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INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILTY Assessment and Repair of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILTY

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILTY Assessment and Repair of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced

Assessment and Repair of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

KN Volmink

Word Count

Main text

3455

Tables (5 x 150)

750

Figures (2 x 150)

300

Total

4505

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

Individual Assignment B

A reinforced concrete structure is to be surveyed for the corrosion of the steel due to chloride attack. Describe and critically evaluate the test methods that can be used for the assessment of

a) the presence of corrosion

b) the rate of corrosion

c) the total amount of corrosion

By reference to a case study describe the renovation and rehabilitation of a structure that has been found to suffer from extensive chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion.

Overall maximum length 4,500 words (excluding report title page, contents, reference list and appendices) with each diagram, figure etc. within the main text to count as 150 words. Number of words or word equivalents should be declared on the title page. Key diagrams, figures etc. should not be relegated to appendices.

In submitting your assignment report you are declaring that all the content is entirely your own work except where indicated (by appropriate citation) that it is the work of others.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

ABSTRACT

Steel reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides are prone to corrosion due to the resultant electrochemical activity. This corrosion reduces the structures service life and, if not remedied, may lead to structural failure. The encasement of steel reinforcing in concrete inherently provides protection against corrosion however exposure to chlorides associated with corrosive conditions eliminate this protection and induces corrosion. The exposure of concrete to chlorides may be as a result of chloride containing constituent materials or by diffusion from external chloride sources such as de-icing and marine salts. The ability to successfully prevent or remedy chloride induced corrosion relies on the successful assessment of the presence of corrosion, the rate of corrosion and the extent of corrosion based on an understanding of the corrosion mechanism. With this knowledge gained about corrosion, preventative measures can be implemented and structures which have already been effected can successfully be repaired and rehabilitated.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

1.

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Corrosion Process

1

1.2 Chloride Penetration

2

1.3 Macrocell Corrosion

2

2.

CORROSION ASSESSMENT

4

2.1 Introduction

 

4

2.2 Presence of Corrosion

4

 

2.2.1 Visual Inspection

4

2.2.2 Half-cell Potential

5

2.3 Corrosion Rate

6

 

2.3.1

Concrete Resistivity

6

2.4 Extent of Corrosion

8

 

2.4.1

Linear Polarisation

8

3.

CASE

CATHODIC PROTECTION

STUDY:

REHABILIATION

BY

USING

IMPRESSED-CURRENT

9

3.1 Introduction

9

3.2 Cathodic Protection

9

 

3.2.1 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection

9

3.2.2 Impressed-current Cathodic Protection

9

3.3 Components of an Impressed-current Cathodic Protection System

10

 

3.3.1 Preparation and Electrical Continuity

10

3.3.2 Anode Installation

10

3.3.3 Power Connection

10

3.4 Challenges of Impressed-current Cathodic Protection

11

3.5 Conclusion

11

4.

REFERENCES

12

APPENDIX A

13

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 Corrosion of steel in aerated water (Domone, 2010)

1

Figure 2-2 Corrosion initiation from Chloride attack (Glass, 2003)

2

Figure 2-3 Macrocell corrosion inside concrete (Berke, 2006)

3

Figure 3-1 Cracking and spalling of cover concrete

4

Figure 3-2 Wenner technique for measuring resistivity (Gowers and Millard, 1999)

6

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3-1 Half-cell potential (voltage in mV) vs. probability of corrosion (ASTM 876, 2009)

5

Table 3-2 Factors causing errors in resistivity measurements (Gowers and MIllard, 1999)

7

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Corrosion Process

Metals, such as steel used for reinforcing concrete, are naturally prone to corrosion. This is because corroded (oxidised) steel is at a lower energy level than in its metallic state. However when in contact with an alkaline solution, such as in concrete, reactions at the steel concrete interface form hydrated oxides which create a passive film to the steel stopping any further corrosion. (Glass, 2003) Disruption to this passive film by chloride ions is the initiation process (Berke, 2006) of chloride induced corrosion.

