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Wahida Rosli, Fauziah Baharom, Harryizman Harun, Ali Yusny Daud, Haslina Mohd, Norida Muhd. Darus Universiti Utara Malaysia Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia Abstract This study proposes a conceptual model for exploring the prospect of a new form of Virtual Reality (VR) application called Augmented Reality (AR) technology in education domain. AR sets itself apart from VR by allowing integration of 3D virtual objects into real environment in real time thus allowing student to relate with their physical environment and also making the subject more interesting. It is hoped that by implementing AR in Science learning helps to counter the declining interest in Science subject in Malaysian public schools particularly in suburb area. AR able to help reduce the complexity of subject thus captures the interest of student in learning science which the difficulty has become a norm for a long time. This article is a concept article based on portions of literature review cum preliminary study from a research that is still ongoing. The benefit of this project is for teachers and students alike. It provides the teachers teaching aids and transforms the learning session to be more interactive, attractive, and effective. As for the students, it assists in building their creative thinking, improving their comprehension, and changing the paradigm of science learning curve. It is highly hoped that the article would enlighten teachers in utilizing AR towards dissemination of sciences knowledge and information. Keywords: Augmented Reality, human anatomy, Science subject, education 1. INTRODUCTION

Science plays an important role in our life. It is a core subject in the curriculum for students in preschool, primary (Malaysian of Education (MOE), 2009a) and secondary school (MOE, 2009b). The content of science for Year One in primary school focuses on human body, animals, plants, senses, float and sinks, and also light and dark as basic areas of science itself (Wan Zaharah & Missiah, 2003). As a point of discussion, this paper focuses on the human body topic. It cant be stressed enough that science learning is important hence the introduction of AR helps students to nurture their creative thinking, improve their comprehension, and change the paradigm of science learning curve. Augmented Reality (AR) evolved from Virtual Reality (VR) (Azuma, 1997; Kaufmann, 2003, 2005; Lyu, King, Wong, Yau & Chan, 2005; Basogain, Izakar & Borro, 2007; Pribeanu, Vilkonis & Iordache, 2007) approaches thus allowing computer animation goes one step further and open up to new applications in many different fields (Tucker, 2004). AR differs from VR where it requires real time marker for it to function (HITLabNZ, 2002). It allows merging of virtual information with the real environment to provide user with more immersive interaction with their surroundings (Hainich, 2006). Education sector gains benefits from AR where it helps to create new exciting approach of delivering teaching content (Billinghurst, 2002). This paper presents the AR technology as an innovative tool for the educational environment. This paper starts with the definition and a little bit history of AR and also comparison between AR and virtual reality (VR). Following
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is how AR has been used in education, human anatomy in Science Subject and a few of application of AR in education area. Lastly, the article discusses contributions of AR in a classroom. 2. AUGMENTED REALITY

Ivan Sutherland is considered as the pioneer of AR field since he first developed the display advancement in virtual area device, the Head Mounted Display (HMD). Researchers or whoever interested in this area noticed that it is the beginning of the innovative technology of AR (Azuma, Baillot, Behringer, Feiner, Julier, & MacIntyre, 2001). In the last few years, technological advancement in computer processing power as well as in computer vision research has helped to improve the study of AR (Behringer, 1999). The technology is still in early stage however, the potential of AR technologies will grow rapidly and it can be applied in so many fields not only in engineering (Kumaran, Santhi & Anand, 2007), medical (Sielhorst, Obst, Burgkart, Riener & Navab, 2004), and construction (Webster, Feiner, MacIntyre, Massie, & Krueger, 1996) but also in education (Billinghurt, 2002). According to a definition provided by Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi & Kishino (1994), AR is a sub category of mixed reality (MR) area based on real-to-virtual continuum, shown in Figure 1. MR environment is a single display while two environments consists real environment and virtual object environment presented together at the time (Milgram et al., 1994). Virtual Reality (VE) added the virtual object into one space the surrounding known as Augmented Virtuality (AV). While, Real Environment (RE) added the virtual object into the surrounding environment knows as AR (Azuma et al., 2001). This study focuses on AR and next section discusses more about the differences between AR and VR.

Figure 1: MFilgrams Reality-Virtuality Continuum (Milgram, 1994) 3. AUGMENTED REALITY (AR) VS VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)

AR and VR are significantly different from several aspects. The details of the differences are as explained in Table 1 (Mohd Nihra & Norazlina, 2007; Kaufmann, 2003, Costello, 1997). Differences Environment Table 1: Comparison between AR and VR AR VR Combined both real and virtual VR is requires totally objects coexist in the same immersive in the virtual world space and in real-time at real environment that a replaces the environment real world. Allows user to see the real User see the world around him and the environment only virtual object No Yes virtual

User View

Need Space/Room

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Health Issues


Sense of immersion

AR solved the motion sickness problem through superimposed virtual image in real environment through special marker where human brain can still process and accept such idea Users feel comfortable and able to control the environment. None Low

Known as motion sickness where human brain unable to differentiate between virtual and reality and cause nausea and heavy headache.

