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Gator Mathematics Competition 2013

Mitchell Harris Salim Hyder Sitharthan Sekar Endrit Fejzullahu Jon Claus Dominic Guzzo Kurtis Lee Sergei Shabanov Mike Goodman Eli Ross

January 26, 2013

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Contents

 1 Individual Test 3 2 Individual Solutions 5 3 Mathathon 8 4 Mathathon Solutions 11 5 Relay 18 6 Relay Solutions 21 7 Tiebreaker 23 8 Tiebreaker Solutions 24

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1

Individual Test

Individual Round One

GaMaCo 2013

1. Compute the area of the triangle with vertices at the coordinates (1337, 1337), (1337, 1344), and

(1349, 1337).

2. Three points are selected randomly (and uniformly) along the circumference of a circle with radius 1.

Compute the probability that they are the vertices of an acute triangle.

Individual Round Two

GaMaCo 2013

3. Circle O (with positive area) has diameter AB, and C lies on O. Compute the maximum possible

ratio of the area of ∆ABC to the area of circle O.

4.

Compute the numerical value of V 3 for some nonzero V in the system of equations:

x

 y + 2z = λyz x + 2z = λxz

2x + 2y = λxy

xyz = V

Individual Round Three

GaMaCo 2013

5. Compute the largest real x such that

1
x − 3 √ x − 3 =
√ x − 3 .

6. The sum

7

12 + 9360

d

is an integer. Compute the smallest positive integral value for d.

3

Individual Round Four

GaMaCo 2013

7. An ant is at the origin of a coordinate plane. The ﬁrst day, the ant decides to move 4 units in some

direction parallel to the x axis, chosen at random. The next day, the ant randomly chooses to turn right or left and then walk 4 units in that direction (now moving parallel to the y axis). Every day, the ant continues moving in this fashion – turning left or right from the direction of the previous day and then

moving 4 units. The probability he returns to the origin at the end of the 16th day is

2

k 15 . Compute k.

8. A spy-aircraft is ﬂying at constant altitude along a circle of radius 12 miles with center at a point A.

The speed of the aircraft is v. At some moment in time, a missile is ﬁred at the aircfraft from the point A, which has speed v and is guided so that it always points towards the aircraft. How far does the missile travel before colliding with the aircraft?

Individual Round Five

GaMaCo 2013

9. Compute the minimum value of f (x) = x 2 8x + 21.

10. Compute the sum of the solutions to the equation sin(x) + 8 cos 2 (x) sin(x) + 3 3 cos(x) = 0 on the interval 0 < x < 2π.

4

2

Individual Solutions

Individual Round One

GaMaCo 2013

1. Compute the area of the triangle with vertices at the coordinates (1337, 1337), (1337, 1344), and

(1349, 1337).

Solution: The triangle is right and has side lengths of 12 and 7. So A = 1 2 (12)(7) = 42.

2. Three points are selected randomly (and uniformly) along the circumference of a circle with radius 1.

Compute the probability that they are the vertices of an acute triangle.

Solution: We calculate the complementary probability – that the triangle is obtuse. Note that the probability of a right triangle is zero. The triangle will be obtuse if and only if all three points lie on the same side of some diameter. Let the random variable X k be associated with the point on the circle P k , for k = 1, 2, 3, and deﬁne it as 1 if the other two points are within π clockwise from it and 0 otherwise. We are looking for P (X 1 + X 2 + X 3 = 1) = E(X 1 + X 2 + X 3 ) since at most one of these variables can be

1. Because the points are chosen uniformly, their probability distributions are identical. So the above

equals 3E(X 1 ) = 3 4 because the probability that each of the other two points lie in the semicircle starting

at X 1 is

1

4

1

2

·

2 . Our desired probability is then 1 3

1

4 .

Individual Round Two

GaMaCo 2013

3. Circle O (with positive area) has diameter AB, and C lies on O. Compute the maximum possible

ratio of the area of ∆ABC to the area of circle O.

