Gator Mathematics Competition 2013
Mitchell Harris Salim Hyder Sitharthan Sekar Endrit Fejzullahu Jon Claus Dominic Guzzo Kurtis Lee Sergei Shabanov Mike Goodman Eli Ross
January 26, 2013
1
Contents
1 Individual Test 
3 
2 Individual Solutions 
5 
3 Mathathon 
8 
4 Mathathon Solutions 
11 
5 Relay 
18 
6 Relay Solutions 
21 
7 Tiebreaker 
23 
8 Tiebreaker Solutions 
24 
2
1
Individual Test
Individual Round One
GaMaCo 2013
1. Compute the area of the triangle with vertices at the coordinates (1337, 1337), (1337, 1344), and
(1349, 1337).
2. Three points are selected randomly (and uniformly) along the circumference of a circle with radius 1.
Compute the probability that they are the vertices of an acute triangle.
Individual Round Two
GaMaCo 2013
3. Circle O (with positive area) has diameter AB, and C lies on O. Compute the maximum possible
ratio of the area of ∆ABC to the area of circle O.
4.
Compute the numerical value of ^{V} _{3} for some nonzero V in the system of equations:
x
y 
+ 2z = λyz 
x 
+ 2z = λxz 
2x + 2y = λxy
xyz = V
Individual Round Three
GaMaCo 2013
5. Compute the largest real x such that
6. The sum
7
12 _{+} 9360
d
is an integer. Compute the smallest positive integral value for d.
3
Individual Round Four
GaMaCo 2013
7. An ant is at the origin of a coordinate plane. The ﬁrst day, the ant decides to move 4 units in some
direction parallel to the x axis, chosen at random. The next day, the ant randomly chooses to turn right or left and then walk 4 units in that direction (now moving parallel to the y axis). Every day, the ant continues moving in this fashion – turning left or right from the direction of the previous day and then
moving 4 units. The probability he returns to the origin at the end of the 16th day is
2
k _{1}_{5} . Compute k.
8. A spyaircraft is ﬂying at constant altitude along a circle of radius 12 miles with center at a point A.
The speed of the aircraft is v. At some moment in time, a missile is ﬁred at the aircfraft from the point A, which has speed v and is guided so that it always points towards the aircraft. How far does the missile travel before colliding with the aircraft?
Individual Round Five
GaMaCo 2013
9. Compute the minimum value of f (x) = ^{√} x ^{2} − 8x + 21.
10. Compute the sum of the solutions to the equation sin(x) + 8 cos ^{2} (x) sin(x) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x) = 0 on the interval 0 < x < 2π.
4
2
Individual Solutions
Individual Round One
GaMaCo 2013
1. Compute the area of the triangle with vertices at the coordinates (1337, 1337), (1337, 1344), and
(1349, 1337).
Answer: 42
Solution: The triangle is right and has side lengths of 12 and 7. So A = ^{1} _{2} (12)(7) = 42.
2. Three points are selected randomly (and uniformly) along the circumference of a circle with radius 1.
Compute the probability that they are the vertices of an acute triangle.
Answer:
Solution: We calculate the complementary probability – that the triangle is obtuse. Note that the probability of a right triangle is zero. The triangle will be obtuse if and only if all three points lie on the same side of some diameter. Let the random variable X _{k} be associated with the point on the circle P _{k} , for k = 1, 2, 3, and deﬁne it as 1 if the other two points are within π clockwise from it and 0 otherwise. We are looking for P (X _{1} + X _{2} + X _{3} = 1) = E(X _{1} + X _{2} + X _{3} ) since at most one of these variables can be
1. Because the points are chosen uniformly, their probability distributions are identical. So the above
equals 3E(X _{1} ) = ^{3} _{4} because the probability that each of the other two points lie in the semicircle starting
at X _{1} is
1
4
1
2
^{·}
_{2} . Our desired probability is then 1 − ^{3}
1
4 ^{.}
Individual Round Two
GaMaCo 2013
3. Circle O (with positive area) has diameter AB, and C lies on O. Compute the maximum possible
ratio of the area of ∆ABC to the area of circle O.
Answer: ^{1}
π
Solution: Let the legs of the right triangle be p and q. Then
(p − q) ^{2} ≥ 0 ⇒ p ^{2} + q ^{2} ≥ 2pq ⇒ ^{p} ^{2} ^{+}^{q} ^{2}
_{≥} pq
2
(p ^{2} +q ^{2} )/4
pq/2
_{1} _{⇒} π(p ^{2} +q ^{2} )/4
pq/2
4
_{⇒}
_{≥}
≥ π, where the left hand side of
the inequality is precisely the inverse of the ratio in question. So the answer is
1
π ^{.}
4.
