Sei sulla pagina 1di 41

Introduction to Power Electronics

Fang Z. Peng Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University Phone: 517-432-3331, Fax: 517-353-1980 Email: fzpeng@egr.msu.edu

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 1

Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction of Power Electronics Chapter 2: Power Converter Basic Circuits and Operating Principles Chapter 3: Control of Power Converters Chapter 4: Power Converter System Control, Analysis, and Design Chapter 5: Circuit Models and Simulation Chapter 6: Power electronic systems and applications Chapter 7: Automotive Applications: HEV and FC HEV System Configurations and Their Power Electronic Circuits Chapter 8: Utility Applications: DG grid interconnection, Statcom, active filter, UPFC, and FACTS devices

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 2

Chapter 1 Introduction of Power Electronics


What is Power Electronics? Power Conversion and Basic Principle Switching Power Devices in General Diode, Thyristor and Power Transistor Power MOSFET and IGBT GTO and MCT Power IC

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 3

What is Power Electronics?


Power Electronics is power conversion and control from one form of power (energy) source to a desired form by using electronic means. Example: An electric vehicle drive must convert dc input to ac output that has variable voltage and variable frequency.

dc input (battery)

Power Electronics Circuit


Control
theory, analog&digital (DSP), etc

ac output

ac Motor

! Power electronics is power processing circuits and control

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 4

What is Power Electronics? Cont.

Raw power in Power Processor (PE Circuits) Battery Fuel Cell Utility Solar Wind Capacitor/Inductor Dc or ac

Desired power out (V, I, P, F) To loads: Motor Utility line Computer Equipment Process

Control

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 5

Multi-disciplinary Nature of Power Electronics

Circuit theory Solid-state physics Simulation & computing Electric machine Power systems

Systems & Control theory Comm. & Signal processing

Power Electronics
Electronics DSP, FPGA Electromagnetics EMI DSP Control Board
August 1, 2004 F. Z. Peng: Slide 6

Principle of Power Control Using Switch


Current Control Using Variable Resistor
RV Vd iL RL
Vd

Current Control Using Switching Device


S vDF LF DF RL

vDF Vd
iL Vd/RL

TON TOFF

iL
0

Vd/RL
t

t
August 1, 2004 F. Z. Peng: Slide 7

Category of Power Conversion

AC-DC Converter (Rectifier) AC-AC Converter (Power Controller, Cycloconverter, Matrix converter) DC-AC Converter (Inverter) DC-DC Converter (DC Chopper - Buck/Boost/BuckBoost Converter)

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 8

Principle of AC-DC Converter (Rectifier)

v1
S1 v1 S2 S4 S3 Load v2

t ON OFF t Average t t

S1, S4 S2, S3 v2

V1 - AC Source V2 - DC Load

Waveforms of AC-DC Converter

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 9

Principle of AC-AC Converter (AC Power Controller)

S Load v1 v2

v1 ON S OFF v2
Resistor Load

t t t

V1 - AC Source V2 - AC Load S - AC Switch

Waveforms of AC Power Adjuster

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 10

Principle of AC-AC Converter (Cycloconverter or Frequency Changer)


v1 t ON OFF t Fundamental v2 t t

S1 v1 S2

S3 Load
S1, S4

v2
S2, S3

S4

V1 - AC Source V2 - AC Load S - AC Switch

Waveforms of Cycloconverter

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 11

Principle of DC-AC Converter (Inverter)


vdc ON S1, S4
S1 vdc S2 S4
(PWM)

t OFF t t t

S3

S2, S3
Load vac

Fundamental vac vac

Voltage-Source Inverter

Waveforms of Inverter

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 12

Why Switching?
iC +vCE Vdc iB iL Light Bulb RL iL Light Bulb RL
Vdc Ileak PLoss=vCE iC PSW POFF

S Vdc

iL Light Bulb RL

r Vdc

iC Vdc/RL Vsat t

dc Power Loss: r + R r L

Ic PON t

V Power Consumption: dc RL r + RL

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 13

Switching Devices
Current Uncontrollable
+ v i

On Controllable
i + v -

On and Off Controllable Transistor MOSFET* GTO IGBT SIT, SITh, MCT, MTO, etc.

