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Chapter 1: Introduction to Algebra

The Basics
Algebra is the branch of mathematics that deals with numbers and their relations. Algebra is used throughout of peoples daily lives from buying groceries in the store to scientific researches. Algebra is so useful that NASA is using binary numbers to communicate to the possible extraterrestrial lives. So learning algebra is so important because that peoples lives are depended on algebra. Before you dive into the world of algebra, you need to know a few basics, and this chapter is dedicated to that purpose. Algebra deals mainly with numbers. There are two types of numbers. The first type of number is a real number. Real numbers are the numbers we see in everyday lives and most scientific researches. Real numbers can also be divided into two kinds of numbers. The first kind is called rational numbers. An integer is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero. A natural number is a number that occurs commonly and obviously in nature, a whole, non-negative number. Rational numbers are numbers determined by the ratio of an integer to a nonzero natural number. Examples of these numbers include 5, 1/5 and 1/3. The decimal expansion of a rational number is either finite or eventually periodic (such as .333333333etc.) The other kind of real number is called an irrational number. An irrational number is a real number that cannot be reduced to any ratio between an integer and a natural number. Examples of these numbers are the square root of 2, the cube root of 3, the circular ratio pi, and the natural logarithm base e. The square root of 2 and the cube root of 3 are examples of algebraic numbers. Pi and e are examples of special irrationals known as transcendental numbers. The decimal expansion of an irrational number is always nonterminating (it never ends) and nonrepeating (the digits display no repetitive pattern). The second type of number is an imaginary number. Imaginary numbers do exist; they were named before they were fully understood. They are part of a complex number system. An imaginary number is a number whose square is negative. Every imaginary number can be written as ix, where x is a real number and i is the positive square root of -1. ** To correct a couple of mistakes, the above paragraphs have been edited by the ThinkQuest editor. After you get to know the numbers, you need to know the ways to express the numbers or algebraic expressions. The algebraic expressions are made up of four different kinds of symbols: Variables, Numbers, Grouping Symbols, and Operation Signs. The variables are the unknown values that need to be found out through numeral steps of calculations. The numbers are the known values that are used to find out the variables. The grouping symbols are the signs that put a group of numbers or variables together so that they can be calculated first. The operation signs are the signs that actually do the calculations. There are several basic properties of algebraic expressions. By knowing them, you can do many algebra problems quickly and accurately. These properties are listed below: Trichotomy Properties: For all real numbers a and b, one and only one of these statements is true-a< b, a= b, a> b. Transitive Property of Order: For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a< b and b< c, then a< c.

Commutative Property of Addition: For all real numbers a and b, a+ b=b+a. Commutative Property of Multiplication: For all real numbers a and b, ab=ba. Associative Property of Addition: For all real numbers a, b, and c, (a+b)+c=a+(b+c). Associative Property of Multiplication: For all real numbers a, b, and c, (ab)c=a(bc) Distributive Property of Multiplication over addition: For all real numbers a, b, and c, a(b+c) =ab+bc and (b+c)a=ba+ca. Closure Properties: For all real numbers a and b, a+b, ab, and a-b are real numbers. If b 0, then a/b is a real number. Identity Properties: There are real numbers 0 and 1 such that for each real number a, a+0=0+a=a and 1xa=ax1=a. Additive Inverse Property: For all real numbers a, there exists a real number a such that a+(a)=0. Multiplicative Inverse Property: For each real numbers a, a 0, there exists a real number 1/a such that a(1/a)=1. This is all you have to know to get started on algebra. You should memorize these ideas so that you can use them readily later on. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Chapter 2: Linear Equations, Inequalities, and System of Equations


Linear Equations
Linear equations are the equations that can be graphed as a line. Try to input the linear equation into a graphic calculator, and you will get a line. Before you get started on linear equations, you have to know a few terms. The most linear equations are literal equations, which means that they use letters as their variables. When you start to solve the linear equations, you should use the following ways: Addition property of equality: For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a=b, then a+c=b+c. Multiplication property of equality: For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a=b, then ac=bc. Multiplication property of inequality: For all real numbers a, b, and c, c> 0 if a< b then ac< bc; and if a> b then ac> bc; For all real numbers a, b, and c, c< 0 if a< b, then ac> bc; and if a> b, then ac< bc; Addition property of inequality: For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a< b, then a+c< b+c; and if a> b, then a+c> b+c. Definition of absolute value: for each real number a, |a| = a if a> =0 |a| = -a if a< 0