π

Solution: Let the legs of the right triangle be p and q. Then

(p q) 2 0 p 2 + q 2 2pq p 2 +q 2

pq

2

(p 2 +q 2 )/4

pq/2

1 π(p 2 +q 2 )/4

pq/2

4

π, where the left hand side of

the inequality is precisely the inverse of the ratio in question. So the answer is

1

π .

4.

Compute the numerical value of V 3 for some nonzero V in the system of equations:

x

 y + 2z = λyz x + 2z = λxz

2x + 2y = λxy

xyz = V

Solution: Multiply each of the equations by x, y, and z respectively. Noting that xyz = V , the system is

5

1

2

transformed into

xy + 2xz = λV

xy + 2yz = λV

2xz + 2yz = λV

xyz = V

Subtracting the ﬁrst two equations gives that either z = 0 (which is impossible if V is nonzero) or y = x.

Using the latter in the next two equations gives that x = 2z (since x

= 0). By the last equation

V
3 = 4z 3
1
(2z) · (2z) · z = V ⇒
4z 3 = V . But x = 2z, so
=
x
8z 3
2 .
Individual Round Three
GaMaCo 2013
5. Compute the largest real x such that
1
x − 3 √ x − 3 =
√ x − 3 .

Solution: Add and subtract 3 to the left hand side:

(x3)3 x 3+3 =

Therefore x = 4 is the only real solution.

x3 (x3) 3 3(x3)

1

2

2

2

+3(x3) 2 1 = 0 ((x3) 1 2 1) 3 = 0 (x3) = 1.

1

6. The sum

7

12 + 9360

d

is an integer. Compute the smallest positive integral value for d.

+ m

is to be some integer k, then 7n + 12m = 12nk 12m = 12nk 7n m = nk 7 ·

divides n. We also have that 7n = 12nk 12m 7 = 12k 12 m . But since m and n are relatively prime, we have that n divides 12. So n = 12. Therefore our goal is to have that when the fraction is reduced the denominator is 12. We need to ﬁnd the smallest c so that the numerator 9360 has no factors of 12. Dividing 9360 by 12 two times shows that 9360 = 12 2 · 65. So c = 12 2 for the smallest value of d,

Solution: Write the second fraction as c·m where the greatest common divisor of m and n is 1. If

7

12

c·n

n

12 n . Therefore 12

n

and d = 12 2 · 12 = 1728. We must check that this is indeed an integer, and it is because So d = 1728. Individual Round Four

12 + 65

12

7

=

72

12 = 6.

GaMaCo 2013

7. An ant is at the origin of a coordinate plane. The ﬁrst day, the ant decides to move 4 units in some

direction parallel to the x axis, chosen at random. The next day, the ant randomly chooses to turn right or left and then walk 4 units in that direction (now moving parallel to the y axis). Every day, the ant continues moving in this fashion – turning left or right from the direction of the previous day and then

moving 4 units. The probability he returns to the origin at the end of the 16th day is

2

k 15 . Compute k.

Solution: On odd days he moves in the East/West direction and on even days in the North/South direction. The even days and odd days are independent of each other, and so for all the even days he

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must move up as many times as he moves down (and similarly for the odd days). Therefore the

probability is

4 2 ·

8

2

1

16 =

8·7·6·5

4·3·2·1

2 ·

2

1

16

= 4900

2

16

= 2450

2 15

.

8. A spy-aircraft is ﬂying at constant altitude along a circle of radius 12 miles with center at a point A.

The speed of the aircraft is v. At some moment in time, a missile is ﬁred at the aircfraft from the point A, which has speed v and is guided so that its velocity vector always points towards the aircraft. How far does the missile travel before colliding with the aircraft?