Compute the numerical value of ^{V} _{3} for some nonzero V in the system of equations:
x
y 
+ 2z = λyz 
x 
+ 2z = λxz 
2x + 2y = λxy
xyz = V
Answer:
Solution: Multiply each of the equations by x, y, and z respectively. Noting that xyz = V , the system is
5
1
2
transformed into
xy + 2xz = λV
xy + 2yz = λV
2xz + 2yz = λV
xyz = V
Subtracting the ﬁrst two equations gives that either z = 0 (which is impossible if V is nonzero) or y = x.
Using the latter in the next two equations gives that x = 2z (since x
= 0). By the last equation
Answer: 4
Solution: Add and subtract 3 to the left hand side:
(x−3)−3 ^{√} x − 3+3 =
Therefore x = 4 is the only real solution.
√ _{x}_{−}_{3} ⇒ (x−3) ^{3} −3(x−3)
1
2
2
2
+3(x−3) 2 −1 = 0 ⇒ ((x−3) ^{1} 2 −1) ^{3} = 0 ⇒ (x−3) = 1.
1
6. The sum
7
12 _{+} 9360
d
is an integer. Compute the smallest positive integral value for d.
Answer: 1728
^{+} ^{m}
is to be some integer k, then 7n + 12m = 12nk ⇒ 12m = 12nk − 7n ⇒ m = nk − 7 ·
divides n. We also have that 7n = 12nk − 12m ⇒ 7 = 12k − 12 ^{m} . But since m and n are relatively prime, we have that n divides 12. So n = 12. Therefore our goal is to have that when the fraction is reduced the denominator is 12. We need to ﬁnd the smallest c so that the numerator 9360 has no factors of 12. Dividing 9360 by 12 two times shows that 9360 = 12 ^{2} · 65. So c = 12 ^{2} for the smallest value of d,
Solution: Write the second fraction as ^{c}^{·}^{m} where the greatest common divisor of m and n is 1. If
7
12
c·n
n
_{1}_{2} n . Therefore 12
n
and d = 12 ^{2} · 12 = 1728. We must check that this is indeed an integer, and it is because So d = 1728. Individual Round Four
12 ^{+} ^{6}^{5}
12
7
_{=}
72
_{1}_{2} = 6.
GaMaCo 2013
7. An ant is at the origin of a coordinate plane. The ﬁrst day, the ant decides to move 4 units in some
direction parallel to the x axis, chosen at random. The next day, the ant randomly chooses to turn right or left and then walk 4 units in that direction (now moving parallel to the y axis). Every day, the ant continues moving in this fashion – turning left or right from the direction of the previous day and then
moving 4 units. The probability he returns to the origin at the end of the 16th day is
2
k _{1}_{5} . Compute k.
Answer: 2450
Solution: On odd days he moves in the East/West direction and on even days in the North/South direction. The even days and odd days are independent of each other, and so for all the even days he
6
must move up as many times as he moves down (and similarly for the odd days). Therefore the
probability is ^{}
4 2 ^{·}
8
2
^{1}
16 = ^{}
8·7·6·5
4·3·2·1
^{} ^{2} ·
2
^{1}
16
_{=} 4900
_{2}
16
_{=} 2450
_{2} 15
^{.}
8. A spyaircraft is ﬂying at constant altitude along a circle of radius 12 miles with center at a point A.
The speed of the aircraft is v. At some moment in time, a missile is ﬁred at the aircfraft from the point A, which has speed v and is guided so that its velocity vector always points towards the aircraft. How far does the missile travel before colliding with the aircraft?
Answer: 6π
Solution: Call the point B the point on the original circle at which the aircraft is positioned when the missile is ﬁred. We claim that the path of the missile is a circle with radius 6 that has AB tangent to it. Let P be some arbitrary point along the path of the aircraft. Call the intersection of P A with the new circle be point M . Then ∠P AB is half the measure of the arc MA. Since the missile and aircraft is the same speed, they should each travel equal distances in equal times, so P B = AM . Since the measure of P B is the measure of ∠P AB, the radius of the smaller circle is half the radius of the larger. Hence the missile travels half the circumference of the circle, or 6π.
Individual Round Five
GaMaCo 2013
9. Compute the minimum value of f (x) = ^{√} x ^{2} − 8x + 21.
Answer: ^{√} 5
Solution: Note that completing the square inside the radical yields f (x) = ^{} (x − 4) ^{2} + 5. Notice that
(x − 4) ^{2} has a minimum value at x = 4, leaving 0. Hence, the minimum value of f (x) is ^{√} 5.
10. Compute the sum of the solutions to the equation sin(x) + 8 cos ^{2} (x) sin(x) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x) = 0 on the interval 0 < x < 2π.