Absolute value inequality properties: For all real numbers a and x, a> 0, |x|< = a is equivalent to -a< = x< = a and |x|> = a is equivalent to x< = -a or x> = a

System of Equations
Until now, we only have been talking about solving one equation. But what about solving a system of equations. We have three ways to solve the system of equations. The first way is graphing. By graphing two or more equations in the system of equations, we can find the place where they intersect or the place where the answer lies. For linear equations, there are always one answer or no answer at all which means that there is no intersection. The second way to is substitution. We take one of the equation and change it into the form of that one variable = the other variable. Ex. X = 5Y 3. Then we plug the expression on the right side into the variable on the left side in other equations. Now we have an equation with only one variable, and it is fairly easy to solve. The third way is linear combination. In linear combination, we first made two equations having the same variable with same coefficient. Then we add or subtract these two equations and by doing so, we eliminate the same variable in the two equations. Now we only have one variable, and it is fairly easy to solve. Linear equations and system of equations are easy and straightforward. They require a little bit of tweaking, and to achieve that, you need to do more problems. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Chapter 3: Polynomials
The Basics
Polynomial is an equation that is formed by adding or subtracting several variables called monomial. Monomial is a variable that is formed with a number and a letter variable to its powers. The example of monomial is 3X3. You cant add or subtract monomials if they have different exponents such as 3X3 and 4X4. But you can multiply or divide them. To multiply monomials, just add the exponents of the variables and multiply the coefficients. 3X3 x 4X4 = 12X7. Here are some additional ways to manipulate the monomials: (am)n = amn (ab)m= ambm

Expansion
Most time when you see a polynomial, it is expanded. But what about its non-expanded forms. The most commonly seen two types of non-expanded polynomials are (ax+b)(cx+d) and (a+b)c. When expand the first type, you just multiply it out. The second type is actually a special case of the first type with same terms inside each bracket. To expand the second

type, you can just multiply it out. But it takes time. There is an easy way to do this, and it takes a little memorization. The easy way to do this is called the Pascals Triangle. The Pascals Triangle is a series of numbers that are putted in the form of a triangle. The first row has one number; the second row has two numbers; the third row has three numbers and so on. Each number in the triangle is the sum of the two numbers above it. By memorizing the Pascals Triangle, you can solve the most common polynomial expansions easily and accurately. For example: when you want to expand the polynomial (a+b)3, the coefficient of each expanded term is actually the number on the forth row of the Pascals Triangle. (a+b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3. So we can conclude that the coefficients of the expanded polynomials are the numbers of corresponding row minus 1. Pascal's Triangle 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 ..... If you dont want to memorize the Pascals Triangle, there is another way to expand the polynomials. For example: if you want to expand (a + b)3, the you put the first variable a to a3; then you move the exponent of the first expanded term to the coefficient of the second term and decrease the exponent of the first variable by one and increase the second by one. Now you get a3 + 3a2b. Then you multiply the coefficient of the second term and the exponent of the first variable and divide the result by the placing number of the expanded term. Now you get 3 x 2 / 2 = 3(the term is in the second place). The result you get is the coefficient of the third expand term. As usual, you decrease the exponent of the first variable by one and increase the second by one. You can use this way to find all the expanded terms. Just note that the number of terms of an expanded polynomial equals the exponent of the non-expanded polynomial + 1. When you need to un-expand or factor the expanded the polynomials, you can use the Pascals Triangle too. But there is also another way if you dont want to memorize the triangle. This way involves finding the factors of the polynomials. The factors of the polynomials are the numbers that can be substituted into the variables of the polynomials and evaluate the equation to zero. When you factor a polynomial, you take out each coefficient of each term in the polynomial. Then you line them up. After that, you need to find call the positive and negative factors of the first and last coefficient. When you are done, you need to list them out on the scratch paper. Then you start try each number into the row of the coefficients. You take the first coefficient down and multiply with the number and then add to the second coefficient. You then do the same thing with the following coefficients. If the result you get after adding the last coefficient is zero, then the number is a factor of the polynomial. If not, you need to try additional numbers. After all the coefficient but the first one has turned into zeros, you have found all the factors of the polynomial. Then you just put each factor in the form of variable the factor with bracket around them, and multiply them together. Here are some additional ways to factor the polynomials:

a2 + b2 = (a + b)(a b) a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2) a3 - b3 = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2)

Calculation of Polynomials
Now we are going to talk more about the calculation of the monomials and polynomials. In previous time, we have discussed the commonly see ways of calculating the monimials and polynomials. They are called the Properties of Exponents. It states that for all real numbers a and b, a 0, b 0, and for all integers m and n, am x an= am+n am / an = am-n (a M)n = amn ambm = (ab)m. Most time we have monomials and polynomials with positive exponents. But what about negative exponents? This is where we use the Definition of Negative Exponents. It states that for each real number a, a 0, and for each integer n, a-n=1/an. As we have seen in previous discussions that monomials and polynomials are complicated. So simplifying them before trying to solve is very important. It will improve both your speed and accuracy. Here are some basic ways to simplify the monomials and polynomials: For all real numbers a, b, and c, b 0, cd 0, ac/bc = a/b Definition of Multiplication of Fractions: For all real numbers a, b, c, and d, b 0, d 0, a/b x c/d = ac/bd Definition of Division of Fractions: For all real numbers a, b, c, and d, b 0, c 0, d 0, a/b c/d = ad/bc Definition of Addition of Fractions with Like Denominators: For all real numbers a, b, and c, c 0, a/c + b/c = (a+b)/c Definition of Inverse Variation: Two quantities x and y vary inversely if and only if there is a constant k, k 0, such that y = k/x or xy = k

Chapter 4: Quadratic Equations


Roots of Even Exponents
In previous discussions, we have talked about the polynomials. There is a special kind of polynomial called the Quadratic Equation. The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 0, is called the general quadratic equation in x. A quadratic equation with no x-term is called a pure quadratic equation. Quadratic equations are to the second powers. So we feel its necessary to talk about the second power or other even powers. When you take the square roots of a second power number or other even power numbers, you always get two answers: the positive ones and the negative ones. This is called the Square Root Property of Equations. It states that for all real numbers m and n, n 0, if m2 = n, then m = n or m = - n. When comes to solve a quadratic formula, you need to use the quadratic formulas.

Although you can solve the quadratic equations by completing the square, sometimes the square is not perfect, and you cant solve it. The quadratic formula can be used on all the quadratic equations. Quadratic formula states that the roots of ax2+bx+c=0, a 0, are [b+ (b2-4ac)]/2a and [b- (b2-4ac)]/2a. The part of the quadratic formula under the radical sign is called the discriminant. We can use the discriminant to determine the outcomes of the roots of the quadratic equations. If the discriminant is equal to zero, the roots of the quadratic equation are equal to each other and rational. If the discriminant is larger than zero and is a perfect square, the roots of the quadratic equation are unequal and rational. If the discriminant is larger than zero and is not a perfect square, the roots of the quadratic equaiton are unequal and irrational. If the discriminant is smaller than zero, the roots of the quadratic equation are unequal and not real.

