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Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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The Finite Element Method for the Analysis of Non-Linear and Dynamic Systems

Prof. Dr. Michael Havbro Faber Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Contents of Today's Lecture

Motivation, overview and organization of the course Introduction to non-linear analysis Formulation of the continuum mechanics incremental equations of motion

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Motivation In FEM 1 we learned about the steady state analysis of linear systems however, the systems we are dealing with in structural engineering are generally not steady state and also not linear We must be able to assess the need for a particular type of analysis and we must be able to perform it

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Motivation What kind of problems are not steady state and linear? E.g. when the: material behaves non-linearly deformations become big (p- effects) loads vary fast compared to the eigenfrequencies of the structure General feature: Response becomes load path dependent

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Motivation What is the added value of being able to assess the non-linear non-steady state response of structures ? E.g. assessing the: - structural response of structures to extreme events (rock-fall, earthquake, hurricanes) - performance (failures and deformations) of soils - verifying simple models

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Collapse Analysis of the World Trade Center

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Collapse Analysis of the World Trade Center

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Analysis of ultimate collapse capacity of jacket structure

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Analysis of ultimate collapse capacity of jacket structure

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Analysis of soil performance

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Analysis of bridge response

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course


Steady state problems (Linear/Non-linear): The response of the system does not change over time

KU = R
Propagation problems (Linear/Non-linear): The response of the system changes over time

MU (t ) + CU(t ) + KU (t ) = R (t )
Eigenvalue problems: No unique solution to the response of the system

Av = Bv
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Organization The lectures will be given by: M. H. Faber

Exercises will be organized/attended by: Jianjun Qin By appointment, HIL E13.1.

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Organization PowerPoint files with the presentations will be uploaded on our homepage one day in advance of the lectures http://www.ibk.ethz.ch/fa/education/FE_II

The lecture as such will follow the book:

"Finite Element Procedures" by K.J. Bathe, Prentice Hall, 1996

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Overview

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Overview

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Motivation, overview and organization of the course

Overview

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Previously we considered the solution of the following linear and static problem:

KU = R

for these problems we have the convenient property of linearity, i.e:

KU = R, = 1 U = U, 1
If this is not the case we are dealing with a non-linear problem!

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Previously we considered the solution of the following linear and static problem:

KU = R
we assumed: small displacements when developing the stiffness matrix K and the load vector R, because we performed all integrations over the original element volume that the B matrix is constant independent of element displacements the stress-strain matrix C is constant boundary constraints are constant
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses


Type of analysis Description Typical formulation used Materiallynonlinear-only (MNO) Stress and strain measures used Engineering strain and stress

Materially-nonlinear Infinitesimal only displacements and strains; stress train relation is nonlinear Large Displacements and displacements, large rotations of fibers rotations but small are large; but fiber strains extensions and angle changes between fibers are small; stress strain relationship may be linear or non-linear Large Displacements and displacements, large rotations of fibers rotations and large are large; fiber strains extensions and angle changes between fibers may also be large; stress strain relationship may be linear or non-linear Method of Finite Elements II

Total Lagrange (TL) Second PiolaKirchoff stress, Green-Lagrange strain Updated Lagrange (UL) Cauchy stress, Almansi strain

Total Lagrange (TL) Second PiolaKirchoff stress, Green-Lagrange strain Updated Lagrange Cauchy stress, (UL) Logarithmic strain

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses

P 2

= P/ A = / E =L

E
1

P 2

< 0.04

Linear elastic (infinitesimal displacements)

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses

P 2 L

P/ A

Y = P/ A Y Y = +
E ET
1

ET

P 2

< 0.04

Materially nonlinear only (infinitesimal displacements, but nonlinear stress-strain relation)


Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses


y

< 0.04 = L

Large displacements and large rotations but small strains (linear or nonlinear material behavior)
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses

Large displacements, large rotations and large strains (linear or nonlinear material behavior)
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Classification of non-linear analyses


P 2

P 2

Chang in boundary conditions

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Example: Simple bar structure


Area = 1cm 2
t

E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2

u
t

Y
E
1

ET

Y : yield stress Y : yield strain

Section a

Section b

La = 10cm
t

Lb = 5cm

R
4 3 2 1

Y = 0.002

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 27

Introduction to non-linear analysis

Example: Simple bar structure


Area = 1cm 2
t

E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2

ET

Y : yield stress Y : yield strain

u
1
t

R
t

= 0.002
R
4 3 2

Section a

Section b

La = 10cm
t

Lb = 5cm

t u t u t a = , b = La Lb t

R + t b A = t a A

(elastic region)
t

= Y +

Y
ET

(plastic region)

