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Short Line Parameters Calculations

Positive and Zero Sequence Impedance

EDSA MICRO CORPORATION

16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330 San Diego, CA 92127 U.S.A.
Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

Version 1.30.00

October 2008

EDSA MICRO CORPORATION WARRANTY INFORMATION

There is no warranty, implied or otherwise, on EDSA software. EDSA software is licensed to you as is. This program license provides a ninety (90) day limited warranty on the diskette that contains the program. This, the EDSA Users Guide, is not meant to alter the warranty situation described above. That is, the content of this document is not intended to, and does not, constitute a warranty of any sort, including warranty of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose on your EDSA software package. EDSA Micro Corporation reserves the right to revise and make changes to this User's Guide and to the EDSA software without obligation to notify any person of, or provide any person with, such revision or change. EDSA programs come with verification and validation of methodology of calculation based on EDSA Micro Corporation's inhouse software development standards. EDSA performs longhand calculation and checks the programs results against published samples. However, we do not guarantee, or warranty, any program outputs, results, or conclusions reached from data generated by any programs which are all sold "as is". Since the meaning of QA/QC and the verification and validation of a program methodology are domains of vast interpretation, users are encouraged to perform their own inhouse verification and validation based on their own inhouse quality assurance, quality control policies and standards. Such operations - performed at the user's expense will meet the user's specific needs. EDSA Micro Corporation does not accept, or acknowledge, purchase instructions based on a buyer's QA/QC and/or a buyer's verification and validation standards. Therefore, purchase orders instructions are considered to be uniquely based on EDSA's own QA/QC verification and validation standards and test systems.

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Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Foreword............................................................................................................................................ 1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Capabilities ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Option 1. Aerial (Overhead) Lines ..................................................................................................... 2 Option 2. Three-Conductor Cables ................................................................................................... 3 Option 3. Three-Single Conductor Cables ........................................................................................ 3 Option 4. Three-Single Concentric Neutral Cables, Neutrals Solidly Grounded............................... 3 Three-phase Short Line Consisting of a Three-conductor Cable:..................................................... 3 8.1 Cable Configuration:............................................................................................................. 3 8.2 Parameters Identification:..................................................................................................... 4 8.3 Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1):.............................................................................. 4 8.4 Zero-sequence Impedance (RO, XO): ................................................................................. 4 8.4.1 Sheath return only: ............................................................................................................... 5 8.4.2 Grounded sheath-earth return:............................................................................................. 5 8.5 Reference: ............................................................................................................................ 6 Three-phase Single Circuit Short Aerial (Overhead) Line With Neutral Wire: .................................. 6 9.1 General Configuration: ......................................................................................................... 6 9.2 Parameters Identification:..................................................................................................... 6 9.3 Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1):.............................................................................. 7 9.4 Zero-sequence Impedance (R0, X0): ................................................................................... 7 9.4.1 Earth return only: .................................................................................................................. 8 9.4.2 Neutral return only: ............................................................................................................... 9 9.4.3 Grounded neutral-earth return:............................................................................................. 9 9.5 Reference: ............................................................................................................................ 9 Three-phase Single Circuit Short Line Consisting of Three-single Conductor Cables: .................. 10 10.1 General Configuration: ....................................................................................................... 10 10.2 Parameters Identification:................................................................................................... 10 10.3 Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1):............................................................................ 11 10.3.1 With sheaths open .............................................................................................................. 11 10.3.2 With sheaths short-circuited (Bonded together):................................................................ 11 10.4 Zero-sequence Impedance (RO, XO): ............................................................................... 11 10.4.1 Earth return only:................................................................................................ 12 10.4.2 Sheaths (bonded together) return only: ............................................................. 13 10.4.3 Grounded Sheath-earth return: .......................................................................... 13 10.5 Reference ........................................................................................................................... 13 Mr. G.C. McDonalds Contribution................................................................................................... 14 Computation of Zero-sequence Impedance Following the Formulas of Westinghouse Transmission and Distribution Reference Book: ........................................................................... 16 Verification and Validation: .............................................................................................................. 20 Computation of Positive and Zero-sequence Impedances (R & X) for Three-phase Configuration Consisting of Three-single Concentric Neutral Cables ........................................... 22 Positive and Zero-sequence Impedance Calculation...................................................................... 25 Positive and Zero Sequence Impedance Calculation ..................................................................... 28 Nomenclature for Equations ............................................................................................................ 32 References ...................................................................................................................................... 34 Standalone Short Line Parameters Tutorial .................................................................................... 35 Network-Based Short Line Parameters Calculations ...................................................................... 46

9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

ii

List of Figures
Figure 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2 ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 3 ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Figure 5 ....................................................................................................................................................... 10 Figure 6 ....................................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 7 ....................................................................................................................................................... 16 Figure 8 ....................................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 9 ....................................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 10 ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 11 ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 12 ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 13 ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 Figure 14 ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 15 ..................................................................................................................................................... 28 Figure 16 Tutorial Case Study (File: shtln.mzp) ......................................................................................... 35 Figure 17 Short Line Under Study ............................................................................................................. 46

Note:

You can view this manual using your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is: Short Line Parameters Short_Line_Parameters.pdf

You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial at the following location: C:\DesignBase\Samples\ShortLine Test Files: = Short Line Parameters

SAMPLE-RELAY-IMP, SAMPLE-RELAY-QUAD, SAMPLE-RELAY-QUAD-V&V

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

iii

Short Line Parameters

1. Foreword This program was developed in the assumption that the user is a Professional Engineer and, therefore, familiar with the concepts under consideration.

2. Purpose To provide an easy, usable method of producing both Positive and Zero Sequence Impedance values for short aerial (overhead) lines, three-conductor cables, three-single conductor cables, and three-single concentric neutral cables.

3. Capabilities The program will provide Positive Sequence, Zero Sequence or both Positive - and Zero Impedance values for: 1. Three-Phase, Single Circuit, Short Aerial (Overhead) Lines With Neutral Wire Return Path options: a. b. c. Neutral options: a. b. 2. 1 Neutral Conductor; 2 Neutral Conductors. Earth return only; Neutral return only; Ground Neutral return.

Three-Phase Short Line Consisting of Three-Conductor Cables Return Path options: a. b. Sheath return only; Grounded Sheath-Earth return.

3.

Three-Phase Single Circuit Short Line consisting of three-single conductor cables. Return Path options: a. b. Earth return only; Sheath return only;

Short Line Parameters

c. Sheath options: a. b. 4.

Grounded Sheath-Earth return.

Open Circuit; Short Circuit (Bonded).

Three-single concentric neutral cables with the neutral solidly grounded.