Roots of Negative Numbers


The most time we take a square roots of a number, we do it with positive numbers. But what about the negative numbers. Can we take the square roots of a negative number. The answer is yes, and this comes to the concept of complex numbers. A complex number is a number of the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit. -1 = i and i2 = -1. Here are some additional properties of complex numbers: Square Root of a Negative Number: If a is a positive real number, then -a = i a. Equality of Complex Numbers: For all complex numbers a + bi and c + di, a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b Absolute Value of a Complex Number: The absolute value of a complex number a + bi is |a + bi| = (a2 + b2) When comes to calculating one or more complex numbers, we use the following formulas: Addition of Complex Numbers: For all real numbers a, b. c, and d, (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i. The Additive Inverse Property of Complex Numbers: For each complex number z, there is a complex number - z such that z + ( - z) = 0. If z = a + bi, then - z = - (a + bi) = - a - bi. Subtraction of Complex Numbers: For all complex numbers w and z, w - z = w + (- z). If w = a + bi and z = c + di, then w - z = (a + bi) - (c + di) = (a c) + (b + d)i Complex Conjugates: For all real numbers a and b, a + bi and a - bi are complex conjugates. Multiplication of Complex Numbers: For all complex numbers a + bi and c + di, (a + bi)(c + di) = (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i. Quadratic equations are very useful in solving many problems and equations. If you can learn quadratic equations well, you will do well on all kinds of problems. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Chapter 5: Coordinate Geometry

The Basics
In Geometry, we have talked about the coordinate geometry. The coordinate geometry is about representing and calculating the shapes on a coordinate plane. Now we are going to continue talk about the coordinate system. But this time we are going to mainly talk about the conic sections or the shapes that relate to circle. The main conic sections are Circles, Parabola, Ellipse, and Hyperbola.

The Graphs
A circle is the set of all points in a plane such that the distance (radius) from a given point (center of the circle) is constant. The standard equation of a circle with center (h, k) and radius r is (x - h)2 + (y - k)2 = r2.

A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a given point (focus) as they are from a given line (directrix). The parabola is actually a quadratic equation. The standard form of the equation of a parabola is y - k = a(x h)2

An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances (focal radii) from two given points (foci) is constant. The equation of an ellipse with the sum of focal radii equal to 2a, where a > b and b2 = a2 - c 2, is x2 / a2 - y2 / b2 = 1 for foci (-c, 0) and (c, 0). The standard form of

the equation of an ellipse with center (h, k) is (x - h)2 / a2 + (y - k)2 / b2 =1

A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane such that the absolute value of the difference of the distances (focal radii) from two given points (foci) is constant. The equation of a hyperbola with the difference of focal radii equal to 2a, where b2 = c2 - a2, is x2 / a2 y2 / b2 = 1

for foci (-c , 0) and (c , 0). The equations of the asymptotes of hyperbola are y = (b/a)x and y = -(b/a) x. The standard form of the equation of a hyperbola with center (h, k) is (x h)2 / a2 (y k)2 / b2 = 1. Equations of the form xy = n, n 0, also define hyperbolas whose asymptotes are the coordinate axes.

Generalization
Here is a general second degree equation in x and y that is used to determine the shape of the outcome graph: Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0. If B = 0, then the conic section can be determined by the relationship between A and C. Conic Section - Value of A and C Parabola - AC = 0, A C Circle - A = C Ellipse - AC > 0, A C Hyperbola - AC < 0

Coordinate geometry is so important that we have spent a great deal of time to talk about it. You should learn this area well of firmly so that you can use it readily. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Chapter 6: Radicals
The Basics
In peoples lives, the most numbers they use are rational numbers or numbers that have limits. But since the discovery of P or 3.1415926, the world of irrational numbers or numbers that have no limits are presented in front of us. In current days, we represent irrational by using the radical signs or . For all real numbers a and b, and all positive integers n, an= b, then a is the nth root of b. A positive nth root of b is written n b and a negative nth root of b is written -n b. To calculate radicals, you need a calculator for the most of times except those perfect squares or perfect triples and so on. Here are some additional properties of radicals: For each real number a and each positive integer n, if n is odd, then n a^n = a; if n is even, then n a^n = |a| The Multiplication Property of Radicals: For all real numbers a and b for which the radicals are defined and all positive integers n, n ab = n a x n b. The Division Property of Radicals: For all real numbers a and b, b 0, for which the radicals are defined, and for each positive integer n, n (a/b) =n a / n b. For all positive integers m and n, and all real numbers a for which the radical represents a real number, a m/n = (n a)m = (n am).