Diode Uni-Direction

iG

Thyristor

Bi-Direction

Triac

Module

* Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 14

Diode and Rectifier

+ v i
vac vac
i

iL vO Load

vO
v

iL
2

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 15

Thyristor and Phase-Controlled Rectifier


iL

iG

vac

vO
IG3 IG2 IG1=0

iL
2

Load

+ v -

vac

vO

v
IG3>IG2>IG1

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 16

Power Transistor and Inverter


S1 S3

IGBT
vdc Load vac

S2

VGE1

RG0 RG

S4

(PWM)
VGE0

vac

Gate Drive Circuit of IGBT

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 17

Safe Operating Area and Snubber Circuit


Without Snubber IC With Snubber
RCD Snubber Circuit

VCE

IC
Initial State

Turn-off Waveform
Safe Operating Area

Without Snubber With Snubber


Final State
CE SOA and Turn-off Trajectory

RC Snubber Circuit

Traditional Snubber Circuits

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 18

IGBT Technology
Saturation Voltage VCE [V]
3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
1st Gen .('85 ) 2nd G en.('8 9)

3rd G en

.('94) e

furthe r curv

tf [us]

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 19

Progress of Large VA Rated GTO


6.0 6kV/6kA 5kV/4kA 4.5kV/3kA 4.5kV/2.7kA 4.5kV/2.5kA 2.0 2.5kV/2kA

Turn-off Current [kA]

4.0

3.0

6kV/3kA

6kV/2.5kA 5kV/2.5kA

1.0 2.5kV/600A 400V/5A 0 '65 '70 '75 '80

2.5kV/1kA

600V/200A '85 '90 '95 '00

Year

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 20

High-Voltage Power IC

220V/1A one-chip 3-phase inverter IC Smart power switching device module /Intelligent Power Module (IPM) Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) etc.

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 21

Chapter 1 What We have Learned:


Whats Power Electronics How to use ideal switches to do power conversion How to model and analyze PE circuits (basic principle) Real switching devices (D, Thy, IGBT, MOSFET, GTO, IGCT, etc) Snubber circuits for safer operation Combinations of transistor(s) and diode(s) for
Bi-directional current and unidirectional voltage switches Bi-directional current and bi-directional voltage switches (ac switch)

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 22

Chapter 2 Basic Circuits of Power Conversion


Contents
Natural (Line, Load) Commutated Converter, Rectifier, and Cycloconverter Self-commutated Converter
Voltage-Source (Voltage-Fed) Inverter Current-Source (Voltage-Fed) Inverter

DC Chopper and DC/DC Converter AC Switch: AC Power Adjusting and Matrix Converter Multilevel inverters

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 23

Diode Rectifier
D

VS

VS

VR

VR

Half Bridge Rectifier


D LF VL R VR

VS

VS

VL

VR

Half Bridge Rectifier with Smoothing Inductor

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 24

Diode rectifiers are the simplest power conversion circuit. They change ac to dc. The circuits are simple, however, the following points should be understood: how it works how to smooth voltage/current to get a decent dc voltage/current how to determine the output voltage from the input voltage

Diode Rectifier (Cntd)


D

VS
LF VL R VR

VS

DF

VL

VR

With Free-Wheeling Diode


LF
VS

VS

VL R

VR

VL V R

Full Bridge Rectifier

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 25

Diode Rectifier (Cntd)


VS VDC

VSab VSbc VSca

VDC VR

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 26

Diode Rectifier (Cntd)


VS

VSab VSbc VSca


iSa VDC

VSab
iSa vSa

VSbc

VSca

VDC

-VSab

-VSbc -VSca

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 27

Natural Commutated Converter


- phase-controlled rectifier (1 phase) VS
LF S1 VS S2 S4 S2 VL R VR
S 1 , S4 S2, S3

VL

VR

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 28

Natural Commutated Converter


- phase controlled rectifier (3 phase) VSab
LF VS VDC R VR

VSbc VSca

VDC VR

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 29

Self-Commutated Power Converter - voltage-source inverter Vac


S3 DF1 vdc DF2 S2 S4 DF4

S1

DF3 i ac vac

iac

DF1 DF4

S1 , S 4

Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter and Freewheeling Diode or Rec. Antiparallel Diode Mode