4. Option 1. Aerial (Overhead) Lines Three-Phase, Single-Circuit, Short Aerial (Overhead) Lines with Neutral Wire; After selecting the Aerial (Overhead) Lines option from Line Type Options, input information with regard to the screen instructions. When entering "Systems" information the user can press the "F2" function key for pick list to select: Units used: a. Standard. Results are in ohms/1000 feet, and will be stored in the Standard EDSA Feeder Data File. b. Metric. Results are converted to ohms/1000 meters, and will be stored in the Metric EDSA Feeder Data File. c. Frequency. in Hz, defaults to EDSA configuration setting. If data for the feeder already exist in the EDSA Feeder Data File, then a warning screen will present the following: OVERWRITE EDSA FEEDER DATA WARNING SCREEN To Overwrite Existing Data: N. Do NOT overwrite existing EDSA Feeder Data (default). Y. Overwrite existing EDSA Feeder Data.

Short Line Parameters

5. Option 2. Three-Conductor Cables Three-Phase, Three-Conductor Cable. After selecting the Three-Conductor option from the Line Type Options, input the required items according to the screen instructions. Sheath's resistivity is in ohms/cubic centimeters at the temperature under consideration.

6. Option 3. Three-Single Conductor Cables Three-Phase, Three-Single Conductor Cables. After selecting the Three-Single-Conductors option from the Line Type Options, input the required information according to the screen instructions.

7. Option 4. Three-Single Concentric Neutral Cables, Neutrals Solidly Grounded After selecting the Three-Single Concentric Neutrals option from the Line Type Options, input the required information based on the screen instructions.

8. Three-phase Short Line Consisting of a Three-conductor Cable: 8.1 Cable Configuration:

Figure 1

Short Line Parameters

8.2

Parameters Identification: Rp = Effective a.c. resistance of a conductor of the cable (with sheath open) at the temperature and frequency under consideration, in ohms per 1000 feet. G.M.R. of a conductor of the cable at the frequency under consideration, in feet. Inner radius of sheath in feet. Outer radius of sheath in feet. Resistivity of sheath in ohms per cubic centimeter, at the sheath temperature under consideration. Mutual distance between two-phase conductors in feet. Frequency (c/s) under consideration. Earth resistivity in ohms per cubic meter. Resistance of sheath in ohms per 1000 feet.

(GMR)p (RAD)i (RAD)o


sh

= = = = = = =

(GMD)p F

Rsh

8.3

Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1): R1 X1 = = Rp ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F) log10 [(GMD) p/(GMR) p] ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

8.4

Zero-sequence Impedance (RO, XO): De = 2160

feet. (1)

(GMR) pg (GMD) sep Rsh

= = =

(GMR ) p (GMD ) 2 p

[(RAD) i+(RAD) o]/2 10.443238


sh/[(RAD) 2o

-(RAD) 2i] ohms per 1000 feet.

(2)

NOTE: Skin effect of sheath is assumed to be negligible.

Short Line Parameters

The equivalent circuit for zero-sequence impedance calculation for three-conductor cables in terms of actual impedance in ohms per 1000 feet is shown below:

Figure 2

NOTE: To obtain per phase values, actual impedance is to be multiplied by 3. where Rco Xco Xeo = = = Rp/3, Rso = Rsh, Reo = 0.00030113(F) ohms per 1000 feet.

0.000882(F)log10[(GMD)sep/(GMR)pg] ohms per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[De/(GMD)sep] ohms per 1000 feet.

8.4.1

Sheath return only: RO XO = = 3(Rco+Rso) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

8.4.2

Grounded sheath-earth return: Gso Gse Rse RO XO = = = = = 1/Rso, Seo = R2eo+X2eo, Geo = Reo/Seo, Beo = -Xeo/Seo, Gso+Geo, Bse = Beo, Sse = G2se+B2se, Gse/Sse, Xse = -Bse/Sse, 3(Rco+Rse) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xse) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

Short Line Parameters

8.5

Reference: Wagner, C.F. and Evans, R.D., "Symmetrical Components", First edition, pp. 136-157, pp. 163-169, McGraw-Hill.

9. Three-phase Single Circuit Short Aerial (Overhead) Line With Neutral Wire: 9.1 General Configuration:

Figure 3

Conductor identification: a, b, c are the phase conductors; 1, 2 are the neutral wires.

9.2

Parameters Identification: Rp = Effective a.c. resistance of a phase conductor at the frequency and temperature under consideration, per 1000 feet. G.M.R. of a phase conductor at the frequency under consideration. Three mutual distances among the phase conductors. Effective a.c. resistance of a neutral wire at the frequency and temperature under consideration, per 1000 feet.

(GMR)p Dpp1, Dpp2, Dpp3 Rn

= = =

Short Line Parameters

(GMR)n NNW Dpn1, Dpn2,..., Dpnj Dnn F

= = = = = =

G.M.R. of a neutral wire at the frequency under consideration. Number of neutral wires, up to a maximum of two. Mutual distances from each phase conductor to each neutral wire where j = 3(NNW). Distance between the two neutral wires (if NNW = 2). Frequency in c/s. Earth resistivity in ohms per cubic meter.

NOTE: All G.M.R.'s and distances are in feet and the resistances are in ohms. It is assumed that the three-phase line is properly transposed or the effect of asymmetrical spacing is negligible. The neutral wires (if two) are assumed to be symmetrically located with respect to the line.

9.3

Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1): (GMD)p R1 X1 = = =


3

( D pp1) ( D pp2) ( D pp3)

(3)

Rp ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F) log10 [(GMD) p/(GMR) p] ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

9.4

Zero-sequence Impedance (R0, X0): (GMR)pg =


3

(GMR ) p (GMD )2 p

(4)

De (GMR)ng (GMR)ng (GMD)sep

= = = =

2160

feet.

(5) (6) (7) (8)

(GMR)n, if NNW = 1.
(GMR n)( D nn) if NNW = 2.
j

( D pn1)( D pn2) . . . ( D pnj) , j = 3(NNW)

The equivalent circuit for the calculation of zero-sequence impedance for the configuration shown before in terms of actual impedance in ohms per 1000 feet is:

Short Line Parameters

Figure 4

where Rco Rno Reo Xco Xno Xeo (Xco + Xeo) with F1 = 0.000882 = = = = = = = Rp/3 Rn/NNW 0.00030113 (F) ohms (F1)(F)log10[(GMD)sep/(GMR)pg] ohms (F1)(F)log10[(GMD)sep/(GMR)ng] ohms (F1)(F)log10[De/(GMD)sep] ohms (F1)(F)log10[De/(GMR)pg] ohms

NOTE: To obtain per phase impedance, actual impedance is to be multiplied by 3.

9.4.1

Earth return only: RO XO = = 3(Rco+Reo) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xeo) = 3(F1)(F)log10[De/(GMR)pg] ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

Short Line Parameters

9.4.2

Neutral return only: RO XO = = 3(Rco+Rno) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xno) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

9.4.3

Grounded neutral-earth return: ZO Sno Geo Sone RO XO = = = = = = 3[Zco+(Parallel combination of Zno and Zeo)] R2no+X2no; Gno = Rno/Sno; Bno = -Xno/Sno; Seo = R2eo+X2eo Reo/Seo; Beo = -Xeo/Seo; Gone = Gno+Geo; Bone = Bno+Beo; G2one+B2one; Rone = Gone/Sone; Xone = -Bone/Sone 3(Rco+Rone) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xone) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

9.5

Reference: Wagner, C.F. and Evans, R.D., "Symmetrical Components", First edition, pp. 136-157, pp. 163-169, McGraw-Hill.

