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MENTHA SPECIES | pudina

classification of pudina Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Lamiales Family: Lamiaceae Genus: Mentha

LOCAL NAME:-PUDINA This plant is related to the menthe genus and its aromatic herbs. Many more species grows wild; some of there cultivated. The chief constituent for which these plants are valued are menthol and pappermint oil. this medicinal plant is an erect branched herb upto about 55 cm high. Leaves upto 6 cm long. Flowers small, in small brunches, borne on axile leaves,medicinal seeds are also very useful. MEDICINAL USES of pudina :- THE DRIED LEAVES AND FLOWERING TOPS OF THE PLANT MAKE THE DRUG PAPPOERMINT, THIS DRUGS USE IN TREATMENT OF VOMITING AND NAUSEA. BRUISHED LEWAVES ARE APPLIED IN HEADACHE AND OTHER PAIMS. THE MAIN USE OF DRUGS IS OR EXTRACTION FOR PAPPERMINT OIL AND IS LARGELY USED IN MEDICINE FOR STOMACH DISORDERS THE OIL IS ALSIO ANTISEPTIC At here is several name of (pudina) like koshu,horsemint

Neem | Azadirachta indica


classification of Azadirachta indica

Kingdom: Plantae Order: Sapindalez Family: Meliaceae Genus: Azadirachta Family: Meliaceae Common name: Neem, kaduneem, mahaneem. Nature It is a tree with straight trunk and compound leaves, with serrated margin. flower are small and white in colour . fruits are small and elongated and mostly turn yellow when ripe. Distribution cultivated as roadside tree near habitations. characteristics of Azadirachta indica Beautiful canopy of the tree and its leaves. Medicinal uses of Azadirachta indica This tree is known as Amrut Vruksha as all its parts are used medicinally. leaves and bark are useful in the treatment of skin problems. oil cake from seeds and gum are also useful. in the medicinal purpose.

position Fairly common tree throughout the plains in india.

Gulvel | Tinospora cordifolia | Amruta

Gulvel (Amruta) cordifolia Kingdom: Plantae Division:

classification of Tinospora Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Ranunculales Family: Menispermaceae Genus: Tinospora

Species: T. cordifolia Family: Meni permaceae Nature of Tinospora cordifolia It is a extensive perennial climber with grayish stem and tubercles on the surface. it gives out hanging roots from the stem. the leaves are broad and heart-shaped. the plant bears minute yellow flowers on long spikes Special Characteristics of Tinospora cordifolia The stem is gray with tubercles and has bitter test to its exude. Medicinal uses of Tinospora cordifolia The stem dried along with the bark is source of medicine. It is a bitter tonic, useful in all types of liver problems. It is also given to reduce body

heat (kadki).The plant is also useful in the treatment of jaundice. Important ayurvadic preparation like "Amrutarishta"and"Gelvelsatva" are obtained from this plant.

position of Tinospora cordifolia : Common in the wild on trees.

Rui | madar | Calotropis gigantea | Milkweed

classification of Calotropis gigantea Kingdom: Plantae Order: Gentianales Family: Apocynaceae Subfamily: Asclepiadoideae Genus: Calotropis Species: C. gigantea Common name: Milkweed, Rui (madar) Nature of Calotropis gigantea A common shurb of wasteland and rode side. the leaves are thick, opposite, decussate in arrangement and coated with white powder. flowers are in umble and blue in colour. Distribution: Throughout india on plains on wastelands. Special characteristics of Calotropis gigantea : Its typical leaves and flowers, which are quite unique in structure. Medicinal uses of Calotropis gigantea :

Dry leaf powder used for treating wounds and boils. leaves found to be effective on elephantiasis. flowers along with jaggery are useful against cough and improving appetite. the mixture of latex, turmeric and sesame oil, useful in treating scabies. Leaves and flowers used for worshiping lord Hanuman.position : Very common.