Answer: ^{7}^{π}
3
Solution: Our motivation for the solutions comes from factoring the ﬁrst two terms and trying to write the summation as (close to) symmetric with both sin ^{3} (x) and cos ^{3} (x) terms. Making use of the identity sin ^{2} (x) + cos ^{2} (x) = 1 we see that
sin(x) + 8 cos ^{2} (x) sin(x) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x) = sin(x)(1 + 8 cos ^{2} (x)) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x)
= sin(x)((sin ^{2} (x) + cos ^{2} (x)) + 8 cos ^{2} (x)) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x) · 1
= sin(x)(sin ^{2} (x) + 9 cos ^{2} (x)) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos(x)(cos ^{2} (x) + sin ^{2} (x))
= sin ^{3} (x) + 9 sin(x) cos ^{2} (x) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos ^{3} (x) + 3 ^{√} 3 sin ^{2} (x) cos(x)
= sin ^{3} (x) + 3 ^{√} 3 sin ^{2} (x) cos(x) + 9 sin(x) cos ^{2} (x) + 3 ^{√} 3 cos ^{3} (x)
= (sin(x) + ^{√} 3 cos(x)) ^{3}
This is only zero when sin(x) + ^{√} 3 cos(x) = 0 ⇒ tan(x) = − ^{√} 3, which happens when x = ^{2}^{π} sum is ^{7}^{π}
3
^{.}
_{3}
or ^{5}^{π}
3
. The
7
3
Mathathon
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 1 – 2 pts each
1. What is the largest distance between any two points on a regular hexagon with a side length of one?
2. If z = 2 + 3i ﬁnd the magnitude of:
^{} −2z − 1 z − 3
+ 2
_{3} ^{} −2z − 1
z − 3
− 1
3. For how many integers n ≥ 1 is ^{1}^{0} ^{n} ^{−} ^{1}
9
the square of an integer?
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 2 – 3 pts each
4. Two sides of a triangle have lengths 8 and 13. Given that the triangle is acute, how many integers may
be the length of the third side?
5. The sum of two positive integers is 2431. What is the greatest possible value of their greatest common
divisor?
6. Set S contains the ﬁrst n positive integers. When one element is removed, the average of the
remaining terms is 46 ^{1}^{0} . What number was removed?
13
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 3 – 4 pts each
7. Megan is ﬂipping 17 coins to decide whether she should bake cookies and bring puppies for her class.
If a majority of the coins are heads she will bake cookies and bring in puppies. The probability that she
bakes cookies and brings in puppies, given that at least one coin is heads, is ^{m} positive integers m and n. What is log _{4} (m + n) ?
n
for relatively prime
8. A vector in 3D space that in standard position in the ﬁrst octant makes an angle of ^{π}
and ^{π}
3
4
with the y axis. What angle does it make with the z axis?
9. Compute ^{√} 2012 ^{2} + 2012 ^{2} · 2013 ^{2} + 2013 ^{2} − 2012 ^{2} .
8
with the x axis
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 4 – 5 pts each
10. Let f (x) = x ^{3} + 6x ^{2} + 11x
is divisible by 12?
+ 6, and S = {1, 2, 3,
, 99, 100}. For how many s ∈ S is it true that f (s)
11. Find a
closed form for 1 + 11 + 111 + · · · + 111 · · · 111
n 1’s
in terms of n (not using sigma notation).
12. Find the area of the region enclosed by the graph of 3x + 12 + 5y + 10 = 45.
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 5 – 6 pts each
13. For how many real numbers a does the quadratic equation x ^{2} + ax + 5a = 0 have only integer roots?
14. Find the sum of the absolute values of the real roots of the equation x ^{4} − 4x − 1 = 0.
15. Round log _{2}
32
k=0 32
k
· 3 ^{k} · 5 ^{k} to the nearest integer.
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 6 – 8 pts each
16. Let P be a point inside a ball. Consider three mutually perpendicular planes through P . These
planes intersect the ball along three disks. If the radius of the ball is 2 and
center of the ball and P , compute the sum of the areas of the three disks of intersection.
_{2} 1 is the distance between the
17. Let v be an ndimensional vector such that the nth compononent, v _{n} , is given by v _{n} =
1
^{} n + 1 n − 1 .
Compute the real number that the magnitude of v approaches as n grows without bound.
18. The numbers 1, 2, 3,
instead writes the number
, 2013 are written on a board. A student erases three numbers a, b, c and
1
_{2} (a + b + c) ^{} (a − b) ^{2} + (b − c) ^{2} + (c − a) ^{2} ^{}
She repeats this process until there is only one number left on the board. List all possible values of the remainder when the last number is divided by 3.