Short Line Parameters

10. Three-phase Single Circuit Short Line Consisting of Three-single Conductor

Cables:
10.1 General Configuration:

Figure 5

10.2

Parameters Identification: Rp = Effective a.c. resistance of a conductor of a cable (with its sheath open) at the temperature and frequency under consideration, in ohms per 1000 feet. G.M.R. of a conductor of a cable at the frequency under consideration, in feet. Inner radius of the sheath, in feet. Outer radius of the sheath, in feet. Resistivity of sheath in ohms per cubic centimeter at the sheath temperature under consideration. Mutual distances among the three-phase conductors, in feet. Frequency in c/s. Earth resistivity in ohms per cubic meter.

(GMR)p (RAD)i (RAD)o sh

= = = =

Dpp1, Dpp2, Dpp3 = F = =

NOTE: It is assumed that three-phases are properly transposed or the effect of asymmetrical spacing is negligible.

10

Short Line Parameters

10.3

Positive-sequence Impedance (R1, X1):

10.3.1 With sheaths open (GMD)p R1 X1 = = =


3

( D pp1) ( D pp2) ( D pp3)

(9)

Rp ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[(GMD)p/(GMR)p] ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

10.3.2 With sheaths short-circuited (Bonded together): Rsh Rsh = = Resistance of a sheath in ohms per 1000 feet. 10.443238
2 sh/[(RAD) o-

(RAD)2i] ohms per 1000 feet.

(10)

NOTE: Skin effect on sheath is assumed to be negligible. Xm Xm G.M.R. of sheath R1 X1 = = Mutual reactance between conductors and sheaths per phase per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[(2)(GMD)p/[(RAD)o+(RAD)i]] ohms per phase per 1000 feet. [(RAD)o + (RAD)i]/2 Rp+[(Xm)2(Rsh)/[(Xm)2+(Rsh)2]] ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 0.000882 (F)log10[(GMD)p/(GMR)p] - [(Xm)3/[(Xm)2+(Rsh)2]] ohms per phase per 1000 feet

= = =

10.4

Zero-sequence Impedance (RO, XO): De = 2160

feet.
(RAD ) o + (RAD ) i 2

(GMR) pg

(GMR ) p (GMD ) 2

; (GMR ) sh =

(11)

Separation of a sheath from its conductor = [(RAD)o+(RAD)i]/2 = (SEP)shc (GMD)sep (GMR)pg (GMR)sh = = =
3

(SEP ) shc (GMD ) 2 p

(12)

GMR of the phase conductors as a group GMR of sheath

11

Short Line Parameters

Equivalent circuit for zero-sequence impedance calculation for the cable configuration shown before in terms of actual impedance per 1000 feet, in ohms:

Figure 6

where Rco Xco Xeo Xco+Xeo = = = = Rp/3; Rso = Rsh/3; Reo = 0.00030113(F) ohms per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[(GMD)sep/(GMR)pg] ohms per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[De/(GMD)sep] ohms per 1000 feet. 0.000882(F)log10[De/(GMR)pg] ohms per 1000 feet. (13)

NOTE: To obtain per phase impedance, actual impedance is to be multiplied by 3. 10.4.1 Earth return only: RO XO = = 3(Rco+Reo) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xeo) = 3(0.000882)(F)log10[De/(GMR)pg] ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

12

Short Line Parameters

10.4.2 Sheaths (bonded together) return only: RO XO = = 3(Rco+Rso) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

10.4.3 Grounded Sheath-earth return: Gso Gse Xse RO XO = = = = = 1/Rso; Seo = R2eo+X2eo; Geo = Reo/Seo; Beo = -Xeo/Seo; Gso+Geo; Bse = Beo; Sse = G2se+B2se; Rse = Gse/Sse; -Bse/Sse. 3(Rco+Rse) ohms per phase per 1000 feet. 3(Xco+Xse) ohms per phase per 1000 feet.

10.5

Reference: Wagner, C.F. and Evans, R.D., "Symmetrical Components", First edition, pp. 198-214, McGraw-Hill.

13

Short Line Parameters

11. Mr. G.C. McDonalds Contribution EDSA Micro Corporation gratefully acknowledges the following work contributed by Mr. Glen Craig McDonald, P. Eng., Distribution Planning Engineer for the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

2/0 ACSR QUAIL 72 KV

Positive- and Zero-Sequence Impedance of 72KV Line. (Refer to attached sketch of tangent structure.)

1.

Spacing between phases is

- 132 inches - 134 inches - 89 inches


GMD - 116.3 inches-->9.69 ft

2.

Spacing between phases and shield is:

-180 inches - 93 inches -166 inches

3.

Assume a 55-foot-pole set seven feet into the ground. height of the lowest conductor would be: 55 ft. - 7 ft. - 14.8 ft. = 33 ft.
X1e
12.30 log10 (2)(33) = 0.373 60

(28)

4.

The phase conductors are 2/0 ACSR Quail. From the Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook (#81-71410 page 4-27, Library of Congress). resistance r at ra--> 75C - 0.9299
reactance Xa - 0.599 shunt cap - 0.1182 mega. GMR - 0.0072

ohms/mile - 0.1759 / 1000 ft.

ohm/mile - 60 hz. 1 ft. spacing

14

Short Line Parameters

5.

Ground cable (shield) is #2 Copperweld (Turan Gnen, "Electrical Power Distribution System Engineering", McGraw-Hill, Table A7, page 656, ISBN 0-07-023707-7, Library of Congress). GMR - 0.00763 rg - at 25C - 0.882 ohm/mile 167.045/1000 ft. rg - at 50C - 0.979 ohm/mile induct Xg - 0.592 ohm/mile Shunt capacitor Xg - 0.1241 mega ohm/mile Xe(g) =
12.30 log10(2)(48') = 0.4064 mega ohm/mile 60

(29)

6.

Calculate +Z sequence (phase conductors only) Xd = = = Xd = = = = 0.2799 log10 (GMD) 0.2794 log10 (9.69 ft.) 0.2756 ra + j(Xa = Xd)

(30) in ohms/mile (31) (32)

Z+ve

0.929 + j(0.599 + 0.2756) (0.929 + j0.8746) ohm/mile


(0.1759 + j0.1656) ohm/1000 ft.

7.