Solution: Call the point B the point on the original circle at which the aircraft is positioned when the missile is ﬁred. We claim that the path of the missile is a circle with radius 6 that has AB tangent to it. Let P be some arbitrary point along the path of the aircraft. Call the intersection of P A with the new circle be point M . Then P AB is half the measure of the arc MA. Since the missile and aircraft is the same speed, they should each travel equal distances in equal times, so P B = AM . Since the measure of P B is the measure of P AB, the radius of the smaller circle is half the radius of the larger. Hence the missile travels half the circumference of the circle, or 6π.

Individual Round Five

GaMaCo 2013

9. Compute the minimum value of f (x) = x 2 8x + 21.

Solution: Note that completing the square inside the radical yields f (x) = (x 4) 2 + 5. Notice that

(x 4) 2 has a minimum value at x = 4, leaving 0. Hence, the minimum value of f (x) is 5.

10. Compute the sum of the solutions to the equation sin(x) + 8 cos 2 (x) sin(x) + 3 3 cos(x) = 0 on the interval 0 < x < 2π.

3

Solution: Our motivation for the solutions comes from factoring the ﬁrst two terms and trying to write the summation as (close to) symmetric with both sin 3 (x) and cos 3 (x) terms. Making use of the identity sin 2 (x) + cos 2 (x) = 1 we see that

sin(x) + 8 cos 2 (x) sin(x) + 3 3 cos(x) = sin(x)(1 + 8 cos 2 (x)) + 3 3 cos(x)

= sin(x)((sin 2 (x) + cos 2 (x)) + 8 cos 2 (x)) + 3 3 cos(x) · 1

= sin(x)(sin 2 (x) + 9 cos 2 (x)) + 3 3 cos(x)(cos 2 (x) + sin 2 (x))

= sin 3 (x) + 9 sin(x) cos 2 (x) + 3 3 cos 3 (x) + 3 3 sin 2 (x) cos(x)

= sin 3 (x) + 3 3 sin 2 (x) cos(x) + 9 sin(x) cos 2 (x) + 3 3 cos 3 (x)

= (sin(x) + 3 cos(x)) 3

This is only zero when sin(x) + 3 cos(x) = 0 tan(x) = 3, which happens when x = 2π sum is 7π

3

.

3

or 5π

3

. The

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3

Mathathon

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 1 – 2 pts each

1. What is the largest distance between any two points on a regular hexagon with a side length of one?

2. If z = 2 + 3i ﬁnd the magnitude of:

2z 1 z 3

+ 2

3 2z 1

z 3

1

3. For how many integers n 1 is 10 n 1

9

the square of an integer?

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 2 – 3 pts each

4. Two sides of a triangle have lengths 8 and 13. Given that the triangle is acute, how many integers may

be the length of the third side?

5. The sum of two positive integers is 2431. What is the greatest possible value of their greatest common

divisor?

6. Set S contains the ﬁrst n positive integers. When one element is removed, the average of the

remaining terms is 46 10 . What number was removed?

13

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 3 – 4 pts each

7. Megan is ﬂipping 17 coins to decide whether she should bake cookies and bring puppies for her class.

If a majority of the coins are heads she will bake cookies and bring in puppies. The probability that she

bakes cookies and brings in puppies, given that at least one coin is heads, is m positive integers m and n. What is log 4 (m + n) ?

n

for relatively prime

8. A vector in 3D space that in standard position in the ﬁrst octant makes an angle of π

and π

3

4

with the y axis. What angle does it make with the z axis?

9. Compute 2012 2 + 2012 2 · 2013 2 + 2013 2 2012 2 .

8

with the x axis

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 4 – 5 pts each

10. Let f (x) = x 3 + 6x 2 + 11x

is divisible by 12?

+ 6, and S = {1, 2, 3,

, 99, 100}. For how many s S is it true that f (s)

11. Find a

closed form for 1 + 11 + 111 + · · · + 111 · · · 111

n 1’s

in terms of n (not using sigma notation).