9
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 7 – 9 pts each
19. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that x + y + z + 2 = xyz. Find the maximum value of
20. Let f (n) be the sum of digits of the natural number n, e.g. f (35) = 3 + 5 = 8. Find f ^{} f (f (555 ^{5}^{5} )) ^{}
21. The sequences {a _{n} } and {b _{n} } both satisfy the same recurrence relation,
and
a
_{k}
=
k ^{k}
· a _{k}_{−}_{1} + a _{k}_{−}_{2} ,
b _{k} = k ^{k} · b _{k}_{−}_{1}
+
b _{k}_{−}_{2} .
The initial conditions are, however, a _{1} = b _{2} = 0 and a _{2} = b _{1} = 1. Compute a _{2}_{0}_{1}_{3} · b _{2}_{0}_{1}_{2} − a _{2}_{0}_{1}_{2} · b _{2}_{0}_{1}_{3} .
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 8 – 10 pts each
22. Let a be a vector in R ^{3} . Let α, β and γ be the angles that a forms with the x, y and z axis,
respectively. Find the minimum value of
1
sin ^{2} α ^{+} sin ^{2} β ^{+} sin ^{2} γ
1
1
23. How many ordered triples of integers (a, b, c), where 1 ≤ a, b, c ≤ 10, are such that for every natural
number n, the equation (a + n)x ^{2} + (b + 2n)x + c + n = 0 has at least one real root?
24. Compute 10 ^{1}^{0} · ^{√} e . If the ﬁrst n digits of your answer are correct, your score for this question will
_{b}_{e} ^{} n(n + 1)
.
4
10
4
Mathathon Solutions
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 1 – 2 pts each
1. What is the largest distance between any two points on a regular hexagon with a side length of one?
Answer: 2
Solution: Note that the vertices of a regular hexagon all lie on the circumcircle of the hexagon. Then the furthest distance from one vertex is to another point on the circle, or the opposite vertex. Since a radius of the circle is the length of a side, the total distance is 2.
2. If z = 2 + 3i ﬁnd the magnitude of:
^{} −2z − 1 z − 3
+ 2
_{3} ^{} −2z − 1
z − 3
− 1
Answer:
Solution: While the result can be computed directly it is interesting to consider the composition of
transformations of the complex plane. Writing these transformations as matrices and multiplying gives
1
^{√} 13

1
3
−1 ^{} _{·} ^{} −2
2
1
1
2+3i ^{} ^{=}
1
2+3i ^{=}
−1
−3 ^{=} ^{−}
1
^{√} 13 ^{.}
7 ^{} 0
1
1
_{0} 1 , which is eﬀectively the inversion f (z) =
1 And
_{z} ^{.}
3.
For how many integers n ≥ 1 is ^{1}^{0} ^{n} ^{−} ^{1}
9
the square of an integer?
Answer: 1
Solution: Since ^{1}^{0} ^{n} ^{−} ^{1}
10 − 1 numbers of this form are exactly the numbers 1, 11, 111, etc. Clearly 1 is a square (corresponding to
n = 1). But modulo 8, this sequence is 1, 3, 7, 7, 7,
power of 10 that is added from then on is divisible by 8. On the other hand, the squares modulo 8 are 0,
1, and 4. So there are no other perfect squares mod 8, which means there are no other perfect squares in the original sequence.
is the sum of a geometric series with ﬁrst term 1 and common ratio 10, the
, and it will remaind a constant of 7 because every
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 2 – 3 pts each
4. Two sides of a triangle have lengths 8 and 13. Given that the triangle is acute, how many integers may
be the length of the third side?
Answer: 5 

Solution: 
Let x be the length of the third side. By triangle inequality, 5 < x < 21. Because the triangle 
is acute, the sum of the squares of any two sides must be greater than the square of the third side. So,
11
64 + x ^{2} > 169 → x ≥ 11. Further, 64 + 169 > x ^{2} → x ≤ 15. So, the integers 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 work,
for a total of
possible values.
5. The sum of two positive integers is 2431. What is the greatest possible value of their greatest common
divisor?
Answer: 221
Solution: Recall that by deﬁnition, the greatest common divisor divides both integers, and thus divides their sum, 2431. Prime factorizing, 2431 = 11 · 13 · 17. It cannot be the case that the greatest common
divisor is 2431 itself, so it is the second largest factor of 2431 which is 17 · 13 =
6. Set S contains the ﬁrst n positive integers. When one element is removed, the average of the
remaining terms is 46 ^{1}^{0} . What number was removed?