Capacitive effect + ve sequence (phase conductors) X1 = = = = = X1a + X1d 0.1182 + 0.06831 log10 (9.69 ft.) 0.1182 + 0.06737 X1a + X1d 0.1856 mega ohm/mile

(33)

X1

(34)

15

Short Line Parameters

Figure 7

12. Computation of Zero-sequence Impedance Following the Formulas of

Westinghouse Transmission and Distribution Reference Book:


GROUNDED NEUTRAL-EARTH RETURN PATH:

For one ground-wire case: Zo(a) where Xd =


1 f ( 0.2794 log10 dij ) 6 60

ra + re + j(Xe + Xa - 2Xd) per mile per phase

(35)

dij being all possible six distances between phase conductors. Xa re = .2794
f 1 log10 60 ( GMR ) a

(36)

.00477f

16

Short Line Parameters

Xe

3 f x (0.2794) x log10 4.665 x 106 f 2 60

(37)

.006985f log10 4.665 x 106

At 25C, ra Xe Xa re Xd
Zo(a)

= = = = = = =

.929 /mile 2.8879 .5987 .2862 .27566 1.2152 + j2.93528 3rg + re + j(Xe + 3Xg) (38) (39)

Zo(g) where: Xg At 25C, rg Xg Zo(g)

.2794

f 1 log10 60 ( GMR ) a

(40)

= = = =

.882 /mile .59162 2.9322 + j4.66276 5.5081 57.84 re + j(Xe - 3Xd) (42) (41)

Zo(ag) where Xd with Xag1


Xd

1 [Xag1 + Xbg1 + Ccg1] 3

(43)

= =

.004657f log10 dag1, etc. .29862

17

Short Line Parameters

Zo(ag)

= =

.2862 + j1.99204 2.0125 81.82 Z0 ( a ) Z 0 2 (ag) Z 0(g)

(44)

Zo

(45)

1.2152 + j2.93528 1.2152 + j2.93528 - .73531 105.8 1.2152 + j2.93528 + .20021 - j.70752 1.41541 + j2.22776 /mile
0.2687 + j0.42192 per 1000 ft.

= = = =

which match almost exactly the computer results. As per equation (40) of Westinghouse Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, for n = 1 Zo(ag) = .00477f + j0.01397f log10
De
3

(d ag1 d bg1 d cg1)


3

(46)

= but De =

.00477f + j0.01397f log10 De - j0.01397 f log10

d ag1 d bg1 d cg1

2160

Zo(ag) =

.00477f + j0.01397f log10 2160

- j0.01397f(1/3)log10 (dag1 dbg1 dcg1)

(47)

.00477f + j0.01397f log10 [4.6656 x 106 (


1 x .004657f log10 (dag1 dbg1 dcg1)] 3

)] - j0.01397f/3 x 3 x

1 log10 (dag1dbg1dcg1) 3

j3[

Zo(ag)

.00477f + j0.006895f log10 ( 4.6656 x 106

) - j3[_( Xag1 Xbg1 + Xcg1 )]

(48)

18

Short Line Parameters

where Xag1 Zo(ag) where re Xe = = 0.00477f 0.006985f log10 ( 4.6656 x 106


1 [ Xag1 + Xbg1 + Xcg1 ] 3

= =

.004657f log10 dag1 etc. re + j( Xe - 3Xd )

(49) (50)

(51)

Xd

(52)

19

Short Line Parameters

13. Verification and Validation: EDSA Micro Corp. - (c) Copyright 2008 Job File Name : 2TRANS.MZP Positive and Zero Sequence Calculation Job Title : : Date : Time : QA/QC JOBFILES

Project Number

Units (US, Metric) : US Standard Frequency From Node To Node Feeder Name Line Type : 60 : : : EE1 : 1 - Overhead Lines

Earth Resistance (ohm-ft) : 100.000 Phase Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 0.1800000 G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (ft) : 0.0072000 Distance between Phase Conductors (ft) Conductors 1-2 Conductors 2-3 Conductors 3-1 : 11.0000000 : 7.4200000 : 11.1700000

Calculation Method : 3 - Both Zero and Positive Sequence Return Type : 3 - Ground Neutral-Earth : 1

Number of Neutral Conductors

Neutral Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 0.1670450 G.M.R. of Neutral Conductor (ft) : 0.0076300 Distance from Phase Conductor to 1st Neutral (ft) Phase 1 to Neutral : 13.8300000 Phase 2 to Neutral : 7.7500000 Phase 3 to Neutral : 15.0000000 OUTPUT RESULTS ---> Zero Sequence Resistance (R0) : 0.26416 Reactance (X0) : 0.40391 Positive Sequence Resistance (R1) : 0.18000 Reactance (X1) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) : 0.16560 (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft)

20

Short Line Parameters

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 8

Figure 12

21

Short Line Parameters

14. Computation of Positive and Zero-sequence Impedances (R & X) for Three-

phase Configuration Consisting of Three-single Concentric Neutral Cables


WITH THE NEUTRALS SOLIDLY GROUNDED: EDSA Micro Corporation gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Mr. Glen C. McDonald and Ms. Jun Sun, P. Engs. for the City of Saskatoon, Sask., Canada, and of Dr. A. Miah, Associate Professor at the South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, South Carolina, U.S.A. The following figure shows the three-phase configuration consisting of three identical single concentric neutral cables.

Figure 13

The equations which have been used for the computation of Positive and Zero-sequence impedances are shown in the following pages. The different variables of the equations are identified below:

GMRa GMRn

= =

Geometric mean radius of a phase conductor, in ft.; Geometric mean radius of a single neutral strand, in ft.;

22

Short Line Parameters

Ra,Rn

Effective A.C. resistance of a phase conductor and a neutral strand respectively in ohms/1000 ft. at the temperature and frequency under consideration; Frequency in c/s(Hz) under consideration; Earth resistivity in ohm-meter; GMD of the three-phase conductors (dab x dbc x dca)1/3, in ft.; Diameter of the circle defined by the neutral strand centers of one concentric neutral cable, in ft.; Number of neutral strands wrapped around the insulation of one concentric neutral cable; Spacing factor

= = = =

Sab

Kn

= =

N N-1

NOTE: For the Metric System of Units, proper conversion factors have been used in the program. The equations are:

Zaa-g

[r + 4.788 10
a

1 2 f + j2 f 4.681 104 + 6.096 10 5 log e GMR a

(53)

Zab-g

[ 4.788 10

1 2 f + j2 f 4.681 10 4 + 6.096 10 5 log e S ab

(54)

Znn-g3

rn -5 3 N + 4.788 10 2 f
log e 1 3 2 S ab

-4 -5 + j2 f 4.681 10 + 6.096 10

+ loge

+ 6.096 10 5

1 1 1 log e + ( N 1) log e KnD 3N GMR n 2

(55)

23

Short Line Parameters

Zan-g3

[ 4.788

10-5 2f

] + j2f
f

1 4.681 10-4 + 6.096 10-5 log e D 2 3 2 S ab

(56)

Znn-p

N 1 rn 2 1 1 1 + j2 f 6.096 10 5 + log e log e log e N N KND N GMR n S ab

(57)

Zan-p

2 1 j2 f 6.096 10 5 log e log e D S ab

(58)

Z13

Z aa g Z ab g

Z 2 an p Z nn p

ohms per 1000 ft.

(59)

Z03

Z aa g + 2Z ab g

3Z 2 an g 3 Z nn g3

ohms per 1000 ft.