The corrosion of the steel is further driven by an electrochemical process in which a corrosion cell is produced. Positive steel (iron) ions are dissolved at the anode and gives up electrons which are transported, through the steel, to the cathode where the electrons are consumed in the formation of negative hydroxyl ions. This process is illustrated in Figure 1-1. (Domone, 2010)

This process is illustrated in Figure 1-1. (Domone, 2010) Figure 1-1 Corrosion of steel in aerated

Figure 1-1 Corrosion of steel in aerated water (Domone, 2010)

The ions produced in the anodic and cathodic reactions then become Ferrous hydroxide and then, through the consumption of oxygen, Ferric oxide (rust). The volume of Ferric oxide is twice that of steel and when hydrated swells even further. (Broomfield, 1997) The increase in volume of these corrosion products result in tensile stresses in the concrete which lead to cracking, particularly over the reinforcement.

The corrosion process, from before any corrosion activity, to the disruption of the passive film (depassivation) and finally to the cracking of the concrete is best described as the service life of a structure. (Domone, 2010) This service life model is further illustrated in Figure A-1 in Appendix A.

Assessment of where in the corrosion process a structure is would therefore provide invaluable information into determining the remaining service life of a structure.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

1.2 Chloride Penetration

As stated previously it is the disruption of the passive film (which is stable in an alkaline environment) around the steel reinforcing by chloride ions that induces corrosion. The presence of these chloride ions can be as a result of chloride contaminated materials and from de-icing salts and sea spray which penetrate the concrete through diffusion as a result of a concentration gradient. (Glass, et al.,

2000)

Chloride ions attack the passive layer around the steel forming pits. This pit formation coupled with a reduction in alkalinity, due to the hydrolysis of iron ions, initiates corrosion and further produces hydrochloric acid. (Glass, 2003) This initiation process is illustrated in Figure 1-2. (Glass, 2003)

The chloride ions are not consumed in the depassivation process but further allow faster corrosion. The chlorides are ‘recycled’ and difficult to remove making chloride attack hard to remedy. (Broomfield, 1997)

making chloride attack hard to remedy. (Broomfield, 1997) Figure 1-2 Corrosion initiation from Chloride attack (Glass,

Figure 1-2 Corrosion initiation from Chloride attack (Glass, 2003)

Corrosion initiation however only occurs at a certain Chloride threshold level. Values for this level cited by Glass (2003) range between 0.2 per cent and 2.5 per

cent (expressed as the ratio of Chloride to cement). The in-situ Chloride content of

a concrete structure can therefore be measured and used as an indicator of

corrosion potential, the more chlorides the greater the corrosion potential.

1.3 Macrocell Corrosion

Microcell corrosion occurs when the anodic and cathodic reactions are very closely spaced which results in general, widespread corrosion. Chloride induced corrosion

is however local with relatively small portions of corrosion, separated by large rust

free sections. This is indicative of a separation between the anodic and cathodic reactions forming well defined macrocells.

The macrocell corrosion process is illustrated in Figure 1-3 with the top and bottom layers of steel reinforcement in a slab forming the anode and the cathode respectively. For the macrocell to be sustained a closed circuit of electrons flowing from the anode to the cathode through a conductor, in this case other transverse steel reinforcement and ions from the cathode to the anode, through the concrete pore solution (electrolyte) must be maintained.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Figure 1-3 Macrocell corrosion inside concrete (Berke, 2006)

Figure 1-3 Macrocell corrosion inside concrete (Berke, 2006)

Broomfield

(1997)

states

the

following

as

contribtuting

factors

to

macrocell

formation:

Chloride attack results in pit formation with small anodes being fed by large cathodes.

The high levels of moisture associated with Chloride attack provides easy transfer of ions through the concrete allowing separation between anodes and cathodes.

The resistivity of the concrete determines the ease of transportation of ions between the anode and the cathode thus also impacting on the rate of corrosion once a corrosion cell (macrocell) has formed. (Gowers & Millard, 1999) If the resistivity of concrete and the associated electrical current flow can be measured it can be used to determine the corrosion rate which will be discussed later.