DF2 S2, S3 DF3

DF1 DF4

Inv. Mode
August 1, 2004 F. Z. Peng: Slide 30

Self-Commutated Power Converter - current-source inverter Idc S1 DB1 S3 DB3 iac vac

iac

vac
S2 DB2 S4 DB4

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 31

Dual Relationship of PE Circuits


Voltage-source Voltage Current Parallel connection Series connection Inductive component Capacitive component Switch open Switch close Line-to-line voltage Current-source Current Voltage Series connection Parallel connection Capacitive component Inductive component Switch close Switch open Line /or phase current

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 32

General Purpose Motor Drive System

VS VDC Motor

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 33

70% electricity is used by motors. Energy saving and control are essential to many applications.

Gap Gan

on=1

off=0

Voltage-Source Inverter (6-step)


+ Gap E/2 Va E E/2 Gan Gbn Gcn Vb Vc Gbp Gcp

Gbp Gbn Gcp Gcn mode abc Va Vb Vc E I +-+ II +-III ++IV --+ E/2 V -++ VI -+I +-+

E/2

Vn

Vab

E
Vn E/6

Va=(Gap Gan)E/2 Vb=(Gbp Gbn)E/2 Vc=(Gcp Gcn)E/2

E/6
2E/3 E/3

Van

E/3

2E/3

ia

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 34

Voltage-Source Inverter (PWM)

+ Gap E/2 Va E E/2 Gan Gbn Gcn Va=(Gap Gan)E/2 Vb=(Gbp Gbn)E/2 Vc=(Gcp Gcn)E/2 Vb Vc Vn Gbp Gcp

(PWM)

vab

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 35

DC/DC Converter
iT i) Circuit Ein D iD iT S iL L + Eout iL L + Eout v C S iL L + Eout -

a) Buck Converter

ii) S on Ein

D iD iT

iii) S off Ein

D iD

iv) waveforms T gate of S voltage current Ein 0 iL 0 iT iD iT iD Eout = 0 ~ Ein Ton on Toff off v

Eout

August 15, 2005

F. Z. Peng: Slide 16

DC/DC Converter
iL L iD D + Eout iD D + Eout + Eout Ein S iT iL L v

b) Boost Converter

Ein

S iT iL L

C D

iD

Ein

S iT

T Ton on Eout 0 iL 0 iT iD iT iD Eout = Ein ~ Toff off v

Ein

August 15, 2005

F. Z. Peng: Slide 17

DC/DC Converter
iT S L iL + iT S L iL iT S L iL + T Ton on Ein 0 Eout iL iT iD iT iD Toff off v iD D + Eout iD D Eout iD D Eout Ein v

c) Buck/Boost Converter

Ein

Ein

Eout = 0 ~

August 15, 2005

F. Z. Peng: Slide 18

DC/DC Converter
a) Buck Converter
iT i) Circuit Ein D iD ii) S on Ein iT S iL L + Eout iL L + Eout T Toff off v Ton on Eout Eout 0 iT iD iT iD iL 0 iT iD iT iD Toff off v Ton on Ein Ein 0 Ein S iT v C Ein S iT iL L iD D v C v C S iL L + Eout iL L Ein

b) Boost Converter Converter


iL L iD D + Eout iD D + Eout + Eout Ein iT S Ein iT S Ein iT S S iT v C

c) Buck/Boost
iD L iL iD L iL iD L iL D D Eout + Eout + D Eout +

D iD

iii) S off Ein

iT

D iD

iv) waveforms T gate of S voltage current Ein 0 iL 0 Ton on

T Toff off v

Eout

iL

iT

iD

iT

iD

Eout = 0 ~ Ein

Eout = Ein ~

Eout = 0 ~

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 36

AC Switches: AC Power Regulator

S v1 Load
August 1, 2004

v2

F. Z. Peng: Slide 37

AC Switches: Matrix Converter

3-Phase Load or Motor

August 1, 2004

F. Z. Peng: Slide 38