(60)

24

Short Line Parameters

15. Positive and Zero-sequence Impedance Calculation

CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL CABLE: EXAMPLE 1 INPUT DATA: Cable description: C-500-14.4-C-31


Figure 14

PHASE CONDUCTOR DATA:


Phase Conductor Resistance (ra) (ac 60Hz at 90C): 0.0275 ohms/1000 ft. Diameter of Conductor Dc: 0.7890 inches Strands: 36 Constant based on strands Kg: 0.7678 GMRa =

Dc Kg 2

: 0.3028971 inches Geometric Mean Radius of the Phase Conductor

(61)

GMD GMD

: =

7.559526 inches
3

( AB x BC x CA )

( 6 x 6 x 12)

(62)

NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR DATA:

Neutral Conductor Resistance (rn') (AC 60Hz at 75C): 1.9342638 ohms/1000 ft. Adjustment for the Lay Length of neutral wires: rn = = rn' x
15 (assuming Lay Length = 15 x Lay Diameter) 15

(63)

2.339375

Number of wires N: 26 Neutral wire GMRn: 0.031464 inches Geometric Mean Radius of a single neutral strand. DO (outside diameter of the neutral): 1.475 inches Di (inside diameter of the neutral): 1.330 inches

25

Short Line Parameters

EDSA Micro Corp. - (c) Copyright 2008 Job File Name : 4NEUTRAL.MZP Positive and Zero Sequence Calculation Job Title : QA/QC JOBFILES

Date : Time :

Project Number

Units (US, Metric) : Metric Standard Frequency From Node To Node Feeder Name Line Type : 60 : : : TEST4 : 4 - Three-Single Concentric Neutrals

Earth Resistance (ohm-m) : 10.000 Phase Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000m) : 0.0275000 G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (m) : 0.0252414 Distance between Phase Conductors (m) Conductors A-B Conductors B-C Conductors C-A : 0.5000000 : 0.5000000 : 1.0000000

Calculation Method : 3 - Both Zero and Positive Sequence Return Type : 3 - Ground Neutral-Earth

Single Neutral Strand AC Resistance (ohms/m) : 2.3393750 G.M.R. of Single Neutral Strand (m) : 0.0026220 Diameter of Neutral Centers (m) : 0.1168750 Number of Neutral Strands OUTPUT RESULTS ---> Zero Sequence Resistance (R0) : 0.11665 (Ohms/Phase/1000m) Reactance (X0) : 0.06793 (Ohms/Phase/1000m) Positive Sequence Resistance (R1) : 0.09966 (Ohms/Phase/1000m) : 26

26

Short Line Parameters

Reactance (X1) : 0.09915 (Ohms/Phase/1000m)


CALCULATION: EARTH RESISTIVITY

:100 ohms - meter


CALCULATION
1 N - 1

Spacing factor Kn = N

= 1.1391973

(64)

All GMR, GMD and D are in inches.

Zaa-g

[ r a + 4.788 x 10-5 x 2 f ] + 2 f 4.681 x 10-4 + 6.096 x 10-5 1 n

12 x

/ f

GMR a

(65)

0.0455503 + j 0.2668939 ohms/1000 ft.

Zab-g

[4.788 x 10-5 x 2 f ] + j2 f 4.681x 10-4 + 6.096 x 10-51n

12 x

/ f

GMD

(66)

= Znn-g 3 =

0.0180503 + j 0.1929589 ohms/1000 ft.


rn + 4.788 x 10-5 x 2 f + j2 f 4.681x 10-4 + 6.096 x 10-5 1n 3N

/f

(67)

+6.096x10-51n
3

1 (GMD ) 2

+ 6.096 x 10-5 x

1 3N

12 4 x 12 + (N- 1)1 n 1 n K n x ( Do + D i ) GMR n

0.0480423 + j0.2111278 ohms/1000 ft.

Zan-g 3

[4.788 x10-5 x 2 f ] + j2

f 4.681x 10-4 +

6.096 x 10-51n

12 x 3 D0 + Di x 4

f 2 (GMD)

(68)

= Znn-p =

0.0180503 + j0.2111732 ohms/1000 ft.


N-1 4 x 12 1 12 12 rn + j2 f 6.096 10-5 1n + 1n -1n ( D0 + Di ) N GMR n GMD N N Kn (69)

27

Short Line Parameters

= Zan-p =

0.0899760 + j0.0545066 ohms/1000 ft. 4 x 12 12 j2 f x 6.096 x 10-5 1n - 1n ( D0 + Di ) GMD j0.0546428 ohms/1000 ft.
Z aa-g - Zab-g Z2 an-p Z nn-p = 0.0617760 + j0.0592289 ohms/ 1000 ft.

(70)

= Z13 =

(71)

Z03

Zaa-g + 2 Zab-g -

3 Z2 3 an-g Z nn-g 3

= 0.1147475 + j0.0313168 ohms/ 1000 ft.

(72)

16. Positive and Zero Sequence Impedance Calculation CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL CABLE:

EXAMPLE 2
INPUT DATA:

Cable Description: C-250-4.16-C-30 Phase Conductor Data: Phase Conductor Resistance (ra) (AC 60Hz at 90C): 0.0542 ohms/1000 ft. Diameter of Conductor Dc: 0.5580 inches Strands: 37 Constant based on strands Kg: 0.7678
Dc x Kg GMRa = : 0.2142162 inches 2
Figure 15

(73)

GMD: 1.17 inches GMD =


3

( AB x BC x CA )

( 1.17 x 1.17 x 1.17 )

(74)

NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR DATA:

Neutral conductor resistance (rn') (AC 60Hz at 75C): 3.06855 ohms/1000 ft. Adjustment for the Lay Length of neutral wires:
rn x 15 + (assuming Lay Length = 15 Diameter) = 3.7112364 ohms/1000 ft. 15

(75)

28

Short Line Parameters

Number of wires N: 24 Neutral Wire GMRn: 0.024961 inches Do (outside diameter of the neutral): 0.9950 inches Di (inside diameter of the neutral): 0.8900 inches

CALCULATION: EARTH RESISTIVITY

:100 ohms - meter


CALCULATION
1 N-1

Spacing factor Kn = N

= 1.1481779

(76)

All GMR, GMD and D are in inches.


12 x f r a + 4.788 x 10-5 x 2 f + 2 f 4.681x 10-4 + 6.096 x 10-51n GMR a

Zaa-g

(77)

0.0722503 + j0.2748549 ohms/ft.

Zab-g

12 x f 4.788 x 10-5 2 f + j2 f 4.681x 10-4 + 6.096 x 10-51n GMD

(78)

0.0180503 + j 0.2358377 ohms/ft.

Znn-g 3

rn -5 -4 -5 + 4.788 x 10 x 2 f + j2 f 4.681x 10 + 6.096 x 10 1n 3N

(79)

+6.096 x10-51n

1
3

(GMD )2

+ 6.096 x10-5 x

1 12 4 x 12 + (N-1)1n 1n 3 N GMR n K n x ( D0 + Di )

0.0695952 + j0.2427273 ohms/1000 ft.