The disruption of the macrocell can also be used in the rehabilitation of structures affected by chloride induced corrosion which will be discussed in the section on Rehabilitation by using Impressed-current Cathodic Protection.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

2. CORROSION ASSESSMENT

2.1 Introduction

There are various methods for assessing chloride induced corrosion. These methods range from basic physical methods such as visual inspection, chloride content and gravimetric weight loss measurements. To more complex methods such as Half-cell Potential, Resistivity and Linear Polarisation measurements that make use of electrochemical techniques to assess chloride induced corrosion. These methods are well documented some of which are described and evaluated below according to the corrosion property it assesses.

2.2 Presence of Corrosion

2.2.1 Visual Inspection

Visual inspection is the most basic method of assessing for the presence of corrosion. It however needs to be conducted by trained inspectors and the criteria for assessment should be as objective as possible.

As discussed previously corrosion results in a build-up of corrosion products around the rebar. These corrosion products occupy up to 10 times (Broomfield, 1997) more volume than the original metal from which they were derived. This generates the tensile stresses causing cracking and spalling of the concrete cover (Figure 2-1).

cracking and spalling of the concrete cover (Figure 2-1). Figure 2-1 Cracking and spalling of cover

Figure 2-1 Cracking and spalling of cover concrete

The first indication of a problem is the formation of a crack along the reinforcement accompanied very often by rust staining. This presents one of the limitations to

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

visual inspection is that corrosion is already in an advanced stage once cracking starts and the structure would have already reached its service life at this point.

Visual inspection is also heavily reliant on the skill of the inspector and results such as rust staining (due to various other causes other than reinforcement corrosion) and different types of cracks can be misleading. Therefore visual inspection results must be confirmed by testing to determine the source and cause of defects. (Broomfield, 1997)

2.2.2 Half-cell Potential

Due to the electrochemical nature and macrocell formation indicative of chloride induced corrosion different areas along the rebar are in different states of corrosion. As a result the flow of ions through in the pore solution of the concrete also varies over the concrete surface and results in potential (voltage) differences.

The use of half-cell potential as a method for assessing the presence or potential of corrosion is widely used and described in ASTM C876 (2009) Standard test method for half-cell potentials of uncoated reinforcing. In this method the potential difference (voltage) between a reference electrode (in contact with the concrete surface) and the steel embedded in the concrete is measured.

A voltmeter connected to the reference electrode and the embedded steel, as detailed in Figure A-2 in Appendix A, measures the numeric value of voltage at various positions on the concrete surface. The more negative the voltage the greater the probability of corrosion. The probability of corrosion corresponding with the different voltage ranges from ASTM C876 (using a Copper-Copper Sulphate reference electrode) is presented in Table 2-1 compared with other reference electrodes cited by Broomfield (1997).

Table 2-1 Half-cell potential (voltage in mV) vs. probability of corrosion (ASTM 876, 2009)

Copper-

Silver-Silver

Calomel

Standard

Probability of

Copper

Chloride

Hydrogen

Corrosion (%)

Sulphate

Electrode

> -200

> -106

> -126

> 116

Less than 10 (Low)

-200 to -350

-106 to -256

-126 to -276

116 to -34

Uncertain

(Intermediate)

< -350

< -256

< -276

< -34

Greater than 90% (High)

< -500

< -406

< -426

< 184-

Severe corrosion

Broomfield (1997) also states that the corrosion potentials measured by the half-cell method can be misleading. In saturated conditions with no oxygen to form a passive

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

layer and corrosion very negative potentials can be found. This is because the method measures the thermodynamics of corrosion and not the rate of corrosion. (Broomfield, 1997)

The resistivity of the concrete can also affect the accuracy of the half-cell potential readings. It is only when the resistivity of the concrete is much larger than the resistance of the voltmeter that the true potential values are approached. (Otieno, et al., 2010)

2.3 Corrosion Rate

Gowers and Millard (1999) states that the ionic flow of current between the anodic and cathodic areas of the reinforcement are regulated by the electrical resistance of concrete. The higher the concrete resistivity is the lower the current flowing between anodic and cathodic areas and therefore the lower the corrosion rate.