User feel unsafe because their view blocked by the virtual environment Medium high

Based on the explanation of the differences between AR and VR above, it can be hypothesized that AR is more suitable to be implemented in education because AR does not distract the students from the real world hence; they are able to utilize the technology and at the same time receive instructions from teachers. Moreover, it is much safer compared to VR to be used as tool in teaching and learning since AR solved the motion sickness issue raised by VR. 4. AUGMENTED REALITY IN EDUCATION

Rooting from the comparison between augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) in the previous section, clearly AR is the more suitable to be implemented in a classroom and dwelling on this notion, this study is conducted. Selecting science education as the focus, AR is able to stimulate new type of interactivity with virtual world for the student in Year One thus is able to assist in their mental development. This area should focused to change the traditional method material have been transform with the new material or tools to improve the efficiency teaching method based (Jensen, 2002; Basogain et al., 2007; Balog, Pribeanu & Iordache, 2007) and AR can provide new experience to them. AR technology is suitable to applied in this area (Billinghurst, 2002) where this technology a valuable and interactive tool in academic process. According Billinghurst (2002), the educational experience in AR is the ability to support the smooth transition between two environment which is reality and virtually. Utilizing AR in education will nurture creative thinking among students and enhance their understanding in Science subject. AR provides exciting tools for the students to learn and explore new things in more interesting ways. Having said that, Science subject will be more significant to the young students because every finding is the fruit of their own exploration. Other than that, it is also act as a paradigm shift to the students to see the Science subject as something interesting and enjoyable to learn. 5. PRELIMINARY STUDY

In an effort to strengthen the fact of AR contributions in education, interviews had been conducted at five primary schools in Jitra, Kedah vicinity. It is found that the five teacher as the expert respondents who have been teaching the Science subject for more than five years gave good responds to the implementation of AR in the proposed topic which is human body. The teachers can make some preparation before classes using the latest and new method besides adding the learning aids. It also helps the teachers to enhance the reading materials and encourage the teachers to always be ready with other knowledge. In addition, the often main problem faced by the teachers during the teaching and learning session using the
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learning aids, the CDs as an intermediary teaching module is the students easily lose focus in a learning session. This becomes a barrier to teachers to use the CDs as a learning aid because it is not able to attract students. Therefore, AR technology is built as a solution for the problems. Technology that uses this approach is appropriate to implement the Year One students because at this age, their curiosity is higher in line with their imagination level. Apart from that, this technology can help to build their creative thinking, improve their understanding and feel that science generally, and human anatomy specifically is the interesting subject to be learned. According to the respondents, students basically will be taught on how to pronounce and what are the parts and the functions of body parts are and how to take care of them. The following are the common learning aids used by respondents such as singing, drawing, chart diagram, word card, puzzle, exercises, worksheet, following the respondent movement, and CDs. This study is conducted to proof that AR is fit as an addition to the long list of learning aids which can greatly assist teachers in diversifying their learning tools and it will make the learning session more attractive and effective. Table 2: Interview result Problems in Science subject Percentage in Science subjects decreased in several schools in the UPSR examination is caused by three main factors: i. Preparation of teachers in classes: when teachers are not prepared the learning aids (BBM) and Teaching and Learning (P&P), this is a reason that students feel less interested in the delivery of these teachers and this will impact directly to the subjects taught ii. Exposure of teachers with UPSR examination papers: The teachers who are experienced in marking examination papers having different teaching methods than teachers with less or no direct experience in the field and this causes give the impact for the standard marks. iii. Teachers experience in teaching Science subject: The main problem in the Primary Schools is those teachers who teach the Science subject majority is non-Science subject option. Problems using technology as i. Students easily lose focus of the session learning to learning aids in Science use the CDs as a medium of teaching modules Subject ii. CDs supplied damaged iii. Computer that is often problematic and often damaged Advantages using technology as learning aids in Science subject i. ii. Teaching and learning more attractive and more efficient Teachers who use the technology as learning aids, it is more confident and able to describe a thing more clearly Students more interested and able to development their minds of human internal organs that are not

Implementation of Augmented Reality (AR) Technology in


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Science Subject focuses on human body


available in textbooks Teachers can add learning aids and can also make preparations to class with new technology.