13
Answer: 22
Solution: We can create a range for the possible averages. The smallest possible average would be when
the largest term, n, is removed, in which case the average is ^{n} . The greatest possible average is when the
2
smallest term, 1, is removed, in which case the average is ^{n} ^{+} ^{2} . So, ^{n}
2
2 ^{≤}
46 ^{1}^{0}
13
_{≤} n + 2
2
, and multiplying
7
by two yields n ≤ 93 _{1}_{3} ≤ n + 2. We see that n must either be 92 or 93, and also that13  n − 1, so
n = 92. Thus, letting x be the number that was removed, 1 ^{2} ^{(}^{9}^{2}^{)}^{(}^{9}^{3}^{)} ^{−} ^{x}
91
=
46 ^{1}^{0}
_{1}_{3} → x =
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 3 – 4 pts each
7. Megan is ﬂipping 17 coins to decide whether she should bake cookies and bring puppies for her class.
If a majority of the coins are heads she will bake cookies and bring in puppies. The probability that she
bakes cookies and brings in puppies, given that at least one coin is heads, is ^{m} positive integers m and n. What is log _{4} (m + n) ?
n
for relatively prime
Answer: 8
Solution: First ﬁnd the general formula for the case of n coins where n is odd. The number of diﬀerent combinations is 2 ^{n} normally, however with the condition imposed it becomes 2 ^{n} − 1 the number of possiblities for heads to be a majority is 2 ^{(} n − 1) and the condition does not aﬀect this. So the general
case is
factor out a 2 ^{1}^{6} giving us log _{4} 2 ^{1}^{6} (1 + 2) which then becomes log _{4} 2 ^{1}^{6} + log _{4} 3. The ﬁrst part is equal to 8
and the second part is some positive number less than 1. Thus the ﬁnal answer is
_{−}_{1} . Plugging in 17 gives
2 ^{n}
_{2}
n−1
_{2}
16
_{2} 17
_{−}_{1} . This become log _{4} 2 ^{1}^{6} + 2 ^{1}^{7} − 1 we can ignore the −1 and then
8. A vector in 3D space that in standard position in the ﬁrst octant makes an angle of ^{π}
and ^{π}
3
4
with the y axis. What angle does it make with the z axis?
Answer: ^{π}
3
12
with the x axis
Solution: Note that for an axis e _{i} and a vector x, where ω _{i} is the angle between them, then
cos(ω _{i} ) =
cos ^{2} ( ^{π} ) + cos ^{2} ( ^{π} ) + cos ^{2} (θ) = 1 ⇒ θ = ^{π}
_{} _{} _{x}_{} (0, 0, 0,
4
1
, 1,
0) · x. Summing the squares of these must give 1. So
3 ^{.}
3
9. Compute ^{√} 2012 ^{2} + 2012 ^{2} · 2013 ^{2} + 2013 ^{2} − 2012 ^{2} .
Answer: 2013
Solution: Set a = 2012 so the radicand for 2012 ^{2} − 2012 ^{2} + 2013 = 2013.
is a ^{2} + a ^{2} · (a + 1) ^{2}
+ (a + 1) ^{2} = (a ^{2} + a + 1) ^{2} . So we’re looking
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 4 – 5 pts each
10. Let f (x) = x ^{3} + 6x ^{2} + 11x + 6, and S = {1, 2, 3,
is divisible by 12?
, 99, 100}. For how many s ∈ S is it true
that f (s)
Answer: 75
Solution: Finding the zeros and factoring, we see f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3). For a number to be divisible by 12, it must be divisible by both 3 and 4. Because f (x) is the product of three consecutive integers, it will always be divisible by 3. We also see that f (x) will always be divisible by 4 except when
4  s. Hence, there are ^{3} _{4} (100) =
elements in the set that work.
11.
Find a closed form for the sum 1 + 11 + 111 + · · · + 111 · · · 111
n 1’s
in terms of n.
Answer:
Solution: Note that 1 = ^{1}^{0}^{−}^{1} , 11 = ^{1}^{0} ^{2} ^{−}^{1} , etc. Therefore we are looking for
_{8}_{1} 1 (10 ^{n}^{+}^{1} − 9n − 10)
9
9
1 ^{} 10 − 1 + 10 ^{2} − 1 + 10 ^{3} − 1 + · · · + 10 ^{n} − 1 ^{} =
9
_{9} 1 ^{} 10 + 10 ^{2} + 10 ^{3} + · · · + 10 ^{n} − n ^{} . The geometric
_{8}_{1} 1 (10 ^{n}^{+}^{1} − 9n − 10).
progression has sum 10 · ^{1}^{0} ^{n} ^{−}^{1} . So the ﬁnal sum is
10−1
12. Find the area of the region enclosed by the graph of 3x + 12 + 5y + 10 = 45.
Answer: 270
Solution:
use a transformation u = x + 4, v = y + 2, so that the graph is now centered at the origin and symmetric
around all four quadrants. Then
By properties of the absolute value, we may write this as 3x + 4 − 5y + 2 = 45. Now, let’s
15 ^{+} v 9
u
= 1 is the area in the ﬁrst quadrant, and represents a right
triangle with legs of length 15 and 9. Thus, the total area of the graph is 4 _{2} 15)(9) =