Radical Equations
When a radical contains variables, then it is called a radical equation. The radical equations are usually solve by completing the squares or triples and so on. The most useful radical equation in the world of algebra is the Distance Formula that is used on the coordinate plane. It states that for points PI(X1, Y1) and P2(X2, Y2), P1P2 = (X2 X1)^2 + (Y2 Y1)^2,. If the coordinates of point A are (X1, Y1) and the coordinates of point B are(X2, Y2), then the coordinates of the midpoint of AB are {(X1 + X2)/2, (Y1+Y2)/2}. Radicals are very common in math and scientific researches. Although we can solve most of the radicals by using a calculator today, it's still very important to understand the concepts. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Chapter 7: Functions
Coordinate Plane

Function is a relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range. It means that for every X value on the coordinate plane, there is one and only one Y value. If a second Y value exists for the same X value, the graph is not a function. Before we dive into the discussions of the functions, we need to talk little more about the coordinate plane. Each coordinate on the coordinate plane is made up of X coordinate and Y coordinate. Two coordinates are equal if both its X and Y coordinates are the same. This is called the Equality of ordered pairs. It states that for all real numbers a, b, c, and d, (a, b) = (c, d) if and only if a = c and b = d. A relation is a set of ordered pairs.

Coordinate Plane

Functions
A relation is function if and only if each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range. The domain is represented in X coordinate and the range is represented in Y coordinate. A relation is a one to one function if and only if each element of the domain is associated with a unique element of the range, and each element of the range is associated with a unique element of the domain. This means that the inverse of a function is also a function. There are mainly three types of functions. They are linear functions, polynomial functions, and exponential and logarithm functions.

Linear Function

A linear function is an equation of a line. A function is a linear function if and only if its equation can be written in the form y = mx + b. M is the representation of the slope. A slope of a line is the ratio of the change in y to the change in x. If x1 x2, the slope of the line through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is the ratio. Here are some additional properties of the slope: The slope of a horizontal line (a constant linear function) is 0. The slope of a vertical line (not a function) is undefined.

Linear Function B is the y-Intercept. The y-intercept of a function is the y-coordinate of the point at which the graph crosses the y-axis. If the equation of a linear function is in the form y = mx + b, then b is the y intercept. There are two other equation forms of a line. They are the slope-intercept form and the point-slope form. The form y = mx + b is called the slope-intercept form of a linear equation in two variables. The slope is m, and the y-intercept is b. The point-slope form of a linear equation with slope m and passing through the point (xi, yl) is y - y1 = m(x - x1). Here are some additional properties of the equations of the lines: The graphs of two linear functions are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. Two lines with undefined slopes are parallel. The graphs of two linear functions are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is - 1. A line with zero slope and a line with undefined slope are perpendicular. In a linear equation, if one variable varies, the other one also changes. Two variables x and y are said to vary directly if and only if there is a constant of variation, k. k 0, such that y = kx. If x 0, y/x = k. There is a special kind of linear equation called the step function. The step function is represented in the form of [x], which means the greatest integer that is equal or smaller than x. The step function is especially useful in accounting and statistic.

Polynomial Function
We have discussed about polynomials in the previous chapters. The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the degree of the term of the highest degree when the polynomial is written in

standard form. The leading coefficient of the polynomial is the coefficient of the term with the highest degree. A polynomial function is a function P whose values are defined by a polynomial. P(x) = anxn + a n-1x n+1 + + a1x + ao. Here are some additional properties of the polynomial functions: The Remainder Theorem: For each polynomial P(x) of degree n 1 and each real number r, there is a polynomial Q(x) of degree n - 1, such that P(x) = (x - r)Q(x) + P(r). The Factor Theorem: For each polynomial P(x), of degree n I and each real number r, (x - r) is a factor of P(x) if and only if P(r) = 0. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: Each nth-degree polynomial, n 1, can be factored into n linear factors. or Every polynomial equation of degree n has exactly n roots, where a root of multiplicity k is counted as k roots Imaginary Root Theorem: Imaginary roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs. Quadratic Root Theorem: Quadratic roots of the form a + b, where a and b are rational and b is irrational, of polynomial equations with rational coefficients occur in conjugate pairs. The Rational Root Theorem: If p and q are integers and p/q is a rational-number solution of a polynomial q equation anxn + a n-1 x n+1 + + a1x + ao = 0 with integer coefficients, then p is a factor of ao, and q is a factor of a. When comes to graph the polynomial functions, the most commonly used way is to plug-in the numbers. But you have to remember following properties: If f is a polynomial function such that f(a) > 0 and f(b) < 0, then there is a real number c between a and b such that f(c) = 0. In the graph of a polynomial function f(x), a root corresponding to a point of tangency to the xaxis has an even multiplicity.