29

Short Line Parameters

Zan-g 3

[4.788 x10-5 x 2 f ] + j2

f 4.681x 10-4 +

6.096 x 10-51n 3

12 x D0 + Di x 4

f 2 (GMD )

(80)

0.0180503 + j0.2428039 ohms/1000 ft.

Znn-p

N - 1 4 x 12 1 12 12 rn + j 2 f x 6.096 x 10-5 1n + 1n -1n N N x ( D0 + Di ) N GMR n GMD Kn

0.1546346 + j0.0206688 ohms/1000 ft.

(81)

Zan-p

4 x 12 12 j2 fx 6.096 x 10-5 1n - 1n ( D O + D i) GMD

(82)

j0.0208986 ohms/1000 ft.

Z13

Z aa-g - Z ab-g -

Z2 an-p Z nn-p

= 0.0569748 + j0.0386463 ohms/1000 ft.

(83)

Z03

Z aa-g + 2 Z ab-g -

3 Z 2 3 an-g Z nn-g 3

= 0.2002247 + j0.0482579 ohms/1000 ft.

(84)

Longhand Zero Sequence

Program

% Deviance

R0 X0

0.2002247 0.482579

0.19925 0.4977

0 0

Positive Sequence

R1 X1

0.0569748 0.0386463

0.05697 0.03865

0 0

Program and longhand calculation results match 100%

30

Short Line Parameters

EDSA Micro Corp. - (c) Copyright 2008 Job File Name : 5NEUTRAL.MZP Positive and Zero Sequence Calculation Job Title Project Number : QA/QC JOBFILES :

Date : Time :

Units (US, Metric) : US Standard Frequency From Node To Node Feeder Name Line Type : 60 : : : TEST5 : 4 - Three-Single Concentric Neutrals

Earth Resistance (ohm-ft) : 100.000 Phase Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 0.0542000 G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (ft) : 0.0178513 Distance between Phase Conductors (ft) Conductors A-B Conductors B-C Conductors C-A : 0.0975000 : 0.0975000 : 0.0975000

Calculation Method : 3 - Both Zero and Positive Sequence Return Type : 3 - Ground Neutral-Earth

Single Neutral Strand AC Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 3.7112364 G.M.R. of Single Neutral Strand (ft) : 0.0020800 Diameter of Neutral Centers (ft) : 0.0785410 Number of Neutral Strands OUTPUT RESULTS ---> Zero Sequence Resistance (R0) : 0.19925 Reactance (X0) : 0.04977 Positive Sequence Resistance (R1) : 0.05697 Reactance (X1) : 0.03865 (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) : 24

31

Short Line Parameters

17. Nomenclature for Equations

diameter of the circle defined by the neutral strand centers of one concentric neutral cable (see Figure 1, page 3) in feet. Values of D can be derived from information published in cable manufacturers' catalogues.

frequency - Hertz

GMRa, = GMRn

Geometric Mean Radius of the phase conductor (subscript a) and a single neutral strand (subscript n) - in feet. GMRa is readily available from tables such as those in References 1, 3, and 5. GMRn can also be obtained from tables but, since each strand has a solid, circular cross section, it is readily calculated using GMRa = .3894dn, where dn is the diameter of a single neutral strand in feet (see Figure 1). the complex operator, 1 90

KN

spacing factor which, when multiplied by D/2, gives the geometric mean spacing among the N neutral strands of one concentric neutral cable. KN is obtained from the expression KN=(N)1/(N-1).

number of neutral strands wrapped around the insulation of one concentric neutral cable (see cable manufacturers' catalogues).

ra,rn

resistance of the phase conductor (subscript a) and a single neutral strand (subscript n) ohms/1000 feet (see cable manufacturers' catalogs). There should be a c resistance values calculated for the expected operating temperatures of the phase and neutral conductors. They should include skin effect and proximity effect, wherever these effects can be readily determined.

re

ohms/1000 ft.

earth resistivity - ohms meter.

Sab

geometric mean spacing of the three-phase conductors - feet. Referring to Figure 1, Sab=(dabdbcdca).

Zaa-g, = Znn-g3

self impedance of a phase conductor (subscript aa) and self impedance of a group of paralleled neutral strands (subscript nn) with earth return - ohms/1000 feet.

32

Short Line Parameters

Zab-g3, =

mutual impedance between two conductors or two groups of conductors with earth returnZan-g3ohms/1000 feet. Subscripts a and b denote phase conductors and subscript n denotes a group of neutral conductors. In a three-phase circuit there are actually three mutual impedances among the three-phase conductors: Zab-g, Zbc-g, and Zca-g. However, in Equation (A2) the use of a geometric mean spacing Sab instead of the actual interphase spacing means that the resulting value of Zab-g is the arithmetic mean of the three actual values. In a similar sense Zan-g3 is an average of the three actual mutual impedances that exist between each of the three- phase conductors and the entire group of neutral conductors.

Zan-p

positive sequence mutual impedance between the phase conductors of the cable and their concentric neutrals - ohms/1000 feet.*

Znn-p

positive sequence self impedance of the three-phase circuit formed by the concentric neutrals of the cables - ohms/1000 feet.*

Z13, Zo3

positive and zero sequence impedance, respectively, of a three-phase concentric neutral circuit ohms/1000 feet.

When positive sequence currents flow in the phase conductors of a three-phase concentric neutral circuit induced currents will circulate between each phase's neutral and the earth return path. The magnitude of this current depends upon neutral resistance, interphase spacing, and the diameter of the circle of centers of concentric neutral strands. In turn, the positive sequence impedance of the circuit is modified by the magnitude of these neutral currents. Z2an-p/Zna-p is the factor which reflects the effect of neutral circulating current on the positive sequence impedance of three-phase concentric neutral cable. On an overhead open wire transmission or distribution circuit this effect is negligible. Recent studies have shown that it is not negligible for the close spacing associated with concentric neutral cable.

33

Short Line Parameters

18. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Clarke, Edith, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. I, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1943. Clarke, Edith, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. II, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1943. Wagner, C. F., and R. D. Evans, Symmetrical Components, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1933. Stevenson, W. D., Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955. Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, Fourth Edition, 1964. Smith, D. R., and J. L. Barger, "Impedance and Circulating Current Calculations for UD Multi-Wire Concentric Neutral Circuits," IEEE Conference Record of 1971 Conference on Underground Distribution, September 27-October 1, 1971, Detroit, Michigan, pp. 130-138. Edison Electric Institute and the Bell Telephone System, Engineering Reports of the Joint Subcommittee on Development and Research, Vol. II, Report No. 14. Edison Electric Institute and the Bell Telephone System, Engineering Reports of the Joint Subcommittee on Development and Research, Vol. IV, Report No. 37. "Rome Cable UD Technical Manual," Third Edition, Rome Cable Co., Rome, N.Y., 13440. IEEE Power Group, Conference Record (69C1-PWR) and Conference Record Supplement (69C1-PWR (SUP.)) for the Special Technical Conference on Underground distribution, Anaheim, California, May 12-16, 1969. Ramo, S. and J. R. Whinnery, Fields and Waves in Modern Radio, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1953.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

34

Short Line Parameters

19. Standalone Short Line Parameters Tutorial


Neutral 1 18 Neutral 2

.45 13

45 13.