1
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 5 – 6 pts each
13. For how many real numbers a does the quadratic equation x ^{2} + ax + 5a = 0 have only integer roots?
Answer: 4
13
Solution: Let the roots of the quadratic be m andn. Then m + n = −a, and mn = 5a. So, mn + 5m + 5n = 0. This is almost factorable; in fact, adding 25 to both sides makes it so. (m + 5)(n + 5) = 25. There are four pairs of factors of 25, (±5, ±5), and (±1, ±25). Each of these pairs
corresponds to a unique real value of a, and hence there are
such a
14. Find the sum of the absolute values of the real roots of the equation x ^{4} − 4x − 1 = 0.
Answer: ^{} 4 ^{√} 2 − 2
Solution:
Note that x ^{4} − 4x − 1 = (x ^{2} + 1) ^{2} − 2(x + 1) ^{2}
= 0 ⇒ x ^{2} + 1 = ^{√} 2(x + 1). Hence,
_{x} _{=} 1± √ 2 ^{√} 2−1
^{√}
2
. By Descarte’s rule of signs, these are the only two roots.
15. Round log _{2}
32
k=0 32
k
· 3 ^{k} · 5 ^{k} to the
nearest integer.
Answer: 128
Solution: We can write the summation as ^{} ^{3}^{2} ^{} · 15 ^{k} , which counts, for every value of k, the number of ways to choose k balls out of our starting 32 balls in one bucket and place them into 15 other buckets. Summing over all k counts the total number of ways to distribute the 32 balls among 16 buckets, which is equal to 16 ^{3}^{2} = 2 ^{1}^{2}^{8} . (Note that this expression is also the expansion of (1 + 15) ^{3}^{2} ). GaMaCo Mathathon Round 6 – 8 pts each
k
16. Let P be a point inside a ball. Consider three mutually perpendicular planes through P . These
planes intersect the ball along three disks. If the radius of the ball is 2 and
center of the ball and P , compute the sum of the areas of the three disks of intersection.
_{2} 1 is the distance between the
Answer: ^{4}^{7}^{π}
4
Solution: Let d _{1} , d _{2} , d _{3} be coordinates of P in some rectangular coordinate system with the origin at the center of the ball and whose coordinates are parallel to the three mutually orthogonal planes through P .
Then d ^{2} = d ^{2} + d ^{2} _{2} + d _{3} . Moreover, the radii of the disks of intersection are ^{} R ^{2} − d ^{2} , ^{} R ^{2} − d _{2} ^{2} , and
^{.} Remark: The result does not depend on the choice of mutually perpendicular planes through P .
^{} R ^{2} − d _{3} . Hence the sum of their areas are π(2 ^{2} − d ^{2} + 2 ^{2} − d ^{2} _{2} + 2 ^{2} − d _{3} ) = π(12 −
2
1
47π
4
1
2
2
1 _{)} _{=}
4
1
17. Let v be an ndimensional vector such that the nth compononent, v _{n} , is given by v _{n} =
1
^{} n + 1 n − 1 .
Compute the real number that the magnitude of v approaches as n grows without bound.
Answer: ^{√} 2
Solution: Note that  v =
∞
n=1
^{} n + 1 1 . Also, ^{n} ^{+} ^{1}
1
n −
n −
1 ^{} _{=} n (n + 1)
2
, so
∞
n=1
1
^{} n + 1 n − 1 =
∞
n=1
2
n(n + 1) ^{.}
Using partial fraction decomposition, we determine that the sum telescopes and converges to 2. Hence,
 v =
14
18. The numbers 1, 2, 3,
instead writes the number
, 2013 are written on a board. A student erases three numbers a, b, c and
1
_{2} (a + b + c) ^{} (a − b) ^{2} + (b − c) ^{2} + (c − a) ^{2} ^{}
She repeats this process until there is only one number left on the board. List all possible values of the remainder when the last number is divided by 3.
Answer: 0
Solution: Observe that
1
_{2} (a + b + c) ^{} (a − b) ^{2} + (b − c) ^{2} + (c − a) ^{2} ^{} = a ^{3} + b ^{3} + c ^{3} − 3abc ≡ a + b + c (mod 3)
So the sum of the numbers on the board is constant viewed modulo 3. The initial sum is ^{2}^{0}^{1}^{3}^{·}^{2}^{0}^{1}^{4} (mod 3), so the remaining number in the end must be divisible by 3.