(unloading) E

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Example: Simple bar structure

E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2

t u t u a = , b = La Lb

Area = 1cm 2

u
t

Y
E

ET

Y : yield stress Y : yield strain

R + t b A = t a A

R
t

(elastic region)
t

Section a

Section b

R
4 3 2 1

= 0.002

= Y +
=

Y
ET

(plastic region)

La = 10cm

La = 5cm

(unloading) E

Both sections elastic


t 1 1 R t R = EA t u ( + ) t u = La Lb 3 106

R 2 tR , b = a = 3A 3 A
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

Example: Simple bar structure

t
E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2

t u t u a = , b = La Lb

Area = 1cm 2

u
t

Y
E

ET

Y : yield stress Y : yield strain

R + t b A = t a A

R
t

Section a

Section b

R
4 3 2 1

= 0.002

(elastic region)
t

La = 10cm

Lb = 5cm

= Y +
=

Y
ET

(plastic region)

(unloading) E

Section a is elastic while section b is plastic

3 section b will be plastic when R = Y A t t 2 u u a = E , b = ET ( Y ) Y La Lb


t

R
4 3 2 1
0.1 0.2
t

EA t u ET A t u t R= + ET Y A + Y A La Lb
t

u=

R / A + ET Y Y R = 1.9412 10 2 1.02 106 E / La + E / Lb


t

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 30

Introduction to non-linear analysis

What did we learn from the example?

The basic problem in general nonlinear analysis is to find a state of equilibrium between externally applied loads and element nodal forces
t

R tF = 0 R = t R B + t R S + t RC F = t RI F=
m
t

We must achieve equilibrium for all time steps when incrementing the loading Very general approach includes implicitly also dynamic analysis!

t t

V (m)

B ( m )T t ( m ) t dV ( m )

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

The basic approach in incremental analysis is


t +t

R t +t F = 0
t +t

assuming that
t +t

R is independent of the deformations we have

F = tF + F

We know the solution tF at time t and F is the increment in the nodal point forces corresponding to an increment in the displacements and stresses from time t to time t+t this we can approximate by

F = t KU
Tangent stiffness matrix
Method of Finite Elements II

tF t K= t U

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

The basic approach in incremental analysis is


We may now substitute the tangent stiffness matrix into the equlibrium relation
t

KU =

t +t

R tF

t +t

U = tU+U

which gives us a scheme for the calculation of the displacements the exact displacements at time t+t correspond to the applied loads at t+t however we only determined these approximately as we used a tangent stiffness matrix thus we may have to iterate to find the solution
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 33

Introduction to non-linear analysis

The basic approach in incremental analysis is


We may use the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme to find the equlibrium within each load increment

t +t

K ( i 1) U ( i ) =

t +t

R t +t F ( i 1)

(out of balance load vector)

t +t

U ( i ) = t +t U ( i 1) + U ( i ) with initial conditions U (0) = t U;


t +t

t +t

K (0) = t K ;

t +t

F (0) = t F

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 34

Introduction to non-linear analysis

The basic approach in incremental analysis is


It may be expensive to calculate the tangent stiffness matrix and, in the Modified Newton-Raphson iteration scheme it is thus only calculated in the beginning of each new load step in the quasi-Newton iteration schemes the secant stiffness matrix is used instead of the tangent matrix

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 35

Introduction to non-linear analysis

We look at the example again simple bar ( two load steps)

( t K a + t K b ) u ( i ) =
t +t

t +t

R ( t +t Fa ( i 1) t +t Fb ( i 1) )

u ( i ) = t +t u ( i 1) + u ( i ) with initial conditions u (0) = t u;


t t t +t

t +t

Fa (0) = t Fa
t

t +t

Fb (0) = t Fb

CA ; Ka = La

Kb =

CA Lb

= E if section is elastic C = ET if section is plastic

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

We look at the example again simple bar


Load step 1: t = 1: ( 0 K a + 0 K b )u (1) = 1R 1Fa(0) 1Fb(0) 2 104 u = = 6.6667 103 1 1 107 ( + ) 10 5 Iteration 1: (i = 1)
(1) 1 (1)

= 1u (0) + u (1) = 6.6667 103 = =


1 (1)

1 (1) a

u = 6.6667 104 < Y (elastic section!) La u = 1.3333 103 < Y (elastic section!) Lb
1

1 (1) b 1

1 (1)

Fa(1) = 6.6667 103 ;

Fb(1) = 1.3333 10 4

Convergence in one iteration!