12. Find the area of the region enclosed by the graph of |3x + 12| + |5y + 10| = 45.

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 5 – 6 pts each

13. For how many real numbers a does the quadratic equation x 2 + ax + 5a = 0 have only integer roots?

14. Find the sum of the absolute values of the real roots of the equation x 4 4x 1 = 0.

15. Round log 2

32

k=0 32

k

· 3 k · 5 k to the nearest integer.

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 6 – 8 pts each

16. Let P be a point inside a ball. Consider three mutually perpendicular planes through P . These

planes intersect the ball along three disks. If the radius of the ball is 2 and

center of the ball and P , compute the sum of the areas of the three disks of intersection.

2 1 is the distance between the

17. Let v be an n-dimensional vector such that the nth compononent, v n , is given by v n =

1

n + 1 n 1 .

Compute the real number that the magnitude of v approaches as n grows without bound.

18. The numbers 1, 2, 3,

, 2013 are written on a board. A student erases three numbers a, b, c and

1

2 (a + b + c) (a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2

She repeats this process until there is only one number left on the board. List all possible values of the remainder when the last number is divided by 3.

9

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 7 – 9 pts each

19. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that x + y + z + 2 = xyz. Find the maximum value of

1 1
1
√ xy +
√ yz +
zx

20. Let f (n) be the sum of digits of the natural number n, e.g. f (35) = 3 + 5 = 8. Find f f (f (555 55 ))

21. The sequences {a n } and {b n } both satisfy the same recurrence relation,

and

a

k

=

k k

· a k1 + a k2 ,

b k = k k · b k1

+

b k2 .

The initial conditions are, however, a 1 = b 2 = 0 and a 2 = b 1 = 1. Compute a 2013 · b 2012 a 2012 · b 2013 .

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 8 – 10 pts each

22. Let a be a vector in R 3 . Let α, β and γ be the angles that a forms with the x, y and z axis,

respectively. Find the minimum value of

1

sin 2 α + sin 2 β + sin 2 γ

1

1

23. How many ordered triples of integers (a, b, c), where 1 a, b, c 10, are such that for every natural

number n, the equation (a + n)x 2 + (b + 2n)x + c + n = 0 has at least one real root?

24. Compute 10 10 · e . If the ﬁrst n digits of your answer are correct, your score for this question will

be n(n + 1)

.

4

10

4

Mathathon Solutions

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 1 – 2 pts each

1. What is the largest distance between any two points on a regular hexagon with a side length of one?

Solution: Note that the vertices of a regular hexagon all lie on the circumcircle of the hexagon. Then the furthest distance from one vertex is to another point on the circle, or the opposite vertex. Since a radius of the circle is the length of a side, the total distance is 2.

2. If z = 2 + 3i ﬁnd the magnitude of:

2z 1 z 3

+ 2

3 2z 1

z 3

1

Solution: While the result can be computed directly it is interesting to consider the composition of

transformations of the complex plane. Writing these transformations as matrices and multiplying gives

1

13

|

1

3

1 · 2

2

1

1

2+3i | =

1

|2+3i| =

1

3 =

1

13 .

7 0

1

1

0 1 , which is eﬀectively the inversion f (z) =

1 And

z .

3.

For how many integers n 1 is 10 n 1

9

the square of an integer?

Solution: Since 10 n 1

10 1 numbers of this form are exactly the numbers 1, 11, 111, etc. Clearly 1 is a square (corresponding to

n = 1). But modulo 8, this sequence is 1, 3, 7, 7, 7,

power of 10 that is added from then on is divisible by 8. On the other hand, the squares modulo 8 are 0,

1, and 4. So there are no other perfect squares mod 8, which means there are no other perfect squares in the original sequence.

is the sum of a geometric series with ﬁrst term 1 and common ratio 10, the

, and it will remaind a constant of 7 because every

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 2 – 3 pts each

4. Two sides of a triangle have lengths 8 and 13. Given that the triangle is acute, how many integers may

be the length of the third side?