_{2}
≡ 0
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 7 – 9 pts each
19. Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that x + y + z + 2 = xyz. Find the maximum value of
1
1
1
^{√} zx
^{√} xy ^{+}
^{√} yz ^{+}
Answer: ^{3}
Solution:
2
We will prove that
Now substitute a =
1
xy ^{+}
1
yz ^{+}
√
√
1
. Observe that x + y + z + 2 = xyz
_{y}_{+}_{1} and c = _{z}_{+}_{1} , from where x = ^{1}^{−}^{a} , y = ^{1}^{−}^{b} and c = ^{1}^{−}^{c}
1
√
zx
^{≤}
2 3
⇐⇒
x+1 ^{+}
c
^{.}
1
1
x+1 ^{,} ^{b} ^{=}
1
a
b
1
y+1 ^{+}
1
z+1 ^{=} ^{1}^{.}
_{2} ^{}^{}
(1 − a)(1 − b) ^{+} (1 − b)(1 − c) ^{+} (1 − c)(1 − a) ^{≤} ^{3}
ab
bc
ca
Since 1 − a = b + c, 1 − b = c + a and 1 − c = a + b,
by the AM − GM inequality we have (2AB ≤ A ^{2} + B ^{2} )
2
(b + c)(c + a) ^{+} (c + a)(a + b) ^{+} (a + b)(b + c)
ab
bc
ca
^{≤} c + a ^{+} a + b ^{=} ^{3}
a
a
cyc
cyc
20. Let f (n) be the sum of digits of the natural number n, e.g. f (35) = 3 + 5 = 8. Find f ^{} f (f (555 ^{5}^{5} )) ^{}
Answer: 9
Solution: Observe that f (555 ^{5}^{5} ) ≤ 9(log 555 ^{5}^{5} + 1) = 9 · 55 log 555 + 9 < 9 · 55 · 3 + 9 = 1494. Therefore f ^{} f ^{} 555 ^{5}^{5} ^{}^{} ≤ 27. Then f ^{} f ^{} f ^{} 555 ^{5}^{5} ^{}^{}^{} ≤ 10. However f ^{} f ^{} f ^{} 555 ^{5}^{5} ^{}^{}^{} ≡ 555 ^{5}^{5} ≡ (−3) ^{5}^{5} ≡ 0 (mod 9). Hence f ^{} f ^{} f ^{} 555 ^{5}^{5} ^{}^{}^{} = 9.
21. The sequences {a _{n} } and {b _{n} } both satisfy the same recurrence relation,
a _{k} = k ^{k} · a _{k}_{−}_{1}
15
+ a _{k}_{−}_{2} ,
and
b _{k} = k ^{k} · b _{k}_{−}_{1} + b _{k}_{−}_{2} .
The initial conditions are, however, a _{1} = b _{2} = 0 and a _{2} = b _{1} = 1. Compute a _{2}_{0}_{1}_{3} · b _{2}_{0}_{1}_{2} − a _{2}_{0}_{1}_{2} · b _{2}_{0}_{1}_{3} .
Answer: −1
Solution: Deﬁne M _{k}_{−}_{2} as = ^{a} ^{k}^{−}^{2}
b k−2
^{a} ^{k}^{−}^{1} . Then matrix
b k−1
_{M} k−1 _{=} a k−2 a k−1
b k−1
b k−2
Our goal is to ﬁnd det(M _{2}_{0}_{1}_{2} ), where
M 2012 = ^{0}
1
^{} _{·} ^{} 0
1
1 _{k} ^{} _{=} ^{} a k−1 a k
b k
k
b k−1
^{1}
0 ^{·}
2013
k=3
^{} 0
1
k ^{.}
1
k
.
Note that the determinant of all of these matrices are −1, and the determinant is multiplicative. Since there are (2013 − 3 + 1) + 1 = 2012 matrices including the original matrix, the determinant will be (−1) ^{2}^{0}^{1}^{2} = 1. But we want the opposite of this for the expression, so the answer is−1.
GaMaCo Mathathon Round 8 – 10 pts each
22. Let a be a vector in R ^{3} . Let α, β and γ be the angles that a forms with the x, y and z axis, respectively. Find the minimum value of
Answer: ^{9}
2
1
sin ^{2} α ^{+} sin ^{2} β ^{+} sin ^{2} γ
1
1
Solution: We begin with a lemma. Lemma(Nesbitt’s inequality) Let x, y, z be positive real numbers. Then the following inequality is true
Proof. Observe that
x
y+z ^{=}
x
y
z
y + z ^{+} z + x ^{+} x + y ^{≥}
2 3
_{x}_{y}_{+}_{x}_{z} . Then using CauchySchwarz inequality we have
x
^{2}
x
^{2}
y
^{2}
z ^{2}
xy + yz ^{+} zy + xy ^{+} xz + yz ^{≥}
(x + y + z) ^{2}
2(xy + yz + zx)
Now it is enough to show that (x + y + z) ^{2} ≥ 3(xy + yz + zx). Notice that
(x + y + z) ^{2}
lemma. Now let a = (p, q, r). Then cos α =
using the lemma above we have
− 3(xy + yz + zx) = ^{1} _{2} ^{} (x − y) ^{2} + (y − z) ^{2} + (z − x) ^{2} ^{} ≥ 0. This ﬁnishes the proof of the
p
√ _{p} _{2} _{+}_{q} _{2} _{+}_{r} _{2} and other similar expressions for cos β and cos γ. Therefore
sin ^{2} α ^{+} sin ^{2} β ^{+} sin ^{2} γ ^{=} ^{3} ^{+} q ^{2} + r ^{2} ^{+} p ^{2} + r ^{2} ^{+} p ^{2} + q ^{2} ^{≥} 2 9
16
1
1
1
p
^{2}
q ^{2}
r ^{2}
23.
