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# Simplifying

## circuits with Resistors

1. Find the resistances connected in series
Sum up the individual resistances and draw a new, simplied circuit diagram: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + The current passing through each resistor is the same when they are connected in series

## 2. IdenDfy the resistances connected in parallel

Find the equivalent resistances of parallel combinaDons by summing the reciprocals of the resistances and then taking the reciprocal of the result. Draw the new, simplied circuit diagram (1/R)=(1/R1)+(1/R2)+(1/R3)+ For resistors connected in parallel, the voltage across each resistor is the same

## Simplifying circuits with Resistors

3. Repeat the rst two steps unDl no further combinaDons can be made using the resistances 4. Use Ohms Law V= IR to determine the current owing through the nal combined resistance 5. Work backwards through the diagrams to nd the currents in the other resistors by making use of the facts stated in steps 1 and 2

## Finding resistance from graphs

Ohmic resistor V R A + - BaXery

## Dependence of resistance on temperature

The resistance of a metal conductor is temperature dependent The resistance increases with increasing temperature The resistance at temperature T is given by

RT = R0 (1+ T )
Where
RT is the resistance at temperature T R0 is the resistance at 0C is the temperature coecient of resistance (specic to the conductor)

Kirchhoffs Laws
First Law: At any juncDon in a circuit, the total current entering the juncDon is equal to the total current leaving the juncDon
I2 I1

I1 = I 2 + I 3
I3

Second Law: The net e.m.f. round a circuit loop is equal to the sum of the p.d.s round the loop
R1 R2 I1 + - E I2 R3 I3

## Using Kirchhoffs Laws

ALWAYS draw a circuit diagram Express quanDDes in appropriate units (V,A,) Easier obtaining equaDons in symbols before pudng in numbers Move around the loop in one parDcular direcDon See how many unknowns you have and make sure you have an equal number of equaDons Solve the equaDons for your unknowns by subsDtuDon or as simultaneous equaDons

## Using Kirchhoffs Laws

a I1 + E1 - f R1 R3 e b I3 R2 I2 c + - E2 d

At b: I3 = I1+I2 Loop fabef: E1-I1R1-I3R3 = 0 so E1 = I1R1+I3R3 = I1R1+(I1+I2)R3 Loop dcbed: E2-I2R2-I3R3 = 0 so E2 = I2R2+I3R3 = I2R2+(I1+I2)R3 Loop facdf: E1-I1R1+I2R2-E2=0 so E1-E2=I1R1-I2R2

To Do
From chapter 22 read secDon 22.4 (Kirkhhos Laws) Assignment wk2: DC1 (pracDcal)
Where? Physics labs (G.O. Jones 2nd oor) When? Wednesday 16th between 1-5pm (make sure you go at the right Dme)

Hand in your work no later than 4:00pm next Wednesday (23rd of Jan) - LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED