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Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

1

Integrals with respect to one variable

Similar to partial derivatives, antiderivatives and integrals can also be calculated with respect to one of the variables, treating other variables as con- stants. The usual constant C is now a function of the other variables

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

+

x 2 y

2

+ C(y)

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y + xy 2 + C(x)

2

5

3

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

+

x 2 y

2

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y + xy 2

2

5

= 8y + 136

3

2

1

= x 3 + 3x

2

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

2

Example. Find a function f(x,y,z) such that

f x = xysin z

f y = x 2 e z

2

y

e

y

f z = z 2 x cos z

f =

f x dx = (xy sin z)dx

=

x 2 y x sin z + C(y, z)

2

Then f y = x 2

2

+ ∂C

∂y

and therefore C = e y

∂y

z ,

C(y, z) =

C ∂y dy = e z + D(z)

y

Then

∂C

∂z

= e y 2

z

+ D (z) = f z + x cos z = e y

z

2

Hence D (z) = 0, D(z) is a constant and

f (x, y, z) = x 2 y x sin z e z

2

y

+ D

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

3

Iterated integrals

5

3

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dx = x 4

4

x(x 2 + y)dy = x 3 y

+

x 2 y

2

+ xy 2

2

5

= 8y + 136

3

2

1

= x 3 + 3x

2

2

1

5

3

5

3

x(x 2 + y)dx dy = 4y 2 + 136y 2

1

2

1

x(x 2 + y)dy dx = x 4

4

+ 3x 2

4

5

3

= 148

= 148

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

4

Volume Given a function z = f (x, y) 0 on a region R, the integral

R is the volume of the solid under the graph of f

f

{(x, y, z)|(x, y) R, 0 z f (x, y)} Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

5

Example.

R=[0,4]x[0,4] and f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2 . Then the volume of the solid is

R f

=

=

=

=

=

4

0

4

0

4

0

64

3

512

3

4

0

(x 2 + y 2 )dxdy

x 3

3

+

y 2 x 4 dy

0

64

3

+

4y 2 dy

y

+ 4 y 3

3

4

0

dy

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

6

Exercises

1. Find a function f(x,y) such that

∂f

∂x

=

e x 3x 2 y 2 , f ∂y

= 2x 3 y + y

2. Evaluate the integrals

1 1

0

0

1 1

0

0

(4 x 2y)dxdy

(2 x 2 y 2 )dydx

Sketch the solid whose volume is given by the it- erated integrals

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

7

Integration over a region

D = {(x, y) | a x b, g 1 (x) y g 2 (x)} D f = b

a

g 2 (x)

g

1 (x) f (x, y) dydx

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

8

Similarly, for D = {(x, y) | c y d, h 1 (y) x h 2 (y)} Then

D f = d

c

h 2 (y)

h 1 (y)

f (x, y) dxdy

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

9

Example The region of integration is bounded

by x = y, x = y 2 and between y = 1 and y = 2 D xy dxdy = 2

1

Also,

=

1

2 2 6

6

y 2

y

2 4

4

xy dxdy = 2

1

y 4

2

6 + 1 4 = 27

1

8

y 2 2 ydy

D xy dx dy = 2

1

x xy dy dx+ 4

x

2

2

x

xy dy dx

= 1 2 2

1

x(x 2 ) x(x)dx + 4 x(4) x(x)dx

2

=

1 15

2

4

7 + 24 56

3

3

= 27

8

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

10

Example. R is bounded by y = 2x and y = x 2 ,

with 0 x 2. Since x 2, x 2 2x, R (x + 2y) dx dy =

=

2

0

x

2x

2

(x + 2y) dy dx

2 [x(2x x 2 ) + (2x) 2 (x 2 ) 2 ]dx

0

= 2x 3 x 4 x 5

4

5

2

0

=

16 4 32

= 28

5 5

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

11

R (x + 2y) dxdy =

4

0

y

y/2 (x + 2y) dxdy

= 4

0

( y) 2

2

( y

2

)

2

2

+

2y( y y ) dy

2

y 2

4

=

y

24 y 3

3

3

+

4y 5/2

5

= 4 24 + 128

5

= 28

5

4

0

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

12

Construction. A storage bin is constructed in the shape of the solid bounded above by the surface

z = 20 x 2 y 2

below by the xy plane, and on the sides by the plane y=0 and the parabolic cylinder y = 4 x 2 , where x, y, and z are in meters.

Volume of the bin is

V

=

=

=

=

=

2 4x 2

2

0

(20 x 2 y 2 )dydx

2

2 [(20 x 2 )(4

x 2 )

1

3 (4 x 2 ) 3 ]dx

2 2

0

x 6

3

+ 5x 4 8x 2 + 176 dx

3

2

2 128

2

21 + 2 5 8(2 3 )

7

+ 176

3

3

128 = 22 (256)

21

21

+

(2)

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

13

Average Distance. The average of a function f

deﬁned in a region R is

R f dA = R f dA

A R 1 dA

where A is the area of the region R

A city occupies a semicircular region of radius 3km bordering on the ocean. Find the average distance from points in the city to the ocean 3 9x 2

3

0

R y dA =

ydy dx =

=

1

2 (18 (18)) = 18

1

2

3

3 (9x 2 )dx

The average distance is 18/(9π/2) = 4

Lecture 4: Multiple Integrals

14

Homework

1. A fancy jewelry box has the shape of the solid

bounded above by the plane

3x + 4y + 2z = 12

below by the xy plane, and on the sides by the planes x=0 and y=0 where x, y, and z are in inches. Find the volume of the box

2. Monthly production of a factory is

Q = 50K 3/5 L 2/5

where K is the capital investment in units of \$1,000 and L is the size of the labor force measured in worker-hours. Suppose that monthly capital in- vestment varies between \$10,000 and \$12,000, while monthly use of labor varies between 2,800 and 3,200 worker-hours. Find the average monthly produc- tion of the factory.