Common name: Kariyat, Creat Hindi: Kirayat, Kalpanath Manipuri: Kalpa Tamil: Nelaberu Bengali:

Vubati Marathi: Oli-kiryata,

Nilavembu Malayalam: Nelavepu, Kiriyattu Telugu: Nilavembu Kannada: Kalmegh Oriya: Bhuinimba Konkani: Vhadlem

havandi Assamese:

Kiratyem Urdu: NaineKalmegh Gujarati: Kariyatu Sanskrit:

Kalmegha, Bhunimba Mizo: Hnakhapui Botanical name: Andrographis paniculata Family: Acanthaceae (Ruellia family) Synonyms: Justicia paniculata Kariyat is an erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste in all parts of the plant. It grows erect to a height of 1-4 ft in moist shady places with smooth leaves and white flowers with rose-purple spots on the petals. Stem dark green, 0.3 - 1.0 m in height, 2-6 mm in diameter, quadrangular with longitudinal furrows and wings on the angles of the younger parts, slightly enlarged at the nodes; leaves glabrous, up to 8.0 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, lanceolate, pinnate; flowers small, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles; capsules linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 1.9 cm x 0.3 cm; seeds numerous, sub quadrate, yellowish brown. Medicinal uses: Since ancient times, Kariyat is used as a wonder drug in traditional Siddha and Ayurvedic systems of medicine as well as in tribal medicine in India and some other countries for multiple clinical applications. The therapeutic value of Kalmegh is due to its mechanism of action which is perhaps by enzyme induction. The plant extract exhibits antityphoid and antifungal activities. Identification credit: Prashant Awale

Common name: Gurmar Hindi: chhota-dudhilata, gudmar, gurmar, medhashingi, Marathi: kavali, bedaki, bedakuli, kalikardori, kaoli Tamil: adigam, amudupushpam,

ayagam, kogilam Malayalam: chakkarakkolli, madhunasini Telugu: bodaparta, podapatra Kannada: kadhasige, sannagera, sannagerasehambu Oriya: meshasringi Urdu: gurmar ,gurmar booti, gurmar patta Sanskrit: ajaballi, ajaghandini, karnika, kshinavartta, madhunasini Botanical name: Gymnema sylvestre Family: Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)

Gurmar is a famed plant, revered for its use in treatment of diabetes for name Gurmar actually means nearly two millennia. The Hindi diabetes killer. It is a large climber, rooting at nodes. Leaves are elliptic, narrow tipped, base narrow. Leaves are smooth above, and sparsely or densely velvety beneath. Pale yellow flowers are small, in axillary and lateral umbel like cymes. Stalk of the umbel is long. Sepals are long, ovate, obtuse, velvety. Flowers are pale yellow, bell-shaped. Corona is single, with 5 fleshy scales. Medicinal uses: One of the alternative medicines to both diabetes and obesity could be Gurmar plant preparation, as it known to have a good effect for curbing of diabetes by blocking sugar binding sites and hence not allowing the sugar molecules to accumulate in the body. Identification credit: Navendu Pg

Common name: Water Jasmine, lady's earrings, sacred buddhist, wild water plum, wondrous wrightia Botanical name: Wrightia religiosa Family: Apocynaceae (Oleander family) Synonyms: Echites religiosus

Water Jasmine is a shrubs up with many lateral short Leaves are elliptic, ovate, or veins 5-7 pairs. Flowers are few-leaved branches, carried long, thin, finely hairy. Sepals nearly flat. Flower tube is 3-4

to 3 m tall. Branchlets are thin, cylindric, often branchlets. Leaf stalks are 2-4 mm long. narrowly oblong, 2.5-7.5 X 1.5-3 cm, lateral borne in 1-13-flowered cymes often on short on short stalks. Flower stalks are 1.5-2 cm are ovate, about 1.5 mm. Flowers are white, mm, hairless. Petals are ovate, about 7 mm,

densely velvety on both surfaces. Stamens remain inside the mouth of the flower tube. Follicles are linear, free, 12-17 cm. Seeds are narrowly spindle-shaped, about 8 mm. Water Jasmine is native to Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Cultivated in many parts of the world for medicine. Flowering: all year. Medicinal uses: Water Jasmine has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb and roots are used to cure skin diseases. Identification credit: Dinesh Valke