 Answer: 5 Solution: Let x be the length of the third side. By triangle inequality, 5 < x < 21. Because the triangle

is acute, the sum of the squares of any two sides must be greater than the square of the third side. So,

11

64 + x 2 > 169 x 11. Further, 64 + 169 > x 2 x 15. So, the integers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 work,

for a total of

possible values.

5. The sum of two positive integers is 2431. What is the greatest possible value of their greatest common

divisor?

Solution: Recall that by deﬁnition, the greatest common divisor divides both integers, and thus divides their sum, 2431. Prime factorizing, 2431 = 11 · 13 · 17. It cannot be the case that the greatest common

divisor is 2431 itself, so it is the second largest factor of 2431 which is 17 · 13 =

221

6. Set S contains the ﬁrst n positive integers. When one element is removed, the average of the

remaining terms is 46 10 . What number was removed?

13

Solution: We can create a range for the possible averages. The smallest possible average would be when

the largest term, n, is removed, in which case the average is n . The greatest possible average is when the

2

smallest term, 1, is removed, in which case the average is n + 2 . So, n

2

2

46 10

13

n + 2

2

, and multiplying

7

by two yields n 93 13 n + 2. We see that n must either be 92 or 93, and also that13 | n 1, so

n = 92. Thus, letting x be the number that was removed, 1 2 (92)(93) x

91

=

46 10

13 x =

22

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 3 – 4 pts each

7. Megan is ﬂipping 17 coins to decide whether she should bake cookies and bring puppies for her class.

If a majority of the coins are heads she will bake cookies and bring in puppies. The probability that she

bakes cookies and brings in puppies, given that at least one coin is heads, is m positive integers m and n. What is log 4 (m + n) ?

n

for relatively prime

Solution: First ﬁnd the general formula for the case of n coins where n is odd. The number of diﬀerent combinations is 2 n normally, however with the condition imposed it becomes 2 n 1 the number of possiblities for heads to be a majority is 2 ( n 1) and the condition does not aﬀect this. So the general

case is

factor out a 2 16 giving us log 4 2 16 (1 + 2) which then becomes log 4 2 16 + log 4 3. The ﬁrst part is equal to 8

and the second part is some positive number less than 1. Thus the ﬁnal answer is

1 . Plugging in 17 gives

2 n

2

n1

2

16

2 17

1 . This become log 4 2 16 + 2 17 1 we can ignore the 1 and then

8
.

8. A vector in 3D space that in standard position in the ﬁrst octant makes an angle of π

and π

3

4

with the y axis. What angle does it make with the z axis?

3

12

with the x axis

Solution: Note that for an axis e i and a vector x, where ω i is the angle between them, then

cos(ω i ) =

cos 2 ( π ) + cos 2 ( π ) + cos 2 (θ) = 1 θ = π

| x| (0, 0, 0,

4

1

, 1,

0) · x. Summing the squares of these must give 1. So

3 .

3

9. Compute 2012 2 + 2012 2 · 2013 2 + 2013 2 2012 2 .

Solution: Set a = 2012 so the radicand for 2012 2 2012 2 + 2013 = 2013.

is a 2 + a 2 · (a + 1) 2

+ (a + 1) 2 = (a 2 + a + 1) 2 . So we’re looking

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 4 – 5 pts each

10. Let f (x) = x 3 + 6x 2 + 11x + 6, and S = {1, 2, 3,

is divisible by 12?

, 99, 100}. For how many s S is it true

that f (s)

Solution: Finding the zeros and factoring, we see f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3). For a number to be divisible by 12, it must be divisible by both 3 and 4. Because f (x) is the product of three consecutive integers, it will always be divisible by 3. We also see that f (x) will always be divisible by 4 except when

4 | s. Hence, there are 3 4 (100) =

elements in the set that work.

11.