2.3.1 Concrete Resistivity

The Wenner technique described by Gowers and Millard (1999) is most commonly used to measure the resistivity of concrete. The measurement is done with a four- probe resistivity meter with four equally spaced contacts placed on the concrete surface as show in Figure 2-2.

placed on the concrete surface as show in Figure 2-2. Figure 2-2 Wenner technique for measuring

Figure 2-2 Wenner technique for measuring resistivity (Gowers and Millard, 1999)

A small AC current (I) is then passed between the two outermost contacts and the resultant potential difference between the inner two contacts (V) measured. The resistivity (ρ) of the concrete is then calculated using the equation as shown in Figure 3-2 (Gowers and Millard, 1999). The interpretation of these resistivity measurements from Langford and Broomfield (1987) are given below:

> 20 kcm

Low corrosion rate

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

10 – 20 kcm

Low to moderate corrosion rate

5 – 10 kcm

High corrosion rate

< 5 kcm

Very high corrosion rate

Gowers and Millard (1999) states that this method should however be used with care as significant errors can be obtained. The factors that contribute to these errors, presented by Gowers and Millard (1999), are described in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Factors causing errors in resistivity measurements (Gowers and MIllard, 1999)

Factor causing error

Description

Geometrical

If the dimensions of the concrete element being measured are relatively small, the current is constricted to flow into a different field pattern resulting in an overestimation the resistivity of the concrete.

constraints

Concrete

Concrete contains aggregate particles and cement paste with different resistivity measurements. If the Wenner contact spacing is reduced the presence of a high-resistivity aggregate particle immediately beneath one of the surface contacts will result in a random scatter in the repeatability of the measurement.

non-homogeneity

Poor surface contact

An uneven electrical contact between the two inner contacts and the surface of the concrete can lead to false common mode voltages resulting in significant errors.

Surface layers of different resistivity from the bulk concrete

This causes distortion in applied current field. The resultant effect depends on whether the surface layer has a higher or a lower resistivity than that of the underlying concrete. Greater errors were found with a low resistivity to that of a surface layer with a high resistivity.

Presence of steel reinforcement

The current field is also distorted by the presence of a steel reinforcing bar directly underneath the position of measurement.

Ambient

The relationship between resistivity and air temperature was found to be inversely linear. Thus as the air temperature increased the resistivity of the same concrete decreased.

environmental

conditions

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

2.4 Extent of Corrosion

Despite the widespread use of the corrosion rate measurements discussed in the previous section these cannot yet be used to calculate the total extent of the corrosion in terms of steel section loss. (Broomfield, 1997) However it is possible to measure how much steel is being oxidised and forming rust with techniques such as Linear Polarisation.

2.4.1 Linear Polarisation

This method measures the current generated in the anodic and cathodic reactions of a macrocell and converts the current flow, by Faraday’s law, to metal loss such that 1µA.cm -2 = 11.6µm steel loss per year. (Broomfield, 1997)

Linear polarisation is achieved by polarising the steel reinforcement with an electrical current and comparing it to the effect on the half-cell potential. A schematic diagram of the linear polarization measurement device is given in Appendix A, Figure A-3 (Grantham, 2003).

The technique involves the measurement of the half-cell potential after which a small current is transmitted from an auxiliary electrode to the reinforcement. The half-cell potential is then measured with the transmitted current and the change in half-cell potential recorded. The change in half-cell potential is the related to the corrosion current which is in turn used to determine the corrosion condition over a specific area of steel. (Broomfield, 1997)

The corrosion current (measured with a guard ring to confine the current to a known area of reinforcement) and the associated corrosion condition from Broomfield, et al., (1994) is given below:

< 0.1µA.cm -2

0.1µA.cm -2 – 0.5µA.cm -2

0.5µA.cm -2 – 1.0µA.cm -2

> 1.0µA.cm -2

Passive condition

Low to moderate corrosion

Moderate to high corrosion

High corrosion

There are two main limitations (Broomfield, 1997) to Linear Polarisation. The first is environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity both of which affect the chloride induced corrosion process. Temperature affects the rate of oxidation reaction and relative humidity, moisture, enables the corrosion process to be sustained.