Polynomial Function When comes to determine whether two functions are inverse, we can do it by graphing the two equations. But just remember the following property: Functions f and g are inverse functions if and only if f(g(x)) = g(f(x)) = x for all numbers x in the domains of both f and g.

Exponential and Logarithm Function


An exponential function can be defined as following: For all real numbers x and for all positive real numbers b, b 1, the equation y = bx, defines an exponential function with base b. There are two types of functions called increasing functions and decreasing functions. F is an increasing function if, for each a and b in the domain of f, whenever a > b, f(a) > f(b). F is a decreasing function if for each a and b in the domain of f , whenever a > b, f(a) < f(b). Two exponential functions are equal if and only if x = y all positive real numbers b, b 1. There is another way to represent an exponential function. It is called the logarithm function. The logarithm function can be defined as following: For all positive real numbers x and b, b 1, there is a real number y such that y = logbx if and only if x = by. To evaluate a logarithm function, you need to use the logarithm table or a calculator. Here are some most common properties of logarithmic functions: For all positive real numbers b, b 1, and all admissible real values of x, y, m, and n, If logbx = logby, then x = y logbbx = x blogbx = x, x> 0 logbb = 1 logb (mn) = logbm + logbn logb (m/n) = logbm logbn log b (mn) = n(logbm) For all positive real numbers a and b (except 1) and any positive real number x, logax = logbx / logba. There is a special type of logarithm called the natural logarithm. The natural logarithm is the logarithm with base-e. Natural logarithm is represented as In x. Once again, function is a very important concept. You should commit it to your memory. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue to the next chapter. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)

Appendix: Discrete Algebra


Sequence and Series
We all start math with counting. Now we are back to the counting again. But this time is called the sequence and series. A sequence is a function defined on the positive integers or on a subset of consecutive positive integers starting with 1. There are two types of sequences. One is called the arithmetic sequence. One is an arithmetic sequence if and only if an = a1 + (n - 1)d for the sequence with first term a1 and nth term an. One is a geometric sequence if and only if an = a1r n-1 for the sequence with first term a1, and nth term an with r 0.

A series is the indicated sum of the terms of a sequence. For an arithmetic series in which a1 is the first term, d is the common difference, an is the last term, and Sn is the value of the series: Sn = n(a1 + an ) / 2 and Sn= n[2a1 + (n - 1)d] / 2. For a geometric sequence in which a1 is the first term, an is the last term, r is the common ratio (r 1), and Sn is the value of the series: Sn = a1 a1rn / 1 r and Sn = a1 - anr / 1 r. The value of an infinite geometric series with first term a I and common ratio r, |r| < 1, is given by the formula: S = a1 / 1 r.