Common name: Aloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plant Hindi: Gheekumari Tamil: Kathalai Malayalam: Chotthu kathalai Botanical name: Aloe vera Family: Asphodelaceae (Aloe family) Synonyms: Aloe barbadensis, Aloe indica, Aloe vulgaris

Marathi: Khorpad

Aloe, a popular houseplant, has a long history as a multipurpose folk remedy. Commonly known as Aloe vera, the plant can be snapped off and placed on cuts and burns for immediate relief. Aloe vera is a clump forming succulent whose fleshy gray-green leaves are arranged in a vase shaped rosette atop a very short stem. The leaves are up to 18 in long and 2 in wide at the base, slightly grooved on top, and terminating in a sharp point. The leaves have small grayish teeth on the margins. The main rosette gets up to about 2 ft high, and the plant continually produces little offset rosettes. In winter and spring, medicinal aloe bears small tubular yellow flowers on branched stalks up to 3 ft tall. The real Aloe vera has yellow flowers, but many of the clones available have orange flowers. Although Aloe Vera is a member of the Lily family, it is verycactus like in its characteristics. Medicinal uses: Aloe Vera contains over 20 minerals, all of which are essential to the human body. The human body requires 22 amino acids for good health -- eight of which are called "essential" because the body cannot fabricate them. Aloe Vera contains all of these eight essential amino acids, and 11 of the 14 "secondary" amino acids. Aloe Vera has Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E. In India, Aloe vera is believed to help in sustaining youth, due to its positive effects on the skin. Hence it is called ghee kunvar orghee kumaari.

Common name: Thickhead, Fireweed, Redflower ragleaf, Tera paibi (Manipuri) Botanical name: Crassocephalum crepidioides Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family) Synonyms: Gynura crepidioides

Fire wee d is an erec t little branched herb to 1 m tall, smooth or finely hairy. Leaves with lamina elliptic to ovate in outline; lowest

leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, up to 20 cm long and 10 cm wide, base often with a pair of stipule-like lobes, margins coarsely toothed; upper leaves smaller, not lobed or with a lobe each side towards base; petiole up to 4 cm long. Heads in cymes, few to many, nodding at first, later erect; heads 4 mm diameter. Flowerheads are cylindrical, green, with red florets visible on top. Seeds are floating balls of numerous silky white hair, which kids in India call by names equivalent to 'old lady' in different languages. Thickhead is native to tropical africa, but now naturalized in India and SE Asia. Medicinal uses: Its fleshy, mucilaginous leaves and stems are eaten as a vegetable. A lotion of leaves is used as a mild medicine that strengthens the stomach and excites its action.

Common name: Quick Weed, gallant soldier, potato weed, small-flower galinsoga Manipuri: Hameng shampakpi Tamil: Botanical name: Galinsoga parviflora Synonyms: Tridax parviflora Mookuthi Poo Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)

Quic k Wee d is a slen der annu al herb 20-70 cm tall, found mostly in NE India. Leaves ovate or narrowly ovate, 2-5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, margins serrulate or entire. Flower-heads 3-4 mm high, peduncles appressed pubescent or glandular villous; involucral bracts 2-3 mm long; ray florets white, 5 per head, rarely pink, 3-toothed, 1-2 mm long; pappus of ray florets absent or very reduced, that of disk florets consisting of blunt-tipped, fimbriate scales. Achenes sparsely appressed pubescent or glabrous. Medicinal uses: In Manipur, extract of leaves with salt is given in fever, diarrhoea and vomitting. Leaves of this plant, along with those of Ageratum conyzoides, Drymaria cordata, ginger are made into a paste and applied as a remedy for snake-bite by the Khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya. Identification credit: Debasish Joardar & Latha

Common name: Bhutkeshi Hindi: Bhutberi, Botanical name: Selinum vaginatum Synonyms: Cortia vaginata

Bhutkeshi, Mathosla

Family: Apiaceae (Carrot family)