The second is the determination of the surface area of the steel being measured. With pitting corrosion the area of reinforcement can result in the underestimation of the corrosion extent. (Broomfield, 1997)

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

3. CASE STUDY: REHABILIATION BY USING IMPRESSED- CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION

3.1 Introduction

This section describes the renovation and rehabilitation of bridges with extensive chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. This is presented in the form of a case study of an article by R. Bottenberg published in Concrete International September

2008.

Bottenberg (2008) presented the successful rehabilitation of six legendry bridges on the Oregon Coast Highway by Impressed-current Cathodic Protection (ICCP). This method makes use of the electrochemical nature of chloride induced corrosion, as described and discussed in previous sections, to protect and rehabilitate structures already effected by corrosion.

This section will look briefly at the theory behind cathodic protection and discuss how it was successfully used as described by Bottenburg (2008) to rehabilitate bridges with chloride induced corrosion.

3.2 Cathodic Protection

As discussed previously macrocell corrosion, indicative of chloride attack, consists of an anode and a cathode connected by a conductor and an electrolyte. Electrons stripped from the Iron (steel) atoms flow from the anode to the cathode where they combine with positive ions to form compounds such as hydrogen and water. (Bottenberg, 2008)

Cathodic protection takes advantage of this compound formation at the cathode of a macrocell by causing the previously anodic steel reinforcement to become cathodic. The cathodic reaction causes the PH to increase resulting in the re-passivation of the steel reinforcing bars.

There are two forms of cathodic protection namely sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP) and impressed-current cathodic protection (ICCP). (Broomfield,

1997)

3.2.1 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection

SACP is achieved through the formation of a galvanic cell by the wasting of a sacrificial anode, liberating electrons which are transported to the cathode. The wasting of the anode therefore protects the previously anodic steel reinforcement by causing it to become cathodic.

3.2.2 Impressed-current Cathodic Protection

With ICCP an external power supply is connected to the steel reinforcement at the one end and a permanent anode at the other. The power supply passes sufficient current to cause the anodic reaction at the steel reinforcement to stop and make the reaction cathodic. (Broomfield, 1997) ICCP was used to repair and rehabilitate the bridges presented by Bottenberg (2008).

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

3.3 Components of an Impressed-current Cathodic Protection System

Broomfield (2008) discusses several components, listed below, of an impressed- current cathodic system to ensure its success.

Electrical continuity of the cathode (reinforcement) Minimal current supply An anode distributed over the concrete surface Gas permeability of the anode Maintained moisture around the anode Transformer/Rectifier to regulated DC input Half-cells or other monitoring instrumentation

These components were incorporated by Bottenburg (2008) in the repair and rehabilitation of six bridges on the Oregon Coast Highway as discussed below.

3.3.1 Preparation and Electrical Continuity

Work starts by sounding the entire concrete surface with a 450g hammer to locate delaminated or spalling areas of concrete which are marked and removed using pneumatic hammers. The exposed concrete and steel reinforcement is then treated by abrasive blasting and extra steel added if the steel section loss is beyond limits.

The resistance across the rebar grid is then measured to ensure electrical continuity and additional steel welded on in areas of high resistance (poor connectivity). Brass terminals to connect the rebar to the current source are fixed to the reinforcement.

Reference silver-silver chloride cells are also installed for monitoring of the electrical potential within the repaired area. This allows for the correct current to be supplied ensuring that the reinforcement becomes cathodic and concrete resistivity is overcome.

3.3.2 Anode Installation

After the concrete is patched using a cement patching material the anode terminals and plates, to which the current source is connected, is anchored into the concrete. The zinc anode is then installed by arc spraying over the surface of the concrete and the anode terminal plates ensuring complete distribution of the anode over the surface of the concrete.

The arc sprayed zinc anode is highly conductive and porous allowing the permeation of gases thorough it. It also has the advantage of being the same colour as concrete but is however toxic (Broomfield, 1997) and should be used with the necessary precaution.

3.3.3 Power Connection

With all the components of the ICCP system installed the anode (zinc surface coating) and cathode (steel reinforcement) is then connected to the positive and negative terminals of the DC power supply respectively.

The transformer, power regulation, monitoring, control and recording equipment are all housed in a cabinet (constructed from a corrosion resistant material).