Find a closed form for the sum 1 + 11 + 111 + · · · + 111 · · · 111

n 1’s

in terms of n.

Solution: Note that 1 = 101 , 11 = 10 2 1 , etc. Therefore we are looking for

81 1 (10 n+1 9n 10)

9

9

1 10 1 + 10 2 1 + 10 3 1 + · · · + 10 n 1 =

9

9 1 10 + 10 2 + 10 3 + · · · + 10 n n . The geometric

81 1 (10 n+1 9n 10).

progression has sum 10 · 10 n 1 . So the ﬁnal sum is

101

12. Find the area of the region enclosed by the graph of |3x + 12| + |5y + 10| = 45.

Solution:

use a transformation u = x + 4, v = y + 2, so that the graph is now centered at the origin and symmetric

By properties of the absolute value, we may write this as 3|x + 4| − 5|y + 2| = 45. Now, let’s

15 + v 9

u

= 1 is the area in the ﬁrst quadrant, and represents a right

triangle with legs of length 15 and 9. Thus, the total area of the graph is 4 2 15)(9) =

1

270
.

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 5 – 6 pts each

13. For how many real numbers a does the quadratic equation x 2 + ax + 5a = 0 have only integer roots?

13

Solution: Let the roots of the quadratic be m andn. Then m + n = a, and mn = 5a. So, mn + 5m + 5n = 0. This is almost factorable; in fact, adding 25 to both sides makes it so. (m + 5)(n + 5) = 25. There are four pairs of factors of 25, (±5, ±5), and (±1, ±25). Each of these pairs

corresponds to a unique real value of a, and hence there are

4

such a

14. Find the sum of the absolute values of the real roots of the equation x 4 4x 1 = 0.

Solution:

Note that x 4 4x 1 = (x 2 + 1) 2 2(x + 1) 2

= 0 x 2 + 1 = 2(x + 1). Hence,

x = 1± 2 21

2

. By Descarte’s rule of signs, these are the only two roots.

15. Round log 2

32

k=0 32

k

· 3 k · 5 k to the

nearest integer.

Solution: We can write the summation as 32 · 15 k , which counts, for every value of k, the number of ways to choose k balls out of our starting 32 balls in one bucket and place them into 15 other buckets. Summing over all k counts the total number of ways to distribute the 32 balls among 16 buckets, which is equal to 16 32 = 2 128 . (Note that this expression is also the expansion of (1 + 15) 32 ). GaMaCo Mathathon Round 6 – 8 pts each

k

16. Let P be a point inside a ball. Consider three mutually perpendicular planes through P . These

planes intersect the ball along three disks. If the radius of the ball is 2 and

center of the ball and P , compute the sum of the areas of the three disks of intersection.

2 1 is the distance between the

4

Solution: Let d 1 , d 2 , d 3 be coordinates of P in some rectangular coordinate system with the origin at the center of the ball and whose coordinates are parallel to the three mutually orthogonal planes through P .

Then d 2 = d 2 + d 2 2 + d 3 . Moreover, the radii of the disks of intersection are R 2 d 2 , R 2 d 2 2 , and

. Remark: The result does not depend on the choice of mutually perpendicular planes through P .

R 2 d 3 . Hence the sum of their areas are π(2 2 d 2 + 2 2 d 2 2 + 2 2 d 3 ) = π(12

2

1

47π

4

1

2

2

1 ) =

4

1

17. Let v be an n-dimensional vector such that the nth compononent, v n , is given by v n =

1

n + 1 n 1 .

Compute the real number that the magnitude of v approaches as n grows without bound.

Solution: Note that | v| =

n=1

n + 1 1 . Also, n + 1

1

n

n

1 = n (n + 1)

2

, so

n=1

1

n + 1 n 1 =

n=1

2

n(n + 1) .