10

13 .45

18 Phase 1 Phase 2

13 .45

18 Phase 3

Figure 16 Tutorial Case Study (File: shtln.mzp)

This tutorial will illustrate the step-by-step procedure required to calculate the following short-line parameters using EDSA's "Short Line Parameters Calculation" program: 1. Zero Sequence Resistance & Reactance 2. Positive Sequence Resistance & Reactance The tutorial is based on a 3-phase circuit equipped with two neutral return conductors. Figure 23 shows the geometrical/structural configuration of the circuit. All the dimensions shown in the figure are expressed in feet. General data for each circuit follows: Line Type: Earth Resistance (ohm-ft): Ph. Cond. Res. (ohms/1000ft): G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (ft): Return Type: Overhead Line 100.000 0.0445070 0.0277000 2 Neutral Conductors

35

Short Line Parameters

Distance between Phase Conductors: Conductors 1-2: Conductors 2-3: Conductors 3-1: No. of Neutral Cond.: 2 18.00 ft 0.0445070 0.0277000 18.00 ft. 18.00 ft. 36.00 ft.

Distance between Neutral Conductors: Neutral Cond. Res. (ohms/1000ft): G.M.R. of Neutral Conductor (ft): Distance from Phase Conductor to 1st Neutral:

Phase 1 to Neutral: Phase 2 to Neutral: Phase 3 to Neutral: Distance from Phase Conductor to 2nd Neutral: Phase 1 to Neutral: Phase 2 to Neutral: Phase 3 to Neutral:

13.45 ft. 13.45 ft. 28.80 ft.

28.80 ft. 13.45 ft. 13.45 ft.

1.1 From the EDSA TECHNICAL 2004 main menu screen invoke the Short Line Parameters program as follows: > Select Analysis / Miscellaneous Analysis / Line Constants / Short Line Parameters

36

Short Line Parameters

1.2

Once in the Positive and Zero Sequence Calculation program main menu, proceed to create the new file as follows: > Select File / Select New

1.3

Once in the Enter Data screen proceed as follows: > From the Select a Page field select Job Title > In the Project Num. field type the appropriate job id. Number - Tutorial 99 > In the Feeder Name field type the appropriate label for the feeder being studied - Tutorial Feeder

37

Short Line Parameters

> In the Job Title field type an appropriate description for the project > In the From Node field type the node id. from which the feeder originates - 1 > In the To Node field type the destination node id. - 2 > Return to the Select a Page field and select Line Type

1.4

As the program displays the Line Data information screen enter the data pertaining to the line as follows: > From the Line Type picklist select 1 - Overhead Lines > From the Calculation Method field select Both (for Positive & Zero Sequence) > From the Unit Type field select US > In the Frequency (Hz) field type 60 > In the Earth Resistance (ohm-ft) field type 100 > In the Phase Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000 ft) field type 0.0445070 > In the G.M.R of Phase Conductor (ft) field type 0.0277000 (Geometric Mean Radius) > Return to the Select a Page field and select Return Type

38

Short Line Parameters

1.5

Proceed to describe the type of current return path according to the following procedure: > From the Return Type picklist select 2 - Neutral > Notice that once Neutral is selected a new page named Neutral appears in the Select a page field. This will allow the user to enter the neutral conductor(s) information. > Proceed to enter the Distance between Phase Conductors (ft) information as follows: > Conductor 1 - 2: > Conductor 2 - 3: > Conductor 3 - 1: 18.00 (ft) 18.00 (ft) 36.00 (ft) (Refer to Figure 23) (Refer to Figure 23) (Refer to Figure 23)

> Return to the Select a Page field and select Neutral

1.6

Finally, proceed to define the neutral current return-circuit according to the following guidelines:

39

Short Line Parameters

> In the Number of Neutral Conductors field select 2

40

Short Line Parameters

> In the Neutral Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000 ft) field type 0.0445070 > In the G.M.R of Neutral Conductor (ft) field type 0.0277000 (Geometric Mean Radius) > In the Distance between Neutral Conductors (ft) field type 18.00 (Refer to Figure 23) > Proceed to enter the Distance form Phase Conductor to Neutrals (ft) information as follows:

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

1st Neutral 13.45 ft 13.45 ft 28.80 ft

2nd Neutral 28.80 ft 13.45 ft 13.45 ft

> The above distances can be calculated based on the dimensions specified in Figure 23. > Press .

1.7

Once the data input process is concluded, proceed to save the file according to the following procedure: > Select File / Save As > In the File Name field type "shtln.mzp" > Press

41

Short Line Parameters

1.8

Once the file has been input and saved, the main menu screen space shows a summary of the data. At this point the program is ready to run the calculations. To do so, follow this procedure: > Select Output / Calculate > Or simply select the icon

1.9

Once the calculations are completed, the results are shown in the output screen. With the aid of the tool bar menu, the user has the following options: Scroll up and down to read the results, Print the results, and Save the results to either a Feeder file or Text file.

42

Short Line Parameters

1.10

To save the results to a feeder file, proceed as follows: > Select Output / Save to Feeder File

1.11

If the output is saved to a feeder file EDSA will acknowledge by means of the above dialog box. . Press

43

Short Line Parameters

1.12

To save the results to a text file proceed as follows: > Select Outpu / Save to Text File

1.13

Proceed to save the results into the text file according to the following procedure: > In the File Name field type "shtln.txt" > Press

44

Short Line Parameters

1.14

Following are the results of the analysis:


Date : Time :

EDSA Micro Corp. - (c) Copyright 2008 Job File Name : SHTLN.MZP Positive and Zero Sequence Calculation Job Title

: Tutorial Exercise for Short Line Parameter Calculations EDSA Micro Corporation January 1999 : Tutorial 99

Project Number

Units (US, Metric) : US Standard Frequency From Node To Node Feeder Name Line Type : 60 : 1 : 2 : Tutorial Feeder : 1 - Overhead Lines

Earth Resistance (ohm-ft) : 100.000 Phase Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 0.0445070 G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (ft) : 0.0277000 Distance between Phase Conductors (ft) Conductors 1-2 Conductors 2-3 Conductors 3-1 : 18.0000000 : 18.0000000 : 36.0000000

Calculation Method : 3 - Both Zero and Positive Sequence Return Type : 2 - Neutral : 2 : 18.0000000

Number of Neutral Conductors Distance between Neutral Conductors (ft)

Neutral Conductor Resistance (ohms/1000ft) : 0.0445070 G.M.R. of Neutral Conductor (ft) : 0.0277000 Distance from Phase Conductor to 1st Neutral (ft) Phase 1 to Neutral : 13.4500000 Phase 2 to Neutral : 13.4500000 Phase 3 to Neutral : 28.8000000 Distance from Phase Conductor to 2nd Neutral (ft) Phase 1 to Neutral : 28.8000000 Phase 2 to Neutral : 13.4500000 Phase 3 to Neutral : 13.4500000 OUTPUT RESULTS ---> Zero Sequence Resistance (R0) : 0.11127 Reactance (X0) : 0.35633 Positive Sequence Resistance (R1) : 0.04451 Reactance (X1) : 0.15416 (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft)) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft) (Ohms/Phase/1000ft)

45

Short Line Parameters

20. Network-Based Short Line Parameters Calculations

Neutral 1

18

Neutral 2

.45 13

45 13.