How many ordered triples of integers (a, b, c), where 1 ≤ a, b, c ≤ 10, are such that for every natural
number n, the equation (a + n)x ^{2} + (b + 2n)x + c + n = 0 has at least one real root?
Answer: 165
Solution: In order for the equation (a + n)x ^{2} + (b + 2n)x + (c + n) = 0 to have a real root, we need that (b + 2n) ^{2} − 4(a + n)(c + n) ≥ 0, which is equivalent with b ^{2} − 4ac + 4n(b − a − c) ≥ 0. It is enough that
b − a − c ≥ 0 because
case b ^{2} − 4ac ≥ 0 and b < a + c is not possible because when we let n become large enough the number 4n(b − a − c) is very small (i.e. a very negative number), whilst b ^{2} − 4ac is a ﬁnite positive number and in this case we would have b ^{2} − 4ac + 4n(b − a − c) < 0 for all n large enough, a contradiction. Therefore it is enought to ﬁnd those triples so that b ≥ a + c.
For b = 1 there is no pair (a, c) so that b ≥ a + c.
3 ≥ 1 + 2 = 2 + 1 equation x _{1} + x _{2} +
b
desired number is:
b ^{2} − 4ac ≥ 0 follows from the fact that
b ≥ a + c because
b ^{2} ≥ (a + c) ^{2} ≥ 4ac. The
If b = 2 the only pair is (1, 1). If b = 3 then
and 3 > 1 + 1. In general, if x _{1} , x _{2} ,
, x _{m} are natural numbers and m ≤ n then the
n−1
+ x _{m} = n has ^{} _{m}_{−}_{1} ^{} solutions. In our case m = 2. So we ﬁnd all those cases when
= a + c, b − 1 = a + c, b − 2 = a + c etc. Also ^{} ^{n}^{−}^{1} ^{} = n − 1, therefore we ﬁnd that the
1
10
i=2
i(i − 1)
_{2}
= 165
24. Compute 10 ^{1}^{0} · ^{√} e . If the ﬁrst n digits of your answer are correct, your score for this question will
_{b}_{e} ^{} n(n + 1)
.
4
Answer: 16487212707
Solution: While there are many methods to do this question, using the taylor series for e and then a
taylor series for ^{√} x would be a possible one.
17
5
Relay
11. Compute the largest integral value of k so that exactly one of the roots of the cubic equation x ^{3} + 8x ^{2} + 7x + k = 0 is real and positive.
12. Let T = T NY W R. Compute the minimum value of the function (x − T) ^{2} + (x − T  − 1) ^{2} + (x − T  − 2) ^{2} .
13. Let T = T NY W R. Two externally tangent circles have radii T + 2. Point A is on one circle and B
is on the other. What is largest possible length of AB?
21. Mitchell and Sitharthan decide to meet at the Reitz for lunch at some time between 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. They both forgot what time precisely they decided on meeting and randomly arrive (uniformly)
during that interval. Mitchell will wait for 10 minutes after he arrives, and Sitharthan will wait for 10
minutes also. Let the probability that meet each other be ^{m} n. What is m + n?
n
for relatively prime positive integers m and
22. Let T = T NY W R. The smallest integral value of a strictly greater than 31 such that the equation 6T x + a · y = 1 has solutions (x, y) in the integers is Q. Compute Q − 27.
23. Let T = T NY W R. Three circles with radii 3, 4, and (T − 3) are all mutually externally tangent. What is the area of the triangle with vertices at their centers?
18
31. Find the sum of the solutions for x in the following equation where 0 < x ≤ 2π
cot(x) + tan(x) = 4
32. Let T = T NY W R. Given z = cos( ^{2}^{T} ) + i sin( ^{2}^{T} ), compute
9
9
^{2}
_{1}_{+}_{z} and express in the form a + ib.
33. Let T = T NY W R. An inﬁnite number of pitches are thrown to Tony during batting practice. The
probability that Tony hits exactly n of these pitches is P _{n} (for n = 0, 1, 2, n ≥ 0. What is the probability that Tony hits exactly T  ^{2} pitches?
.), where P _{n}_{+}_{1} = ^{1} _{3} P _{n} for
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