Table 2 shows the analysis obtained from interview. Based on interviews carried out, the study found that the respondent still unaware and unfamiliar with the existence of AR technology. The concept of education in this level is to introduce the fundamental topic as early exposure to students. According to the respondents, students in Year One have learned with fast because of their high level of attention and their easy learning attitude. This is advantages to them because it is early exposures to cover the fundamental aspects and encouraging the creative and critical thinking skills in order to assist their mental development. Human anatomy topic is too common that covers the external body and the students only learn the basic function of the body. Therefore, this study aims to improve the existing knowledge by adding the basic knowledge of the internal organs and the students also learn the basic functions of the organs. This study only reflects a small portion of contributions of AR in a classroom. 6. EXAMPLES OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN A CLASSROOM

The academic area also affected by these technologies and could be implemented in many area of education such as medical (Sielhorst et al., 2004), geometry and mathematic (Kaufmann & Papp, 2006), archeology (Balaguer, Lors, Junyent & Ferr, 2001), symbol language (Wagner & Barakonyi, 2003) and other disciplines will be applied the technology. From the literature, this section will highlight the sub of education area that has been applied AR technologies such as astronomy, biology and storytelling. Shelton and Hedley (2002) has developed virtual sun and earth through AR to teach students astronomy. The model has the ability to view from any of the students view and position. They found out from their study, the students received a significant understanding through the projected image of AR they concluded that by allowing the students to manipulate the 3D objects, however there is little misunderstanding in grasping the subject. The usage of visual and sensory information creates a powerful learning experience for the students. Shelton (2002) also hypothesize that 2D diagrams shown for learning and education creates a cognitive filter and is researching further to understand the learning content based on AR interaction using the direct cognitive path. In biology area, Juan et al. (2008) produced the learning system on interior human body. These systems able for students operate which part their needed to explore the human organ on detailed. In addition, this system allows students to choice female or man body. In generally, the objective developing this system is too determined whether visualization gives the influences perceptions to students. At the end of this study, students consider using this system for learning and enhanced their understanding about the human body. This technology is currently suitable to implement in storytelling. Billinghurst et al. (2001) developed The MagicBook application. This book replaced the traditional method of book. It seems the fantasy since students can see the 3D animation virtual model appearing on the current pages using the AR display. They can see the pop-up avatar characters from any perspective view. It liked students immerse in the environment both real and virtual knows as mixed reality.
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There are several examples that using AR in classroom for learning process. However, there are so many studies conducted to prove that AR practicable to implement in classroom and the result of those studies shown this technology help to improve the learning process. There are abundant of benefits that AR could carry into the classroom and next section would focus on this. 7. BENEFIT OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN A CLASSROOM

According to Billinghurst (2002), the reasons to implement AR in education domain includes its support of seamless interaction, use tangible interface metaphor and transitional interface. The seamless interaction means students can be seated in a group viewing the same display on the same space combining the virtual object and real environment at the same time. Meanwhile, tangible interface metaphor manipulates the virtual objects using the HMD or Interaction system could be using keyboard. Moreover, the ability to transit smoothly between the real and virtual environment allows the students to experience both worlds activity simultaneously. Several advantages to integrated AR technology in education are to improve the skill of teaching when teacher become a creative to manipulate the learning tools. Other, science experiences also influent to enhance the students to construct their intellect, thinking skill (Martin, Sexton, Franklin, Gerlovich, & McElroy, 2009) and make them more confident to manipulate the machine. Many researchers (Cooperstock, 2001; Billinghurst, 2002; Kondo, 2006; Kaufmann & Papp, 2006; Balog et al., 2007; Basogain et. al, 2007; Juan, Beatrice, & Cano, 2008) supported that have many benefits implement AR technologies in academic especially to improve and empower the tool for education and make learning more attractive and fun for students learning environment (Bruce, 1997; Martin et al., 2009). According to Kaufmann (2003) and Martin et al. (2009), the assistive technologies cannot guarantee academic success but it provides to students the alternative ways to ease understand the subject using innovative tool technology. 8. CONCLUSION

These paper presented concept idea of AR technologies. There are many more benefits that can be utilized with this AR technology in education area. Highly hope, with the few selected benefits has been discussed in this article that can be motivated to educators to implement these technologies in classroom for the future as learning aids. REFERENCES Azuma, R. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environment, Vol. 6, pp. 355-385. Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent Advances in Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(6), 34-47. Balaguer, A., Lors, J., Junyent, E., & Ferr, G. (2001). Scenario Based Design of Augmented Reality Systems Applied to Cultural Heritage. Proceedings of the PH-CHI.