Using partial fraction decomposition, we determine that the sum telescopes and converges to 2. Hence,

| v| =

2

14

18. The numbers 1, 2, 3,

, 2013 are written on a board. A student erases three numbers a, b, c and

1

2 (a + b + c) (a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2

She repeats this process until there is only one number left on the board. List all possible values of the remainder when the last number is divided by 3.

Solution: Observe that

1

2 (a + b + c) (a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 = a 3 + b 3 + c 3 3abc a + b + c (mod 3)

So the sum of the numbers on the board is constant viewed modulo 3. The initial sum is 2013·2014 (mod 3), so the remaining number in the end must be divisible by 3.

2

0

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 7 – 9 pts each

19. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that x + y + z + 2 = xyz. Find the maximum value of

1

1

1

zx

xy +

yz +

Solution:

2

We will prove that

Now substitute a =

1

xy +

1

yz +

1

. Observe that x + y + z + 2 = xyz

y+1 and c = z+1 , from where x = 1a , y = 1b and c = 1c

1

zx

2 3

⇐⇒

x+1 +

c

.

1

1

x+1 , b =

1

a

b

1

y+1 +

1

z+1 = 1.

2

(1 a)(1 b) + (1 b)(1 c) + (1 c)(1 a) 3

ab

bc

ca

Since 1 a = b + c, 1 b = c + a and 1 c = a + b,

by the AM GM inequality we have (2AB A 2 + B 2 )

2

(b + c)(c + a) + (c + a)(a + b) + (a + b)(b + c)

ab

bc

ca

c + a + a + b = 3

a

a

cyc

cyc

20. Let f (n) be the sum of digits of the natural number n, e.g. f (35) = 3 + 5 = 8. Find f f (f (555 55 ))

Solution: Observe that f (555 55 ) 9(log 555 55 + 1) = 9 · 55 log 555 + 9 < 9 · 55 · 3 + 9 = 1494. Therefore f f 555 55 27. Then f f f 555 55 10. However f f f 555 55 555 55 (3) 55 0 (mod 9). Hence f f f 555 55 = 9.

21. The sequences {a n } and {b n } both satisfy the same recurrence relation,

a k = k k · a k1

15

+ a k2 ,

and

b k = k k · b k1 + b k2 .

The initial conditions are, however, a 1 = b 2 = 0 and a 2 = b 1 = 1. Compute a 2013 · b 2012 a 2012 · b 2013 .

Solution: Deﬁne M k2 as = a k2

b k2

a k1 . Then matrix

b k1

M k1 = a k2 a k1

b k1

b k2

Our goal is to ﬁnd det(M 2012 ), where

M 2012 = 0

1

· 0

1

1 k = a k1 a k

b k

k

b k1

1

0 ·

2013

k=3

0

1

k .

1

k

.

Note that the determinant of all of these matrices are 1, and the determinant is multiplicative. Since there are (2013 3 + 1) + 1 = 2012 matrices including the original matrix, the determinant will be (1) 2012 = 1. But we want the opposite of this for the expression, so the answer is1.

GaMaCo Mathathon Round 8 – 10 pts each

22. Let a be a vector in R 3 . Let α, β and γ be the angles that a forms with the x, y and z axis, respectively. Find the minimum value of

2

1

sin 2 α + sin 2 β + sin 2 γ

1

1

Solution: We begin with a lemma. Lemma(Nesbitt’s inequality) Let x, y, z be positive real numbers. Then the following inequality is true

Proof. Observe that

x

y+z =

x

y

z

y + z + z + x + x + y

2 3

xy+xz . Then using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we have

x

2

x

2

y

2

z 2

xy + yz + zy + xy + xz + yz

(x + y + z) 2

2(xy + yz + zx)

Now it is enough to show that (x + y + z) 2 3(xy + yz + zx). Notice that

(x + y + z) 2

lemma. Now let a = (p, q, r). Then cos α =

using the lemma above we have

3(xy + yz + zx) = 1 2 (x y) 2 + (y z) 2 + (z x) 2 0. This ﬁnishes the proof of the

p

p 2 +q 2 +r 2 and other similar expressions for cos β and cos γ. Therefore

sin 2 α + sin 2 β + sin 2 γ = 3 + q 2 + r 2 + p 2 + r 2 + p 2 + q 2 2 9

16

1

1

1

p

2

q 2

r 2

23.