Bhutkeshi is a hairless plant, 20 cm to 1 m tall. Stem is stout, base fibrous. Leaves are up to 30 cm long, hairless, double-compound. Pinnae are 1-3 cm long, lanceshaped to oval, pinnately divided or cut. leaf sheath are oblong, up to 8 cm long. Lower leaves are long-stalked, upper stalkless on the sheath. The flower cluster has an involucre of 1 or 2 linear bracts or none. Rays in the

flower-cluster are 10-30, stout, hairless to velvety, 2-5 cm long. Involucel of 10-12 pinnate, pubescent bractlets, longer than the umbellet. Calyx teeth are linear. Fruit is 5 mm long, 2 mm broad, elliptic to subquadrate, ridges winged. Bhutkeshi is endemic to India occuring in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It is said to be common on alpine moist slopes and meadows. Flowering: JulySeptember. Medicinal uses: Root are used as nervine sedative. It is used as alternative source for Jatamansi. Identification credit: Monika Vats Purohit Common name: Tanner's Cassia Hindi: Tarwar Marathi: Tarwad Kannada: Tangedi Telugu: Tagedu Tamil: Avaram Gujarati: Awala Malayalam: Avaram Botanical name: Senna auriculata Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family) Synonyms: Cassia auriculata

Tanner's Cassia is a branched shrub, growing upto 11.5 m high. It has a smooth reddish brown bark. It has many ascending branches and 8-10 cm long pinnate leaves. There are 8-12 pairs of leaflets, each 2-3 cm long. Bright yellow flowers appear in recemes at the end of branches. The flowers are 4-5 cm across. Upper three stamens are reduced to stamenoides. Fruit is a 7-12 cm long, flat brown pod. Medicinal uses: In Ayurveda, the root of this plant is used in a decoction for fevers, diabetes, diseases of the urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flower and flower buds are used as substitute. Identification credit: Pravin Kawale

Common name: Cobra saffron, Ceylon ironwood, Indian rose chestnut Hindi: Nagkesar Urdu: Vainavu Assamese: Nokte Manipuri: Nageshor Botanical name: Mesua ferrea Family: Clusiaceae (Garcinia family)

Nag champa,

Narmishka Tamil: Tadinangu Marathi: Thorlachampa Malayalam:

A handsome Indian evergreen tree often planted as an ornamental for its fragrant white flowers that yield a perfume; source of very heavy hardwood used for railroad ties. In olden time, the very hard timber was used for making lances. It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree up to 13 m tall, often buttressed at the base with a trunk up to 90 cm in diameter. It has simple, narrow, oblong, dark green leaves 7-15 cm long, with a whitish underside; the emerging young leaves are red to yellowish pink and drooping. The flowers are 4-7.5 cm diameter, with four white petals and a centre of numerous yellow stamens. The flowers have many uses - they are used to make an incense and also used to stuff pillows in some countries. It is the National tree of Sri Lanka. Medicinal uses: The leaves are applied to the head in the form of a poultice for severe colds. Oil from the seeds is used for sores, scabies, wounds, and rheumatism. The root of this herb is often used as an antidote for snake poison. The dried flowers are used for bleeding hemorrhoids and dysentery with

mucus. Fresh flowers are also prescribed for excessive thirst, excessive perspiration, cough, and for indigestion

Common name: Holy basil, Tulsi (Hindi, Tamil, Telugu), Trittavu (Malayalam), Tulshi (Marathi) Botanical name: Ocimum tenuiflorum Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family) Synonyms: Ocimum sanctum

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) is a widely grown, sacred plant of India. Hindus grow Tulsi as a religious plant in their homes, temples and their farms. They use Tulsi leaves in routine worship. Tulsi, grown as a pot plant, is found in almost every traditional Hindu house. The natural habitat of Tulsi varies from sea level to an altitude of 2000 m. It is found growing naturally in moist soil nearly all over the globe. Tulsi is a branched, fragrant and erect herb having hair all over. It attains a height of about 75 to 90 cm when mature. Its leaves are nearly round and up to 5 cm long with the margin being entire or toothed. These are aromatic because of the presence of a kind of scented oil in them. A variety with green leaves is called Shri Tulsi and one with reddish leaves is called Krishna Tulsi. Tulsi flowers are small having purple to reddish color, present in small compact clusters on cylindrical spikes. Stalkless heart-shaped bracts are there at the base of each flower cluster. Sepal cup is not hairy within. Flowers are rarerly longer than 5 mm, calyx tube bearded outside near base. Flower tube is hairy. The fruits are small and the seeds yellow to reddish in color. Medicinal uses: Because of its medicinal virtues, Tulsi is used in Ayurvedic preparations for treating various ailments. Identification credit: Gurcharan Singh

