from centroidal y-axis
y = distance of dA from centroidal x-axis

Product moment of inertia for composite structures:

= (. .

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Properties of product moment of inertia
I
x
and I
y
are always positive, whereas I
xy
may be either
positive or negative.

If the structure has at least one axis of symmetry (like I-
beams or C-channels), then I
xy
=0.

The product of inertia (I
xy
) can only be zero about the
principal axes. (I
x
and I
y
about principal axes are max or min)

We learnt how to find I
x
, I
y
and I
x)
, now lets make a mohrs circle to
find principal directions.

2
2
2
2
2 2
xy
y x
uv
y x
u
I
I I
I
I I
I +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
|
|
.
|

\
| +

2
2
2
xy
y x
I
I I
R +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Mohrs Circle for finding principal centroidal directions
( ) ( )
2 2 2
R b I a I
uv u
= +
Equation of circle:
( ) b a O , = Center of circle:
x
y
u
v
p
u
Mohrs circle:
I
x
, I
Y
I
XY
R
min
I
2
y x
I I +
O
x
I
xy
I
y
I
2
y x
I I
A
B
p
u 2
max
I
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Mohrs Circle for finding principal centroidal directions
I
x
, I
Y
I
XY
R
x
y
u
v
min
I
2
y x
I I +
O
x
I
xy
I
y
I 2
y x
I I
2
2
min
max
2 2
xy
y x y x
I
I I I I
R O I +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= =
2 / ) (
2 tan
y x
xy
p
I I
I

= u
p
u
A
B
p
u 2
max
I

cos +

sin

sin +

cos

=
cos
sin
sin
cos

2D Rotation
Counter Clockwise
Clockwise

=
cos
sin
sin
cos

When we found principal centroidal directions (u & v), we need
to transform old coordinate system (y & z) into new coordinate
system (u & v)
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Assignments
Beer & Johnston : Chapters 4.13
Hibbeler: Appendix A4, A5

Problems, Beer & Johnston (5
th
Ed):