How many ordered triples of integers (a, b, c), where 1 a, b, c 10, are such that for every natural

number n, the equation (a + n)x 2 + (b + 2n)x + c + n = 0 has at least one real root?

Solution: In order for the equation (a + n)x 2 + (b + 2n)x + (c + n) = 0 to have a real root, we need that (b + 2n) 2 4(a + n)(c + n) 0, which is equivalent with b 2 4ac + 4n(b a c) 0. It is enough that

b a c 0 because

case b 2 4ac 0 and b < a + c is not possible because when we let n become large enough the number 4n(b a c) is very small (i.e. a very negative number), whilst b 2 4ac is a ﬁnite positive number and in this case we would have b 2 4ac + 4n(b a c) < 0 for all n large enough, a contradiction. Therefore it is enought to ﬁnd those triples so that b a + c.

For b = 1 there is no pair (a, c) so that b a + c.

3 1 + 2 = 2 + 1 equation x 1 + x 2 +

b

desired number is:

b 2 4ac 0 follows from the fact that

b a + c because

b 2 (a + c) 2 4ac. The

If b = 2 the only pair is (1, 1). If b = 3 then

and 3 > 1 + 1. In general, if x 1 , x 2 ,

, x m are natural numbers and m n then the

n1

+ x m = n has m1 solutions. In our case m = 2. So we ﬁnd all those cases when

= a + c, b 1 = a + c, b 2 = a + c etc. Also n1 = n 1, therefore we ﬁnd that the

1

10

i=2

i(i 1)

2

= 165

24. Compute 10 10 · e . If the ﬁrst n digits of your answer are correct, your score for this question will

be n(n + 1)

.

4

Solution: While there are many methods to do this question, using the taylor series for e and then a

taylor series for x would be a possible one.

17

5

Relay

1-1. Compute the largest integral value of k so that exactly one of the roots of the cubic equation x 3 + 8x 2 + 7x + k = 0 is real and positive.

1-2. Let T = T NY W R. Compute the minimum value of the function (x − |T|) 2 + (x − |T | − 1) 2 + (x − |T | − 2) 2 .

1-3. Let T = T NY W R. Two externally tangent circles have radii T + 2. Point A is on one circle and B

is on the other. What is largest possible length of AB?

2-1. Mitchell and Sitharthan decide to meet at the Reitz for lunch at some time between 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. They both forgot what time precisely they decided on meeting and randomly arrive (uniformly)

during that interval. Mitchell will wait for 10 minutes after he arrives, and Sitharthan will wait for 10

minutes also. Let the probability that meet each other be m n. What is m + n?

n

for relatively prime positive integers m and

2-2. Let T = T NY W R. The smallest integral value of a strictly greater than 31 such that the equation 6T x + a · y = 1 has solutions (x, y) in the integers is Q. Compute Q 27.

2-3. Let T = T NY W R. Three circles with radii 3, 4, and (T 3) are all mutually externally tangent. What is the area of the triangle with vertices at their centers?

18

3-1. Find the sum of the solutions for x in the following equation where 0 < x 2π

cot(x) + tan(x) = 4

3-2. Let T = T NY W R. Given z = cos( 2T ) + i sin( 2T ), compute

9

9

2

1+z and express in the form a + ib.

3-3. Let T = T NY W R. An inﬁnite number of pitches are thrown to Tony during batting practice. The

probability that Tony hits exactly n of these pitches is P n (for n = 0, 1, 2, n 0. What is the probability that Tony hits exactly |T | 2 pitches?

.), where P n+1 = 1 3 P n for