Common name: Bichchhoo, Indian stinging nettle Hindi: Bichchhoo Manipuri: Santhak Botanical name: Girardinia diversifolia Family: Urticaceae (Nettle family) Synonyms: Girardiana platyphylla, Girardinia heterophylla , Urtica heterophylla

This is a much despised plant in the hills of north India due to is very virulent stinging hairs. The plant grows to heights of 3 or 4 feet and is often used as fencing to keep out cattle. The popular hindi name Bichchhoo means scorpion. Indeed the itch produced by the plant, which in milder doses is that of

many red ants, and with extensive contact can be like that of bees or scorpion stings, and may need antiallergic medication. The itch is produced from the formic acid contained in the oil glands under the stinging hairs. Stipules are oblong-ovate, 1-3 cm long. Leaves are elliptic, ovate in outline, with base heart-shaped or flat, margin usually 3, 5, or 7-lobed or, rarely, regularly toothed or sometimes doubletoothed at leaf base. Male inflorescences are cyme-like racemes or like panicles, 5-11 cm. Female ones are in distal axils of stem, 10-28 cm, 2.5-3 mm in diameter. There are a few subspecies with differing inflorescences and leaves. Medicinal uses: However, the plant itself has medicinal value, and Nettle Tea has been used in Europe for many centuries. The leaves should not be touched with bare hands, but dried or boiled thoroughly in water , are used as diuretic, anti- rheumatic, anti-allergic and also for lactating mothers. The other parts of the plant are also useful for production of oils, biomass and fibre or paper. Identification credit: Akhila Sinha

Common name: Turmeric Assamese: Hindi: Nepali:

, Halodhi Bengali:

Halud Gujarati: Haldar , Manjal Marathi: Halad Manjal Telugu: ,

Haldi Kannada: Arishina, Arisina Malayalam:

Haldi Oriya: Haladi Sanskrit: Haridra, Marmarii Tamil: Family: Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)

Haridra Urdu: Haldi, Botanical name: Curcuma longa

Turmeric is a rhizomatous herb, native to tropical South Asia. Turmeric is a very important spice in India, which produces nearly the whole worlds crop and uses 80% of it. The plant grows to a height of 3-5 ft. It has oblong, pointed leaves and bears funnel-shaped yellow flowers, peeping out of large bracts. The rhizome is the portion of the plant used medicinally. It is usually boiled, cleaned, and dried, yielding a yellow powder. Dried Turmeric root is the source of the spice turmeric, the ingredient that gives curry powder its characteristic yellow color. Turmeric is used extensively in foods for both its flavor and color. Turmeric has a long tradition of use in the Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. Identification credit: Thingnam Sophia

1. Introduction: Medicinal Plants and Their Origins What are medicinal plants? Those plants that have healing properties are termed as medicinal plants or herbs. The plant kingdom is divided into several groups, but the botanical classification is beyond the scope of this section. However, medicinal plants can be simply classified as trees, shrubs, woody perennials, annuals and biennials, and climbers. In this page, only the flowering plants are mentioned, with little or no references to fungi, ferns, mosses and algae. Medical herbalism is the practice of healing with medicinal plants. Modern western treatment is different from medical herbalism, but at some point these two merge. For example, the use of friar's balsam or benzoin tincture for treating colds, the use of aloe vera gel for treating sunburn and bruises and the use of cascara or senna to relieve constipation.