1

( 0 K a + 0 K b )u (2) = 1R 1Fa(1) 1Fb(1) = 0


Method of Finite Elements II

u = 6.6667 ` 3 10

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Introduction to non-linear analysis

We look at the example again simple bar


Load step 2: t = 2 : ( 1K a + 1K b ) u (1) = 2 R 2 Fa(0) 2 Fb(0) (4 104 ) (6.6667 103 ) (1.333 104 ) u = = 6.6667 10 3 1 1 107 ( + ) 10 5 Iteration 1: (i = 1)
(1) 2 2 2 1

u (1) = 2u (0) + u (1) = 1.3333 10 2

(1) a = 1.3333 10 3 < Y (elastic section!)

b(1) = 2.6667 103 > Y (plastic section!)


1 (1) Fb(1) = ( E T ( 2 b Y ) + Y ) A = 2.0067 10 4

Fa(1) = 1.3333 10 4 ;

( 1K a + 1K b ) u (2) = 2 R 2 Fa(1) 2 Fb(1) u (2) = 2.2 103


Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 38

Introduction to non-linear analysis

We look at the example again simple bar

i 2 3 4 5 6 7

u (i)
1.45E-03 1.45E-03 9.58E-04 6.32E-04 4.17E-04 2.76E-04

u 1.55E-02 1.70E-02 1.79E-02 1.86E-02 1.90E-02 1.93E-02

(i)

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 39

The continuum mechanics incremental equations

The basic problem: We want to establish the solution using an incremental formulation The equilibrium must be established for the considered body in its current configuration

In proceeding we adopt a Lagrangian formulation where we track the movement of all particles of the body (located in a Cartesian coordinate system) Another approach would be an Eulerian formulation where the motion of material through a stationary control volume is considered
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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The continuum mechanics incremental equations

The basic problem:

u1 u = u2 u 3

Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements u at


t +t

Configuration at time t + t

x3

Surface area Volume


t +t

t +t

Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV

x2
x1 (or 0 x1 , t x1 , t+t x1 )
Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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The continuum mechanics incremental equations

The Lagrangian formulation We express equilibrium of the body at time t+t using the principle of virtual displacements t +t t +t eij d t +tV = t +t R
V
x3

u1 u = u2 u 3

Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements u at


t +t

Configuration at time t + t Surface area Volume


t +t t +t

Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV

x2
x1 (or 0 x1 , t x1 , t+t x1 )

t +t

t +t

t +t eij = (

: Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress tensor u j 1 ui


2 t +t x j + t +t xi

) = strain tensor corresponding to virtual displacements

ui : Components of virtual displacement vector imposed at time t + t


t +t t +t t +t

xi : Cartesian coordinate at time t + t R=

V : Volume at time t + t
t +t

t +t

f i B ui d t +tV +

t +t

Sf

t +t

fi S uiS d t +t S

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 42

The continuum mechanics incremental equations

The Lagrangian formulation We express equilibrium of the body at time t+t using the principle of virtual displacements
t +t
x3

u1 u = u2 u 3

Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements u at


t +t

u
Configuration at time t + t Surface area Volume
t +t t +t

Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV

x2
x1 (or 0 x1 , t x1 , t+t x1 )

R=

t +t

t +t

fi B ui d t +tV +

t +t

Sf

t +t

fi S uiS d t +t S

where
t +t t +t t +t

fi B : externally applied forces per unit volume fi S : externally applied surface tractions per unit surface S f : surface at time t + t
t +t

uiS : ui evaluated at the surface

Sf

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 43

The continuum mechanics incremental equations

The Lagrangian formulation We recognize that our derivations from linear finite element theory are unchanged but applied to the body in the configuration at time t+t

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 44

The continuum mechanics incremental equations

In the further we introduce an appropriate notation:


Coordinates and displacements are related as:
t

xi = 0 xi + t ui xi = 0 xi + t +t ui
t +t

t +t

Increments in displacements are related as:


t ui =

ui t ui

Reference configurations are indexed as e.g.:


t +t S 0 i

where the lower left index indicates the reference configuration

t +t

+ ij = tt+tt ij

Differentiation is indexed as:


t +t 0 i, j

t +t ui u = 0 , xj

0 t +t m , n

0 xm = t +t xn

Method of Finite Elements II