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Balog, A., Pribeanu, C., & Iordache, D. (2007). Augmented Reality in Schools: Preliminary Evaluation Results from a Summer School. International Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 3. Basogain, X., Izakar, J.L., & Borro, D. (2007). Educational Mobile Environment with Augmented Reality Technology. INTED 2007 Proceedings CD. ISBN, 84-611. Behringer, R. (1999). Registration for Outdoor Augmented Reality Applications Using Computer Vision Techniques and Hybrid Sensors. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference. Pp.244. Billinghurst, M. (2002). Augmented Reality in Education. New Horizons for Learning, www. newhorizons. org/strategies/technology/billinghurst. htm. Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., & Poupyrev, I. (2001). The MagicBook-Moving Seamlessly between Reality and Virtuality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(3), 6-8. Bruce, T. (1997). Early Childhood Education (2nd ed). London: Hodder and Stoughton. Cooperstock, J.R. (2001). Classroom of the Future: Enhancing Education through Augmented Reality. HCI International, Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, New Orleans, pp.688-692. Costello, P. (1997). Health and Safety Issues Associated With Virtual Reality: A Review of Current Literature. JISC Advisory Group on Computer Graphics, Technical Report No, 37. Hainich, R. R. (2006). The End of Hardware: A Novel Approach to Augmented Reality (2nd ed.). Booksurge. ISBN 1419652184 HITLabNZ. (2002). ARToolKit. Retrieved Mac 22, 2009, from ARToolKit Documentation: Jensen. E. (2002). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Chapter 1. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Alexandria, VA. Juan, C., Beatrice, F., & Cano, J. (2008). An Augmented Reality System for Learning the Interior of the Human Body. Advanced Learning Technologies, 2008. ICALT '08. Eighth IEEE International Conference (pp. 186-188). Santander, Cantabri: IEEE. Kaufmann, M. H., & Papp, M. (2006). Learning Objects for Education with Augmented Reality. Proceedings of EDEN, 160-165. Kaufmann, M. H. (2005). Geometry Education with Augmented Reality. Unpublished Dissertation at TU Vienna. Kaufmann. M. H. (2003). Collaborative Augmented Reality in Education. Imagina Conference. Kondo, T. (2006). Augmented Learning Environment using Mixed Reality Technology. In T. Reeves & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006 (pp. 83-87). Chesapeake, VA: AACE

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Kumaran, G.S., Santhi, K. R., & Anand, P.M.R. (2007). Impact of Augmented Reality (AR) in Civil Engineering. Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 18 19. Lyu, M. R., King, I., Wong, T. T., Yau, E., & Chan, P. W. (2005). ARCADE: Augmented Reality Computing Arena For Digital Entertainment. IEEE Aerospace Conference. Pp. 1-5. Malaysian of Education (MOE). (2009a). Primary Subjects. Retrieved Mac 22, 2009, from Ministry of Education Malaysias Official Portal: Malaysian of Education (MOE). (2009b). Secondary Subjects. Retrieved Mac 22, 2009, from Ministry of Education Malaysias Official Portal: Martin, R. E., Sexton, C., Franklin, T., Gerlovich, J., & McElroy, D. (2009). Teaching Science for All Children: An Inquiry Approach. US:Pearson. Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., & Kishino, F. (1994). Augmented Reality: A Class of Displays on the Reality-Virtuality Continuum. SPIE Vol. 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies , 282-292. Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said, Norazlina binti Ismail. (2007). Overview of Open Source Augmented Reality Toolkit. 1st International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention (IMETC).Pp: 1144-1149 Pribeanu, C., Vilkonis, R., & Iordache, D. D. (2007). A Task-Based Design Approach for Augmented Reality Systems. Proceeding of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. (vol.25). Shelton, B. (2002). Augmented Reality and Education: Current Projects and the Potential for Classroom Learning. New Horizons for Learning 9(1). Shelton, B., & Hedley, N. (2002). Using Augmented Reality for Teaching Earth-Sun Relationships to Undergraduate Geography Students. Paper presented at the First IEEE International Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop. Darmstadt: Germany. Sielhorst, T., Obst, T., Burgkart, R., Riener, R., & Navab, N. (2004). An Augmented Reality Delivery Simulator for Medical Training. International Workshop on Augmented Environments for Medical Imaging. Tucker, A. B. (2004, April 27). Computer Science Handbook (second ed.): Chapman & Hall/CRC. Retrieved from Wagner, D., & Barakonyi, I. (2003). Augmented Reality Kanji Learning. Proceedings of the Second IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR '03) (pp. 335-336). IEEE. Wan Zaharah Megat Hashim & Missiah Haji Sanusi. (2003). Science Textbook Year 1. Integrated Curriculum for Primary School. Fergoes: Kuala Lumpur. Webster, A., Feiner, S., MacIntyre, B., Massie, W., & Krueger, T. (1996). Augmented Reality in Architectural Construction, Inspection and Renovation. Proc. ASCE Third Congress on Computing in Civil Engineering. Pg. 913-919.
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