The tendency in modern medicine is to use synthetic drugs, that eventually were modelled on compounds obtained mainly from plants. Therefore, whether the plants are used as a whole, or extracts or their synthetics, their discovery originated from the long term practice of medical herbalism by Man. History of Herbalism Since the dawn of civilisation, Man utilised plants for their medicinal and edible value. By trial and error, Man distinguished between the beneficial and poisonous plants. Man also observed that in large quantities medicinal and edible plants may be poisonous, and learned about the usefulness of plants by observing animals. Sick animals utilise certain plants that they usually ignore. Today, this method is used by scientists to isolate active compounds from medicinal plants. Herbalism is thought to have started some 60,000 years ago, where pollen grains of several medicinal plants such as marshmallow (Althaea), yarrow (Achillea), ephedra and muscari were documented at burial sites at Shanidar in Iraq. This confirms the use of medicinal plants by the Neanderthal Man. The earliest written historical information dates back to 2500 B.C. when Sumarian ideograms described the use of medicinal plants such as the poppy as the "the plant of joy" 1728 to 1686 B.C. in the Code of Hammurabi, the King of Babylon. Plants mentioned include mint, henbane, senna and licorice. It is impossible to determine at what point in time mankind first discovered the medicinal use of specific plants. With time, more documents were written or drawn and by the sixteenth century B.C. the earliest written records of practices were produced by the Egyptians, who were greatly esteemed in the ancient Mediterranean world. Medicinal plants such as fennel, castor oil, opium, thyme, linseed, aloe and myrrh, were mentioned. Some of the early uses of medicinal plants are still valid today. The first documented healer by name was Imhotep. He was so famous that after his death his stature was elevated to that of a god. During the Greek Era, knowledge on the use of medicinal plants expanded in such a way that conquered adopted skills and knowledge of various cultures to their own. Also, there was an exchange of information between professionals especially between the three great civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and India. In fact, the uses of several medicinal plants is common in the Mesopotamian, Indian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman documents. Some plants include: Castor oil that was used as a powerful laxative, one teaspoon to two tablespoons taken in the evening. Fennel seeds that were used for their carminative, stomachic and other digestive problems, taken steeped with water, or as two drops of seed oil. Saffron was used as a carminative or to increase the blood flow. By 400 years B.C., Hippocrates, the father of medicine, tried to weed out the superstitions bound to health and the use of medicinal herbs. As a result, the Hippocratic writings that are anonymous, deal with several medical subjects, taken from a more logical point of view. He also tackled medicinal plants in a more scientific way than ever before.

The Romans were famous for their organised administration. They were attentive to learn and put into practice what they learned. The two most important medical figures of Rome whose contributions remained the uncontested "standard" for botany and medicine were Dioscorides and Galen. By around 50 A.D., Dioscorides described plants in a methodic way including their name, synomyms and picture, habitats, botanical description, drug actions, medicinal uses, harmful side effects, quantity and dosage, instructions on the collection, preparation and storage, adulterants and mode of detection and their veterinary uses. He classified plants on their medicinal action. He compiled works of previous herbalists and botanists in his herbal "De Materia Medica". Around 130 A.D., Galen traveled with the Roman army, like Dioscorides, and gathered information on several medicinal plants. He was the last and most important physician after Hippocrates. The Greek and Roman works were translated to the Syrian and Persian languages and the Arabs reintroduced these works in Europe, when they invaded Spain. The Arabs also introduced Chinese and Ayurveda works. Many plants with medicinal virtues are termed officinalis. The Latin name denotes that the plant is medicinally useful. This term dates back to the early Christian period, when monasteries were utilised as centres for the gathering and writing of information and usage of medicinal herbs. After the first millenium after Christ, several botanists and herbalists wrote on the usage of medicinal plants. Authors include Hildegarde, Albertus Magnus, Valerius Cordus, Theophrastus, Pier Andrea Mattioli, William Turner Carolus Clusius, Nicholas Culpeper and Friedrich Hoffmann extending from 1098 to 1791. Later the isolation of chemical substances from plants was commenced by Caventou and Pelletier who isolated alkaloids such as caffeine, while Geiger and Hess isolated atropine and other alkaloids dating up to 1850. Later scientists from the mid-nineteenth century to date, isolated most of the chemical constituents that we know of. Some of them are still in use in their natural form, while others are produced more efficiently by chemical synthesis, in industry.