10

13 .45

18 Phase 1 Phase 2

13 .45

18 Phase 3

Figure 17 Short Line Under Study

This tutorial will illustrate the step-by-step procedure required to calculate the following short-line parameters using EDSA Technical 2004 "Short Line Parameters Calculation" program: 1. 2. Zero Sequence Resistance & Reactance Positive Sequence Resistance & Reactance

The tutorial is based on a 3-phase circuit equipped with two neutral return conductors. The above figure (Figure 24) shows the geometrical/structural configuration of the circuit. All the dimensions shown in the figure are expressed in feet. General data for each circuit is shown in the next page.

46

Short Line Parameters

Overhead Line Electrical and Physical Topology Data

Line Type: Earth Resistance (ohm-ft): Ph. Conductor Resistance (/1000ft): G.M.R. of Phase Conductor (ft): Return Type: Distance between Phase Conductors: Conductors 1-2: Conductors 2-3: Conductors 3-1: No. of Neutral Conductors: Distance between Neutrals: Neutral Cond. Res. ( /1000ft): G.M.R. of Neutral Conductor (ft): Distance from Phase Conductor to 1st Neutral: Phase 1 to Neutral: Phase 2 to Neutral: Phase 3 to Neutral:

Overhead Line 100.000 0.0445070 0.0277000 2 Neutral Conductors

18.00 ft. 18.00 ft. 36.00 ft. 2 18.00 ft 0.0445070 0.0277000

13.45 ft. 13.45 ft. 28.80 ft.

Distance from Phase Conductor to 2nd Neutral: Phase 1 to Neutral: Phase 2 to Neutral: Phase 3 to Neutral: 28.80 ft. 13.45 ft. 13.45 ft.

47

Short Line Parameters

Step 1. Open the tutorial file called SHORT_LINE.axd. We will proceed to calculate the positive and zero sequence parameters of this line according to the Electrical and Physical Topology data shown in Figure 1.

Step 2. Double click on the line called FEEDER No.1.

Step 3. Once the feeder editor appears, select Calculate Short Line Parameters.

48

Short Line Parameters

Step 5. Proceed to enter all the pertinent descriptive data for the line under study, as shown in this example.

Step 4. Select Job Title.

This data is automatically updated from the job files single line diagram.

Step 6. Select Save As.

Step 7. Assign an appropriate name for the file, and select the folder in which it is to be stored. Press OK.

49

Short Line Parameters

Step 9. Proceed to describe the electrical characteristics of the line (Overhead Line) under study as well as the Units and the Calculation Method required. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 8. Select the Line Type editor.

Step 11. Proceed to describe the return type (Neutral) and the distance between the phase conductors of the line. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 10. Select the Return Type editor.

50

Short Line Parameters

Step 13. Proceed to select the number of neutral conductors (2) and describe their electrical characteristics. Enter the distance between each phase conductors with respect to each of the neutral conductors. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 12. Select the Neutral editor.

Step 14. Once the data entry process has been completed, select Save and then select OK.

Step 15. Once the OK button is pressed, the program returns to the feeder editor. Select the Short Circuit tab, and the sequence impedance results calculated by the program have been automatically calculated and updated as shown here.

51

Short Line Parameters

Step 16. To add this feeder data to a library, select the library in which it is to be saved and then select Save to Library. In this example the feeder will be saved to the default EDSA Standard library under the Transmission Line description.

1 3 2

Step 19. Select OK. Step 18. Specify the Resistance and Reactance correction factors as required.

Step 17. Select the specific library to be used. In this example, select US Non-Magnetic.

52

Short Line Parameters

Step 20. To verify that the new feeder has been added to the library, select the Library pick-list from within the feeder editor screen.

Step 21. Verify that the feeder has been added to the following library US Std. Library/Feeder/3 Phase/EDSA/ Transmission Line

53

Short Line Parameters

2.1

Editing and Existing Network-Based Study

Step 1. Open the tutorial file called SHORT_LINE.axd.

Step 2. Double click on the line called FEEDER No.1.

Step 3. Once the feeder editor appears, select Calculate Short Line Parameters.

54

Short Line Parameters

Step 4. Select Open File.

Step 5. Select the file that is to be modified. At this point, the user can also select any other standalone file to be re-assigned to this feeder. In this example, select SLT.MZP and press OK.

Step 6. Once in the editor screens, select the data to be modified and re-run the analysis as shown in previous sections of this tutorial. Select Save and then select OK, in order to update the feeder data.

55

Short Line Parameters

3.0

Standalone Short Line Parameters Calculation

This exercise is based on the overhead line topology shown in Figure 1 of this tutorial.

Step 1. From the EDSA Technical 2004 main menu, select the Short Line Parameters application as shown here.

Step 2. From the Short Line Parameters program main menu, proceed to create a new file by selecting File/New.

56

Short Line Parameters

Step 4. Proceed to enter all the pertinent descriptive data for the line under study, as shown in this example.

Step 3. Select Job Title.

This data is manually entered and customized by the user.

Step 5. Select Save As.

Step 6. Assign an appropriate name for the file, and select the folder in which it is to be stored. Press OK.

57

Short Line Parameters

Step 8. Proceed to describe the electrical characteristics of the line under study as well as the Units and the Calculation Method required. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 7. Select the Line Type editor.

Step 10. Proceed to describe the return type and the distance between the phase conductors of the line under study. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 9. Select the Return Type editor.

58

Short Line Parameters

Step 12. Proceed to select the number of neutral conductors (2) and describe their electrical characteristics. Enter the distance between each phase conductors with respect to each of the neutral conductors. Proceed as indicated here.

Step 11. Select the Neutral editor.

Step 13. Once the data entry process has been completed, select Save and then select OK.

Step 14. To run the analysis, select the Running Man icon.

Step 15. The results of the calculation are shown here in red.

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Short Line Parameters

Step 16. An alternate way to run the analysis is by selecting Output/Calculate. This will produce the same results shown in step 16.

Step 20. To create a text output report of the analysis, select Save to Text File.

Step 17. To edit any section of the input data, select Edit/Edit or simply click on the Edit icon.

Step 18. Proceed to modify and re-run the analysis as required.

Step 19. Once the data entry process and the final calculations have been completed, select Save

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Short Line Parameters

Step 21. Assign a name and a folder location for the text output file as indicated here. Select OK.

Step 22. To view the output report, open the text file using the windows Notepad or any other word processor of preference.

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Short Line Parameters

Step 23. To save the newly created feeder file into an EDSA library, select Save to Feeder File.

Step 24. Proceed as indicated in steps 16 to 21.

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