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

3.4 Challenges of Impressed-current Cathodic Protection

Despite the successful use of ICCP to repair and rehabilitate Six Oregon Coast Highway Bridges, Bottenberg (2008) also describes some challenges that have been experienced.

Localized anode failure attributed to the heat of a campfire and the de-bonding of an anode as a result of high currents which were not regulated have been noted highlighting the importance of current regulation as discussed by Broomfield (1997).

Further to this the build-up of corrosion products at the zinc concrete interface was also noted causing an increase in electrical resistance and a decrease in pH promoting further corrosion. This build-up of corrosion products is due to the corrosion of the zinc which forms oxides and sulphates (Broomfield, 1997).

Power supply failure (even when placed in corrosion resistant enclosures) was also experienced due the corrosive environment in which ICCP is implemented.

Finally Bottenberg (2008) also noted the high cost ($936 per square meter) and labour intensity of this method of repair and rehabilitation.

3.5 Conclusion

ICCP therefore, despite its successful use, has considerable challenges that need to be considered when comparing it to other electrochemical repair and rehabilitation techniques.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

4.

REFERENCES

1. ASTM C876, 2009. Standard test method for half-cell potentials of uncoated reinforcing steel in concrete. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.

2. Berke, N. S., 2006. Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel. In: Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials - STP 169D. West Conshohocken: ASTM International, pp. 164-173.

3. Bottenberg, R., 2008. Cathodic Protection of Historic Bridges - Technology helps preserve legacies on the Oregon Coast Highway. Concrete International, September, pp. 37-41.

4. Broomfield, J. P., 1997. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete - Understanding, Investigation and Repair. London: E & FN Spon.

5. Broomfield, J., Rodriguez, J., Ortega, L. & Garcia, A., 1994. Corrosion Rate Measurements in Reinforced Concrete Structures by a Linear Polarization Device. American Concrete Institute - Special Publication, Volume 151, pp. 163-182.

6. Domone, P., 2010. Part 2: Metals and Alloys . In: Construction Materials their Nature and Behaviour (4th Edition). London : Spon Press, pp. 63-67.

7. Domone, P., 2010. Part 3: Concrete. In: Construction Materials their Nature and Behaviour 4th edition. London: Spon Press, pp. 83-208.

8. Glass, G., 2003. Reinforcement Corrosion. In: J. Newman & B. S. Choo, eds. Advance Concrete Technology - Concrete Properties. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann, pp. 9/1-9/27.

9. Glass, G., Reddy, B. & Buenfeld, N., 2000. The participation of bound chloride in passive film breakdown on steel in concrete. Corrosion Science, Volume 42, pp.

2013-2021.

10. Gowers, K. & Millard, S., 1999. Measurement of Concrete Resistivity for Assessment of Corrosion Severity of Steel Using Wenner Technique. ACI Materials Journal, 96(5), pp. 536-541.

11. Grantham, M., 2003. Diagnosis, inspection, testing and repair of reinforced concrete structures. In: J. Newman & B. S. Choo, eds. Advanced Concrete Technology - Testing and Quality. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, pp. 6/1-6/54.

12. Langford, P. & Broomfield, J., 1987. Monitoring the corrosion of reinforcing steel. Construction Repair, 1(No.2), pp. 32-36.

13. Otieno, M., Alexander, M. & Beushausen, H., 2010. Concrete Materials & Structural Integrity Research Unit. [Online] Available at: http://www.csirg.uct.ac.za/ [Accessed 30 August 2012].

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

APPENDIX A

Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete APPENDIX A Figure A-1 Service-life model of reinforced concrete

Figure A-1 Service-life model of reinforced concrete exposed to a corrosive environment (Domone, 2010)

concrete exposed to a corrosive environment (Domone, 2010) Figure A-2 Reference electrode circuitry (ASTM C876, 2009)

Figure A-2 Reference electrode circuitry (ASTM C876, 2009)

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT B CONCRETE DURABILITY Assessment of Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete

Chloride Induced Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Figure A-3 Schematic diagram of the linear polarization

Figure A-3 Schematic diagram of the linear polarization measurement device (Grantham,

2003)