Probability
Probability is a very important part of peoples lives. Businesses and scientific researches use probability the most for predicting the revenue growth and experiments outcomes. But ironically, the probability is one area of math that has the least to talk about. If you want to be good at probability, you have to do as much problems as possible in a wide range of probability problems. What you can do now is to understand some basic concepts about probability. The first one is the Fundamental Counting Principle. It states that if one event can occur in m ways and a second event can occur in n ways, the pair of events can occur in mn ways. The most important two concepts about probability are permutation and combination. A permutation of a number of objects is any arrangement of the objects in a definite order. For all positive integers n and r, where r -- n, the number of permutations of n things taken r at a time isnPr = n! / (n r) ! For each positive integer n, n! = nx(n - 1)x(n - 2)x . . . x 3 x 2 x 1. Also, 0! = 1. There is a special case where permutations in the denominator and numerator repeat, and this is called the Permutations with Repetitions. It states that for all positive integers n and r, where r n, the number of distinguishable permutations of n objects, r of which are alike, is: nPn / rPr = n! / r! A combination is a selection of objects considered without regard to their order. For all positive integers n and r, where r n, the number of combinations of n things taken r at a time is nCr = nPr / rPr = n! / (n r)!r! After know the basic concepts above, you can start doing probability. The probability of an event is the ratio of the number of outcomes in the event to the number of outcomes in the sample space. If A and B include all outcomes of S, and A and B have no outcomes in common, Event A is the complement of event B with respect to sample space S. The complement of A is denoted A. Here are some additional properties of probability: Two events A and B are mutually exclusive if and only if they have no outcomes in common. Two events A and B are independent if and only if P(A and then B) = P(A) x P(B). For any two events A and B in sample space S, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) x P(A and B). For all positive integers n, (a + b)n = Cnan + nCn-1an-1b + nCn-2an-2b2 ++ nC1abn-1 + nC0bn

Statistics

Data is everywhere in peoples lives. And this is where we need the statistics. Statistics is a large area of math, and we cant cover much here. So we are just going to talk about some basic concepts. First you have to know data. Data is a collection of information. A set of data can be described by its center, or central tendency, and its dispersion. There are five most important concepts about data or statistics. They are mode, median, lower quartile, range, and mean. The mode is a set of data is the number or numbers that occur with greatest frequency. The median is a measure of central tendency. It is the middle number of an ordered set of numbers. If a set has an even number of members, the median is midway between the two middle numbers. The lower quartile is the median of the numbers below the median of a set of data. The upper quartile is the median of the numbers above the median. The median and quartiles divided the set into approximately equal quarters. The range and interquartile range are measures of dispersion of a set of data. The range is the difference between the largest and smallest numbers. The inter- quartile range is the difference between the upper and lower quartiles. The mean is another measure of central tendency. It is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers in the set. Statistics involves the manipulation of these values most of the time. If you want to know more about statistics, you should consult your local library for more information.

Matrices
Matrices are the actual use of the statistic or the collected data. Each number is put into a row or a column in a matrix. The matrices come in different dimensions. The most commonly used are 2x2, 3x3, and 4x4.

When you add two matrices, you add the corresponding numbers. The first number in the first row in the first matrix adds to the first number in the first row in the second matrix. When you multiply two matrices, you multiply the row to the column. The first number in the first row in the first matrix multiplies to the first number in the first column in the second matrix. The second number in the first row in the first matrix multiplies to the second number in the first column in the second matrix. After you have multiplied every number in the row to the every number in the

corresponding column, you add the results together to get the number for the resulting matrix.

When comes to finding the inverse of a matrix, the concept of determinant is very important. A determinant is a real number represented by a square array of numbers. The determinant can be acquired by cross-multiply and then subtract the first few results from the last few results. The ways of finding the inverse of matrices are different for 3x3 and up matrices than 2x2 matrices. To find the inverse for 2x2 matrices, exchange the first number in the first row with the second number in the second row, and multiply the second number in the first row and the first number in the second row with 1. After that, multiply each resulting number with 1/the determinant of the matrices. To find the inverse for 3x3 and up matrices, exchange the rows with the columns. Then multiply every other number starting the second number in a matrix by 1. Finally, multiply every resulting number by 1/the determinant of the matrices. (Note: if the determinant is zero, there is no inverse).

The most useful ways to use matrices is that to solve systems of equations. You can do this by putting all the coefficients of the variables in the form of matrices. Then you manipulate the

matrices by adding or subtracting the row from the other row so that you can get the last row of the matrices with only one non-zero number, and the every row upward has one more non-zero number than the row below. Finally, plug in the last row into its corresponding equation to solve its only variable. Then use the solved the variable to solve the additional equations in the systems. You won't use discrete algebra everyday. But when you need it, you will be glad that you have mastered it. Please take a few minutes break and click here to continue. (You can also click on the drop-down list below to jump to any chapter you like.)