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Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

1

Integrals with respect to one variable

Similar to partial derivatives, antiderivatives and integrals can also be calculated with respect to one of the variables, treating other variables as con- stants. The usual constant C is now a function of the other variables

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

+

x 2 y

2

+ C(y)

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y + xy 2 + C(x)

2

5

3

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

+

x 2 y

2

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y + xy 2

2

5

= 8y + 136

3

2

1

= x 3 + 3x

2

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

2

Example. Find a function f(x,y,z) such that

f x = xysin z

Answer

f y = x 2 e z

2

y

e

y

f z = z 2 x cos z

f =

f x dx = (xy sin z)dx

=

x 2 y x sin z + C(y, z)

2

Then f y = x 2

2

+ ∂C

∂y

and therefore C = e y

∂y

z ,

C(y, z) =

C ∂y dy = e z + D(z)

y

Then

∂C

∂z

= e y 2

z

+ D (z) = f z + x cos z = e y

z

2

Hence D (z) = 0, D(z) is a constant and

f (x, y, z) = x 2 y x sin z e z

2

y

+ D

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

3

Iterated integrals

5

3

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y

+

x 2 y

2

+ xy 2

2

5

= 8y + 136

3

2

1

= x 3 + 3x

2

2

1

5

3

5

3

x(x 2 + y)dx dy = 4y 2 + 136y 2

1

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dy dx = x 4

4

+ 3x 2

4

5

3

= 148

= 148

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

4

Volume Given a function z = f (x, y) 0 on a region R, the integral

R is the volume of the solid under the graph of f

f

{(x, y, z)|(x, y) R, 0 z f (x, y)}

R is the volume of the solid under the graph of f f { ( x,

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

5

Example.

R=[0,4]x[0,4] and f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2 . Then the volume of the solid is

R f

=

=

=

=

=

4

0

4

0

4

0

64

3

512

3

4

0

(x 2 + y 2 )dxdy

x 3

3

+

y 2 x 4 dy

0

64

3

+

4y 2 dy

y

+ 4 y 3

3

4

0

dy

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

6

Exercises

1. Find a function f(x,y) such that

∂f

∂x

=

e x 3x 2 y 2 , f ∂y

= 2x 3 y + y

2. Evaluate the integrals

1 1

0

0

1 1

0

0

(4 x 2y)dxdy

(2 x 2 y 2 )dydx

Sketch the solid whose volume is given by the it- erated integrals

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

7

Integration over a region

D = {(x, y) | a x b, g 1 (x) y g 2 (x)}

a ≤ x ≤ b, g 1 ( x ) ≤ y ≤ g 2 (

D f = b

a

g 2 (x)

g

1 (x) f (x, y) dydx

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

8

Similarly, for D = {(x, y) | c y d, h 1 (y) x h 2 (y)}

≤ y ≤ d, h 1 ( y ) ≤ x ≤ h 2 ( y

Then

D f = d

c

h 2 (y)

h 1 (y)

f (x, y) dxdy

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

9

Example The region of integration is bounded

by x = y, x = y 2 and between y = 1 and y = 2

by x = y , x = y 2 and between y = 1 and y

D xy dxdy = 2

1

Also,

=

1

2 2 6

6

y 2

y

2 4

4

xy dxdy = 2

1

y 4

2

6 + 1 4 = 27

1

8

y 2 2 ydy

D xy dx dy = 2

1

x xy dy dx+ 4

x

2

2

x

xy dy dx

= 1 2 2

1

x(x 2 ) x(x)dx + 4 x(4) x(x)dx

2

=

1 15

2

4

7 + 24 56

3

3

= 27

8

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

10

Example. R is bounded by y = 2x and y = x 2 ,

with 0 x 2. Since x 2, x 2 2x,

, with 0 x 2. Since x ≤ 2 , x 2 ≤ 2 x ,

R (x + 2y) dx dy =

=

2

0

x

2x

2

(x + 2y) dy dx

2 [x(2x x 2 ) + (2x) 2 (x 2 ) 2 ]dx

0

= 2x 3 x 4 x 5

4

5

2

0

=

16 4 32

= 28

5 5

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

11

R (x + 2y) dxdy =

4

0

y

y/2 (x + 2y) dxdy

= 4

0

( y) 2

2

( y

2

)

2

2

+

2y( y y ) dy

2

y 2

4

=

y

24 y 3

3

3

+

4y 5/2

5

= 4 24 + 128

5

= 28

5

4

0

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

12

Construction. A storage bin is constructed in the shape of the solid bounded above by the surface

z = 20 x 2 y 2

below by the xy plane, and on the sides by the plane y=0 and the parabolic cylinder y = 4 x 2 , where x, y, and z are in meters.

Volume of the bin is

V

=

=

=

=

=

2 4x 2

2

0

(20 x 2 y 2 )dydx

2

2 [(20 x 2 )(4

x 2 )

1

3 (4 x 2 ) 3 ]dx

2 2

0

x 6

3

+ 5x 4 8x 2 + 176 dx

3

2

2 128

2

21 + 2 5 8(2 3 )

7

+ 176

3

3

128 = 22 (256)

21

21

+

(2)

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

13

Average Distance. The average of a function f

defined in a region R is

R f dA = R f dA

A R 1 dA

where A is the area of the region R

A city occupies a semicircular region of radius 3km bordering on the ocean. Find the average distance from points in the city to the ocean

the average distance from points in the city to the ocean − 3 √ 9 −

3 9x 2

3

0

R y dA =

ydy dx =

=

1

2 (18 (18)) = 18

1

2

3

3 (9x 2 )dx

The average distance is 18/(9π/2) = 4

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

14

Homework

1. A fancy jewelry box has the shape of the solid

bounded above by the plane

3x + 4y + 2z = 12

below by the xy plane, and on the sides by the planes x=0 and y=0 where x, y, and z are in inches. Find the volume of the box

2. Monthly production of a factory is

Q = 50K 3/5 L 2/5

where K is the capital investment in units of $1,000 and L is the size of the labor force measured in worker-hours. Suppose that monthly capital in- vestment varies between $10,000 and $12,000, while monthly use of labor varies between 2,800 and 3,200 worker-hours. Find the average monthly produc- tion of the factory.